L:01  MAPS     P:4-5

Q No. 1               What information would you find on a physical map?
ANS: A physical map shows the landforms such as hills, mountains, rivers, lakes, valleys, deltas, plateaus, seas, and oceans.
Q No.2 What information world you find on a political map?
ANS: A political map shows the different countries, their capitals and major cities, and the international borders between countries.
Q No.3 Explain what is meant by meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude.
ANS: Meridians of longitude are the imaginary lines that run vertically, north to south, across the globe. They converge (meet) at the poles.        The imaginary lines that run horizontally from east to west are called parallels of latitude.
Q No.4             How do we show directions on a map?
ANS: The directions       on        a          map     are       shown by        a          compass         rose     or        an        arrow  marked           with     N         at         the      top.     The         compass rose shows the general directions and the arrow tells us where north is.
Q No.5 How can we find a place on a map?
ANS:                The          location          of         a          place   is         calculated       by        its         position          in         degrees,          north   or        south  of         the      Equator         and      east     or        west    of         the      Prime  Meridian         or        the         International  Date    Line.



1. Parallels of —————–run from east to west round the world.

2. The O0 meridian passes through a place called————in London.

3. The————–on a map shows us distance and sizes.

4. The ————–on a map tells us what symbols and colours mean.

5.The————— meridian is exactly opposite the O0 meridian.

1 latitude 2 Greenwich 3 scale 4 key 5 180°

L:02     WORLD CLIMATE    P:9-10

Q No. 1 In what ways does the climate affect our lives?
ANS:       Climate  affects how     we       live:     the      kind     of         houses            we       live           in,        the      food    we       eat,      the      clothes            we       wear,   our           activities and work, and the way we spend our time indoors and outdoors.
Q No.2 Why did the people of the Arctic region build houses out of snow?     
ANS: There are no forests to cut down for wood, nor is stone available to build houses in the Arctic region. The only building material available is snow.
Q No.4 What are some of the factors that influence climate?
ANS:         The temperature, the amount of rainfall, the direction and frequency of winds  and the presence of hills and mountains are factors that influence the climate.


1     The      hill       station            of         Murree:           1789.3 mm      2          Nok       Kundi: 35.3     mm      3          Quetta:           -2.0°C  4          Jacobabad:     36.9°C

 5 a) The average winter temperature in Quetta can go as low as -2°C, and the average temperature in summer can also go high to 25.6°C, whereas Murree’s average winter temperature is 3.7°C and maximum temperature in summer is 20.6°C. 

b) Murree gets 1789.3 mm of rain annually and Quetta gets 260.8 mm.   Both the places have low temperatures. However, Murree gets a lot more rain than Quetta.

B          1 False 2 True 3 False 4 True 5 False

L:03  LIFE IN DESERT    P:14-15

Q No. 1 What are continental deserts? How are they formed?
ANS:      Continental        deserts            are       in         the      middle of        a         continent;       they    get       no        rain     clouds,            like      the      Gobi   Desert in         Mongolia,       and     the      Great   Australian       Desert.
Q No.2 What are rain shadow regions?
ANS:       The areas on one side of a mountain that do not get rain as the mountains block the rain-bearing winds.
Q No.3 Why is the population of desert regions so low?
ANS:         Deserts are       hot,     dry       places, with     a          harsh   climate;           there   is           little    or        no        vegetation,     very     little    water,  poor soil, no farming, and no food crops;  there are no settlements and no development, hence the population is very low. Mostly nomadic tribes live in these areas.
Q No.4 What sort of vegetation would you find in a desert?
ANS: Desert          plants  are       spiny   and      have    thick,   fleshy  stems  that     store   water.           The      spines prevent          the      animals           from eating the plants.
Q No.5        How has Saudi Arabia become a rich country?
ANS: Saudi Arabia has large reserves of oil underground. The government sells the oil and uses the money for the development of the country.

WORK PAGE A         

1        Bedouin          is         the      name   for       nomads           of         the      Arabian          Desert. 2 Sirocco is the name for the hot, dry, dusty wind that blows through the Mediterranean region. 3 A wadi     is         a          dry       river    bed      in         the          Middle            Eastern           desert. It          means ‘valley’. 4 A nomad is a wanderer, a person who does not live in one place and is constantly on the move. 5 A cactus is a fleshy plant, usually with prickles, found in a hot, dry climate.

B        Climate—wind,          temperature,  rainfall,           whirlwind       Land—sandy,          rocky,  wadi,   dunes  Vegetation—spiny,     leaves, stem,   roots   Animals—camel,          snake,  lizards,            hedgehogs 

L:04  LIFE IN FOREST     P:19-20

Q No. 1 Name the South American countries which have equatorial forests.
ANS:Ecuador,          Colombia,       and      Brazil.
Q No.2 Why are equatorial forests important?
ANS:These forests are very important because they are a source of oxygen for all living things and are known          as        the      lungs   of         the      Earth.
Q No.3 Describe the main differences between equatorial and temperate forests.
ANS: Equatorial    forests are       hot,     wet,     and      humid all        year     round; the      vegetation           is         very     dense  as        the      plants  grow very close together; there is a lot of animal life. Temperate forests are very cold and the vegetation       is         very     different:        the           trees    grow    apart   and      there   is         ground            vegetation      in         the           form    of         bushes; the animal, bird, and insect population is not as high as in the equatorial regions.
Q No.4 What problems do people living in equatorial forests face?
ANS:People ­find it diffi­cult to travel through these thick, dense forests and they cannot clear the land for cultivation; they also face the problem of tropical diseases.
Q No.5 Look at the map on page 16. Why are there fewer temperate forests in the southern hemisphere?
ANS:       There are fewer temperate forests in the southern hemisphere because there is less land mass, and more         water  covering          the      surface            of         the      Earth.          The       ocean  currents,         on        either  side     of         Africa  and      South  America, keep the land warmer than the huge land mass of the continents in the northern hemisphere.


Green: a          lot       of         sunshine,        over     200      cm       of         rain,    hot            climate,           unnamed        species,           pygmies,         South  America,            fast-growing plants, millions of small insects, hot wetlands, heavy rainfall.        

Blue:    cold     climate,           snowshoes,     long     roots,  coniferous      trees,   alpine            trees,   animals           with     fur,       North America, frozen rivers.

B 1 of the cold climate

2 from being washed away

3 of the dense vegetation

4 of the heavy rainfall and fertile soil

 5 there are laws to protect wildlife species


Q No. 1 What are the two polar regions called?
ANS:          The      Arctic   Circle   (North Pole)    and      the      Antarctic         Circle   (South Pole).
Q No.2 Name the animals found in the polar regions: How do they survive the cold?
ANS: a) Seals, whales, and penguins live in Antarctica, and polar bears, seals, walruses, and whales live in the Arctic Circle. b) The animals in the polar regions, like polar bears, seals, whales, and walruses, have a thick layer of fat or blubber under their skins, which keeps out the cold.
Q No.3 Why has the Antarctic region not been explored?
ANS: It is bitterly cold in Antarctica and the climate is dangerous, with hurricanes and blizzards blowing. People who travel here cannot bear the cold and often get frostbite.        Frostbite can be so severe that people can often lose their limbs. Because of these extreme weather conditions, the Antarctic region has not been explored.
Q No.4 Why the polar regions are called ‘the Lands of the midnight sun?
ANS: In the middle of summer in each hemisphere, the Sun remains above the horizon all the time, so there is daylight all the time. That is why these are called the ‘lands of the midnight sun’.
Q No.5 What are the differences between the Arctic and Antarctic regions?
ANS: DIFFERENCE:            The         Arctic   region is         composed       entirely           of         icebergs.         There     is         very     little    land     except for       the      northern         coasts  of         the   Asian   and      North  American        continents.     The         people of         the      region are       called  Inuit.   Temperatures, most of the year, are below –23°C. There are polar bears in the Arctic, but no penguins. The Antarctic region is a huge land mass covered with ice and snow. It is uninhabited, with temperatures as low as –87°C. There are penguins in the Antarctic, but no polar bears.


1 Arctic   2 Antarctica   3 Inuit   4        Kayaks        5Frostbite

B   Fill       in         the      blanks:

 1 Pytheas 2 Roald Amundsen, 1911   3          Robert Edwin  Peary,  1909

4 Antarctica 5 Arctic

L: 06  OUR COUNTRY    P:29-30

Q No. 1 Describe two contrasting features of Pakistan.
ANS:       To the south stretches the Makran coastline along the Arabian Sea. Further inland in Balochistan are the plateaus and deserts, rich in minerals. Another example would be of high, snow-topped mountains in the north and the Indus delta region’s ‑at lands.
            Q No.2 Write about some of the things in Pakistan of which you are proud.
ANS: Pakistan is only nuclear power in Muslim world.World’s deepest sea port in Gawadar .Second largest salt mines in Khewra.World largest irrigation system Pakistan won many times squash championship.
Q No.3 Write about some of the things in Pakistan that make you sad. How are you going to make Pakistan a better place?
Q No.4          Name the international organizations of which Pakistan is a member.
ANS: United            Nations           (UN),   South  Asian   Association     for       Regional          Cooperation   (SAARC),Organization  of         Islamic Conference (OIC), now known as Organization of Islamic Cooperation.
Q No.5 What are the features that attract tourists to Pakistan?
ANS: Tourists are attracted to the famous historical sites and buildings. They also go trekking, mountaineering, ­shing, and hunting.


The Gandhara civilization flourished in the north and north-west of the country. The remains can be found mainly in Taxila.

C          FILL      IN        THE     BLANKS:

1 south 2 Thar, east 3 export 4 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 5 Makran, Arabian Sea


Q No. 1 What makes the Punjab the best farming area in Pakistan?
ANS:The Punjab is the best farming area because of its fertile soil and canal irrigation system.
Q No.2 Explain the difference between a kharif and a tab! crop. Give an example of each.
ANS:Kharif crops are grown in summer, for example, cotton and rice. Rabi crops are grown in winter, for example, wheat.
Q No.3 Which crop makes up Pakistan’s largest export? Where is it grown?
ANS: Cotton is Pakistan’s largest export crop. It is grown in south-east Punjab and parts of Sindh.
Q No.4 Explain the difference between a cash crop and a food crop. Give examples of each.
ANS: A food crop is one that is grown to feed the community, for example, wheat, rice, sugar cane. A cash crop is grown for sale or export, that is, against which we can get cash. Cotton, tobacco, and also sugar cane are cash crops.
Q No.5 Why is livestock an important part of agriculture?
ANS: Livestock is an important part of agriculture as it is reared for meat, dairy products, and hides and skins (leather). Almost all small farms in Pakistan also use cattle to work the land, help till the soil, and provide transport for farmers.

Work PageB Fill in the blanks:

1 buffaloes2 Thar and Cholistan deserts3 170 kilograms. Divide this figure by 2.2 and the Ans is 77.27 pounds.4 linseed, castor seed, sesame, mustard, and cotton seed

L: 08     WATER &IRRIGATION    P:38

Q No. 1      Why is irrigation so important for farmers in Pakistan?    
ANS: Pakistan cannot depend only on rainfall for its crops to grow. Since it is an agricultural country and a regular supply of water is necessary, farmers depend on irrigation.
Q No.2         How much of our arable land is under irrigation?    
ANS: Almost 80 per cent of our arable (cropped) land is irrigated.
Q No.3 Describe some of the different ways in which farmers irrigate their land.    
ANS: Irrigation methods are mainly canals and tube wells, and in some areas the shaduf, charsa, karez, and the Persian wheel are also used.
Q No.4         What is the importance of dams and barrages in a country?         
ANS: Dams are built to store water and release it when it is needed; barrages are used to divert river flows into canals over a long distance, to the fields. Some dams are also used to produce electricity.

Work Page A-1 Rivers: Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Kabul, Hingol, Hub, Dasht, and Porali.

2 Dams: Warsak, Mangla, Tarbela, Rawal, and Hub

3 Barrages: Kotri, Panjnad, Guddu, Taunsa, and Sukkur

L: 09     MINERALS            P:42

Q No. 1Name the different minerals found in Pakistan. Why are minerals important?
ANS:Use the maps on pages 40 and 42 of the textbook to Ans this Q. Minerals are important as raw materials for industry.
Q No.2 Why is it not worthwhile to mine some minerals?
ANS: Sometimes, it is difficult to reach the minerals, and quite expensive to acquire extra machines and labour required to mine them. If the quantity available does not justify the costs, it is not worthwhile to mine them.Chromite is found at Muslim Bagh near Quetta. Copper deposits are found at Saindak and Reko Diq. Iron ore is found in Dammer Nissar, Kalabagh, and Chilgazi. Antimony is mined at Krinj.
Q No.3 Why is salt such a useful mineral?
ANS: Salt is used in cooking and preserving, and in the food industry. It is also used to make various sodas for laundry, textiles, and tanning.
Q No.4 Name the minerals used in the manufacture of cement.
ANS:         Limestone and magnesite.
Q No.5 Which parts of Pakistan are rich in minerals? Look at the maps in this L for help.
ANS: Refer to the maps on page 40 and 42 for the Ans.

Work Page A……………………………………………

A 1 Chromite 2 Barite3 Marble 4 Rock salt5 Sulphur 6 Limestone

B 1 Hunza — rubies2 Krinj — antimony3 Quetta — chromite4 Skardu — aquamarine5 Koh-i-Maran — fluorite6 Spin Kan — magnesite


Q No. 1 Explain the importance of power resources for a country.
ANS: Power resources are important because they are needed for the running of industries, households, and transportation.
Q No.2 Name the main sources of power used in Pakistan.
ANS: Pakistan uses energy generated from oil, gas, water, and coal, as well as nuclear energy, LPG, CNG, and wind and solar energy.
Q No.3 What is thermal power? How is it produced?
ANS: Thermal power is generated from heat which is produced by burning oil, gas, or coal. This powers the turbines, which in turn, work dynamos that produce electricity.
Q No.4 Where are the most thermal power plants located? Why?
ANS: Thermal power plants are located in Karachi, Kotri, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and Guddu in Sindh. In the Punjab, there are plants at Faisalabad, Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Kot Addu. In Balochistan there are thermal plants at Quetta, Pasni, and Hub.
Q No.5 Where are most of the hydel power plants in Pakistan?
ANS: Most of the hydel plants are in upper Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. They are also located in lower Sindh, at Jhimpir-Meting, Lakhra, Sanda-Thatta, and Thar.
Q No.6            How is hydroelectricity produced?
ANS: A fast-flowing river with a great volume of water in its upper part is needed to produce electricity at a hydel or hydroelectric power station. Dams are built across the river and the powerful release of water turns the turbines which produce electricity.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 Oil2 Petroleum3 Natural gas4 Coal5 Electricity6 Solar energy

B 1 Karachi, Chashma2 solar energy3 hydroelectricity4 9.5 hours long

5 Punjab6 A megawatt (MW)


Q No. 1Which is the largest industry in Pakistan?
ANS: Cotton textiles.
Q No.2 Describe the other major industries in Pakistan.
ANS: Woollen textiles,  art silk, jute, chemicals;  cooking oil;  fertilizers;  cement; iron, steel and engineering;  cottage and small industries.
Q No.3Make a list of the goods produced by Pakistan’s cottage industries.
ANS: Utensils; cutlery; pottery; shoes; surgical instruments;  sports goods; handicrafts; carpets; toys;  furniture;carved doors and window frames; ornaments.  Dyeing, printing, and tailoring are also cottage industries.
Q No.4Name the countries that have helped Pakistan’s iron, steel, and engineering industries.
ANS:Russia, China, and Switzerland.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A:EXPORTS: carpets, cotton textiles, art silk, towels, hosiery, and canvas

IMPORTS: Art silk yarn, jute, fertilizers, edible oil, iron ore, manganese, and oil product to run the industries


1 textiles, household linen, hosiery, canvas.

2 Harnai and Mastung in Balochistan: Bannu and Nowshera in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; Quaidabad, Lawrencepur, Rawalpindi, and Sahiwal in Punjab; and Karachi, Hyderabad, and Larkana in Sindh.

3 soap, paper, textiles, fertilizers, and iron and steel4 limestone and gypsum.5 Pakistan Steel Mills and Pakistan Machine Tool Factory Karachi, Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila.


Q No. 1  In what way is Islamabad different from most of Pakistan’s other large cities?
ANS: Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. It is a fairly new city.     It is the place from which the country is governed and all the foreign embassies are located there.
Q No.2  Why are there not many ancient buildings in Quetta?
ANS: Quetta does not have many old buildings as the city was almost completely destroyed by the earthquake of 1935. It was then rebuilt.
Q No.3Which town is called the Frontier Town?
ANS: Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Q No.4How many times has Karachi’s population multiplied since Independence?
ANS: Karachi had 400,000 people in 1947. Today it has more than 14 million. The population, therefore,has multiplied 35 times, roughly.

Work Page ……………………………………………

 1 a) Karachi

b) Sindh

c) Over 14 million people

d) The Quaid’s mausoleum, the beach, the National Museum, Mohatta Palace

2 a) Islamabad

b) Punjab

c) Nearly one million people

d) Daman-i-Koh, Margalla Hills, Shah Faisal Masjid, the Presidency

3 a) Lahore

b) Punjab

c) About 10 million people

d) The Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, Badshahi Masjid, Minar-e-Pakistan, Lahore Museum

4 a) Quetta

b) Balochistan

c) 700,000 people

d) Ziarat, Quaid-i-Azam Residency, Hannah Lake


Q No. 1 Between which lines of latitude and longitude is Pakistan situated?
ANS: Pakistan lies between 24° and 37° North, and 61° and 76° East.
Q No.2 Name the countries that share a border with Pakistan.
ANS: Iran, Afghanistan, China, and India.
Q No.3 Which country shares the longest border with Pakistan?
ANS: Afghanistan shares the longest border—2200 km—with Pakistan.
Q No.4 Which mountain range forms the border between China and Pakistan?
ANS: The Karakoram Range forms the border with China.
Q No.5 Where is the Gobi Desert situated?
ANS: China and Mongolia
Q No.6 Which of Pakistan’s neighbouring countries has no coastline?
ANS: Afghanistan

Work Page ……………………………………………

 A 1 a) People’s Republic of Chinab) Beijingc) Mandarind) 1.33 billion peoplee) Rice, cotton, textiles, electronic goodsf) Mao Zedong, Chou En Lai, Deng Xiao Ping

2 a) Islamic Republic of Iranb) Tehranc) Farsid) 70.5 million people

e) Oil, gas, minerals, carpetsf) Shah Raza Pahlevi, Ayatullah Khomeini, President Khatami, President Ahmedinijad

3 a) Afghanistanb) Kabulc) Pushto and Dari Persiand) 32 million people

e) Carpets, lambskins, fruitf) King Zahir Shah

4 a) Indiab) Delhic) Hindid) 1.2 billion people

e) Rice, cotton and silk, machinery, computer software


Q No. 1What problems did Hazrat Abu Bakr(رضی اللہ عنھ)face as a caliph?
ANS:During Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (رضی اللہ عنھ)time, there were many uprisings and some people refused to pay taxes,and some declared themselves to be prophets. These revolts were put down by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).
Q No.2 Why are the first four caliphs held in special esteem?
ANS:The four Rightly-guided Caliphs are held in high esteem as they were the close companions of theProphet (saw).
Q No.3 In what way did Hazrat Umar  contribute to Islam?
ANS: During Hazrat Umar’s (ra) rule, Islam spread far and wide. He was an able administrator who set up the basic systems for a sound government.
Q No.4What major work was completed during the time of the third caliph?
ANS: The important work of completing the compilation of the Holy Quran was done during the Khilafat of Hazrat Usman (ra).
Q No.5 When did Spain come under Muslim rule and how long did this rule last?
ANS:Spain came under the Muslim rule during the time of the Umayyad dynasty and Muslims continued to rule over Spain for the next 800 years.
Q No.6 During which century did parts of Sindh and Punjab come under Muslim influence?
ANS: In the 8th century, under Mohammad bin Qasim.

Work Page ……………………………………………

 A 1 South-east Asia: Bangladesh, Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia

2 Africa: Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Mauritania, Mali, Niger,

Senegal, Gambia, Chad, Algeria, Uganda

3 The Middle East: Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Iran, Oman,

Yemen, Qatar, and Bahrain (Albania and Cyprus are located in Europe.)

B 1 Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) 632–634 ce

2 Hazrat Umar Ibn-al-Khattab (ra) 634–644 ce

3 Hazrat Usman Ibn Affan (ra) 644–656 ce

4 Hazrat Ali Ibn Abu Talib (ra) 656–661 ce

L: 15 EUOPEANS & THE SUBCONTINENT                   P:74

Q No. 1Why were the Europeans interested in the East?
ANS:The Europeans were interested in the East because they saw it as a land of rich spices, fruits, clothes of different colours and textures, fabulous ornaments, and jewellery. They established trade relations here.
Q No.2Who were the first European visitors to the subcontinent? When did they come here?
ANS:The first European visitors were the Portuguese. They arrived here during the 15th century.
Q No.3How and why did the British begin to rule the subcontinent?
ANS:The British came to India as traders. When trading became profitable for them, they started the East India Trading Company in the 17th century. Since the French were also in India at the time, competition in trading grew between the French and the British. After the Mughal rule ended, however, the British succeeded in driving out the French from India and establishing their own rule over the subcontinent in the 18th century. They ruled India for 200 years.
Q No.4Describe some of the things the British did for the subcontinent.
ANS:The British introduced their language, architecture, politics, and their ideas. They built roads, railway lines, and large buildings and improved the canal irrigation system.
Q No.5Why could the people of the subcontinent not succeed against the British?
ANS:They could not succeed against the British because they were not united.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 Vasco da Gama

2 1498

3 Sir Thomas Roe

4 December 1600

5 Queen Elizabeth I

6 Surat, Bombay, and Calcutta


Q No. 1What events led to the War of Independence?
ANS:The soldiers in the British army were Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. In 1857 they were issued rifles whose greased bullets had to be bitten for loading. The bullets were greased with animal fat. Lard is forbidden to Muslims and cow fat to Hindus. The soldiers objected and were severely punished by the British. So they came out in open defiance, the battle they fought is called the War of Independence.
Q No.2Why was the Indian National Congress set up?
ANS:Some educated people thought that no progress could be made by just fighting the British. In 1885 they formed the Indian National Congress. They felt that by having their own political organization, one day they could rule their own country.
Q No.3What was the Quit India Movement?
ANS:The Quit India Movement was a call for the British to leave India. It was started in 1942 by the Congress leader Mohandas Gandhi
Q No.4Why was the All India Muslim League started?
ANS:The Muslim League was created for the Muslims of India, so that they would be able to have a political say in the matters that concerned them in the Indian government, such as elections to the legislature and the judiciary and to ask for their rights. They also knew that when the British left India, the Hindus would take control of the country and the Muslims would not have any importance in the government. So the Muslim League was the first political platform created for the Muslims of India.
Q No.5Who were the leaders who helped to unite the Muslims?
ANS:Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Mohammad Iqbal, Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar, Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, Sir Abdullah Haroon, and many others.
Q No.6How was the subcontinent divided into two countries?
ANS:After a long struggle by the Muslims and Hindus, the British decided to leave India. A commission was set up by the British to mark the borders of the two new countries, India and Pakistan. The Muslim majority areas were to be included in Pakistan. The rest would be India. Thus Pakistan was created with two wings, West Pakistan and East Pakistan.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 1857 4 1906 7 1942

2 The middle of the 19th century 5 1930 8 14 August 1947

3 1885 6 23 March 1940 9 15 August 1947

B 1 Indian National Congress

2 Mohandas Gandhi

3 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

4 Allama Iqbal

5 All India Muslim League


Q No. 1How did Syed Ahmed Khan serve the Muslims of India?
ANS:He helped to create better understanding between the British rulers of India and the Muslims; he wrote many papers and essays explaining the Muslim position to the British; he established a college called the MAO (Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College) in the city of Aligarh in 1875.
Q No.2Who was AlLama Iqbal and why is he famous?
ANS:He was a well-known poet and philosopher who first put forward the idea of a separate country for the Muslims of India.
Q No.3Did Iqbal live-to see an independent Pakistan?
ANS:No; he died in 1938. Pakistan became independent nine years after his death, in 1947.
Q No.4Who is known as the Quaid-i-Azam? What does it mean?
ANS:Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, is known as Quaid-e-Azam, the great leader.
Q No.5What was the Quaid’s profession?
ANS:He was a brilliant and successful lawyer.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1) 1 Mohammed Ali Jinnah

2 Quaid-i-Azam

3 25 December, 1876

4 Karachi, Pakistan

5 11 September 1948

6 Karachi, Pakistan

7 Founding the nation of Pakistan

A 2) 1 Mohammad Iqbal

2 Allama Iqbal, Sir Mohammad Iqbal

3 9 November 1877

4 Sialkot, Punjab

5 21 April 1938

6 Lahore, Pakistan

7 First putting forward the idea that the Muslims of India should have their own country

B 1 Begum Raana Liaquat Ali Khan, the wife of Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, who helped towards

creating Pakistan

2 Tipu Sultan, ruler of Mysore

3 Fatima Jinnah, the Quaid’s sister, who worked beside the Quaid to create Pakistan

4 Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar, key figure in the Khilafat Movement; he was against British rule.


Q No. 1What was the Constituent Assembly? What was its job?
ANS:The Constituent Assembly comprised a group of leaders who had to write the constitution of Pakistan and to organize the government departments.
Q No.2How is the government chosen in a democracy?
ANS:In a democracy, the people elect a leader of their choice to run the government.
Q No.3Why did India and Pakistan approach the United Nations in 1948?
ANS:They went to UN because fighting broke out on the border regarding Kashmir. The UN ordered a ceasefire.
Q No.4List the reforms carried out by General Ayub Khan. By what name is his government known?
ANS:a) A new constitution was passed. b) A law was introduced to redistribute the land. c) Many new industries were set up. d) The capital was moved from Karachi to the newly developed city, Islamabad. Ayub Khan’s era is known as the Decade of Development.
Q No.5What happened in the December 1970 elections and immediately afterwards?
ANS:In the December 1970 elections, the Awami League won most of the seats in East Pakistan, and the PPP won in West Pakistan. Being in the majority in the National Assembly, Sheikh Mujib made certain demands that the others did not agree to. Fighting started in East Pakistan and martial law was imposed there. With the help of India, the people of East Pakistan fought against the rule of West Pakistan. Dhaka fell to Indian troops in December 1971 and a new country, Bangladesh, was established.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A August 1947: Pakistan gained independence.

September 1948: Quaid-e-Azam died.

October 1951: Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan was shot dead.

October 1958: Iskander Mirza declared martial law and the constitution was abolished.

March 1962: New constitution was passed.

March 1969: Ayub Khan handed over control to Yahya Khan.

December 1970: Elections

December 1971: Fall of Dhaka, creation of Bangladesh

B 1 Khwaja Nazimuddin

2 Governor General

3 1956

4 Pakistan People’s Party

5 Sheikh Mujibur Rehman

L: 19 PAKISTAN SINCE 1971 P: 90

Q No. 1Make a list of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s contributions to Pakistan.
ANS:1. a) Z. A. Bhutto signed the Simla Accord, as a result of which 93,000 prisoners of war, held by India, were released and India returned over 5000 km of land it had occupied during the war. b) A new constitution was passed on 14 August 1973. c) He organized the first Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974. d) He signed trade and development agreements with important countries like USSR, USA, and China. e) He began the development of the nuclear power programme.
Q No.2What was the Simla Accord? What is its importance?
ANS:Simla Accord was a treaty signed when Bhutto met Indira Gandhi at Simla to settle all disputes with India by discussion. As a result of this accord, prisoners of war were released and India returned over 5000 sq km of land it had occupied during the war.
Q No.3Briefly describe the changes in Pakistan between 1988 and 1999.
ANS: In August 1988, General Zia was killed in a plane crash . Acting President was Ghulam Ishaq Khan. In December 1988, Benazir became the first female prime minister of the country. In 1990 her government was dismissed and Nawaz Sharif was elected prime minister. In 1993. Elections were held and Benazir again became prime minister. In 1996, Nawaz Sharif won the elections and became prime minister. He was deposed by General Pervez Musharraf who became the president in 1999.
Q No.4What was the major international event in 2001 that affected Pakistan?
ANS:These were suicide attacks in the USA when two commercial aeroplanes were intentionally crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre in New York. Another airliner was crashed in Pentagon outside Washington DC. These attacks caused great destruction and loss of many lives.
Q No.5List the important events that took place in Pakistan in 2008.
ANS:a) Elections were held in February 2008 and the Pakistan People’s Party came to power. b) President Musharraf resigned in August 2008 and the co-chairman of the PPP, Asif Ali Zardari, became president in September 2008.

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August 1973: A new constitution was passed.

July 1977: The army, under Zia-ul-Haq, imposed Martial Law.

April 1986: Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan.

August 1988: General Zia-ul-Haq died in an air crash.

December 1988: Benazir Bhutto became the prime minister.

October 1993: Benazir Bhutto returned as prime minister.

October 1999: Nawaz Sharif was deposed.

September 2001: 9/11—the attacks on the Twin Towers in New York and the Pentagon in

Washington took place.

December 2007: Benazir Bhutto was killed in an election rally in Rawalpindi.


                                 P: 94

Q No. 1Why is it important to protect human rights?
ANS:It is important to protect human rights because these rights have been given to us by religion and by law.
Q No.2What interest did Martin Luther King share with Nelson Mandela?
ANS:Martin Luther King fought for the rights of African-Americans. Nelson Mandela also fought the white government in South Africa for the rights and freedom of black people.
Q No.3Who is Aung San Suu Kyi and what does her struggle concern?
ANS:Aung San Suu Kyi is a brave lady who has been fighting for the rights of the Burmese people from an oppressive government. She had been under house arrest since 1990, when her party won elections but wasn’t allowed to form a government. However, she was released in November 2010.
Q No.4How does the Edhi Foundation help the poor in Pakistan? Find out more about Edhi’s service to the people.
ANS:The Edhi Foundation provides shelter for homeless women and children; education for the children; ambulance service for the sick and needy; medical treatment for the poor; burial service for the homeless and beggars; emergency help during natural calamities and other disasters and accidents. They also help people in other countries, affected by wars, disasters, natural calamities such as floods and earthquakes.
Q No.5Which organization passed the international law for human rights? Give the complete name.
ANS:United Nations Organization in December 1948.
Q No.6How can we help those who are weak or poor?
ANS:We can help the weak and poor by providing them with financial and emotional support.

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A UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

HRCP: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan

HREP: Human Rights Education Programme

UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund

B 1 Convention for the Rights of Children

2 Ramon Magsaysay Award

3 Mother Teresa

4 The Citizen’s Foundation, good quality education

5 Dr Akhtar Hameed Khan

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