NOTES/SOLVED EXERCISES / Key book/Guide: GENERAL SCIENCE-7 PTB PUNJAB TEXT BOOK BOARD LAHORE PAKISTAN 2017

 

NOTES/SOLVED EXERCISES: GENERAL SCIENCE-7 PTB PUNJABTEXT BOOK BOARD LAHORE PAKISTAN 2015-16 (new course)

CH:1 HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS P:3-13

3- GIVE SHORT ANSWERS:

 

QUESTION No. i- How does carbon dioxide produce in our

Body?

ANSWER: Production of carbon dioxide: Carbon

dioxide is the waste gas that is produced

when carbon is combined with oxygen as

part of the body’s energy-making process

respiration.

QUESTION No. ii. How is small intestine important in our

digestive system?

ANSWER: Importance of Small Intestine: Small

intestine is important in our digestive system

because final digestion of carbohydrates,

fats and proteins occur here.

QUESTION No. iii. Why are we provided with teeth?

 

ANSWER: We are provided with the teeth because

our teeth are the main tools we use to break

own food in the mouth.

QUESTION No.  iv. What are alveoli?

ANSWER: Alveoli: Alveoli are tiny sacs in lungs

where gases exchange takes place.

QUESTION No. v. Briefly describe the mechanism of breathing?

ANSWER. Mechanism of breathing:

 Two types of

muscles work during the breathing process;

the intercostal muscles of ribs and the

dome-shaped diaphragm. The process of

breathing is completed in two steps:

1) inhaling: When the inter costal muscles

pull our ribs outward and the diaphragm

contracts the air enters the lungs. It is called

inhaling.

 

2) Exhaling: When the inter costal muscles

and diaphragm muscles relax, the air moves

out of the lungs. It is called exhaling

QUESTION No. vi. What measures can one take to prevent

Diarrhea?

ANSWER: Measures -to prevent diarrhea: We can

prevent diarrhea by following these

measures. Always wash hands with soap

after using the toilet. Wash all fruit and

vegetables before cooking or eating.

Do not eat uncooked meat and eggs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION No. 4. Explain the process of digestion of food in the mouth and the stomach?

ANSWER: Process of digestion of food in Mouth:

        The process of digestion be inside mouth. Our teeth break the food into small pieces by cutting and grinding The tongue mixes food with saliva which is secreted by salivary glands. Saliva starts the digestion of carbohydrates (starch and sugar).

           After sometime the food in the mouth becomes  soft and moist. The tongue pushes this food if to the back of our mouth.

Process of digestion of food in Stomach:

Our stomach is a large J-shaped muscular bag. It mixes the food with digestive juice.

The digestive juice-begins the digestion of proteins (meat, egg, milk, pulses, etc.). The

food spends about four hours in the stomach. The digestive juice in the stomach also contains an acid. The acid kills the germs present in our food. lt also helps in the digestion of proteins.

QUESTION No. 5. Describe the human respiratory system.

Answer: Respiration: it is the process by which living organisms use oxygen of air and food

 produce energy. Carbon dioxide is also produced during this process.

 Respiratory System: The parts of body used in the process of breathing form the respiratory system.

Parts of Respiratory System: Our respiratory system consists of the nose and throat, the

 wind pipe (trachea), the breathing muscles and the lungs.

Nose and Throat: The air enters through our nose or mouth. Our nose has hair and

mucous to clean, moisten and warm the air.

Mucous is a sticky liquid. Dust particles and germs present in the air stick to the mucous.

 The air enters the throat and passes through the larynx. Our vocal cords are present in the larynx to produce sound.

Our throat contains two pipes. One for the food and the other for breathing. It is the

Epiglottis which allows things to go down the right way. When we eat or drink something, the epiglottis ‘covers the windpipe.

Trachea (Windpipe): Air passes from the into the trachea or windpipe.. Our windpipe is made of C-shaped rings of cartilage. These rings keep our windpipe open. Mucous and tiny hairs in the trachea also filter the air;

Bronchi and Lungs: The trachea divides into two branches called bronchi (singular

bronchus). Bronchi carry air into the lungs.

Our lungs are the most important organs of the respiratory system. ln each lung, the bronchus divides into smaller tubes called

 At the end of each bronchiole, tiny air sacs called alveoli are present.

Q:6 WRITE A NOTE ON THE FOLLOWING

CONSTIPATION:

Being constipated means your bowel movements are tough or happen less often than normal. Almost everyone goes through it sooner or later.

Although it’s not usually serious, you’ll feel much better when your body is back on track.

The normal length of time between bowel movements varies widely from person to person. Some people have them three times a day. Others have them only once or twice a week.

Going longer than 3 or more days without one, though, is usually too long. After 3 days, the stool or feces become harder and more difficult to pass.

PNEUMONIA :

Pneumonia is a bacterial or viral infection of the lungs.  Symptoms can include fever, chills, shortness of breath, coughing that produces phlegm, and chest pain.  Pneumonia can usually be treated successfully at home with antibiotics but some cases may require hospitalization and can result in death.  Vaccines are available against some of the more common infectious agents that cause pneumonia.

 

CH:2  TRANSPORT IN HUMAN AND PLANTS P: 14-24

3- GIVE SHORT ANSWERS:

QUESTION No. i. What do you mean by oxygenated blood?

ANSWER: Oxygenated blood: Oxygenated blood is the blood in which oxygen is added to the hemoglobin molecules within the red blood cells in ide the lungs.

QUESTION No.ii. What is the estimated size of our heart?

ANSWER: Estimated size of our heart: The estimated size of our heart is about the size of our fist.

QUESTION No. iii. Which arteries carry deoxygenated blood from heart to the lungs?

ANSWER: Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated

food from heart to the lungs.

QUESTION No. iv. Name at least two diseases that can damage our kidneys.

 ANSWER: Two diseases: High blood pressure and diabetes can damage our kidneys.

QUESTION No.v. Which tissue does transport water in plants?

ANSWER: Xylem tissue transports water in plants.

QUESTION No. vi. Name three parts of the circulatory system.

ANSWER: Parts of circulatory system: These are the parts of circulatory system:

  1. Heart
  2. Blood Vessels
  3. Blood

QUESTION No. vii. Explain why it is important to circulate blood through the body.

ANSWER: lt is important to circulate blood through the body because the food we eat is carried through the blood in our whole body. Oxygen which enters in our body during respiration is also carried through the blood.

QUESTION No.viii. How many chambers does the human heart have? Give names.

ANSWER: Number of Chambers: There are four chambers in the human heart; two upper chambers called atria (singular atrium) and two lower chambers called ventricles.

QUESTION No. 4. Describe the structure of human heart.

ANSWER: Structure of human heart: There are four chambers in heart; two upper chambers called atria (singular atrium) and two lower

chambers called ventricles.

The ventricles of heart are larger than the atria. Both atria contract at the same time, and so the ventricles. The blood passes from

the atria into the ventricles. There is a valve keep the blood flowing in one direction.

Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the rig t atrium and oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left atrium of our heart.

The right ventricle pushes the blood to the lungs and the left ventricle pushes the blood to the body.

QUESTION No. 5. Compare the structures and functions of blood vessels.

ANSWER: Blood Vessels: The blood travels throughout the body through blood vessels.

Types of Blood Vessels:

The three types of blood vessels are:

(i) Arteries

(ii) Capillaries

(iii) Veins

Arteries: Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Arteries have thick and flexible walls. Most of the arteries carry oxygenated blood but pulmonary arteries car deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Arteries divide many times to smaller tubes, called capillaries

Capillaries: Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body. They are so small that red blood cells flow through them one cell at a time. Food and oxygen from the blood of capillaries diffuse into the cells.

Waste materials and carbon dioxide from the cells diffuse into the blood of capillaries.

Capillaries again join to form the larger blood vessels called veins.

Veins: Veins are the blood vessels that bring blood back to the heart. Most of the veins bring deoxygenated blood black to the heart, but pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

QUESTION No. 6. Describe that structure of a plant’s root permits the movement of materials.

ANSWER: Structure of Root: From the moment a seed grows, its root starts to search water and minerals in the soil. Roots have branches that play an important role in absorption of water. The root hairs on the roots absorb water and minerals from the soil. Roots have xylem tissues to move water and minerals from the soil up through the stems, to the leaves. Phloem tissues in roots to help to transport food.

 

  1. Label the diagram.

 

 

CH:3  REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS P:25-33

3- GIVE SHORT ANSWERS:.

QUESTION No. i. Differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction.

ANSWER: Difference between asexual and sexual reproduction: The type of reproduction in which a cell from only one parent develops; info offspring is called asexual reproduction

whereas, when two gametes one from each parent combine to form a zygote, the process is called sexual reproduction.

QUESTION No. ii. What are the male and female parts of a flower?

ANSWER: Male Parts: Stamens are the male pa of a flower.

Female Parts: Carpels are the female parts of a flower.

QUESTION No. iii. Define pollination.

ANSWER: Pollination: The transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the carpel called pollination.

QUESTION No. iv. Name a few pollinators.

ANSWER: Pollinators: Wind, water, insects, birds and bats, etc. are a few pollinators.

QUESTION No. v. What is a sperm and an egg?

ANSWER: Sperm: Male gametes or male sex cell is called sperm.

Egg: Female gametes or female sex cell IS called egg.

QUESTION No. vi. Which part of a seed develops into the first root?

ANSWER. Radicle of the embryo develops into the first root of the new plan .

QUESTION No. 4. Write a detailed note on pollination in plants.

ANSWER: Pollination: The transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the

stigma of the carpel is called pollination. With the help of this process, the male sex

cell (sperm)’reaches to the female sex cell (egg). Sex cells are also called gametes.

Agents For Pollination: Wind, insects, animals and water are the agents for pollination in different plants.

Kinds of Pollination: There are two kinds of pollination:

  1. Self-pollination ii. Cross-pollination

(i) Self pollination: The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma‘ of the

same flower or another flower on the same plant is called self-pollinated. Pea, tomato,

rice plants, etc. are self-pollinated.

(ii) Cross-Pollination: The transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same kind is called cross-pollination. Poplar, willow, apple, papaya trees, etc. are cross-pollinated plants. For cross-pollination, the plants must grow

flowers at the same time. Cross-pollinated usually happens in plants near each other.

Cross-pollination produces stronger plants

As compared to the self-pollination.

Some flowers have special features that favour cross-pollination, e.g. coloured‘

petals, long and sticky stigmas, nectar and‘ fragrance.

QUESTION No. 5. Explain fertilization in plants.

ANSWER: Fertilization in Plants: The surface of the stigma in a flower is sticky and pollen; grains stick to it. Here, a pollen tube grows  out from each pollen grain. Two sperms are ;

present in this pollen tube. The tube grown downward through the style and enters the

ovary. Pollen tube finally enters an ovule and ; releases its sperms in it. One of the sperms

combines with the egg to form zygote. The other sperm combines with another cell to

make the store of food.

Fertilization: The process of fusion of sperm with the egg is called fertilization. 1

The male gamete (sperm) in the pollen grain combines with the female gamete (egg) in

the ovule.

Changes after Fertilization: After fertilization, several changes take place in the flower. The 1,

sepals, petals and stamens dry up and fall  off. The fertilized egg inside the ovary

develops into embryo. Ovules become‘ seeds. The ovary grows large and develops T.

into a fruit. The fruit protects the seed or seeds.

QUESTION No. 6. Describe the structure of a seed.

ANSWER: Structure of Seeds: After fertilization, an ovule becomes a seed. The embryo and

its store of food are covered by a tough seed coat. The most important part of a seed is its

embryo. Embryo grows into anew plant. Parts of Embryo: The embryo consists of the

following parts:

(I) Radicle

(ii) Plumule

(iii) Cotyledons

Radicle: This part of the embryo develops into the first root of the new plant.

Plumule: This part of the embryo develops into the first shoot (stem) of the new plant.

Cotyledons: This part of the embryo supplied food to the growing young plant.

QUESTION No. 7. Write a note on fruit.

ANSWER: Fruit: The ripened ovary is called a fruit.

The ovary wall forms the fruit wall, called the pericarp lnside the ovary, ovules develop

Into seed  the matured fruit may contain single or many seeds

The pericarp has three layers in most fruits like peaches and mangoes. The outer layer is skin, the middle layer is fleshy and the inner layer is tough or hand. Some fruits have hard and dry pericarp,  nuts.

 

CH: 4 ENVIRONMENT AND FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS P:34-44

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

QUESTION No. i. What kinds of organisms are at the start of most food chains?

answer. Producers are at the start of most food chains.

QUESTION No. ii. Name biotic factors of an ecosystem.

ANSWER: (i) Plants Animals

(iii) Fungi  (iv) Microorganisms

QUESTION No. iii. How are producers, consumers and decomposers related to each other?

ANSWER: Producers produce their own food.

Consumers use that food which is produced by producers and decomposers decompose the producers and consumers.

QUESTION No. iv. Define an ecosystem.

ANSWER: Ecosystem: A system formed by the interaction of living organisms and non-living things in an environment is called an ecosystem.

QUESTION No. v. What do you mean by community in an; ecosystem?

ANSWER: Community: All the populations of different kinds of organisms living together in an area make a community.

QUESTION No. vi. Name the ways by which we can save our natural resources;

ANSWER: Reducing, reusing and recycling are they ways to save natural resources.

QUESTION No. 4. What is a habitat? Describe its few kinds.

ANSWER: Habitat: The place w ere an animal or plant lives and reproduces is called its; habitat. A habitat provides the things an.

organism need, i.e. food, water, shelter, etc.

Man); populations of organisms live in each habitat.

Kinds of Habitats Organisms live in di

kinds of habitats. An organism has special . features to live in its habitat.

1) The Grassland Habitat: Grassland is a  grassy, windy, partly-dry area. These areas receive a medium amount of rain. The soil found here is very fertile. Grasses are the producers in a grassland habitat. Mostly grazing animals like the sheep, goats, cows, antelopes, buffaloes, and deer are a few examples that are found in a grassland. A few flesh-eaters like cheetahs, foxes,

wolves and few birds like owls, eagles, hawks, etc. are also found in this habitat.

Many kinds of insects are also found in grasslands.

2) The Pond Habitat: A pond is an aquatic habitat which is rich in life. Plants like algae, duckweed, water lily, etc. are found in water.

The animals like fishes, pond skaters, woIf spiders, snails, frogs and microscopic

organisms also found in the pond habitat.

3) The Desert Habitat: Deserts are the driest land areas. They receive very little rainfall.

Rainwater quickly drains away due to the sandy soil. Some plants and animals have adapted to the limited supply of water. Cacti, euphorbia, lizards, snakes, kangaroo rats, camels, etc. are found in a desert habitat.

4) The Rainforest Habitat: Rainforests are always wet. They receive rain the whole

years. A large number of plant types (herbs, shrubs and trees) is found here. Several varieties of butterflies, snakes, lizards, frogs, parrots, cockatoos, humming birds, cats and jaguars are also found in this habitat.

QUESTION No. 5. Describe factors that can bring daily and yearly changes in the habitat.

ANSWER: The Factors Causing Changes Habitat: We know that light, temperature, air, soil and water and abiotic factors of the environment. Changes in these factors bring changes in the populations of a habitat

Some other natural factors and humans also cause changes in habitats are:

  1. Sunlight ii. Temperature

iii. Water iv. Migration

 Sunlight: Sunlight is the basic source energy on the Earth. Plants use light energy to make their own food. All forms of life on the Earth depend directly or indirectly on green plants for food. They also need light for their survival. Light intensity affects he number of plants in a habitat. Increase in i number of plants may result in the decrease of animals number in the habitat.

  1. Temperature: Temperature can also bring of a habitat. Any extraordinary rise or fall in temperature may b disturb the habitat. For example, warm water contains less oxygen.

iii. Water: Water is essential for life. Where there is more water, more organisms are found there. Availability of water in the habitat can greatly influence its organisms.

  1. Migration: Migration is another factor that changes the size of populations of habitat.

Where a few individuals come to an area, it increases the size of the population in that area. Organisms migrate in search of better living places.

Natural Disasters: Natural disasters such as; droughts, floods, earthquakes, etc. can bring changes in habitats.

Drought: A drought is a period when there is  no rain for a long time in an area. The ponds or streams may dry up during a drought.

Most pond plants die and animals die or more to other ponds. Some crops do not

grow in the area affected by a drought. flood: When an area gets a lot of rain for a

long time, there may be a flood in that area.

Many plants die and many animals die or move to other drier places during a flood.

Lightning: Sometimes lightning strikes a tree in a forest, causing forest fires. Plants and tree is are burned and destroyed. Some animals die, others may move to safer places. it takes many years for a forest to grow back.

EARTHQUAKES: Earthquakes are sudden shocks of the Earth’s surface. Earthquakes

can change a habitat very quickly. On October 8, 2005, a massive earthquake damaged a widespread area across Pakistan. Over 70,000 people lost their lives.

A lar e number of animals and plants were also destroyed.

QUESTION No. 6. Describe adaptations of some aquatic animals to live in their habitat.

ANSWER: Aquatic Habitats; Animals and plants living in -aquatic habitats have such body parts that help them to live in water.

  1. Streamlined body shape is an important adaptation for animals to move easily

through water.  Webbed feet of ducks, seagulls and frogs work likes ores to help move in water.  Floating plants like water hyacinth, duckweed and water lettuce have floating leaves and submerged roots. Their bodies contain air spaces. Their leaves have waxy covering to prevent water from collecting on them.

QUESTION No. 7. Explain a food chain and a food web with examples.

ANSWER: Food Chain: Animals cannot make their own food. They eat plants or other

animals that eat plants. Thus, animals are the consumers. A consumer may be a

primary consumer (herbivore), a secondary consumer or a tertiary consumer. i Organisms eat organisms and are in turn being eaten by others. This feeding relationship among organisms is called a food chain. Most food chains start-with producers like:

grass -> zebra —> lion

eaves -> caterpillar —> bird —> hawk

Green plants are producers so, they are the first in most food chains.

Primary Consumer: Animals that feed on plants are the second in a food chain. They are called primary consumers.

Secondary Consumer:- Animals that eat primary consumers are called secondary

consumers. Secondary consumers may be eaten by tertiary consumers.

Examples of food chains:

  1. In a grassland habitat a grasshopper eats grass. A snake may eat this grasshopper.

This snake may become the food of a hawk. Are chain while others are consumers.

Food Web: An organism can be part of many food chains. Several food chains in an ecosystem overlap to form a network called food web.

Example 1: A lion does not feed entirely on deer but it also hunts cows and goats.

Similarly, owl and hawk may also take different organisms as their food. So, most

animals feed on one or more than one kind animals. Therefore, many food chains form a kind of network or a food webs.

Example 2: A snake does not feed on frog alone. It also eats birds, rats and even

rabbits. Birds eat grains. They also eat insects, spiders and worms. lf we arrange

food chains in an ecosystem, it takes the form of a web.

Several food chains are presented in a food at the food web and the questions given below.

  1. Name the producer in the food web.

Seaweed

  1. From where the producer gets energy?

ANSWER: Producer gets energy from sunlight

iii. Name three consumers in the food web.

ANSWER: Goat Rabbit Rat

  1. Write down two food chains in this food

2) Seaweed ——)”G0aiI > Jackal > Lion

 

ANSWER: Two food chains:

1) Seaweed» Rabbit _> Jackal—> Lion

8- Look at the following food web and answer the questions given below

CH: 5 WATER P:46-55

 

3- GIVE SHORT ANSWERS:

QUESTION No. i Why is fresh water important?

QUESTION No. ii Where is most of the fresh water found?

QUESTION No. iii Why is the most of the Earth’s water salty?

QUESTION No. iv lf water runs downhill to the seas, what are some ways that fresh water becomes polluted?

QUESTION No. v Why clear water is not necessarily safe to drink?

QUESTION No. 4- Explain how water is the most essential part of life?

QUESTION No.  5- What makes our water impure?  

QUESTION No.  6- How can we preserve water?

QUESTION No.  7- Describe a few methods to clean water;

QUESTION No. 8- Complete the concept map given below

 

 

CH: 6 STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM P:56-67

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

QUESTION No. i. What does give the positive charge to the

nucleus of an atom?

ans: The presence of protons give the

positive charge to the nucleus of an atom.

QUESTION No. ii. Define a cation and an anion?

ANSWER: Cation: When an atom releases it one r

more electrons from the outermost shell, the

number of protons increases. It becomes ta

positive ion or cation.

Anion: When an atom absorbs one or more

electrons in its outermost shell, the number

of electrons increases. It becomes

negative ion or anion.

QUESTION No. iii. What is chemical formula?

ANSWER: Chemical Formula: Describing

molecule in the form of symbols and

valencies is called the chemical formula. The

chemical formula of a molecule shows:

 kinds of elements in the molecule

for number of atoms of each element

QUESTION No. iv. List the names, charges and location of

three kinds of particles that make up an

atom.

ANSWER:

Name fl: Charges ‘Z15 Location fl

Electron Negative Around the nucleus

Proton Positive In the nucleus

M4 =4 tfi

Neutron No charge ln the nucleus

QUESTION No. v. Flow are the isotopes of an element alike

and how are they different?

ANSWER: Isotopes of an element alike because

they have the same number of protons, but

they have different number of neutrons.

changing the overall weight of the element.

QUESTION No. vi. A chlorine atom has 17 protons and 18

neutrons. What is its mass number? What is

it atomic number?

ANSWER: Mass number flJl.= Number of protons 1

+ Number of neutrons ;

Mass number /Jl. = 17 +18 l

Mass number /J} = 35 ‘ pf

Atomic Number

= Number of protons flpl 735/ p

Atomic Number

QUESTION No. vii. Why the electrical charge on an atom

zero, or neutral?

ANSWER: The electrical charge on an atom is zero .

or neutral because in an atom, the number of

protons is equal to the number of electrons.

So the total positive charge of protons‘

balance the total negative charge of

electrons.

QUESTION No. 4. Describe the structure of an atom.

ANSWER: Structure of an atom: Atoms are made

of even smaller particles called electrons,

protons and neutrons.

Nucleus: The central part of the atom is

called the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are

present in the nucleus.

Electrons: Electrons revolve around the

nucleus. An electron has negative charge. Its

mass is extremely small.

Protron: A protron has positive charge. The

number of protons in an atom is equal to the

number of electrons revolving around the

nucleus. lt has a mass 1837 times greater

than that of electron.

Neutron: A neutron has no charge. This

neutral particle is also found in the nucleus

of an atom. The mass of a neutron is almost

equal to the mass of a proton.

QUESTION No. 5. What is an lion? How ions are formed?

ANSWER: lon: An atom with positive or negative

charge is called an ion. For example, sodium

ion (Na*), chloride ion ((;|- ), oxide ion (Q*),

copper ion (cult ), etc.

Formation of ion: When an atom releases its

one or more electrons from the outermost

shell, the number of protons increases. It

becomes a positive ion or cation. When an

atom absorbs one or more electrons in its

outermost shell, the number of electrons

increases. lt becomes a positive ion or

cation. When an atom absorbs one or more

electrons in its outermost shell, the number:

of electrons increases. it becomes ax

negative ion or anion. Positive Ions and;

negative ions attract each other to form;

compounds.

QUESTION No. 6. Define the term isotope. Write about the

application of isotopes in the fields of

medicine and agriculture.

ANSWER: Isotope: The atoms of the same element

having same atomic number but different

mass number are called isotopes.

Examples: Hydrogen (H) has three isotopes.

An atom of hydrogen may have zero, one or

Two neutrons in its nucleus. Protium (H),

Deuterium (H) and Tritium (H) are three

isotopes of hydrogen. A

Carbon (c) has three isotopes, i.e.

isotopes are of great important in the

fields of medicine and agriculture.

  1. Carbon-14 can be used to calculate the age

of plants.

  1. Nitrogen-15 can be used to study the

effects of nitrogenous fertilizers in plants.

iii. Sodium-24 can be used to study

circulation of blood.

  1. Phosphorus-32 can be used in treatment

of blood a cerand one diseases

  1. Chromium-51 can be used to study red

blot? cells in patients with blood efficiency.

  1. Iron-59 can be used to study absorption

lofi oni human body.

vii. Cobalt-60 can be used in cancer

treatment.

iii. Iodine-131 can be used to treat a disease called goiter.

Question

 State ‘The Law of Constant Composition

land give examples.

 ANSWER: Law of Constant Composition: i

:Composition refers to the make up of a

substance. In the late 1700, a French

“t 1[ scientist Joseph Proust studied the chemical compounds and presented The Law of

 Constant Composition. The law states that the composition of a compound is always

or ‘E the same, regardless of how the compound

I)’ lt was made or obtained.

Examples: Water can be obtained from

‘many sources (river, well, sea, etc.), but its

‘; composition is always the same. There are 2

fatoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen

1 present in a molecule of water (H2O).

  1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in a number of ways, but its one molecule always consists of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms.

QUESTION No. 8. Using the table 6.1, make formulate of the

following:

3- GIVE SHORT ANSWERS:

CH: 7 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES AND PROCESSES p:68-76

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.
  2. What is meant by a physical change?

ANSWER: Physical Change: A physical change is

lone in which only the physical properties of colour, etc. are the physical properties of a

a substance change and its chemical

composition remains the same. Size, shape,

substance.

  1. Define a chemical change.

ANSWER: Chemical Change: A chemical change

is one in which the physical and the

chemical properties of a substance change.

Question Give an example to show that people

change the environment.

ANSWER: Example: People grow plants change

their environment. Plants provide oxygen

land take in carbon dioxide. The more you

1’ §l plant, the more oxygen you aid inputting

into the air and the more carbon dioxide you

aid in removing from the air.

  1. What is hydrogenation?

ANSWER: Hydrogenation: The process in which

hydrogen chemically combines with

vegetable oil to change it into fat.

  1. What is a plastic?

ANSWER: Plastic: A plastic is any material that

can be moulded into any form.

Question 4. Explain with examples that a chemical

change brings change in the properties of a

substance.

ANSWER: A chemical change brings change in

the properties of a substance.

Formation of Yogurt from Milk: Yogurt is

formed as a result of bacterial action on

milk. When certain bacterial are added to

warm milk and it is allowed to ferment and

lactic acid is formed. The formation of lactic

acid causes the milk curdle. lt is a chemical

change because a new substance is formed;

Burning of Natural Gas: Natural gas is

composed of methane (CH4). The burning of

natural gas on a stove is an example of

combustion reaction. Methane reacts with

oxygen in the atmosphere to form carbon

dioxide (CO) and water (H20). Since it

involves the formation of new products, it is

a chemical change.

QUESTION No. 5. WRITE BRIEF NOTES ON:

ANSWER: i. Plastics: Plastics are also the result

of chemical changes. A plastic is anyl

material that can be moulded into any form. l

Plastics are very large molecules made from l

many smaller molecules called monomers.

That is why plastics are also called polymers 5

(long molecules ‘made from smaller:

molecules). Monomers are obtained from

crude oil. Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride,

(PVC), etc. are some examples of plastics. ,

By heating, plastics can be mould into a

number of shapes, we can find it in toys,

cups, bottles, utensils, etc. Plastics do not.

decay. They are a cause of pollution.

Recycling is the best method to manage

  1. Change of vegetable oil into fat:

A chemical process called hydrogenetion

changes vegetable oil into solid fat (Banaspati ghee). When hydrogen is passed

through vegetable oil in the presence of

 nickel, it converts into solid fat. This process

‘is called hydrogenation. Vegetable oil is

liquid while fat (ghee) is solid at room

 temperature. A large amount of heat is used

to bring about this chemical change.

 Vegetable oil + Hydrogen

 Banaspati ghee (fat),

vegetable oil combines with hydrogen and                    .

 onverts into solid fat or ghee

Question 6. HOW ARE FERTILIZERS USEFUL AND HARMFUL FOR

ANSWER: Usefulness of Fertilizers? Farmers use

certain substances to increase the fertility of

the soil. A substance which adds minerals to the soil is called a fertilizer. It may be a  natural fertilizers or a chemical fertilizer.

Harmful Effects of improper Use of

Fertilizers: In case of excess spreading,

some fertilizers are not absorbed by the

plants. These fertilizers may reach into

canals and rivers causing water pollution

and encourage the growth of algae. During

the manufacture of chemical fertilizers a lot

of fossil fuel, coal and natural gas is used,

due to which our fuel reserves are reducing

quickly.

Manure: Waste materials of plants and

animals are called manure. Manure is rich in

nutrients needed by the soil. Chemical

changes in manure increase the production

Question 7. EXPLAIN REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE

CHANGES WITH EXAMPLES.

ANSWER: Reversible Changes: A change that can go

forwards or backwards is called a reversible

change. lt is a temporary changer

Examples: We can get the same thing again.

Melting ice into liquid water, switching on

the tube light, increases of heartbeat during

running, mixing of salt in water, wetting a dry

cloth, etc. are reversible changes.

Irreversible Change: A change that cannot

go back is called a irreversible change. It is a

permanent change. We cannot again get the

thing in its original form.

Examples: Turning of milk into yogurt,

mixing of plaster of Paris with water, burning

of paper and wood, rotting egg or fruit. etc.

are examples of irreversible changes.

 

CH: 8 TRANSMISSION OF HEAT P:77-90

 

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

Question i. Why do we use cooking pots made of metals?

ANSWER: Metals are good conductors of heat.

When the bottom of the pot is heated, the

heat is conducted through the metal of the

pot into the food inside, cooking it. it means,

heat move through it very quickly and easily

so that we cook food easily.

Question ii. What is a convection current.

ANSWER  The upward and downward movement

of molecules of water or air is called a

convection current

  1. Which surfaces absorb maximum heat?

ANSWER: Black surfaces absorb maximum heat.

 

  1. Why do we use woolen clothes and

blankets during winter days?

 

ANSWER: We use woolen clothes and blankets

During winter clays to escape from coolness.

Woolen clothes acts insulator.

  1. What is the advantage of gliding might for

a bird

ANWSER

 The advantage of gliding flight for a

bird is that. during a gliding flight a bird does

not move its wings but glides on wind

currents and saves it a lot of energy.

  1. What is convection? How does it occur?

ANSWER: convection The transfer of heat in

which molecules of a medium actually move

to the source of heat energy to absorb heat

and the move away from it, is called

Occurrence of convection: Convection

occurs in liquids and gasses only because

their molecules can move freely. Their molecules of a solid are held closely  together

together. they cannot move freely there ore

convection is not possible in solids.

  1. Write a few everyday application of

conduction of heat.

ANSWER: everyday Applications of Conduction of

Heat: Conduction plays an important role in

our lives.

  1. Cooking utensils, electric kettles, irons,

soldering irons, etc. are mode of metals to

conduct heat quickly. Their handles are

made of plastic or wood which are bad

conductors.

  1. Birds have feathers which keep their

bodies warm because feathers bad

conductor of heat.

  1. Woolen clothes and blankets slow down

the transfer of heat. lt happens so because

the wool traps air in it. The air is a bad

conductor of heat.

  1. Ice is covered with jute rugs to reduce it

‘melting speed. Jute is a bad conductor of heat

heat.

  1. An insulating material (e.g. syrofoam ) is

filled between the double walls of ‘a

refrigerator. it reduces the transfer of heat

across the walls of refrigerator.

  1. Double pan windows are used in buildings

to slow the transfer of heat. Air between ‘the

two layers of glass acts as an insulator.

  1. Thermos bottles use air or a vacuum to

slow the transfer of heat by conduction.

  1. Write a note on vacuum flask.

ANSWER: The Vacuum Flask: The vacuum flask is

a container which can keep hot things hot

and cold things cold. The vacuum flask

reduces the transfer of heat by conduction, convection and radiation.

;The vacuum flask (thermos flask) is actually

two thin glass or metal bottles, one inside

:;the other. Air between the glass walls is

removed to create vacuum. The vacuum

prevents the transfer of heat by conduction

land convection. The walls of both bottles are

coated with aluminum on the vacuum side.

These silvered (like a mirror) and smooth

glass walls prevent transfer of‘ heat by

radiation. The mouth of the flask is made

from bad conductor such as cork or plastic.

A little amount of heat is lost by conduction

through the mouth. The thin walled glass bottle is protected by keeping it in a metal or plastic container.

  1. Write brief notes on:
  2. Ocean currents and winds
  3. Gliding flight of birds

ANSWER: Ocean currents and winds: We know

that convection is the transfer of heat by the

actual movement the heated material. Winds

land ocean currents are examples of effects

i of convection.

The heat of the Sun heats up the surface of

the Earth and the air near it also gets hot.

The air expands and gets lighter. So, it rises

up leaving its space empty.

,Colder air from the neighbouring regions

moves in to fill this empty space. “The rising

warm air reaches the colder layers of the air

and gets cold. Getting heavier, it sings to the

Earth in cold regions to below again to warm

areas to take the place of the rising air. Thus,

convection currents are setup in nature and

the wind system goes on.

Ocean currents are also set up due to

‘convection of heat. Water of the hot regions of

the oceans gets hot, it expands and gets

lighter, but water in the colder regions remains

cold and heavy. Hot water moves along the‘

surface of the ocean towards the colder;

regions. The cold water flows below the

surface of the ocean towards the hot regions.

ln this way, ocean currents are set up.

Convection and Gliding Flight Birds:

Convection currents also take place in

atmosphere. The heat from the Sun warms

the air near ground. The warm air expands

and becomes lighter in weight. As warm air

rises, colder air rushes in to fill its place

near the ground. This process continues.

Birds like eagles,” hawks, vultures and gulls

take advantage of this phenomenon. hey

enjoy gliding. During gliding flight a bird

does not move its wings, but. glides on air,

currents  lot of energy of a bird is saved

 

CH: 9 DISPERSION OF LIGHT P:91-104

  1. Give short answers.
  2. What happens, when light moves from

glass into air at an angle?

ANSWER: When light moves from glass into air at

an angle it bend away from the normal.

  1. What is refractive index?

ANSWER: The speed of light varies in different

mediums. Some mediums cause light to

bend more than others when it passes

through them. The degree to which a

medium can bend light is given by its.

Refractive index.

Refractive index is the ratio of the speed. of

light vacuum to its speed in the medium.

Refractive Index of the medium

Speed of light in vacuum ,

Speed of light in the medium

Question iii How can we calculate the refractive index

of water?

ANSWER: Refractive index of water

= Speed of light in vacuum

Speed of light in the water =

Question  iv. What happens when the primary colour

of light are mixed in equal proportions?

ANSWER: When primary colour of light are

mixed in equal proportion then secondary

colours are obtained.

  1. Why do we see colours of different objects?

ANSWER: We see colours of different objects they

reflect specific colours and absorb other

colours.

  1. Define critical angle.

ANSWER: Critical Angle: The angle of incidence

for which the angle of refraction is 90°

called the critical angle.

vii. State the laws of refraction.

ANSWER: Laws of Refraction: There are two laws

of refraction: 1.The incident ray, the

refracted ray and the normal at the point of

incidence, all lie in the same plane.

  1. The ratio of the speed of light in vacuum

to its speed In another medium is always

constant.

  1. Define refraction of light. Discuss the

effects of refraction with examples.

ANSWER: Refraction: Light does not need a

material medium to travel. Light travels the

fastest through the vacuum. Light travels at

different speeds in different mediums.

When light passes from one transparent

medium to another, it changes speed and

direction (or bends). This bending of light is .

called fraction. But, when light falls

perpendicular to the surface of the medium,

it does not change its direction.

refracted ray

emergent ray

A light beam bends as it travels rom air ).

glass and also from glass into air.

Effects of Refraction: Whenever we open our

eyes, we observe the refraction of light.

 The lens in our eye refracts light to form

 image in the retina of our eye

 A pencil in a glass of water looks as it has

been broken at the water line. It is because

of refraction of light.

  1. Refraction causes the formation of the

rainbow.

  1. Refraction takes place in lenses used in.

spectacles, telescopes, magnifying glasses, etc.

  1. Define total internal refraction. Explain the

phenomenon of mirage.

ANSWER: Total internal Reflection: When light

passes from glass or water to air (denser to

rarer medium), it bends away from they

normal. But when angle of incidence (i) is w

greater than the critical angle  the  it

rays reflect in the same denser medium.

phenomenon is called total internal

reflection.

ii Total internal reflection takes place  i

 Light passes from a denser medium

 (water or glass) to a rare medium (air).

. The angle of incidence of all rays must

use greater than the critical angle of that

denser medium.

Mirage: A Mirage is an image of some

 distant object which appears to us due to the

W .1 refraction and total internal reflection of

light.

M The air higher up is cooler than the air near

‘the road. Light travels faster when it reaches

the warmer air. The light rays bend as they

travel downward due to refraction. Near the

ground where air is even warmer, the light

rays travel almost parallel to the ground but

.internal reflection). When we see these

bending light rays, Our brain assumes that

the rays have travelled in a straight line.

These rays seem to us as reflecting from

water. As a result we see a mirage. Desert

travelers often observe mirages.

he,

  1. WHAT IS DISPERSION OF LIGHT? WHY DOES

IS  WHITE LIGHT GET DISPERSED?  

ANSWER: DISPERSION OF LIGHT: Sunlight is often  called white light, although it is combination

of different colour. We can see these

colours rainbow.1 These colours are red,

continue to bend in other direction (total

orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and

violet.

We can also split white light into its colours by

passing it through the prism. The band of seven

colours obtained is called spectrum of white

light. The splitting of white light into its

component colours is called dispersion of light.

White Light get Dispersed: When a beam of light enters a prism, all the colours of white

light refract at different angles; it causes the

white light to split into its component

colours. Red light bends the least. Violet

light bends the most and refracts by the

disperses into its component colours.

  1. EXPLAIN THE PHENOMENON IN THE FOLLOWING.

DIAGRAM.

Ans: When a beam of light enters a prism, all

the colours of white light refract at different .

angles; it causes the white light to split into

its component colours. Red light bends least

and violet light bends most and refracts by

the largest angle.

CH: 10 SOUND WAVES P:

3-GIVE SHORT ANSWERS:

CH: 11 CIRCUITS AND CURRENT P:105-116

3-GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

  1. WHAT IS AN ELECTRIC CURRENT?

ANSWER: Electric current: The flow of charges through a conductor is called electric current. Charges travel from one pole to the other pole of an electrical source (battery).

  1. WHAT CAUSES THE CURRENT TO FLOW IN AN

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT?

ANSWER: A voltage acts like a force on electrons

causes the current to flow in an electrical

circuit.

iii. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF AN ELCB?

ANSWER: ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker)

An earth leakage circuit beaker (ELCB) is a

safety device used in electrical installations.

to prevent a shock. An ELCB is ant;

electromagnetic switch. It quickly turns off‘

the power when the current flowing through‘:

the earth wire exceeds the limit. lf some one

tries to use a faulty electric appliance, an

ELCB breaks the circuit at once.

  1. COMPARE FUSES AND CIRCUIT BREAKER

WHICH IS EASIER TO USE?

ANSWER: A fuse is a piece of thin conducting

wire connected in the path of a live wire

while circuit breaker is an electromagnet

switch that works like a fuse but it does not

blow out. Circuit breaker is easy to use.

  1. WHAT IS THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A

SERIES CIRCUIT AND A PARALLEL CIRCUIT?

ANSWER:

Series Circuit Parallel Circuit
1- if all the components are 

connected one after another  loops, then it serious circuit.

in a single is a series circuit.

2. In a serious circuit,

there is only one path for the current to one path for the

flow current to flow.

1- if all the components are connected in two

connected one after or more loops, then it parallel circuit.

2. ln a parallel circuit, there are more than one path for the

current to flow.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The amount of current which flows through each component (bulb) of circuit is the same.
  2. The current, flowing through different branches of

a parallel circuit may be the same or different. But the current in each branch is less than the total current flowing out from the electrical source (battery).

vi- HOW DOES INCREASING THE POTENTIAL

DIFFERENCE AFFECT THE CURRENT?

ANSWER: Increasing Potential Difference Affect

Current:

If potential difference increased, current is

also increased because potential difference

is directly proportional to current.

  1. DESCRIBE SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS,

DISADVANTAGES OF A SERIES CIRCUITS AND

ADVANTAGES OF A PARRELL CIRCUIT.

ANSWER: Series Circuits: lf all the components

are connected one after another in a single

loop, then it is a series circuit. In a series

circuit, there is only one path for the current

to flow. The amount of current which flows

through each component (bulb) of the circuit

is the same.

Disadvantages of the Series Circuits:

There are few disadvantages of the series

circuits:

  1. There is only one path for current to flow;

A break at any part of the circuit stops the

flow of current in the whole circuit.

  1. The light of bulbs in a series circuit

becomes dim as more bulbs are added.

Parallel Circuits: If the components are

connected in two or more loops, then it is a

parallel circuit. In a parallel circuit, there is

more than one path or the current top flow.

The current flowing through different

branches of a parallel circuit may be the

same or different. But the current in each

branch is less than the total current flowing

out from the electrical source (battery).

In a parallel circuit there is more than one

path for the current to flow.

Advantages of the Parallel Circuits:

A parallel circuit has some advantages over ll

a series circuit.

Ii There are more than one path for the;

current to flow. A break in any branch of the;

circuit stops the current flowing through that

branch on y.

  1. EXPLAIN HEATING AND CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON

THE CURRENT.

ANSWER: Heating Effect of the Current: When

electric current flow through a metal wire, it

makes it hot. Light is also produced when a

wire becomes very hot. We use many

appliances in our homes that convert

electric current to heat.

Chemical Effect of the Current: An electric;

current‘ can chemically affect the materials

particularly in molten or solution form. When

currents flows through a solution, it can.

break up the solution into its components.

This process is called electrolysis,

Electricity is also used to coat a metal object

with a thin layer of another metal. This

process is called electroplating. ‘The rims of:

bicycles are nikle-plated. T

6- WRITE NOTES ON:

i- Resistance ii- Electrical Power

iii- MCBs  (Miniature Circuit Breakers)

 ANSWER: i. RESISTANCE: Electric current flows through

some things better than others do. The measurement of how well something

conducts electricity is its resistance.

Resistance is the hindrance to the flow of current. During its journey through an electric circuit, the charges collide countless

times with atoms within the conductor (wire).

These collisions result in the hindrance to

the flow of the current (resistance)

 The resistance of a wire depends on length

of the wire and thickness of the wire.

ii-  ELECTRICAL POWER: All electrical devices

lSUCh as fans, blenders, computers etc.

convert electrical energy into other forms of

energy. Electrical power is the rate at which

.a device converts electrical energy into

another form of energy. its unit is watt (W).

  1. MCBs (Miniature Circuit Breakers‘):

Replacing the fuse again and again is nota

pleasant experience. So, engineers have

developed the alternatives of fuses, i.e.

iii- MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKERS (MCBs). An MCB

is a small electromagnet switch that works

like a fuse but it does blow out. it just breaks

the circuit by tripping when a current more

than its rating passes through it.

CH:12  INVESTIGATING THE SPACE P:116-127

3- GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

i- ARE BLUE STARS YOUNG OLD? HOW CAN YOU

ANSWER: Blue stars are the hottest and most

massive stars and burn themselves not

quickly. So all blue stars are young.

  1. NAME ONE OBSERVATION THAT SUPPORTS THE

BIG BANG THEORY.

ANSWER: Edwin Hubble found experimental

evidence to support The Big Bang Theory.

He found that distant galaxies in every

direction are going away from is with a very

high speed. This  observation is acceptable if

the universe begin in a huge explosion.

iii. LIST IN ORDER, THE FOUR STAGES IN THE LIFE

YCLE OF A LOW-MASS STAR.

ANSWER: Four stages in the life cycle of a

low-mass star:

) Birth of a star

  1. i) Death of a star

ii)’ Red giant stage

  1. v) Dwarf stage
  2. HOW DO CONSTELLATIONS DIFFER FROM

galaxy?

Ans. Constellation is a group of stars with a

definite pattern or arrangement while a

galaxy is a massive collection of stars,

nebulae, gases, dust and planets. .

  1. HOW DO SCIENTISTS THINK THE UNIVERSE

BEGAN?

ANSWER: Scientists have been Presenting

different theories of creation of he universe

from time to time. One of these theories is

 Big Bang Theory. According to this

About 20 billion years ago, the universe

was packed into one giant fireball. Then

tremendous explosion started the expansion

of the universe. This extraordinary explosion

is known as the Big Bang. This explosion

hurled matter and energy in all direction.

After the Big Bang, the universe assumed

and contracting gases. With the passage of

time , the matter cooled: the force of gravity

Pulled together the particles of mater to

form stars and galaxies.

The Big Bang Theory was first proposed in

1927  a priest, George Lamaitre of

Belgium. This story was supported by the

discoveries of Edwin Hub e and nobel

Prize-winning scientists Arno Penzias and

Robert wilson.

  1. WHAT TYPE OF STARS ENDS ITS LIFE CYCLE AS A

BLACK HOLE .

ANSWER: Black hole is the last stage of the life

cycle of a massive star.

vii. FOR HOW MANY YEARS WILL THE SUN BE A RED

GIANT?

Ans. For 500 million years, Sun will be a red

giant.

viii. ON WHICH FACTORS DOES THE BRIGHTNESS OF

A STAR DEPEND?

ANSWER: Brightness of Stars: ‘The brightness of a

star depends on two factors:

  1. Distance of the star from the Earth
  2. Amount of energy the star emits
  3. WHAT IS A LIGHT-YEAR?

ANSWER: Light-year: A light-year is a measure of

distance that light covers in one year with a

speed of 300,000 kilometres per second.

 

  1. WHAT GALAXY OUR SUN BELONGS TO?

ANSWER: Our Sun belongs to milky Way galaxy.

  1. EXPLAIN THE BIG BANG THEORY OF THE ORIGIN

OF THE UNIVERSE.

ANSWER: The Big Bang Theory: According to

Islam and o her lbrahimic religions, universe

was created by Allah Almighty. According to

the Holy Quran, Allah Almighty said

and the universe was created. Scientists

have been presenting different theories of

creation of the universe from time to time.

One of these theories is The Big Bang

Theory. According to this theory:

A out 10 to 20 billion years ago, the

universe was packed into one giant fireball.

Then a tremendous explosion started the

expansion of the universe. This

extraordinary explosion is known as the Big

Bang. This explosion hurled matter an

energy in all direction. After the Big Bang,

the universe assumed and contracting

gases. With the passage of time , the matter

cooled: the force of gravity pulled together

the particles of matter to form stars and

galaxies.

he Big Bang theory was first proposed in

1927 by. a priest, George Lamaitre of

Belgium. This story was supported W the

discoveries of Edwin Hub e and nobel

Prize-winning scientists Arno Penzias

Robert Wilson.

  1. -Edwin Hubble found experimental

evidence to support The Big Bang Theory.

He found that distant galaxies in every

direction are going away rom is with a very

high speed. T is  observation is acceptable if

the universe begin in a huge explosion.

  1. The Big Bang Theory also predicts the

existence of cosmic background radiation

the glow left over from the explosion in 1964

 Arno Penzias and Robe, Wilson. They

later won the Nobel Prize for this discovery.

  1. DESCRIBE THE LIFE CYCLE OF A LOW-MASS STAR.

ANSWER: Stars more than six times as massive

as your Sun are called massive stars. A

massive star has short lifespan than the Sun

or other low-mass stars. hydrogen in the

core of a massive star is used up with a

much fast speed.

Supergiant: After only 50 to 100 million

years, no hydrogen is left in the core of

massive star. At is time, the core collapses

and the star becomes 1000 times greater

than its orignal size. lt is now called a

supergiant.

Supernova: With the passage of time the

supergiant becomes so dense that it cannot

bear the pressure of outer layers. The outer

layers crash inward with a tremendous

explosion, called-supernova.

Neutron Star: At the time of supernova, the

light of the star becomes much more than all

other stars of the galaxy. Great shells of

gases fly off the star. Only the tiny core of

the star remains left. This core contains only

neutrons, so it is called a neutron star. It is

extremely dense. Some times after the

supernove explosion the massive star

becomes a black hole.

A black hole is so dense that nothing can

escape from it due to its very strong gravity.

Even light cannot escape from a black hole

and it is no more glowing. In fact the black

hole is the last stage of the life cycle of a

massive star.

  1. DESCRIBE THE THREE MAIN TYPES OF GALAXIES.

ANSWER: Three main types of Galaxies: There are

many types of galaxies in the universe.

Scientists classify galaxies in three main

Types on the basis of shape.

(i) Spiral Galaxies: A galaxy that has a flat

dislike shape with a bulge in the centre is

called a spiral galaxy. Spiral galaxies may

have a few or many spiral or curved arms. A

large amount of dust and gases is present in

these galaxies. The Milky Way and

Andromeda are spiral galaxies. The Milky

Way galaxy contains 100 to 200 billion stars.

The Sun is about 30,000 light-years away;

from its centre. The Milky Way galaxy is

moving with a speed of 2,200,000 kilometers

per hour space.

Andromeda is about 2,250,000 light-years

Away from the Milky Way galaxy. lt is our

neighbouring galaxy.

(ii) Elliptical Galaxies: These are oval shaped

galaxies. These galaxies do not rotate as

spiral galaxies around“ their axis. An elliptical

galaxy contains less amounts of dust and

gases as compared to a spiral galaxy.

Trillions of stars may be present in an

elliptical galaxy. New stars cannot form in

most elliptical galaxies. Most of them;

contain only old stars.

(iii) irregular Galaxies: These galaxies have

noldefinite shape. The stars in an irregular?

galaxy do not appear to be grouped in any

set shape. These galaxies have many shapes

and sizes. The Clouds of Magellan, is an‘

irregular galaxy. it is a very small galaxy near

the Milky Way. These galaxies are not very

common

  1. WRITE NOTES ON:
  2. STAR DISTANCE ZULU
  3. SAFETY METHODS TO USE WHEN OBSERVING THE

SUN

ANSWER: Star Distances: The stars are very far

away from us. They are also at great

distances from each other. Distances

between stars are so great that they cannot,

be measures in kilometres. Instead, we use

light-years to express the distance in the

universe.

A light-year is a measure of distance that‘

light covers in one year with a speed of

300,000 kilometres per second. It seems that

a light-year is a very long distance. The Sun‘

is our closest star in our galaxy. The next

kg

closest star Proxima Centauri is 4.2

light-years away from us. We can also say

that light of this star will take 4.2 years to

reach the Earth

safety Tips For Observing the Sun:

The Sun emits dangerous radiation.

Viewing directly into the Sun can damage

our eye sight. Make sure the safety of your

eye before viewing the Sun.

  1. A pinhole or small opening is used to view

the image of the Sun on a screen placed a

half metre or more beyond the opening.

  1. Use two or three sheets of X-Rays film for

viewing the Sun.

 

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