جامعۃ الطیبۃ عمادۃ التعلیم عن بعد (ادارۃ الاعمال) اللغۃ الانجلیزیۃ 1 (ENGL 105) B A KSA

جامعۃ الطیبۃ عمادۃ التعلیم عن بعد (ادارۃ الاعمال) اللغۃ الانجلیزیۃ 1 (ENGL 105)

  1. COURSE CONTENT

TOPIC 1: BRANDS

INTRODUCTION:

Brands are very important to businesses. They represent the name, image, price and quality of a product.

UNIT 1 – VOCABULARY:

Brand management can have many types of forms.

FOR EXAMPLE:

EXERCISE A:

=> BRAND LOYALTY: is the tendency to always buy a particular brand.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– Always buying a Toyota when you need a new car.

– Always going to Kudu when you go out with friends.

– Always buying a Samsung when you need a new phone.

=> BRAND IMAGE: is the idea and belief people have about a brand

FOR EXAMPLE:

– A Mercedes car is expensive.

– Al Maarai juice is delicious.

– Steak House is tasty.

=>  BRAND STRETCHING: is using an existing name in another product.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– Samsung S1, Samsung S2, Samsung S3.

– Toyota Corolla, Toyota Camry, Toyota Avalon.

=> BRAND AWARENESS: is the extent to which people are familiar with a brand.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– What is the most popular car is Saudi Arabia? Toyota.

– What is the most popular / famous phone in the market? Samsung / iphone.

=> BRAND NAME: is the name given to a product by the company that makes it.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– The brand name of my laptop is Dell.

– The brand name of my television is Sony.

– The brand name of my jacket is Hugo Boss.

Products: Products are things that have been made by man or machine. They can have many types of forms and meanings.

FOR EXAMPLE:

PRODUCT LAUNCH: is the time when a company introduces a new product to the market.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– The time when companies give free samples.

PRODUCT LIFECYCLE: is the length of time people buy a product.

FOR EXAMPLE:

PRODUCTS HAVE A LIFE. Electronic goods usually live for 3- 6 years then are replaced by newer models.

PRODUCT RANGE: is the variety of products made by a company.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– Coca Cola have many varieties of cola such as Coca Cola Light, Coca Cola Vanilla, Coca Cola Zero and Coca Cola Cherry.

PRODUCT PLACEMENT: is the time when products are used in movies or TV programmes.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– ln the Transformer movie, Chevrolet cars are used. In the Matrix movie a Nokia phone is used, in the James Bond movie the Aston Martin car is used etc.

PRODUCT ENDORSEMENT: is when companies use famous people to help sell their products.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– Football player Messi advertising Pepsi / KFC and Ronaldo advertising Clear Shampoo.

EXERCISE B:

1- The creation of Coca Cola Light, Coca Cola Diet, Coca Cola Vanilla and Coca Cola Cherry is an

EXAMPLE OF BRAND STRETCHING.

2- Customers who always buy a Toyota car when they need a new car are showing brand loyalty.

3- Not many people recognise our logo. We need to spend more money on advertising to raise brand awareness.

4- Yasir Al Qahtani advertising for STC and Messi advertising for Pepsi is an example of product endorsement.

5- A life cycle in the period of introduction, growth, maturity and decline of a product.

6- The uses of black Audi cars in The Transporter movies are examples of brand image.

 

UNIT 1 – GRAMMAR (LANGUAGE REVIEW): P:9

Present Simple and Present Continuous

EXERCISE A:

We use the present simple to give factual information. We use it to talk about habits or

routine activities.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– Taibah University doctors teach many students.

– Ahmad drives fast.

– l always buy Armani clothes.

EXERCISE B:

We use the present continuous to talk about continuous or ongoing actions.

FOR EXAMPLE:

– Ahmad is sending an email.

– l am buying an Armani shirt.

– We are testing a new brand at the moment.

We use the following words with the present simple:

– Usually – These days – Always

– Often

We use the following words with present continuous (am/is/are + …ing):

– This year – At the moment

We use the following words for present simple and present continuous:

– Every day – Now – Nowadays – Once a month -Currently

 

EXERCISE C:

  1. This year we are trying (try) to develop a brand with personality.
  2. We usually develop (develop) brands that say something.
  3. At the moment we are looking (look) for a new brand name.
  4. L’Oreal sells (sell) make-up all over the world.
  5. This year, L‘Oreal is investing (invest) over $180 million in advertising.
  6. At the moment I am working (work) for Taibah University.
  7. This year, Taibah University is opening (open) a new campus.
  8. The marketing department always keeps(keep) within its budget.
  9. We usually buy (buy) our products from Riyadh.
  10. Every day, our market share is growing (grow).

 

UNIT 2 – READING: MADE IN EUROPE. (See the article below.) P: 12

MADE IN EUROPE

By Jo Johnson, Fred Kapner and Richard McGregor

Almost every fashion label outside the top super-luxury brands is either already manufacturing in Asia or thinking of it. Coach, the US leather goods maker, is a classis example. Over the past five years, it has lifted all its gross margins by manufacturing solely in low-cost markets. In March 2002 it closed its factory in Lares, Puerto Rico, its last company-owned plant, and outsources all its products.

Burberry has many Asian licensing arrangements. ln 2000 it decided to renew Sanyo’s Japanese licence for ten years. This means that almost half of Burberry’s sales at retail value will continue to be produced under licence in Asia. At the same time however, Japanese

consumers prefer the group’s European-made products.

Sanyo is now creating to this demand for a snob alternative to the Burberry products made in its factories across Asia by opening a flagship store in Tokyo’s Ginza, where it sells Burberry products imported from Europe.

In interviews with the FT, many executives says the top luxury brands  will continue to be seen, particularly in Asia, as European. Domenico De Sole of Gucci says “ The Asian Consumer really dos believe – whether it’s true or not – that luxury comes from Europe and must be

made there to be the best.’

Serge Weinberg, Chief Executive of Pinault Printemps Redoute, which controls Gucci, says it will not move Gucci’s production of shore. Yet some in the industry recognize that change may be round the corner even for the super-luxury brands. Patrizio Bertelli, Chief Executive of Prada, says:’ The “Made in ltaly” label is important but what we are really offering is a style, and style is an expression of culture.’ He therefore recognizes that quality fashion items may not always need to be produced in Italy.

Amitava Chattopadhyay, professor of marketing at lnsead, the business school, says:’ A brand is a set of associations in the mind of the consumer and one of these is the country of origin. For luxury goods, the role of the brand is crucial. To damage it is a cardinal sin and no brand manager will want to get the balance between manufacturing location and the brand image wrong’.

From the Financial Times World Business Newspaper

 

READING SUMMARY:

The article is talking about brand products. Many famous products are now made in Asia. Many companies are closing their factories in America and moving to Asia because it is cheaper. But moving to Asia may see poorer quality goods. Therefore, some companies are staying in Europe or America because the quality of the product is better.

 

 

 

EXERCISE A: ANSWER TRUE (/) OR FALSE (X)

  1. Nearly all super Luxury brands are manufacturing in Asia? True
  2. Coach does not have a factory in Puerto Rico? True
  3. Coach is outsourcing its products to reduce costs? True
  4. Some Japanese customers want to buy Burberry products made in Europe rather than Japan? True
  5. Sanyo’s store in Tokyo sells Burberry products made only in Asia? False.
  6. According to Domenico De Sole, the best luxury products are made in Japan? False.
  7. Gucci will outsource some of its products? False
  8. Patrizio Bertelli believes that luxury fashion should always be made in Europe? False.
  9. Amitiva Chattopadhyay says that companies ne.e;<i_ to nay attention to where they manufacture their products? True.
  10. Amitiva The article was printed in the Financial Times newspaper? True.

 

UNIT 2 – COMMUNICATION SKIILS (USEFUL LANGUAGE) P: 16

EXERCISE A:

What would you say when asking for an opinion?

– How do you feel about…?

– What do you think?

– What‘s your view?

 

EXERCISE B: What would you say when agreeing?

– That’s true.

– l agree.

– Absolutely.

 

EXERCISE C: What would you say when disagreeing?

– I’m afraid l can’t agree.

– l know what you mean, but…

– I’m sorry, l don’t agree.

EXERCISE D: What would you say when making a suggestion?

– I think we should…

– How about…..’?

– Perhaps we could….

 

TOPIC 2: TRAVEL   P:

INTRODUCTION:

Travelling is very important for salespeople and managers. lt is important to be aware of British English and American English word varieties.

 

UNIT 3 – VOCABULARY:

There are words and phrases in British English and American English which have the same meaning but use different words.

FOR EXAMPLE:

EXERCISE A:

British English , American English, Underground, Subway , City centre, Downtown, Single ticket, One, way ticket, Return ticket Round, trip ticket, Economy class Coach, class, Motorway, Freeway, Public toilet rest room, Lift Elevator, Timetable, Schedule, Car park Parking, lot, Hand luggage carry-on, baggage

 

EXERCISE B:

  1. l was driving fast and I had an accident on the freeway.
  2. When l arrived in London, l forgot my hand luggage in the plane.
  3. The hotel is in the city centre.
  4. l couldn’t find any place to park my car. The parking lot was full.
  5. London and New York have an excellent underground system.
  6. I live on the top floor. I have to use the elevator.

 

UNIT 3 – GRAMMAR (LANGUAGE REVIEW): P:

Talking about the future.

EXERCISE A:

We can use different language forms to talk about the future.

EXAMPLE1:

– Going to…. We use this to talk about what we intend and have decided to do:

We are going to the meeting.

We are going to finish the report today.

 

EXAMPLE2:

– Will…. We use this will to talk about something we have decided at the time of speaking:

The flight is late. l will call the office. l didn’t send the email. l will do it now.

 

EXAMPLE3:

– Verb + ing. We use the present continuous to talk about a fixed plan.

I am travelling tomorrow. He is leaving at 3 pm. We are meeting on Wednesday.

 

EXERCISE B:

  1. I am sorry. I can’t take you to the train station.

Don’t worry I will take (take) a taxi.

  1. We have chosen the name of our new low-cost airline. Really. What are you going to call (you / call) it?
  2. Have you decided to increase the number of passengers? Yes, we will offer (offer) a family

discount at weekends.

  1. I can’t send an email to the travel agent; my computer’s just crashed. Write down your

details and I will fax them over.

  1. How is your daughter? She’s fine. She is learning to be a pilot for the flying doctor service

next year!

 

EXERCISE C:

  1. His flight arrives / is arriving at 9 o’clock tomorrow morning.
  2. We’re staying / stay at the Hilton Hotel for next month’s sales conference.
  3. The class is beginning / begins at 3 p.m.
  4. l travel / am travelling by train from Riyadh to Dammam next time.

10.The train is departing / departs at mid-day every day.

 

UNIT 4 – READING: CORPORATE ROAD WARRIORS

Read the article below

CORPORATE ROAD WARRIORS

By Stuart Crainer

The characteristic that the most distinguishes today’s executives is not their technological sophistication but the amount of time they spend on the move. To observe the real impact of globalization, you only have to walk around an international airport. Among the crowds of tourists, an army of road warriors and corporate executives march red-eyed across the world time zones. Global markets mean constant global travel.

Management consultants are among the most frenetic frequent fliers. They routinely cross

continents for a face-to-face meeting and then return home. They point to the importance of personal contact. For a profession built on rational analysis, it seems illogical. Face to face meetings when one of the parties is exhausted and jet-lagged seem unlikely to benefit anyone.

But most consultants act as if email and satellite links had never been invented. For the masters of logic, only the face-to-face experience will do.

The question is why all the technological gadgetry has tailed make a dent in the amount of business travel? The answer seems to lie with a simple statistic. More than 90 percent of human communication is non-verbal (some studies put it as high as 93 percent). Facial expressions, body language, eye contact – these are all key conduits Without them you can’t get past first base. Its at tough to bond over the Internet.

Most of us still can’t face-to-face contact,’ says Cary Cooper, professor of organizational psychology and health at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). A lot of people rely on their personalities to persuade others,’ he says. ‘That doesn’t come out in e-mails, and video conferencing is limiting. They may also want to influence people outside of the meeting. A lot of lobbying goes on before and scatter meetings. That is why eyeball-to-eyeball is so important. We still don’t fully trust the technology even though it’s been around for a while. We prefer to at talk behind closed doors.’

We also read body language to pick up the atmosphere, he says. ‘We walk into a meeting and pick up the feel of what the other people are thinking. We Watch how Y reacts to what X is saying. You can’t do that by video conference. most of us don’t have the self-confidence to believe ; we can build the sorts of relation- ships we need with clients and suppliers down the wire. Business travel won’t decrease for that reason. It’s a shame because at the moment we’re burning out an awful lot of people.’ From the Financial Times

 

READING SUMMARY:

The article is talking about the characteristics and why so many business people still travel to do business rather than video conference.

 

EXERCISE A:

  1. Management consultants are frequent fliers.
  2. Most of us still want face – to – face contact.
  3. Face-to-face meetings are important to read body language to pick up the atmosphere.
  4. We also like to have face-to-face meetings to influence people outside the meeting.
  5. Travelling management consultants act as if email and satellite links have not been invented.
  6. More than 90% of human communication is non-verbal.
  7. Facial expressions, body language and eye contact are examples of non-verbal communication.
  8. Emails and video conferencing do not show personalities.
  9. A lot of people rely on their personalities to persuade others.
  10. The key message of the article is that business meetings will always be necessary because people prefer to meet face-to-face.

 

UNIT 4 – WRITING:

EXERCISE A:

CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER TO COMPLETE THE FAX FROM THE THREE STORKS HOTEL.

 

The Three Storks Hotel Virpazar- Montenegro

FAX

………: (1) The Three Storks Hotel (Virpazar- Montenegro) +381 (0)81 71 00 88

………: (2) Mr. J C Roberts, Stanley Engineering LTD. +44 1865 689 244

……… ..(3) April 28.

…….. ..(4) Roberts,

This is to ……… .. (5) your booking for a single room from May 17 to May 20 inclusive, at a rate of 120 euros ….. ..(6) night. …………….. ..(7) ,we will hold your room until midnight on the

day of …….. ..(8). We …………….. ..(9) seeing you in May.

Yours ……………. ..(10),

The Three Storks Hotel

  1. From
  2. To
  3. Date
  4. Dear
  5. Confirm
  6. per
  7. As requested
  8. your arrival
  9. took forward to seeing you
  10. sincerely

 

TOPIC 3: ORGANISATION    P:

INTRODUCTION:

Organisations are very big it  businesses that may have many offices and operations around the world. Many organisations are government owned and many are market driven.

 

UNIT 5 – VOCABULARY:

Words related to organisation (company) structure:

 

EXERCISE A:

SUBSIDIARY: When 50% or more of the company is owned by another company.

FACTORY / PLANT: A place where goods / products are made.

CALL CENTRE: A place a customer calls to get help and advice about their product.

SERVICE CENTRE: A place that repairs damaged or faulty products.

– Head office: The main office / location of the company.

– DISTRIBUTION CENTRE: The place where goods are sent out for delivery.

WAREHOUSE: The place where products are stored

BRANCHES / OUTLETS: The place where products or services can be bought.

 

EXERCISE B: GOOD QUALITIES OF AN ORGANISATION:

– Caring

– De-centralised

– Dynamic

– Market-driven

– Professional

– Progressive

BAD QUALITIES OF AN ORGANISATION:

– Bureaucratic

– Centralised

– Conservative

– Hierarchical

– Impersonal

UNIT 5 – GRAMMAR (Language Review):

Noun combinations

In English we can combine two or more nouns (names).

FOR EXAMPLE:

  1. We can use possessives: Julia’s desk / Mohammad’s pen / Layla’s phone.
  2. We can use ‘of’: Director of Communications / cup of water! piece of cake / glass of milk.
  3. We can combine words: Bedroom / motorcycle / downtown / roommate / football
  4. We can use one noun as an adjective: Head office / English teacher

EXERCISE A: WHAT IS THE MOST SUITABLE NOUN COMBINATION?

1.

  1. a) The meeting of today.
  2. b) Today’s meeting.
  3. c) Today meeting.

2.

  1. a) A letter of credit.
  2. b) A credits letter.
  3. c) A letter’s credit.

3.

  1. a) A business card.
  2. b) A card of business.
  3. c) A businesses‘ card.

4.

  1. a) A data’s base.
  2. b) A base of data.
  3. c) A database.

 

EXERCISE B: Rephrase the following.

FOR EXAMPLE: A plan which lasts for ten years = A ten year plan.

  1. A hotel with five stars = A five star hotel.
  2. A budget worth 3 million dollars = A 3 million dollar budget
  3. A presentation that lasts 20 minutes = A 20 minute presentation.
  4. A contract worth 200,000 pounds = A 200,000 pound contract.
  5. An industrial empire which is 150 years old = A 150 year old contract.
  6. A vintage car which 90 year old car = A 90 year old car.

 

EXERCISE C: MATCH EACH WORD TO MAKE A WORD PARTNERSHIP

  1. BUSINESS a) virus b) cards c) plan
  2. MANAGEMENT a) style b) technology c) policy
  3. SALES a) campaign b) department c) trade

4.Labour a) force b) technology c) market

  1. COMPANY a) house b) headquarters c) logo
  2. TRADE a) union b) technology c) fair
  3. CONSUMER a) goods b) awareness c) logos
  4. RESEARCH a) findings b) knowledge c) project
  5. INFORMATION a) force b) technology c) logo
  6. COMPUTER a) union b) program c) virus

 

UNIT 6 – READING: HAPPY STAFF IS NOT THE FULL ANSWER

Read the article below

READING SUMMARY:

HAPPY STAFF IS NOT THE FULL ANSWER Management style can be reflected in customer service-but the relationship is complex

By Adrian Fumham

Business gurus have been quick to highlight studies claiming to show that customer service is related to management style. These studios claim that the way service staff deal with their customers reflects clearly how they themselves are managed. Employees express attitudes, behaviour and emotions customers that reflect their own feelings towards their work, and these sentiments are determined by their managers. Customers then ‘catch’ these employee attitudes. This leads to the belief that employee morale is closely, directly and positively related to customer service‘ satisfaction.

Researchers have pointed out that even employees‘ own perceptions of the quality of the service they provide are related to both their personal job satisfaction and productivity.

They could be wrong but the theory has three principles:

1- When organisations treat their Eniployees well, the employees treat their customers accordingly.

2- When organisations and the work group have policies and practices aimed at maintaining service quality, customers trill be happier with those services.

3- The more a company’s employees have contact with customers. the more its morale and organisational policies affect customer satisfaction.

The theory holds that the customer is king and needs superb treatment by service staff. Staff at as the customer interface need to be supported. trained and directed by their supervisors to ensure high-quality service. All people in the organisation should he

go directed to this end. So the Chief Executives job is to help, support and advise the board. Whose job it is to help, support and advise

senior mariagers. Thus all employees are support staff. attempting to support those vitally important staff who come into contact with the people who pay the salaries: customers

All service organisations invest in trying hard to get excellent customer service. Airlines, hotels. restaurants and so on conduct serious selection and training to  get the sort of person who thrives in customer service. Stable extroverts of sufficient- though not sparkling – intellect seem ideal. Managers rely on many to courses, feedback and incentives to keep up standards, and they are aware of the role of demonstrating good behaviour.

But managers in the service industry also know that other factors beyond their control affect staff morale. mood and service. irascible, demanding, downright rude customers can sap the So morale of staff, no matter how well they are treated by their managers. Customer service may be emotional labour on a par with physical labour. There is the same level of exhaustion. And as customers demand more and more for less and less, the customer facing staff bear the brunt.

(From the Financial Times)

The article is talking about the importance of customer service in management. The article discusses the importance of positive and motivated employees should be as their behaviour and attitudes can reflect on the service they give to their customers. The article

also discusses the importance in quality care given to customers and that the customer is king.

EXERCISE A:

  1. According to the studies that business gurus highlight, “customer service is related to ……. “
  2. a) management style b) rude customers c) employees‘ productivity d) All
  3. ln paragraph 2 which of the following words means how happy you feel about your job and your results’?
  4. a) Productivity b) Attitudes c) Perceptions d) Satisfaction
  5. Some studies claim that the way service staff deals with their customers ….. .. clearly how they themselves are managed
  6. a) provides b) treats c) reflects d) demands
  7. Employee morale is ….. .. Related to customer service satisfaction.
  8. a) policies b) morale c) performance d) productivity
  9. A chief executive’s job is to…..
  10. a) help, support and advice b) train and educate c) teach, assist and present d) demonstrate levels of exhaustion.
  11. Which of the following words means ‘ how much a person or a group produce in a particular time’?
  12. a) Policies b) Morale c) Performance d) Productivity
  13. When we say ‘the customer is king’, we mean the customer is ……. ..
  14. a) not important at all. b) less important than anyone else. c) more important that anyone else. d) just as important as us.
  15. Staff at the customer interface need to be supported and directed by their…..
  16. a) customers b) supervisors c) business gurus d) management
  17. Airlines, hotels and restaurants conduct serious selection and training to get the sort of person who ….. ..in customer service.
  18. a) travels b) feels c) thrives d) catches
  19. The key message of the article is …. ..
  20. a) There is a complex relationship between management style and customer service. b) organisations have no control over what happens between employees and customers c) some customers can be extremely difficult    d) None

 

UNIT 6 – WRITING:

EXERCISE A: CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING EMAIL.

To: All staff

From: Olivia Anderson

Subject: Staff training

In order to keep our competitive edge, we at Free Horizons must continue to provide unique travel services and ……. .. (1) totally customer focused. Our staff training programmes ………… ..(2) a great deal to making us so dynamic and efficient. I’m very pleased to ………. .. (3 ) that we will be able to …… .. (4) another training seminar in the autumn, on one of the following topics:

– developing computer skills,

– intermediate French, Spanish or Arabic,

– customer service,

– favourite holiday destinations; their geography and politics.

Please ………. .. (5) one topic, and ……… .. (6) in detail the reasons for your choice.

Replies by Thursday please.

1.

  1. a) explain b) select c) remain d) organise

2.

a)contribute b) explain c) organise d) remain

3.

  1. a) explain b) remain c) select d) announce

4.

  1. a) select b) organise c) remain d) contribute

5.

  1. a) explain b) select c) remain d) organise

6.

  1. a) explain b) remain c) organise d) announce

 

TOPIC 4: CHANGE P: 45

INTRODUCTION:

There are many situations in our lives where change is always happening and affects us in some way. For example, losing our job, getting married, buying a new house, moving to a new country etc.

UNIT 7 – VOCABULARY:

EXERCISE A:

     Below are prefixes and when used with a verb create words related to change:

 Down- De- Up- Re-
Size centralise

Regulate

Grade structure

train

organise

develop

launch

size

locate

 

EXERCISE B: COMPLETE THE SENTENCES USING THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB FROM THE BOX IN EXERCISE A.

  1. It is now so expensive to rent offices in the city centre that many companies are relocating to the suburbs.
  2. The company has recently had to downsize its workforce.
  3. Excellent customer sen/ice is vital to keep up with the competition. The company has introduced new networking practices and is retraining all part-time staff.
  4. The seating plan in our office has been reorganized to accommodate new staff.
  5. Our product was not doing well in the market. We decided to relaunch it under a different name.
  6. The company has decided to redevelop the disused car park site.
  7. The most successful decision in our company was the decision to restructure the company hierarchy.

 

UNIT 7 – GRAMMAR (LANGUAGE REVIEW):

Past simple and present perfect

In English we use the past simple for actions at a particular point in the past. We use the present perfect for actions linking the present to a point in the past.

FOR EXAMPLE:

  1. PAST SIMPLE: l visited our clients in Hong Kong. I sent the fax. l studied for my business exam last year. I ate lunch with the boss.
  2. PRESENT PERFECT: We have made a lot of changes since 2009. Have you gone to the conference yet? Yes we have gone to the conference.

EXERCISE A:

  1. l received (receive) last year’s results and l am delighted to announce a fantastic year.
  2. We started (start) in 1970 in a small factory in Madinah.
  3. We only employed (employ) four people at that time.
  4. That number has grown (grow) to around 2,000 today.
  5. In 1982, we nearly Went (go) bankrupt.
  6. In recent years we have expanded our product range.
  7. A lot of change has taken (take) place recently.
  8. Last year most of our sales came (come) from Asia.
  9. This year we have decided (decide) to try and break into the US market.
  10. So far this year we have prospered (prosper).

 

 

UNIT 8 – READING: SHAKE-UPS THAT LEAVE US

Read the article below

SHAKE-UPS THAT LEAVE US SHAKEN BUT NOT STIRRED

John recently resigned from his job with a European airline because of the way it handled heavy redundancies in the wake of September 11. ‘The whole experience was a disaster,‘ he says. ‘I was one of the last to leave and now all the original group that l started with are gone.‘ John, who worked in the finance department, says the redundancies were announced in an

unplanned way and the workload was redistributed without any consultation, let alone assistance or incentives. ‘People were already oven worked, but when they were also given duties above and beyond their job specification, they began to leave in droves,‘ he says. ‘On top of this, the change was not communicated well. We should have been consulted.

Workplace change has become a constant for most employees. Yet it often fails to achieve its stated objectives and has unforeseen consequences of the kind experienced in John’s case. A new study by OPP, which specializes in applied business psychology, seeks to explain why. Poor communication is often to blame, as are change imposed from above and an absence of obvious benefits. The study, based on a survey of 1,001 people at all levels in large UK organisations, finds that workplace change has left 58 percent feeling demotivated and less committed. Fourteen percent have left their jobs as a result and 49 percent have considered doing so.

‘There are signs that organisations may have misconceptions about their employees‘ motives for working and the nature of their psychological contracts‘ says Bernard Cooke, leader of OPP‘s change consultancy team. ‘Employees are not asking for less change. However, they are demanding more involvement and clearer explanations of the reasons for the change and the expected benefits.‘ Employees are largely impervious to changes in the mission statement or the brand or logo that so excite those at the top. What they care about most is the effect on their pay, benefits, working conditions and job role.

The survey, carried out by My Voice Research, finds that senior managers acknowledge the need to communicate clearly the objectives and potential benefits of workplace reorganisation. Yet, in employees‘ eyes, they often fail to do so. Seventy-six percent of staff say that change tends to be imposed rather than discussed, 64 percent that senior managers are the only ones consulted, and 40 percent that change is communicated either not at all or only when it has been completed. (From the Financial Times)

 

READING SUMMARY:

The article is talking about change that happens in companies. It discusses that change is now frequent in companies. Change happen when new employees come or when old employees leave the company. Most employees are not happy about change because most of the time they are not told until the last moment.

EXERCISE A:

  1. John recently resigned from his job with a European airline.
  2. He had a very bad experience when he left.
  3. He was the last one to leave.
  4. The redundancies were announced in an unplanned way.
  5. No consultation was given when the workload was redistributed. as
  6. A study by OPP says that poor communication is the result on negative change.
  7. Because of workplace change, 58% of people in the study feel de-motivated and less committed.
  8. Because of workplace change, 14% have left and 49% have considered leaving.
  9. Employees want more involvement and clearer explanations for the reasons in workplace change.
  10. My voice Research shows that senior managers know of the need to communicate clearly the benefits and objectives of change.
  11. 66% of employees say that change is imposed rather than discussed
  12. The article was printed in the Financial Times.

 

UNIT 8 – COMMUNICATION SKILLS (USEFUL LANGUAGE

EXERCISE A:

What would you say when asking for clarification?

– How do you mean…?

– What exactly are you saying?

– Sorry, l don‘t follow you?

– Can you explain in more detail?

– What exactly do you mean?

EXERCISE B: What would you say when clarifying?

– What I mean is…

– What I’m saying is…

– To clarify…..

– To be more specific….

EXERCISE D: What would you say when making proposais?

– I suggest….

– I propose that…..

– How about…..

– We could…..

EXERCISE E: What would you say when rejecting proposals?

– Sorry, I don’t think it’s / that’s a good idea.

– I’m not sure I agree with you.

– That just won’t work.

 

TOPIC 5: MONEY P: 59

INTRODUCTION:

You know what they say, ‘money makes the world go round‘. There are many situations

in our lives where we use money. We use money to buy, sell, trade and indeed as a general medium of exchange. Money or making money is probably the most important aspect for many businesses. As such, there are many terms associated with the term money. This will be explored in the vocabulary section now.

 

 

 

UNIT 9 – VOCABULARY:

EXERCISE A:

The words below are associated with the topic of money and are important financial terms:

DEBT: Money owed by one person or organisation to another.

GROSS MARGIN: The difference between the cost of making a product and its selling price.

RECESSION: A period of time when there is little economic activity in a country.

INVESTMENT: Capital (money), land or goods in which a person or company puts into a company to make profit.

STOCK MARKET: A place where company shares are bought and sold to make profit in the near or distant future.

SHARES: Is the amount or percentage of which money or ownership of a company is divided up.

A FORECAST: An expectation of what is likely to happen in the future.

BANKRUPTCY: When an individual or company is unable to repay the money they borrowed.

REVENUES: The money which a business receives from selling goods and/or services.

PRE-TAX PROFITS: Is the money made before payment are made to the government.

A DIVIDEND: ls the percentage of profit which is made from a company that paid to owners of company shares.

A SHAREHOLDER: An individual who owns shares in a business.

 

EXERCISE B: COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE WORDS FROM EXERCISE A

In our home markets, it has been another excellent year. …………. .. are up by £23 million and the …………. .. for the next quarter is equally good. Profits from abroad are down because of a …………. .. in Japan. However, our performance overall has been good and the …………. .. have increased to 26.4p and the …………. .. will be increased to 4.3p per share which will please our ………….. ..

 Now check your answers:

In our home markets, it has been another excellent year. Pre-tax profits are up by £23 million and the forecast for the next quarter is equally good. Profits from abroad are down because of a recession in Japan. However, our performance overall has been good and the shares have increased to 26.4p and the earnings per share will be increased to 4.3p per share

which will please our shareholders.

 

EXERCISE C:

Now complete the sentences with the words from exercise A . We plan to issue …………. .. in order to finance expansion in Asia. We also plan to increase our …………. .. in plant and equipment before entering the Chinese market. We are particularly pleased with our

performance in France and Germany where …………. .. have increased.

As a result of using a new distributor, our costs fell giving us a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. of 40% on our main product line. We will use any extra cash to

reduce the level.

NOW CHECK YOUR ANSWERS:

NOW COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE WORDS FROM EXERCISE A

We plan to issue shares in order to finance expansion in Asia. We also plan to increase our investment in plant and equipment before entering the Chinese market. We are particularly pleased with our performance in France and Germany where revenues

have increased.

As a result of using a new distributor, our costs fell giving us a gross margin of 40% on our main product line. We will use any extra cash to reduce the level of our debts.

 

EXERCISE D:

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE WORDS FROM EXERCISE A

Our performance in Italy should improve significantly following the bankruptcy of our biggest competitor.

However, we should not become too satisfied with our share price as economic conditions remain uncertain and the recession in the economy will reflect this.

 

UNIT 9 – GRAMMAR (LANGUAGE REVIEW):

Prepositions and verbs of change in English we use verbs to describe change and

patterns of change. We can use the following verbs to describe change:

   
increase rocket Level
   
plummet  peak fluctuate
   
halve  improve Triple

 

We can use the following prepositions to describe change:

– Profits rose from 11% to $2.7 billion.

– Profits have gone up from €3 million to €4 million.

– Our business grew by 15% last year.

– There has been an increase of £1 million in annual sales.

– Last quarter, profits stood at €60 million.

EXERCISE A:

PLEASE COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH THE APPROPRIATE PREPOSITION.

  1. Sales have increased from £5m to £6m.
  2. Sales have increased by £2m.
  3. There has been an increase of £1m in sales.
  4. Sales now stand at £6 million.
  5. Sales reached a peak of £5 million in June.

 

UNIT 10 – COMMUNICATION SKILLS (USEFUL LANGUAGE)

When dealing with numbers, figures, currencies and percentages, we must be careful in how we pronounce them. Examples are highlighted in Exercise A.

EXERCISE A:

YEARS:

1888 – Pronounced: Eighteen eighty eight.

1979 — Pronounced: Nineteen seventy-nine.

2013 – Pronounced: Two thousand and thirteen.

CURRENCIES:

£5.99 — Pronounced: Five pounds ninety nine.

OR Five pounds and ninety nine pence.

€1.99 — Pronounced: One euro ninety nine. OR One euro ninety nine cents.

NUMBERS:

125- Pronounced: One hundred and twenty five.

3,005 – Pronounced: Three thousand and five.

168,324 – Pronounced: One hundred and sixty eight thousand three hundred and twenty four.

1m (1,000,000) – Pronounced: one million.

¥300 – Pronounced: Three hundred yen.

$7,500 – Pronounced: Seven thousand five hundred dollars.

DECIMALS:

16% – Pronounced: Sixteen per cent.

24.5% – Pronounced: Twenty four point five percent

0.125% – Pronounced: Zero point one two five per cent

0.05% – Pronounced: Zero point zero five per cent.

 

UNIT 11 – Vocabulary:

EXERCISE A: WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS RELATE TO A) ADVERTISING MEDIA; B) METHODS OF ADVERTISING AND C) VERBS TO DO WITH ADVERTISING?

Directories, launch, commercials, sponsor, radio, mailshots, exhibitions, run, word of mouth, press, newspapers, television, persuade, internet, posters, billboards, target, endorsements, place, promote, cinema, public transportation, sponsorship, cinema.

 

CHECK BELOW TO COMPARE YOUR ANSWERS:

Advertising media Advertising verbs Methods of advertising
Directories

Sponsor

Mailshots

Run

Newspapers

Word of mouth

Internet

Persuade

Television

Target

Radio

Place

Cinema

Promote

Launch

Commercials

Exhibitions

Press

Posters

Billboards/hoardings

Endorsements

Cinema

Public transportation

Sponsorship

Free samples

Slogans

 

EXERCISE B: CAN YOU THINK OF OTHER TYPES OF ADVERTISING MEDIA?

EXERCISE C: COMPLETE THE SENTENCES BELOW WITH THE CORRECT WORD / PHRASE.

  1. Viacom Outdoor is an advertising company that specialises in placing adverts on (biIIboards /television/public transportation) such as buses and trains.
  2. Some perfume and food companies provide (free samples/leaflets/commercials) so that customers can try the product before they buy.
  3. Advertising companies spend a lot of money on creating clever (mailshots/directories/slogans) that are short and memorable.
  4. Celebrity (exhibition/research/endorsement) is a technique that is very popular in advertising at the moment.
  5. If news came to you by (internet/word of mouth/press), it means someone tells you about it rather than you seeing an advert.
  6. lf you have something to sell, you can (target/place/launch) an advert in the local newspaper.

 

EXERCISE D:

  1. Can you think of any outdoor advertising companies which advertise on public transportation? Which companies?
  2. Can you think of any slogans used by companies in your country?

 

UNIT 12 – GRAMMAR (Language Review):

The use of articles (a / an /the) are very important in English to distinguish between countable and uncountable nouns and in specifying things.

FOR EXAMPLE:

A / an : We use a (before consonants – a car) or an (used before words vowels starting with a, e, i, o, u – an apple). They are also used before single countable nouns:

– They work for an advertising agency.

– He is an engineer.

– She saw a beautiful house.

We also use the when we think our listener will know what we are talking about or when specifying something.

– The International Flower Show will be held in Madinah this year.

– Let’s change the campaign.

– The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

We also use the zero article(no a, an or the) before:

– Mass nouns, for example: Information is power.

– The names of many places and people, for example: China, Dr. Layla, Mr. Abdullah.

EXERCISE A:

Which of the following words would you sue ‘a’ or ‘an’ before it?

advert, commercial, strategy, profit, sales target, employee, factory, hour, account, bank account, VIP, report.

CHECK YOUR ANSWERS BELOW:

an advert, a commercial, a strategy, a profit, a sales target, an employee, a factory, an hour, an account, a bank account, a VIP, a report.

EXERCISE B: WHERE WOULD YOU ADD THE WORD ‘THE’ IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES?

  1. This year the sales conference is in Netherlands.
  2. Next year l am going to work for an advertising company in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  3. We are going to UK for an international lT conference.
  4. Scotland, England, Wales and Ireland make UK.
  5. Dubai is in Emirates.

CHECK YOUR ANSWERS BELOW:

  1. This year the sales conference is in The Netherlands.
  2. Next year l am going to work for an advertising company in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  3. We are going to The UK for an international IT conference.
  4. Scotland, England, Wales and Ireland make The UK.
  5. Dubai is in The Emirates.

 

EXERCISE C:

Can you think of examples using articles? Can you think of at least one using ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’?

UNIT 12 – READING:

READ THE ARTICLE BELOW

WHAT MAKES NIKE’S ADVERTISING TICK?

Phil Knight, the co-founder and former Chief Executive of Nike, prefers to let his superstar

athletes and advertisements do his talking for him. Named Advertiser of the Year at the 50th Cannes International Advertising Festival, he is the first person to win the award twice.

Knight has an absolutely clear and committed strategy to use celebrity athlete

endorsement. He describes it as one part of the “three-legged stool” which lies behind

Nike’s phenomenal growth since the early 1980’s, with the other two being product design

and advertising.

He has built Nike’s expansion into sport after sport from its athletics roots on the back of

the sporting masters: Carl Lewis on the track, tennis’s Jimmy Connors and John McEnroe,

Tiger Woods, who led Nike into golf, Ronaldo and the Brazilizn national football team, and

the basketball star, Michael Jordan, who famously rescued the company.

From the beginning Nike has been prepared to take a gamble on sporting bad boys others

wouldn’t touch: Andre Agassi springs to mind. It was a strategy that began with llie

Nastase, the original tennis bad boy. The Romanian had the quality that has come to

represent Nike and its advertising: attitude.

After extraordinary growth, Nike became number one trainer manufacturer in the US. But Knight admits the company then lost its way as it failed to cope with its success. It

experimented unsuccessfully with expansion into non-athletic shoes, and lost its number

one position to Reebok in 1986.

Knight bet the future of the company on a new feature: a new air technology inside the

trainer. He launched the product with a David Flincher-directed advertisement which used the Beatles song Revolution, and then marketed the Air Jordan brand on the back of

Michael Jordan. Sales took off and the rest is history.

That brings us to the subject of globalisation and the question of how American the brand

can be. Nike uses a mix of global ad campaigns such as “good v evil” and local

advertising, such as its famous poster campaigns in the UK. During a 21-year partnership

with the agency Wieden and Kennedy, Nike has created some of the world’s most

attention-grabbing advertising: for example, their “good v evil” campaign and two

advertisements both for World Cups and the ad tag, last year’s Cannes Grand Prix winner.

Other famous ads star Pete Sampras and Andre Agassi playing in the streets of

Manhattan; Tiger Woods playing “keepy-uppy” with a golf ball and Brazil’s team playing

soccer at the airport terminal.

lt is a remarkable body of work, both in its variety, daring and consistent originality. At Nike

there’s a streamlined decision-making process that gives marketing directors real power.

They do not rely on market research pre-testing which often reduces the impact of more

experimental commercials. There is also the long relationship with one of the world’s best

ad agencies, and what Wieden describes as “an honesty about sport”. Things only happen

in Nike’s ads that sportsmen and women can really do.

“My number one advertising principle -if l have one – is to wake up the consumer,”

concludes Knight, with an absolute conviction that is unique among modern-day chief

executives. “We have a high-risk strategy on advertising. When it works, it is more

interesting. There really is no formula.”

(From The Guardian)

READING SUMMARY:

The article is discussing how a famous sports company, Nike, uses advertising and famous

celebrities to help sell their products. The article also discusses the other factors that have helped in Nike lead to its huge success.

EXERCISE A:

  1. Who is Phil Knight?
  2. What does Knight use as an advertising strategy?
  3. What or who is Nike?
  4. What has made Nike very successful?
  5. When did Nike loose its number one position to Reebok?
  6. Who did Nike work with to create successful advertisements?
  7. What other famous people has Nike used in their ad campaigns?
  8. What is Knight’s advertising principle?
  9. What is the article generally discussing?
  10. Which newspaper was the article printed in?

EXERCISE B:

  1. Nike has been Advertiser of the Year three times. True / False?
  2. Nike uses only worldwide advertising. True / False?
  3. Nike believes market research pre-testing is very important. True / False?
  4. A lot of computer tricks are used in Nike ads. True / False?

EXERCISE C: CHECK YOUR ANSWERS BELOW:

  1. Who is Phil Knight?

He is the co-founder and former Chief Executive of Nike.

  1. What does Knight use as an advertising strategy?

He uses superstar athletes / celebrity athlete endorsements.

  1. What or who is Nike?

Nike is an international sports shoes and clothing company

  1. What has made Nike very successful? its advertising strategy.
  2. When did Nike loose its number one position to Reebok? Nike lost its number 1 position to Reebok in 1986.
  3. Who did Nike work with to create successful advertisements? Nike worked with sporting masters. like Jimmy Connors, John l\/lcEnroe, Tiger Woods, Ronaldo and Michael Jordan.
  4. What other famous people has Nike used in their ad campaigns? Natase and Andri Agassi.
  5. What is Knight’s advertising principle? To use a mix of global ad campaigns such as ‘good vs evil‘ with famous sports stars as well as local advertising.
  6. What is the article generally discussing? The article is generally discussing Nike’s success and its advertising strategy.
  7. Which newspaper was the article printed in? The article was printed in The Guardian newspaper.

EXERCISE D:

  1. Nike has been Advertiser of the Year three times. True / False?
  2. Nike uses only worldwide advertising. True / False?
  3. Nike believes market research pre-testing is very important. True/False?
  4. A iot of computer tricks are used in Nike ads. True / False?

QUESTIONS FOR THOUGHT…..

EXERCISE E:

What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of using celebrity advertising?

EXERCISE F:

Which celebrities from Saudi Arabia are used in advertising?

 EXERCISE G:

The article mentions an attention grabbing advertisement. Match similar words 1 – 6 to the words a- f to make word partnerships.

1. Energy

2. Eye

3. Thirst

4. Money

5. Mouth

6. Brain

a) teasing

b) saving

c) watering

d) catching

e) quenching

f) saving

ANSWERS: (1-b)(2-d)(3-e)(4-f)(5-c)(6-a)

UNIT 12 — WRITING:

EXERCISE A: CHOOSE THE CORRECT WORDS TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING EMAIL:

date and time                 I have pleasure in

could arrange for

full details

take advantage of              We would be very

grateful

ASTRA OFFICE SOLUTIONS

100 Alexandra Road-Birmingham

Ms Sandra Perkins

13”‘ June 2013

Purchasing Manager

United Freight Agencies

Liverpool

Dear Ms Perkins,

As Head of our Customer Service Department, ………………………. .. enclosing our latest catalogue, featuring our exciting new range of office equipment and furniture at the most

competitive prices currently on the market. ……………………. ..if you could let us know which of our products would be of interest to you. Once we have this information, we ………………………… .. an expert from our sales staff to visit your company in order to carry out a detailed needs analysis and produce a unique office solution for you, entirely free of charge.

Our expert will also give you ………………………… .. of our special offers. At Astra Office Solutions, we offer our regular customers more than just discounts. For example, there is a two-month free trial period for all electrical equipment, including photocopiers, and much

more. If you would like to ……………………… ..a visit from our expert, please inform us of a suitable ………………….. .. We look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,

Animar Sellimi

Sales Manager

 

ANSWERS:

(I have pleasure in)

(We would be very grateful )

(could arrange for )

(full details )

(take advantage of)

( date and time.)

Think about…..

  1. Who is the letter to? (Mrs. Perkins)
  2. Who is the letter from? (Ammar Semmi)
  3. What is the letter about? (it’s about arranging a

sales visit from Astra Office Solutions to visit and

discuss furniture requirements for Ms. Perkins).

 

TOPIC 7: CULTURES P: 94

INTRODUCTION:

Every country or even city has its culture. Religions and races also have cultures. Culture is the practice or a certain type of norm, value or behaviour associated with a group of people.

UNIT 13 – VOCABULARY:

EXERCISE A:

Like any other language, the English language has many phrases or idioms that express a meaning or point of view. One such idiom is ‘let me put you in the picture which means to give someone the general idea of a subject / to tell someone about a particular situation.

Choose the most appropriate word in the box to complete the idioms in the sentences below:

eye eye end fire foot water ice water

 

  1. I was thrown in at the deep …. .. when my company sent me to run the German office. I was only given two days‘ notice to prepare.
  2. We don’t see eye to….. about relocating our factory. The Finance Director wants to move production to the Far East, but l want to remain in Spain.
  3. l got into hot…. with my boss for wearing casual clothes to the meeting with our Japanese customers.
  4. Small talk is one way to break the …. .. when meeting someone for the first time.
  5. l really put my …. .. in it when l met our Chinese partner. Because l was so nen/ous, l said ‘Who are you?‘ rather than ‘How are you?‘
  6. I get on like a house on ———- with our nigerian agent; We like the same things and have the same sense of humour.
  7. When I visited China for the first time I was like a fish out of …. .. Everything was so different and I couldn’t read any of the signs!
  8. My first meeting with our overseas clients was a real …. ..-opener. I had not seen that style of negotiation before.

 

NOW CHECK IF YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT:

  1. I was thrown in at the deep end when my company sent me to run the German office. I was only given two days‘ notice to prepare.
  2. We don’t see eye to eye about relocating our factory. The Finance Director wants to move production to the Far East, but I want to remain in Spain.
  3. I got into hot water with my boss for wearing casual clothes to the meeting with our Japanese customers.
  4. Small talk is one way to break the ice when meeting someone for the first time.
  5. I really put my foot in it when I met our Chinese partner. Because I was so nervous, I said ‘Who are you?’ rather than ‘How are you?
  6. I get on like a house on fire with our Nigerian agent; we like the same things and have the same sense of humour.
  7. When I visited China for the first time I was like a fish out of water. Everything was so different and I couldn’t read any of the signs!
  8. My first meeting with our overseas clients was a real eye-opener. I had not seen that styIe of negotiation before.

 

EXERCISE C: Which of the idioms in Exercise A have a positive meaning?

Now check if your answers are correct:

Which of the idioms in Exercise A have a positive / negative meaning?

ANSWERS: ( positive meaning)

real eye-opener

get on like a house on fire

break the ice

ANSWERS: (negative meaning)

thrown in at the deep end

like a fish out of water

put my foot in it.

see eye to eye

got into hot water

EXERCISE D: MATCH THE IDIOMS IN EXERCISE A TO THE CORRECT MEANINGS a) to h).

  1. a) Given a difficult job to do without preparation.
  2. b) Quickly have a friendly relationship with someone.
  3. c) Feel uncomfortable in an unfamiliar situation.
  4. d) Say or do something without thinking carefully, so that you embarrass or upset someone.
  5. e) To disagree with someone.
  6. f) An experience where you learn something surprising or something you didn’t know before.
  7. g) Make someone you have just met less nervous and more willing to talk.
  8. h) To get into trouble.

Now check if your answers are correct:

  1. a) Given a difficult job to do without preparation. Thrown in at the deep end.
  2. b) Quickly have a friendly relationship with someone. Like a house on fire.
  3. c) Feel uncomfortable in an unfamiliar situation. Like a fish out of water.
  4. d) Say or do something without thinking carefully, so that you embarrass or upset someone.

Put your foot in it

  1. e) To disagree with someone. Don’t see eye to eye.
  2. f) An experience where you learn something surprising or something you didn’t know before.

A real eye-opener.

  1. g) Make someone you have just met less nervous and more willing to talk. Break the ice.
  2. h) To get into trouble. Get into hot water.

 

EXERCISE E:

CAN YOU THINK OF A PLACE THAT YOU VISITED WHICH WAS A ‘REAL EYE-OPENER‘?

Can you think of a situation when you:

  1. a) Put your foot in it?
  2. b) Felt like a fish out of water?
  3. c) Got into hot water?
  4. d) Were thrown in at the deep end?

 

UNIT 13 – GRAMMAR (Language Review):

When we speak to friends, family or colleagues, we usually give them words of advice and words expressing obligation or necessity. We can even express words and phrases that lack obligation or necessity.

FOR EXAMPLE:

  1. ADVICE:

We can use should and shouldn’t to give or to ask for advice.

– You should learn to pray at an early age.

– You should study early before your final exams.

  1. OBLIGATION / NECESSITY:

We often use must when the obligation comes from the person speaking or writing.

– We must buy a gift for our visitor.

We use mustn’t to say something is prohibited I not allowed.

– You mustn’t smoke in the plane.

– You mustn’t use a mobile phone during an exam.

We use have to to show that the obligation comes from another person or institution, not the speaker.

– You have to get a visa to go to the UK.

– You have to get at least 60% to pass the exam.

  1. LACK OF OBLIGATION / NECESSITY: Examples include:

– You don’t have to clean your car every week.

– You mustn’t work long hours. lt’s bad for your health.

EXERCISE A: Please complete the sentences below by choosing the most appropriate verb.

  1. Visitors must / shouldn’t carry their identity cards at all times when travelling.
  2. Passengers mustn’t/ don’t have to smoke anywhere on the plane.
  3. All staff should / don’t have to come to work on time.
  4. My boss doesn’t have to / shouldn’t travel so much — he is looking tired and ill.
  5. Monday is a public holiday. l mustn’t/don’t have to work.
  6. When travelling to a new country to do business, you should / mustn’t do some research on the etiquettes and taboos of the host country.
  7. You must/don’t have to have a visa when travelling from Asia to Europe.

 

NOW CHECK YOUR ANSWERS:

  1. Visitors must/ shouldn’t carry their identity cards at all times when travelling.
  2. Passengers mustn’t/ don’t have to smoke anywhere on the plane.
  3. All staff don’t have to / should come to work on time.
  4. My boss doesn’t have to / shouldn’t travel so much — he is looking tired and ill.
  5. Monday is a public holiday. l mustn’t/don’t have to work.
  6. When travelling to a new country to do business, you should / mustn’t do some research on the etiquettes and taboos of the host country.
  7. You must/don’t have to have a visa when travelling from Asia to Europe

 

EXERCISE B: Can you think of other examples when you can use these forms of verbs?

     Example situations maybe

When greeting someone.

Starting a meeting.

Entertaining at home.

Attending a job inten/iew.

 

UNIT 14 — WRITING:

EXERCISE A:

CHOOSE THE CORRECT WORDS IN THE BOX TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING INVITATION:

as you suggested I look forward to Further to

your letter

As you probably know invitation owing to

previous engagements

if you could let me know I would be delighted

convenient for you

 

13/O1/2013

Dear Mrs. Lambert,

……………. .. of 10 January, I would like to thank you for your kind…….  to run a one-day seminar for your staff. I have first-hand experience of the Far East, and it is always a great pleasure for me to run seminars focusing specifically on that region.

However,   l am afraid that I could not possibly run a workshop in March………  l would be grateful……………. whether late February or early April would be ………………. ..hearing from you in due course.

Best regards,

Mr. John Pemberton

ANSWERS:

13/O1/2013

Dear Mrs. Lambert,

Further to your letter of 10 January, I would like to thank you for your

kind invitation.

I would be delighted to run a one-day seminar for your staff. As you probably know, I have first-hand experience of the Far East, and it is always a great pleasure for me to run seminars focusing specifically on that region.

However, owing to previous engagements, I am afraid that I could not possibly run a workshop in March as you suggested. I would be grateful if you could let me know whether late February or early April would be convenient for you. I look forward to hearing from you in due course.

Best regards,

Mr. John Pemberton

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>THE END<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

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