NOTES NEW OXFORD MODERN ENGLISH 3 BY Nicholas Horsburgh Claire Horsburgh 3RD EDITION 2019

NOTES NEW OXFORD MODREN ENGLISH 3

BY Nicholas Horsburgh Claire Horsburgh 3RD EDITION 2019

CONTENTS

  1. Dorothy Meets the Scarecrow 1 Robin 8  
  2. The Wooden Bowl 13 Playtime 18  
  3. My Early Home 23  
  4. Pothole 28 The Moon 33  
  5. Message in a Bottle 37 My Playmate 45  
  6. The Flying Machine (I) 49  
  7. The Flying Machine (II) 54 The White Window 59  
  8. The Old Man and the Tiger 64 Puppy and I 70  
  9. The Story of Silk 76 Sunning 81  
  10. The Railway Journey 89  
  11. At Grandfather’s House 95 Outside My Window 99  
  12. The Nawab of Salimabad (I) 105  
  13. The Nawab of Salimabad (II) 110 Nuruddin Uncle 115 Brother bent nose  

UNIT:1 Dorothy Meets the Scarecrow PAGE:2-9

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a     What is the road mode Of?            
ANSWER: a. The road is made of yellow bricks.               
QUESTION:b    What is Dorothy’s pet called and what type of creature is he?        
ANSWER:  b. Dorothy’s pet is called Toto. He is a dog.
QUESTION:c                   Why is the Scarecrow in the field?
ANSWER:             c. The Scarecrow has been put in the field by the farmer in order to scare away crows so that they do not eat the crops.
QUESTION:d                    What does Dorothy do to help the Scarecrow?
ANSWER:       d. Dorothy helps the Scarecrow to get down from the pole that he is stuck on. She also encourages him to go to the Emerald City to ask the Great Oz for a brain.
QUESTION:e             What does the Scarecrow do to help Dorothy?  
ANSWER:                  e. The Scarecrow helps Dorothy by carrying her basket.
QUESTION:f            What did the Scarecrow want to ask the Great Oz for?
ANSWER:           f. The Scarecrow wants to ask the Great Oz for a brain.
QUESTION: g. How do we know the Scarecrow is kind and polite?
ANSWER: g. We know the Scarecrow is kind and polite because: he carries Dorothy’s basket; he greets Dorothy when he sees her; he uses polite language such as ‘thank you’…
QUESTION: h. Can you explain why the Scarecrow is afraid of a lighted match?
ANSWER: h. The Scarecrow is afraid of a lighted match because he is made of straw and straw burns easily. A lighted match could kill him.
QUESTION: i The Scarecrow says that he doesn’t have a brain. is it possible to walk and talk without a brain?
ANSWER: i. It is not possible! Stories often contain impossible or incredible things – such as a Scarecrow that can talk!

2. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THESE LINES FROM THE STORY.

‘I understand how you feel,’ said the little girl, who was truly sorry for him.

  1. Who is the little girl?
  2. To whom was the girl saying this?
  3. Why does she feel sorry for him?
  4. Why happened next?

ANSWERS:

a. Dorothy

b. To the Scarecrow.

c. Because he wants something that he does not have (a brain) and she also wants something (to go home).

d. Dorothy offers to help the Scarecrow; she says that if he comes with her, she will ask the Great Oz to help him.

3- WHICH OF THESE SENTENCES ARE TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F)?

  1. The Scarecrow never gets tired.
  2. The Scarecrow is frightened of the former.
  3. The Great Oz lives in the Diamond city.
  4. Dorothy hos 0 dog coiled Coco.
  5. The Scarecrow is wearing o blue hot.

ANSWERS:

a. true

b. false

c. false

d. false

e. true

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. Can you find these words in the story? The letters are not in the correct order.

a. stuffed  b. scarecrow  c. emerald  d. the Great Oz   e. corn field  

f. gratefully

2. WHICH WORD IN EACH LIST IS NOT SPELT CORRECTLY?

a. fryed (fried)

b. escuse (excuse)

c. desided (decided)

d. quitely (quietly)

3. TRY TO FIND THESE WORDS IN THE STORY.

a. fence

b. hat

c. pin

d. basket  

e. mice  

f. brain

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

2. NOW UNDERLINE ALL THE NOUNS IN THE SENTENCES THAT YOU JUST WROTE DOWN.

d. He was sitting on a bench, waiting for a bus.

f. The bus did not come.

c. A taxi arrived and the man got in.

e. The driver asked him for some money.

a. The man took a note from his pocket and gave it to him.

b. The taxi went off down the road.

g. The taxi arrived at the house.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1-

E

UNIT:1 Robin  PAGE:10-13

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM 

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a   What are the four seasons?              
ANSWER: a. Spring, summer, autumn, and winter.               
QUESTION:b          When does Robin sing with all his might?       
ANSWER:  b. In the summer.
QUESTION:c            What does Robin sag about autumn?      
ANSWER:            c. Robin says that in autumn there are fruits for everyone. We should give praise at this time.
QUESTION:d              When can we still hear Robin’s son ?     
ANSWER:       d. We can still hear Robin’s song in the cold and wintry weather.
QUESTION:e             g.What does Robin sag in the spring?  
ANSWER:                  e. In the spring, Robin says that he told us that winter would go away.
QUESTION:f              f.Do you think Robin is a happy bird? Why?       
ANSWER:          f. Since Robin sings throughout the year, with a note of hope, he must be happy. 
QUESTION:g  Which of the following words best describe i. careful ii. clever Ill. hopeful iv. sorrowful
ANSWER: The Robin is iii. hopeful. He sings and is happy; he knows that spring will return even when the winter might seem cold and long.

2. SAY WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F) ABOUT THE POEM.

ONLY STATEMENT A. IS TRUE.

In b. Robin sings, but we are not told whether it is with ‘all his might’.

3. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THESE TWO LINES TAKEN FROM THE POEM. IN THE COLD AND WINTRY WEATHER, STILL HEAR HIS SONG:

a. Robin

b. Robin has been singing all along, through spring, summer, and autumn and now in the winter too, he is still singing.

c. ‘Somebody must sing, or winter will seem long.’

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. WRITE OPPOSITES FOR THESE WORDS. YOU WILL FIND A FEW OF THEM IN THE POEM.

 a. always

b. everyone

c. slowly

d. hated (disliked)

e. foe (enemy)

f. came g. go

h. clever

2. MATCH THE FOLLOWING AND USE THEM IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

a. as dark as night

b. as good as gold

c. as sweet as honey

d. as hard-working as a donkey

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. Complete the following sentences in your own words. Pupils will make up their own sentences with appropriate ‘when’ clauses.

a. Robin sang sweetly when the days were bright.

b. When autumn comes, let us all give praise.

c. I shall go when spring arrives.

d. When he returns, tell him to see me.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. FIND RHYMING WORDS IN THE POEM FOR THE FOLLOWING.

neatly/sweetly banks/thanks light/might haze/days roots/fruits rolled/cold dream/seem few/through leather/weather bore/for leap/keep fair/there

2-

UNIT:  2. The Wooden Bowl  PAGE:14-20

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a    Where did the family live?             
ANSWER:         a. The family lived in a small town in Germany.       
QUESTION:b        What did Manfred do for a living         
ANSWER:  b. Manfred was a carpenter; he made furniture and did some carving. He sold these things to the people in the town.
QUESTION:c                   Who was Thekla?
ANSWER:   c. Thekla was Manfred’s wife, Wilhelm’s mother and Kurt’s daughter-in-law.
QUESTION:d                 Why did Kurt’s hands shake?  
ANSWER:       d. Kurt’s hands used to shake because he was old.
QUESTION:e                Why was Wilhelm making a wooden bowl?
ANSWER:                  e. Wilhelm was making a wooden bowl to give to his parents when they grow old. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:f          f. How did Theklo and Manfred treat the old man?
ANSWER:           f. Thekla and Manfred got angry with the old man. They punished him by making him sit in a corner and eat from a wooden bowl.
QUESTION: g g. Whose eyes filled with tears? Why?
ANSWER: g. The parents’ (Thekla’s and Manfred’s) eyes filled with tears. They realized how unkind they had been to the old man.

2- ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THESE LINES FROM THE STORY.

They looked in his room, but he was not there. ‘Where could that boy be?’

a. The boy’s parents, Thekla and Manfred looked in the room.

b. Thekla asked the question.

c. They were looking for Wilhelm. They wanted him to come and eat his evening meal.

d. He (Wilhelm) was in the workshop.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. MATCH THE FOLLOWING.

a. In the evenings, they sat down to dinner.

b. They bought him a cheap wooden bowl.

c. They all lived in a little old house.

d. The son earned a good living.

e. The old man didn’t complain.

f. The little boy was making a bowl.

2. FIND WORDS IN THE STORY FOR THE FOLLOWING.

a. carpenter

b. carve

c. grandfather

d. workshop

e. daughter-in-law

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

Verbs

1. UNDERLINE THE VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING:

 sat, read, waited, came, hit, fell, went, landed, catch, said, smiled, rubbed

2. CHOOSE A VERB FROM THE BOX TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING. USE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB, AND USE EACH VERB ONLY ONCE.

a. rested

b. are playing

c. drank

d. watches

e. caught

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT:2  Playtime PAGE:21-25

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM

  • ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a          What game is the children playing?       
ANSWER: a. They are imagining that they are spies on a mission.               
QUESTION:b                  What is the mission?
ANSWER:  b. Getting some gold/apples.
QUESTION:c                   Who is the ‘giant beast’?
ANSWER:             c. Their father.
QUESTION:d                    What does the Child compare the bushes and the wall to?
ANSWER:       d. The bushes are compared to twisted wire; the wall is compared to a warm fire.
QUESTION:e                What the as safe place?
ANSWER:                  e. The area next to the garden shed.
QUESTION:f                    What is the ‘dark lair‘ ?
ANSWER:           f. The old garden chair.
QUESTION:g What do the children do to celebrate their win’?
ANSWER: g. They eat the apples they have got.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER:

2- ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THESE LINES FROM THE POEM.

 I did not notice the beast’s beady eye Opening slowly (my dad could be sly).

a. The girl by the apple tree.

b. Her father.

c. Brackets.

d. The father joins in the game and ‘captures’ the girl.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. FIND RHYMING WORDS IN THE POEM FOR THE FOLLOWING. 

a. old/gold/hold

b. head/shed

c. grew/flew

d. east/beast

e. pie/eye/I/sly

f. call/wall/all

g. losing/snoozing

h. dreamed/screamed

2. MATCH THE WORDS THAT HAVE SIMILAR MEANINGS.

 grabbed captured snoozed dozed pretend act defeated beaten battle fight

3. MATCH THE FOLLOWING.

a. as green as grass

b. as white as snow

c. as proud as a peacock

d. as sharp as a needle

e. as old as the hills

f. as fresh as a daisy

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. FIND AT LEAST TEN VERBS IN THE POEM. USE THEM IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

Possible answers:

 were, was, had, guarded, woke, crept, did, opening, reached, captured, took, grabbed, made, looked, screamed, flew, started, fought, fell, could, liked, escaped, hung, returned, munched

Adjectives

 Do you remember what you learnt about adjectives?

Adjectives tell us something about a noun. Example: The golden apple hung from the branch. ‘golden’ tells us about the apple. It is an adjective.

2. UNDERLINE THE ADJECTIVES IN THESE LINES FROM THE POEM.

a. The mad beast was asleep.

b. I crept past the twisted bushes.

c. Happily, we munched on the big, tasty apples

3. ADD SUITABLE ADJECTIVES TO THE FOLLOWING, USING THE LETTERS GIVEN.

 Examples:

a. an enormous/edible mango

b. a cuddly/cute/cunning kitten

c. an aging/amazing/astounding actress

d. a broken/black ladder

e. a tiresome/terrible/toiling salesman

f. an ugly/unfortunate duckling

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 3. My Early Home  PAGE:26-32

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a What did Black Beauty live on before he could eat grass?        
ANSWER:     a. He lived on his mother’s milk before he could eat grass.
QUESTION:b         What happened once Black Beauty was old enough to eat grass?        
ANSWER:  b. As soon as Black Beauty was old enough to eat grass, his mother used to go out to work in the daytime.
QUESTION:c       What advice did Black Beauty’s mother give him?       
ANSWER:  c. Black Beauty’s mother’s advice was to grow up gentle and good, and never learn bad ways. There is more they can add here.          
QUESTION:d                 What job does the master do?  
ANSWER:       d. The master lives in the countryside, keeps horses, and goes to market; he is the owner of the farm.
QUESTION:e  What do we learn about Black Beauty’s grandparents?  
ANSWER:                  e. Black Beauty’s grandfather won the cup at the New market races (twice) and his grandmother had a very sweet temper.
QUESTION:f           What did the master call Black Beauty and why?
ANSWER:           f. The master called Black Beauty Darkie because he was a dull black colour.
QUESTION:g Who is Old Daniel?
g. Old Daniel was the man who looked after horses. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:h h. Why did the bog throw stones at the horses?
h. The boy was mean/bored and liked to have what he called fun by making the horses gallop.
QUESTION:i i. Who was the bog and what happened to him when he was caught?
i. The boy worked on the farm as a ploughboy. He gets caught by the master who hits him, shouts at him, and dismisses him from his job.           

2. WHO MIGHT HAVE SAID THE FOLLOWING?

a. Black Beauty

b. the master

c. the master

d. the master

3. HERE IS A LINE FROM THE STORY.

THINK ABOUT IT CAREFULLY, THEN ANSWER THE QUESTIONS.

When he had eaten all he wanted he would have what he called fun with the colts.

a. Dick

b. blackberries

c. ploughboy

d. He throws sticks and stones at the horses, to make them gallop.

e. Sometimes the stones hit them and hurt them.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. ADD NOT TO THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. YOU WILL HAVE TO CHANGE SOME OF THE VERBS.

a. Black Beauty did not eat grass.

b. The master did not go to market.

c. The colts did not like rough play.

d. The master did not move slowly.

e. Dick did not hear a sound in the bushes.

f. Dick did not speak kindly to the horses.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

Pronouns Review what the pupils know about pronouns.

1. Pick out all the pronouns in the sentences given below.

a. I (Black Beauty), my (possessive: Black Beauty’s)

 b. He (Mr Jones/the farmer)

c. He (Mr Jones/the farmer), us (the horses in the field)

d. We (the farmer and his family/workers or the horses), our (possessive: the horses’)

e. I (Dick/the farmer/an observer), them (the horses) Using the infinitive (to) Find other examples in any piece of writing.

2. COMPLETE THESE SENTENCES USING TO + A VERB. 

a. The boys were allowed to explore the fort.

b. Nobody is permitted to enter the fort.

c. Rahim likes to visit his grandparents on Sunday.

d. The builders wanted to finish their work.

e. We have always tried to help the poor.

f. I long to play outside.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 4. Pothole   PAGE:33-38

A Comprehension

  • ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a        What had happened to the car that Faiza saw from her window?         
ANSWER:                 a. It was stuck in the road and needed to have a tire changed.
QUESTION:b                  When did a traffic jam occur and why?
ANSWER:  b. The traffic jam occurred on August 1st.
QUESTION:c     Haw many accidents had taken place in two weeks?
ANSWER:             c. Nine.
QUESTION:d             Which words are used to describe the pothole?
ANSWER:       d. The pothole is described as big, like a gaping mouth waiting for its next victim.
QUESTION:e                Which things did Faiza collect?
ANSWER:                  e. Faiza collected a basket, soil, compost, small, flowering shrubs, a watering can full of water, three long lengths of wood, some board-pins, and three large sheets of card.
QUESTION:f                    Where did Faiza place the three signs that she had made?
ANSWER:           f. Faiza placed one sign at each end of the road, then she placed the third sign in the pothole garden. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:g G What made Faiza take action to fill the pothole? Give as many reasons as you con.
ANSWER: g. She was worried about the safety of the children in the kindergarten next door; she had seen a lot of accidents; she had written a letter to ask for help and had not received any reply or help.
QUESTION:h Make a list of the types of accidents that took place because of the pothole.
ANSWER: h. There are a range of accidents: vehicles get stuck, there are crashes and swerves that lead to crashes, damage to vehicles, a cart loses its load… Auto stuck!—Cyclist falls into gutter.—Man gets injured.—Baskets fall into road.—Lorry has puncture.

2. Here is a sentence from the story. Think about it and then answer the questions. I’m not waiting a moment longer!

a. Faiza, after she had been keeping a log for over three weeks.

b. They could answer with i, iii, or v though ‘determined’ is probably the best description.

c. After this, Faiza collects the materials she needs so that she is ready to build her pothole garden the next morning.

d. Yes, it attracted the attention of lots of people, including the media and the town officials; the pothole is fixed properly as a result.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. Find words for the following in the passage.

a. gutter

b. kindergarten

c. compost

d. shrub

e. surface

f. accident

2. Who might have said the following? Discuss each statement to decide who made it, when it was made, and where.

a. The woman or one of the two children who were sheltering from the sun at the side of the road when the wheel of their car was being fixed.

b. Faiza.

c. A parent or teacher at the kindergarten.

d. Faiza in her letter. Someone from the crowd to the Mayor or the Chief of Police when they visit Faiza’s pothole garden.

 e. The photographer from the newspaper.

3. Add capital letters and full stops to the following. Maliah and Maira both went to Saint Mary’s School. They were in Class Three. Their teacher was called Miss Shama. She was a very good teacher. She wore salwar kameez. She carried a black handbag. Her father worked in the commercial bank on Zaibunnisa Street.  

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

PREPOSITIONS

A preposition shows the position between one noun and another. Example: She began making notes on a sheet of paper. ‘on’ and ‘of’ are prepositions.

1. Underline the prepositions in the following. Then write new sentences of your own using the prepositions.

a. The carpet under the table was old.

b. The river under the bridge is flowing very swiftly.

c. The fence round the house fell down.

d. The cat fell into the puddle.

e. Flying the aeroplane past the town was not easy.

2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb.

a. Faiza went back to her room.

b. The children of the kindergarten were delighted.

c. She pushed the piece of wood into the soil.

d. Faiza mixed it all together.

e. Cars drove carefully round the garden.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT:4 The Moon PAGE:39-42

A Comprehension

  • ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a               What is the Moon’s face compared to?  
ANSWER: a. A clock face.                
QUESTION:b    What are the various things that the Moon shines on at night?             
ANSWER:  b. Thieves, streets, fields, harbour quays, birds sleeping in trees, and animals (cat, dog, mouse, bat).
QUESTION:c             Which creatures lave to be out at night? ‘     
ANSWER: c. The cat, the mouse, the dog, and the bat.           
QUESTION:d  What do the things that belong to the dag, do at night?     
ANSWER:       d. They cuddle to sleep; they nestle together or in a comfortable place and go to sleep. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:e               e. The poet has mentioned various creatures of the night. Which other creatures does the Moon shine on at night?
ANSWER:                 e. Discuss the animals and what they are doing. The moon shines at night on the birdies asleep in the forks of trees, the squalling cat, the squeaking mouse, the howling dog, and the bat.
QUESTION:f                    f. Name some creatures you know that love to cuddle up at night.
ANSWER:           f. They might say themselves or name people in their homes/families. Babies and animals like to cuddle up too.

2. Which words at the end of lines rhyme? Write down the rhyming pairs.

hall/wall quays/trees mouse/house noon/moon day/way eyes/rise

3. How is the word ‘quays’ pronounced? The answer will have come up in Question 2. Get the pupils to practise saying the word!

4. Answer the questions about these lines from the poem. But all the things that belong to the day Cuddle to sleep to be out of her way;

a. People, animals, and plants that are ‘awake’ in the daytime. They may name specific things like children and flowers. They want to stay out of the way of the moon.

b. Children and flowers.

c. Hug, to nestle together, or hold somebody or something close for comfort and warmth.

d. They may name any of the living things mentioned in Question 1. b. or any other nocturnal creatures.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

Here are some English proverbs (sayings).

1. Read these expressions and talk about them. When do we use them? Discuss the proverbs. (They are matched with the meanings in 2. below.)

2. Here are some meanings. Match the proverbs above with the meanings below.

a. b.

b. e.

c. c.

d. a

e. d.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

Conjunctions Discuss what the pupils know about conjunctions. Can they use conjunctions in sentences? Some conjunctions that pupils should be able to use with ease: and, but, or, yet, for, nor, so. Subordinating conjunctions, which pupils might have a difficulty with: after, although, as, as if, as long as, because, before, if, so that, than, until, while…etc.

1. Put suitable conjunctions in the following blanks, and write the complete sentences in your notebook.

a. and

b. but

c. or/and (depending on what is meant)

d. or

e. and

f. but

2. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN YOUR OWN WORDS. PAY ATTENTION TO THE CONJUNCTION USED.

a. He is tall and thin but cannot squeeze under the car to get our ball.

b. We visited them last Sunday and we shall do so again this Sunday.

c. We visited them last Sunday but cannot go next Sunday.

d. We shall buy it in the market or in the shop in town.

e. We shall buy it in the market and sell it for a profit.

f. We can buy it in the market but it will be expensive.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 5. Message in a Bottle  PAGE:43-48

A Comprehension

  • ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a         Where did the children live?        
ANSWER:                 a. In a small fishing village in the south of Pakistan.
QUESTION:b                  What did the children’s fathers do?
ANSWER:  b. Their fathers were both fishermen.
QUESTION:c                   What did the children do all dog?
ANSWER:             c. They built sand castles, chased crabs, swam in the sea, and climbed coconut palms. They played.
QUESTION:d                    Why did the children not go to school?
ANSWER:       d. There was no school in their village.
QUESTION:e What did the children do when they found the bottle?
ANSWER:                  e. They took off the cap and found a piece of paper.
QUESTION:f                    Why did the children take the paper to Old Babu?
ANSWER:     f. They took it to Old Babu because he could read and they could not read.
QUESTION: g How did Old Babu help the children?
ANSWER: g. He read them the letter and then he started to teach them how to read and write. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: h h. Do you think the children were lucky to find the bottle? How?
ANSWER: h. They were very lucky! It is a long way from New Zealand to Pakistan; the bottle could have been smashed or floated somewhere else.
i. What would you like to find in a bottle on the beach?
i. Pupils will give their own answers after discussion in class.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

2. Say which of the following is true about the story.

a. F b. F c. F d. T e. F f. T

3. Answer the questions about these lines from the story. ‘There is some writing on it, but we can’t read!’

a. Hassan

b. To Afia

c. The message in the bottle.

d. It was taken to Old Babu because he could read it.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. Put inverted commas in the following.

a. ‘What does it say?’ cried Afia, excitedly.

b. ‘You are not foolish at all!’ said Old Babu.

c. ‘I don’t know,’ replied Hassan.

d. ‘Why are you looking so sad?’ asked Old Babu.

e. ‘Here is the boy’s address,’ he said.

2. Now add inverted commas, full stops, question marks, and commas.

a. ‘We cannot read or write, can we?’ replied Afia quietly.

b. ‘Look Babo!’ cried the children, excitedly.

c. ‘There is no school here,’ said Hassan. ‘How can we learn?’

3. Complete these sentences in your notebook.

a. Foolish means not clever, not bright.

b. Wondered means thought about, with curiosity and doubt.

c. Scampered means ran quickly and lightly.

d. Address means the details of the place where someone lives or where a business is situated.

e. Deep means far into or below the surface of something.

f. Nearly means almost or very close to.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. All the following sentences have grammatical mistakes. Try to find the mistakes, and rewrite the sentences correctly. Can you explain why the sentences are incorrect? Pupils may try to explain the mistakes. Do not expect them to give a complete grammatical breakdown. The notes in the brackets are for your information. Should you wish to give other examples and use those in the brackets to illustrate the mistakes, please do so. Use the board.

a. The children did not went (go) to school. (Wrong tense of the verb ‘go’. We say ‘did not go, did not do, did not see,’ etc. not ‘did not went, did not did, did not saw.’)

b. Old Babu helped the children to reading (read) the letter. (The infinitive – to read – not the present participle is used after a first verb. Helped to find, liked to walk…)

c. Hassan haven’t (hasn’t) seen the letter before. (The verb does not agree with the subject. First person: I have, we have; Second person: you have; Third person: he has, she has, it has, they have.)

d. ‘Where you were (were you)?’ asked Afia. (Words transposed.) e. ‘It was friendly, isn’t it (wasn’t it)?’ (The question tag, seeking agreement, must relate to the words used in the question. It was dirty, wasn’t it? It was big, wasn’t it? They were late, weren’t they? She has seen him, hasn’t she?) f. ‘New Zealand is beautiful, no (isn’t it)?’ (Wrong question tag. ‘No’ is never used. The lake is empty, isn’t it? She is ill, isn’t she?)

g. He didn’t found (find) the letter in a bag. (Wrong form of the verb ‘find’. Did not find, did not go, did not tell, etc.)

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

a. The playmate comes to play on a rainy day when there are puddles on the ground.

b. No, the playmate only comes on a rainy day.

c. The playmate is upside-down at all times.

d. The boy feels sad when he has to tread upon his playmate’s feet. This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.

e. The boy thinks the playmate lives in another land because he never hears him speaking.

UNIT:5 My Playmate  PAGE:49-52

A Comprehension

  • ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  When does the playmate come to play?
ANSWER:  a. The playmate comes to play on a rainy day when there are puddles on the ground.
QUESTION:b Does the playmate come to play when it is not raining’?
ANSWER:  b. No, the playmate only comes on a rainy day.
QUESTION:c                   In what position is the playmate at all times?
ANSWER:             c. The playmate is upside-down at all times.
QUESTION:d                    What makes the boy feel sad’?
ANSWER:       d. The boy feels sad when he has to tread upon his playmate’s feet. This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION:e Why does the speaker think the playmate lives in another land?
ANSWER:                  e. The boy thinks the playmate lives in another land because he never hears him speaking.

2. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS LINE TAKEN FROM THE POEM. I REALLY WISH HE’D TALK TO ME…

a. The poet is talking about the playmate (the reflection).

b. Because the playmate looks ‘so very kind’ and smiles back.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. WHAT DO YOU THINK THE FOLLOWING ARE?

a. a tree

b. shoes, sandals, boots, slippers

c. an iron

d. a pair of glasses, spectacles

2. What’s the difference?

a. wonder: surprise, to be amazed or in admiration wander: to move from place to place, without purpose, or known destination

b. sight: the ability to see site: place, an area or location

c. puddles: shallow pools of water paddles: short oars

3. These are common words for collections in English. Try to use them in sentences of your own. Pupils will use the expressions in sentences. However, discourage sentences which read: A regiment of soldiers is here! A swarm of bees came. There is a chain of hills there. These sentences do not tell us anything or give us a clue as to what the expressions might mean. It is better to encourage the writing of sentences such as: The regiment of soldiers camped in the field outside the town before the battle. A swarm of bees left the hive every day in search of nectar. etc.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

Discuss articles with the children.

1. Fill the following blanks with a, an, or the.

a. an

b. a

c. a

d. an, the

e. the, the

f. a        

UNIT:6. The Flying Machine (I)  PAGE:53-59

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a       a. What was Sami drawing?          
ANSWER: a. Sami was drawing a flying machine.               
QUESTION:b                  b. Describe Uncle Salim?
ANSWER:  b. Uncle Salim was old and heavy and had a long moustache and a shiny bald head.
QUESTION:c                   C. What were the Loops for?
ANSWER:             c. The loops were for the feet.
QUESTION:d                    d. What materials and tools did Sami use to build his glider?
ANSWER:   d. Sami used some bamboo, string, a newspaper, a knife, a screwdriver, and blue paint.
QUESTION:e                How long did the plane take to make?
ANSWER:       e. The glider took two months to build.          
QUESTION:f                   
ANSWER:           f. The pilot could control the plane by using the loops and the bar. The loops of string were for the feet; the bar was moved with the hands. The pilot moved the bar to make the plane go up or down. To go right, the right foot had to be pushed down. To go left, the left foot had to be pushed down. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:g
ANSWER: g. Uncle Salim thought Sami’s machine would not fly because it was too small and had no engine.
QUESTION:h
ANSWER: h. Uncle Salim was not frightened because he thought the glider would never leave the ground.
QUESTION:i
ANSWER: i. Pupils will give their own responses.

2. Say whether the following are true (T) or false (F) about the story.

a. F

b. T

c. F

d. F

e. T

3. Answer the questions about this line taken from the story. At that moment, he heard a knock at the front door and ran to see who it was.

a. Sami

b. Uncle Salim

c. Sami’s design for the flying machine.

d. Sami took Uncle Salim inside and showed him the drawings of his flying machine. Uncle Salim studied the drawings and said the machine would not fly.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. Find general names for the following.

a. vegetables   

b. flowers   

c. animals   

d. birds   

e. countries

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. Underline the verbs in the following sentences.

a. danced, ran

b. smiled, sang

c. trumpeted

2. Which word in Exercise C.1.c. above tells us how the elephants trumpeted? Loudly

3. Find the adverbs in the following sentences.

a. crossly

b. politely

c. quickly

d. smartly Quite often we make adverbs from adjectives. Give other examples too, and ask for suggestions. Add -ly: light, free, colourful, helpful, brave, quiet, swift, bright…

4. Underline the verbs in the sentences below. Then fill in the blanks using the adverbs above. a. (was run over) nearly, carelessly

b. (go) quickly, immediately

c. (lived) happily, contentedly, healthily

d. (sit) comfortably, peacefully

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 7. The Flying Machine (II) 54PAGE: 60-64

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a  Who pushed the glider off the rock?              
ANSWER:      a. Sami and the other boys pushed the glider off the rock.
QUESTION:b            b. Why did the Qlider tilt to one side?     
ANSWER:  b. The glider titled over on its side because Uncle Salim leant over and tried to catch the end of the broken string.
QUESTION:c                  c. What happened when Uncle Salim caught hold of the bamboo stick?
ANSWER:             c. When Uncle Salim caught hold of the bamboo stick, the glider started to go round and round in circles, getting lower and lower.
QUESTION:d          d, Did Uncle Salim enjoy his flight? Soy why? 
ANSWER:       d. He was not happy. He did not enjoy his flight, and said that he never wanted to go in another flying machine.
QUESTION:e                What other materils could Sami have used to build the glider?
ANSWER:                  e. Pupils will mention any they can think of: cloth, plastic, aluminium, etc.
QUESTION:f(This question is more difficult. Discuss first.) f, When did Uncle Salim shriek and why? At what times do people shriek?
ANSWER:         f. Uncle Salim shrieked when the glider was pushed off the rock and it started to fall towards the ground. He shrieked because he was frightened and surprised. 

2. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS LINE FROM THE STORY. ‘OH, MY GOODNESS!’ HE SAID TO HIMSELF, ‘NOW WHAT SHALL I DO?’

a. Uncle Salim

b. He was up in the air in Sami’s flying machine.

 c. Uncle Salim had just pushed his foot down again to turn the glider, but nothing happened because the string was broken. He suddenly became frightened.

d. He tried to catch the end of the string, but suddenly the whole glider tilted over on its side. He fell off his seat and just managed to catch on to it with one hand. Finally, he shrieked aloud, ‘Help! Help!’

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. What are these? Guess. Some may have two correct answers.

a. blanket, fire

b. mirror, clear lake

c. teaspoon

d. knife, axe, scissors

e. hat, cap, wig f. plate

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. Add not to the following sentences. You will have to change the verbs in some of them.

a. Sami’s father did not inform the police.

b. Uncle Salim did not keep quiet.

c. Uncle Salim did not land on a tree.

d. Uncle Salim was not very happy.

2. Use conjunctions to fill in the blanks below. Revise conjunctions with the pupils before beginning the exercise.

a. The man was young and smart.

b. He was old but he was strong.

c. She was shouting because she was angry.

d. He was hungry for he had eaten nothing.

e. You knew that I was coming.

3. Fill in the blanks using the words below. Comparing things. Give some of your own examples and ask pupils to suggest some.

a. She is taller/prettier than I am.

b. He is brighter/taller than his son.

c. This torch is brighter/cheaper than yours.

d. His house is smaller/cheaper than mine.

e. A bag is smaller/cheaper than a suitcase.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

CONTRACTIONS

Explain the use of contractions to pupils. Use these expressions in full sentences of your own, and practise saying them aloud. Work with a classmate.

I’m (I am) What’s (What is) They’re (They are) He’s (He is/He has) She’s (She is) We’re (We are) Can’t (cannot) That’s (That is) It’s (It is) You’ve (You have)

UNIT: The White Window PAGE: 66-69

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a     when does the Moon come to the house?
ANSWER: a. The Moon comes every night.               
QUESTION:b                  What does the Moon come there to do‘?
ANSWER:  b. The Moon comes to peep.
QUESTION:c                   What does the person in the room do‘?
ANSWER:             c. The person in the room pretends to sleep.
QUESTION:d                    Does the Moon make any sound‘?
ANSWER:       d. The Moon makes no sound at all.
QUESTION:e                Where does the Moon then go
ANSWER:                  e. The Moon then goes to the house next door.
QUESTION:f                    How does the Moon go to the next house‘?
ANSWER:           f. The Moon steals by on tippy-toes to the next house.
QUESTION:g Why does the Moon go next door?
ANSWER:g.  The Moon goes next door to peep at the folk asleep there.
QUESTION: h & i
ANSWER: h. and i. Pupils will give a range of their own reasons and ideas.

2. Answer the questions about this line from the poem. She stands and stares! And then she goes

a. The Moon does.

b. In bed, in his/her room.

c. She goes to the house next door.

d. She peeps at the folk asleep, and she never makes a sound.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. Use the following in sentences of your own. The meanings should be the same as those used in the poem.

E.g.: stealing/stole: The children stole into the room without waking their sleeping grandmother.

2. Change one letter of each of the following to make a new word. Remember that letters other than the first one may also be changed to form new words.

Some examples:

eat (cat, bat, mat, ear)

tent (bent, sent, went, dent, tend, tint)

bat (cat, mat, sat, rat, bet, but, bit, bad, ban, bag)

lamp (camp, damp, ramp, lame, lamb, limp, lump)

book (look, cook, took, boon) catch (match, batch, latch)

talk (walk, tank, task, tale, tall)

read (bead, dead, road, rend, reap, ream)

house (mouse, douse, louse, rouse) door (poor, moor)

wall (call, ball, tall, well, will, walk) pull (bull, dull, full, pill)

rent (bent, sent, dent, went, rant, rend)

pick (tick, sick, lick, nick, pack, peck)

jump (bump, lump, dump)

must (bust, rust, mast, mist, muse)

3. Use these phrases in sentences of your own. Make your own comparisons. There are well-known similes for these.

Some examples:

 a. The stone Sid threw up into the air went up as swiftly as a rocket.

 b. When the policeman growled, the children were as frightened as little kittens.

c. His moustache is as thick as the jungle!

d. Her face was as bright as the Pole star.

e. His harsh words were as painful as a blow to my head.

 f. I hate being with him; his ideas are as dull as a cloudy day.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

2. Copy the poem into your notebook. But first read the clues below to find the missing words. You may explain some of the difficult words, but do not help with the clues to the missing words!

Miller: a person who works a mill; a grinder of corn and other grains

Dee: a river that forms part of the border between England and Wales

blithe: carefree and light-hearted

burden: something that is carried, a weight

There was a jolly Miller once

 Lived by the river Dee

He worked and sang from morning to night,

No lark more blithe than he. And this the burden of his song For ever used to be: ‘I care for nobody, no not I, If nobody cares for me.’ Get the pupils to use their best handwriting, and also to draw a picture.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. Find words in the poem which rhyme. Perhaps you can turn this into a competition. Who can find the most rhyming words without looking in a dictionary? (Minus two points for each word that is not a real word!) peep/asleep – keep, deep, weep, heap, leap

lie/by – die, cry, sty, shy, by, my

goes/toes – throws, shows, mows, those, flows

to me/maybe – tree, see, sea, bee, be, fee, free

2. Now find words which rhyme with the following. a. pain/drain/stain/lane b. jug/mug/bug/rug c. green/scene/lean/clean/bean d. slip/grip/hip/sip/clip e. smack/whack/track/back/shack f. slow/glow/blow/show g. jump/lump/pump/dump/thump h deep/sleep/sheep/keep/weep i. foot/put/soot j. wind (noun)/thinned/sinned/pinned (also – wind(verb)/find/hind/rind/mined/signed) E COMPOSITION

UNIT: 8. The Old Man and the Tiger PAGE:70-75

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a              How did the old man earn his money?                
ANSWER:           a. The man earned his money by selling wood.     
QUESTION:b                  Why did the old man become frightened in the forest one dog?
ANSWER:  b. The man heard a loud growl, which frightened him.
QUESTION:c                   What did the old man soy about the tiger?
ANSWER:             c. He said some nice things, but then he said the tiger was very smelly.
QUESTION:d                    What did the tiger ask the old man to do?
ANSWER:       d. The tiger asked the man to cut him with the axe.
QUESTION:e                How deep was the wound?
ANSWER:                  e. The wound was two fingers deep.
QUESTION:f          f. In the story, what healed and what did not heal?
ANSWER:           f. The wound healed, but the hurt caused by the harsh words did not heal.
QUESTION:g g. Has anyone ever hurt you with harsh words?
ANSWER: g. Pupils will give their own responses.

2. Answer the questions about this line taken from the story. He put down his axe and stood very still.

 a. the man

b. in the forest

 c. The growl of the tiger.

d. A large tiger came out of the bushes and told the man not to be frightened. The tiger offered to work while the man rested.

3. Who might have said the following?

a. The man (to the tiger).

b. The man’s wife (to the man).

c. The man (to the tiger, after he cut the tiger with the axe).

d. The tiger (to the man).

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. The words in the following sentences are in the wrong order. Write the sentences so that the meaning is clear.

a. He picked up the axe.

b. The tiger immediately stopped purring.

c. I will always remember what you said about my stinking skin.

d. The man stroked the tiger’s head.

2. What are these words? They all end with -ess.

a. tigress

b. guess

c. mess

d. address

e. princess

3. Use the underlined phrases in sentences of your own.

E.g.: put away, put down, put up, put under, put in, put by, put out, put off, all have a completely different meaning.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

Adverbs and adjectives

Discuss the explanation and give further examples.

 1. Change these adjectives into adverbs, then use them in sentences of your own.

heavily proudly neatly sadly hungrily busily fiercely happily

 1. Make sentences using the following. Some examples:

a. I could go to the cinema, if I had some money.

b. She did not come to the party, because she was ill.

c. If they come tomorrow, we will be very happy.

d. Her parents will be so proud, if she wins the cup.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT:8 Puppy and I PAGE:76-80

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a               a, How many other walkers did the poet meet on the way?  
ANSWER:      a. Five: man, horse, woman, rabbits (we do not know how many rabbits!) and the puppy.            
QUESTION:b                 Where were most of them going?
ANSWER:  b. Down to the village.
QUESTION:c              What kind of dag was it’?
ANSWER:             c. A nice fine day.
QUESTION:d            Where was the woman going and why?
ANSWER:       d. Down to the village to get some barley.
QUESTION:e            What answer does the poet give to the rabbits?
ANSWER:                  e. The poet says: ‘No, not I.’
QUESTION:f                    What answer does the poet give to the puppy?
ANSWER:           f. The poet says: ‘I’ll come with you, Puppy.’ These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:g How is what the puppy is doing different from what the others are doing?
g. The others are working; going to the village to get food for themselves or their animals. The puppy is going away from the village, up to hills to roll and play.
QUESTION:h h. What kind of person do you think the poet is? How can we tell?
h. The poet is someone who likes to play in the countryside; the poet does not want to join the workers. Perhaps the poet is a carefree person.

2. Answer the questions about this line from the poem. ‘Down to the village, to get some bread.’

 a. The man to the poet.

b. They are all going to the village to get food/supplies.

 c. ‘Will you come with me?’

d. ‘No, not I.’

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. How do they do it? See if you can match the following.

A dog leaps over the fence.

A horse gallops along the road.

A yak carries a heavy burden.

A tiger prowls in the jungle.

A robin hops onto the branches.

2. Try to put these in order of size from small to large.

a. cottage, house, castle, palace (the last two can be interchanged)

b. baby, boy, man, giant c. mosquito, beetle, frog, mouse

d. robin, owl, eagle, ostrich

3. Add an apostrophe to words in the following, only where one is needed!

a. I can see the owl’s looking at me. (One owl is looking at me. If the apostrophe is left out, it becomes a statement indicating that the speaker can see a number of owls looking at him/her.) b. Let’s see if he lets us in. (Let us see…)

c. He’s signed the letter, Yours truly. (He has signed … ‘Yours’ is a pronoun used to indicate the one or ones belonging to you. It is never written with an apostrophe.)

d. It’s not standing up; it’s on its side! (It is not standing… it is on its side. The last ‘its’ is the possessive form of ‘it’. It is never written with an apostrophe.)

e. That hat’s not hers, it’s yours. (hat’s = hat is. The other possessive pronouns are never written with an apostrophe.)

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. Change the adjectives (given in brackets) to adverbs and fill in the blanks.

a. She opened the door and smiled brightly at me. (bright)

b. I went in swiftly and sat down. (swift)

c. She cautiously opened the cupboard. (cautious)

d. She spoke to me sweetly. (sweet)

e. Then she generously gave me a bowl of rice. (generous)

2. Change the following sentences into questions.

a. Will you come with me? b. Are you going early?

c. Can horses also talk?

3. Use the words in column B in sentences of your own

E.g.: good/better/(best), little/less/(least), much/more/(most) In some instances, the spelling changes (even when only –er is added to make the comparative form).

E.g.: pretty/prettier, happy/happier, dry/drier, holy/holier In some cases, (usually for words with a number of syllables) we use more (and most).

E.g.: more courageous, more adorable, more complicated Pupils will make up their own sentences. Note that the expressions are to be used with ‘than’ because they are comparing something with something else.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 1. Find rhyming words in the poem for the following.

a. walking/talking

b. said/bread

c. hay/today

d. oats/coats

e. play/day

2. Can you think of words that rhyme with the following? Who can find more rhyming words?

 do, shoe, blue, grew, true, sue night, flight, sight, site, bite

snow, grow, throw, blow, doe, dough, round, sound, bound, mound

long, song, gong, wrong

fat, hat, bat, mat, that,

stitch, rich, pitch, which, witch

brick, trick, kick, stick,

flock, clock, block, smock, rock

key, bee, sea, me, fee

mate, late, gate, rate, date

lop, hop, crop, chop

sick, lick, trick, click, chick

soap, rope, cope

yak, back, lack, black, track

UNIT: 9. The Story of Silk 76 PAGE: 81-87

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a a. Where was silk discovered?                  
ANSWER: a. In China               
QUESTION:b                  b. What did the girl who became an empress do to fill her time before she got married?
ANSWER:  b. She worked from dawn to night, surrounded by friends and family who exchanged news and gossip as they worked.
QUESTION:c                   c. Why was the empress sad?
ANSWER:             c. She missed her busy life and the company of her family and friends. Pupils might need some help and discussion to answer this question.
QUESTION:d                    d. What did the emperor do to make the empress happy?
ANSWER:       d. He bought her grand clothes, jewels, and artefacts, threw elaborate parties, hired the best musicians of the land to amuse her.
QUESTION:e                e. Where was the empress when she discovered silk and what was she doing?
ANSWER:                  e. In her garden sipping hot water from a cup.
QUESTION:f           f. What was the great idea that the empress had?
ANSWER:           f. To use the threads from many silk cocoons to weave soft, strong cloth from them. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:g. g. How did the empress, who discovered silk know how to weave?
ANSWER: g. We are not told how she knew how to weave but we can presume that she had been involved in making clothes from yarn because that would have been common for a peasant girl long ago.
QUESTION:h h. What were the differences between the empress’s life before and after she got married? Why did they make her sad?
ANSWER: h. Before: she spent a lot of time in open countryside, she was very busy and had a lot of close family and friends around her all the time. After she was married: she was confined to the palace, she did not have anything to do, and she was surrounded by servants who would only speak to her if she spoke to them. We can presume that she was sad due to homesickness and/or loneliness.

2. Answer the questions about this line from the story. But then she took a closer look, and saw some threads peeping out from the cocoon.

 a. The empress.

b. In the cup of hot water she had been drinking.

c. Sad.

d. She pulled the thread and had a great idea: to take the thread from many cocoons and weave soft, strong cloth from it.

e. This is the moment that silk was discovered.

3. Fill in the blanks.

a. slowly

b. gathered

c. great

d. elaborate

 e. wide, countryside

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. All these words are in the story. Unscramble them!

a. peeping

b. elaborate

c. bearing

d. weaver

e. cocoon

f. princess

2. How many words can you make from the letters in each grid above? You must use the middle letter in all the words you make.

Here are some of the words that can be made:

a. YRST(E)DEYA yes, yet, year, yeast, rate, red, read, rest, reed, ready, set, seat, seed, seer, seedy, sedate, tread, tea, tear, tease, ease, east, ear, easy, dear, deer, deter, desert, dare, date, ate, are

b. RTST(P)EETI respite, ripe, tip, trip, tripe, sip, step, spire, sprite, spite, spit, prise, pet, pest, pester, peer, pier

c. EEAS(W)YNDD ewe, awe, awed, sway, swan, way, wand, wade, was, wad, wane, weed, wend, wean, yawn, yew, new, dew, dawn

3. Given below are the meanings of some words. Can you guess them?

a. In the past: yesterday

b. Most lovely: prettiest

c. In the week: Wednesday

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

Subject and predicate

 Discuss the examples and give further examples on the board.

1. Divide the following sentences into their subjects and predicates.

Subject Predicate

a. Birds fly in the air.

b. Carpenters make furniture.

c. The boys ran down the road.

d. The girls sang sweetly.

e. My mother went to Hyderabad.

f. Both my brothers made a box.

2. See if you can complete the following. Use the word in brackets but change it.

a. Yesterday we swam in the river. (swim)

b. Last night a thief stole my bicycle. (steal)

c. Last week my mother bought some new clothes. (buy)

d. Yesterday I sent him a letter. (send)

e. My brother brought his friend home. (bring)

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 8 Sunning 81PAGE: 88-91

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a            a. Why did the dog flap its ears?     
ANSWER:                a. The dog flapped its ears to get rid of a fly.
QUESTION:b                  b. Where did the dog scratch itself?
ANSWER:  b. The dog scratched itself on a spot that was itching.
QUESTION:c                   c. What did the dog dream about?
ANSWER:             c. The dog dreamt about chasing a rabbit. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:d                    These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first. d. Why do you think the dog tag down in the summer sun?
ANSWER:       d. To rest, to keep warm, or because it was pleasant.
QUESTION:e                e. Which words best describe the dog? i. hot ii. active m. dreamy
ANSWER:                  e. iii. Dreamy
QUESTION:f                    f. What are the differences between the old dog in the poem and the puppy you read about in a previous poem?
ANSWER:           f. One is old and the other is young; the old one wants to lie down whereas the puppy was active

2. Answer the questions about this line taken from the poem. He whimpered a bit

a. The old dog whimpered. Whimper means to cry softly.

b. No, there was not. The old dog whimpered from force of habit.

c. This took place on a summer day when the dog lay dreaming on a porch.

3. Find all the rhyming words in the poem. Do they form a pattern? Ask the pupils to find all the rhyming words in the poem.

The answers are given below.

sun/run,

fly/eye,

spot/hot,

habit/rabbit,

sun/run

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. With the help of a dictionary find the meanings of the following.

a. whine: to cry, moan, or plead with a long, plaintive, high-pitched sound

b. whimper: to make repeated weak, plaintive crying, or whining sounds of pain, distress, fear

c. snivel: to sniff and whine tearfully, in a self-pitying way

d. sob: to draw in breath while crying, making gasping sounds

e. whine: to complain annoyingly or continuously about something (usually something seen as unimportant) f. groan: to make a long, low cry expressing pain or misery

g. moan: to make a long, low sound that expresses pain or misery; to complain about something, especially unreasonably or needlessly

h. grumble: to complain or mutter in a discontented way

2. Use the following in sentences of your own.

Is it a surface or something in motion?

Is it something being spread like butter?

 How does something move when it is as quick as lightning?

A person walking across a room as quick as lightning does not sound right.

A person shooting across the room as quick as lightning is better because he is not walking but shooting across.

3. Look again at the similes above.

—AS QUICK AS—

a bird, a fox, a wink, a bullet, a meteor, the wind, a deer, a tornado, a greyhound, a rabbit, a racing car, an old man walking down the road

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. Say what kind of sentences these are.

a. Exclamation

b. Statement

c. Question

d. Command

e. Command

f. Statement

g. Exclamation

h. Question

2. Write two  new sentences of each pattern in your notebook.

D Listening and speaking

UNIT: 10. The RAILWAY JOURNEY  PAGE: 92-97

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a              a. Why were Saherand Ftazi travettin b train ?   
ANSWER: a. Saher and Razi were travelling to Lahore to stay with their friend Moiz.               
QUESTION:b                  b. How did the bogs pass their time on the train?
ANSWER:  b. The boys spread their sheets on the bunks, ate their food while enjoying the cool night air blowing through the open window, watched the lights of the cars in the distance, and then settled down for the night.
QUESTION:c                  c. What happened  when the train stopped at the station?
ANSWER:            c. When the train stopped at the station, a man put his hand through the window and stole Razi’s wallet.
QUESTION:d                    d. How was the thief caught?
ANSWER:       d. Razi and Timmy chased the thief on to the platform. Razi told the stationmaster and some other men what happened, and just then they heard a cry from the railway yard. They climbed over the railings into the yard, and found that Timmy had trapped the thief.
QUESTION:e This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.   e. What did Saher do to stop the train? Would you have stopped the train? What might have happened if the train had not been stopped?              
ANSWER:                  e. Saher pulled the (emergency) chain to stop the train.

2. Who said the following?

a. Saher

b. One of the men

c. The stationmaster

d. Razi’s father

e. Razi

f. Razi (everyone)

3. Answer the questions about these lines taken from the story. The guard blew his whistle. Slowly, the train began to move. Everyone waved.

a. Razi’s father and mother and Saher’s young sister were on the platform. Razi, Saher, and Timmy were in the train.

b. To Lahore City Station.

c. Razi’s father told Razi to be careful and not to do anything foolish. Razi’s mother told him not to stand near the door or to put his hands out of the windows. Saher’s sister told the boys to look after their money.

d. They spread their sheets on their bunks.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. Use the underlined words in sentences of your own.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. Read pages 85 and 86 again. Then divide the following sentences into their subjects and predicates.

SUBJECT PREDICATE

a. The boy fell off his bicycle.

b. The bicycle was lying on the ground.

c. The boy was on the ground too!

d. He had hurt his arm.

e. A man took the boy to hospital.

2. Join the sentences with the word who. Give further examples.

a. Find me a man who is rich and brave.

b. This is the teacher who taught my grandfather.

c. This is the carpenter who made your chairs.

d. This is the girl who came by bus.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 11 AT GRANDFATHER’S HOUSE PAGE:98-105

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a How did Heidi?                
ANSWER:                 a. Heidi is five years old.
QUESTION:b                  What does Heidi see when she is exploring the house?
ANSWER:  b. An empty goat house and some tall trees.
QUESTION:c                   What was the inside of the house like?
ANSWER:             c. Inside, the ground floor is one big room. The grandfather’s bed is in one corner. A large fireplace is in the middle of the back wall of the house. Next to it, there is a large cupboard with some shelves.
QUESTION:d                    What did Heidi use to make her bed?
ANSWER:       d. Hay and old cloths.
QUESTION:e                What could Heidi see from her bedroom window?
ANSWER:                  e. She could see right down the valley.
QUESTION:f                    What did Heidi use as a table at dinner time?
ANSWER:           f. A chair.
QUESTION:g What information tells us that Grandfather is a kind person?
ANSWER: g. He notices what Heidi needs, he makes her food, he gives her his chair as a table, he gathers more hay to make her bed more comfortable.

2. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS LINE FROM THE STORY. ‘IT IS THE BEST I’VE EVER HAD’

 a. Heidi.

b. Her grandfather.

c. Milk.

d. She was thirsty after her long hot journey

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. WHAT ARE THESE WORDS? THEY ARE ALL FROM THE STORY.

a. cheese

b. grandfather

c. cupboard

d. breakfast

2. FIND WORDS IN THE STORY THAT HAVE AN OPPOSITE MEANING TO THE WORDS GIVEN BELOW.

a. hard

b. remembered

c. old

d. found

e. low

f. clever

g. up

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. ADD CONJUNCTIONS GIVEN IN THE BOX BELOW TO THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

a. The boy was late but his sister was on time.

b. We went because we were told to go.

c. We have seen the film but we have not read the book.

d. They heard that he was made a minister.

e. They jumped when he shouted.

f. She was let in although she was ten minutes late.

2. MATCH A WITH B TO MAKE COMPLETE SENTENCES.

Discuss the exercise with the children first.

You will have to work hard————— if you want to learn English.

We shall all get very wet—————— if it rains.

We shall have to walk home —————if the bus doesn’t come.

You may hurt yourself badly—————- if you fall off your bicycle.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT:  OUTSIDE OF MY WINDOW PAGE:106-111

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                do the two animals get along with each other? 
ANSWER:                 a. No.
QUESTION:b                  who is the narrow of the poem?
ANSWER:  b. A person watching the animals from inside their house.
QUESTION:c                   what are both animals collecting?
ANSWER:             c. They are collecting food. Magpie: berries; Squirrel: nuts. Both collect bugs.
QUESTION:d                    what food is a favourite for both of the animals?
ANSWER:       d. Little bugs.
QUESTION:e                what does squirrel sayto magpie?
ANSWER:                  e. ‘Ha, it’s my garden!’
QUESTION:f                    what does magpie say to squirrel? the person listening to the animals imagines that they are quarrelling.
ANSWER:           f. ‘Hey, don’t take my snack.’
QUESTION:g find four words that mean the some as queen?
ANSWER: g. Fight, arguing, squabbling, bicker.
QUESTION:h How do we know that the animal’s noise is disturbing the person in the house?
ANSWER: h. The person wonders why the animals’ bicker
QUESTION:i In what ways are the two animals different? Think about how they move and what they eat?
ANSWER:  i. The two animals are different because Magpie loves berries and flies while Squirrel loves nuts and runs.
QUESTION:j Now make a list of all the similarities between two animals?
. j. They both like bugs, collect food and fight with each other

2. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS LINE FROM THE POEM. I WATCH AND I WONDER: WHY MUST THEY BICKER?

a. Squirrel and Magpie

b. To argue over minor problems.

c. Making noises.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. MATCH THE WORDS IN A WITH THE ABBREVIATIONS IN B.

 Mister/Mr, Street/St, Doctor/Dr, Saint/St, Road/Rd

2. WRITE THESE NAMES USING SHORT FORMS.

a. G. B. Shaw

b. C. Dickens

c. W. M. Thackeray

d. (Pupils will write their own name.)

3. USE THE FOLLOWING IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

Be careful; the meaning changes when the words are split!

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. FIND THE OBJECTS OF THE VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

a. The squirrel eats nuts.

b. The old man built a new house.

c. My father killed a very large cockroach.

d. My uncle lost an extremely valuable watch.

e. The farmer caught the chicken.

f. Eat your vegetables!

g. She shouted at the Magpie in the garden.

The verbs are in italics, while the objects are underlined.

For your information:

Note that some verbs do not take an object.

They are intransitive.

E.g.: sleep, come, laugh We do not sleep something or come something or laugh something. Other verbs can be transitive as well as intransitive:

E.g.: run, dance, play The boys ran. They run a club in the evening. The girls danced. They danced a tango. Children play in the park. They play football. Some verbs are transitive; they can only be used with an object.

E.g.: have, blame, name They have a house. She blames me for everything. He named the day.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. ALL THESE WORDS CONTAIN THE LETTER Z. WHAT ARE THEY?

a. buzzing

b. zebra

c. zoo

d. lazy

e. razor

UNIT : 12 THE NAWAB OF SALIM ABAD (I) PAGE:112-118

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a Why did the Nawab enter the small house?
ANSWER: a. The Nawab entered the small house because it had been raining and he was wet.                 
QUESTION:b     Why didn’t the three sons send letters to their parents?            
ANSWER:  b. The three sons did not write letters because they could not write and their parents could not read.
QUESTION:c          Wht is a regiment?        
ANSWER: c. A regiment is a unit of soldiers in the army.           
QUESTION:d                    What did made the Nawab’ clock wet?
ANSWER:       d. Rain.
QUESTION:e     What did the farmer and his wife grow on their land?
ANSWER:               e. The couple grew some wheat and onions on their land.     
QUESTION:f                    In what ways were farmer and his wife kind?  
ANSWER:           f. The farmer and his wife were kind enough to invite the traveller into their home, make him comfortable by their fire, and give him food, although they had very little.

2. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THESE LINES FROM THE STORY. How can I tell whether those people who are poor are also happy?

a. The Nawab asks this question.

b. The Wazir is asked this question.

c. ‘You cannot, sire.’

d. The Nawab dresses himself in the robes of a traveller, with a worn cloak over his shoulders and a bundle on his back, and walks through his kingdom for many months.

3. MATCH THE FOLLOWING.

 The Nawab of Salimabad ———–was a very great man.

He travelled ——————-for many months.

He wore a cloak——————– over his shoulders.

Cover yourself ——————–with this blanket.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT WORDS FROM THE BOX TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES. All the missing words begin with wa; see if you can find them in a dictionary.

a. walking b. war c. wasted d. waiter e. wail

2. WRITE THE OPPOSITES OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS. You will find the words in the play.

a. warm b. well c. proud d. well

3. WRITE WORDS WITH THE SAME MEANING AS THE FOLLOWING. You will find the words in the play.

a. angry  b. terrible  c. finally  d. comfortable  e. manage  f. enjoyment

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. FILL IN THE BLANKS IN THE FOLLOWING BY CHANGING THE WORDS IN BRACKETS, AND SOMETIMES BY ADDING A WORD TOO.

 a. Gold is heavier than paper.

b. This book is more interesting than that one.

c. Is eating better than sleeping?

d. Is stealing worse than hurting people?

e. Is a poem more beautiful than a picture?

2. ADD ARTICLES IN THE BLANKS BELOW.

(Not all the blanks need to be filled!) Once upon a time there lived an ugly miser. He was a very rich man and he grew (-) oranges and (-) apples. He sold them in the market. One day I asked him for an apple. He said, ‘I can’t give you an apple, but I’ll sell you (-) one.’ ‘Then give me an orange,’ I said. I put the fruit in my bag and walked off down the road.

3. COMPLETE THE CHART USING THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERBS.

 The table shows, of course, the simple present tense, the simple past tense, and the past participle.

E.g.: The food was eaten, the fight was begun, the horses were ridden, etc.

a. catch caught caught

b. begin began begun

c. fall fell fallen

d. ride rode ridden

e. send sent sent

f. give gave given

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT:13  THE NAWAB OF SALIM ABAD (II) PAGE:119-124  

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a   How did the Nawab meet the farmer’s three sons?
ANSWER: a. The Commander of the cavalry was ordered to bring the three sons to see the Nawab.               
QUESTION:b                  Who felt proud at serving the Nawab?
ANSWER:  b. The three sons felt proud to serve the Nawab.
QUESTION:c                   What did the farmer’s wife give to the Nawab? Why?
ANSWER:             c. The farmer’s wife gave a basket of onions to the Nawab. She wanted to thank the Nawab.
QUESTION:d               What did the old lady receive as a present?    
ANSWER:       d. The old lady received a box full of gold coins as a present.
QUESTION:e        Did the moneylender get a valuable present?       
ANSWER:    e. The moneylender did not get a valuable present; he got a box of onions.
QUESTION:f        Why do you think the Nawab sent the boys home?
ANSWER:         f. The Nawab sent the boys home to look after their parents. g. A great man and a good ruler. 

2. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN YOUR OWN WORDS.

NOT

b. ‘Your onions are good,’ said the Nawab.

BUT, better, ‘Your onions are the best I have ever tasted,’ said the Nawab.

3. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THESE LINES TAKEN FROM THE STORY.

A businessman, sire. Yes, a businessman. I have brought you a gift.

a. The moneylender

b. To the Nawab

c. The moneylender nearly tells the Nawab that he is a moneylender, then when the word is half out, he stops. He realizes that the Nawab will think if he is a moneylender, he has plenty of money. So he changes the word to businessman and repeats it to make sure the Nawab has heard properly.

d. He has brought a horse because he thinks the Nawab will then give him an even more valuable present in return.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH ONE OF THE WORDS GIVEN IN THE BOX.

a. hum b. howl c. neigh d. hiss e. roar f. trumpet

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

1. ADD NOT TO THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. YOU MAY HAVE TO MAKE SOME OTHER CHANGES TOO.

a. The Wazir did not talk to the woman.

b. I have not brought him a present.

c. The moneylender did not travel home.

d. The old woman does not wish to see you.

e. You did not say they were good onions. (You said they were not good onions.)

2. COMPLETE THE CHART USING THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERBS.

 a. get got got

b. see saw seen

c. find found found

d. come came come

e. shake shook shaken

3. USE SUITABLE ADVERBS IN PLACE OF THE UNDERLINED WORDS.

a. badly b. easily c. bravely d. quickly e. hurriedly.

UNIT: NURUDDIN UNCLE 125-127  PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  What does Nuruddin Uncle wear?
ANSWER: a. Nuruddin Uncle wears a pair of spectacles, a kurta, a waistcoat, and shoes.               
QUESTION:b          Why is the boy not frightened by the stories?
ANSWER:  b. The boy is not frightened of the stories because he is sitting next to Nuruddin Uncle.
QUESTION:c           What happens when  the last story has been told?
ANSWER:             c. When the last story has been told, Nuruddin Uncle smiles and says goodbye. Then he waves his stick and laughs.
QUESTION:d                    What kind of man is Nuruddin Uncle? Say what qualities he has giving examples from the poem?
ANSWER:       d. He is interesting, kind, creative, and cheerful.

2. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS LINE TAKEN FROM THE POEM. They ring in my head the whole night long.

a. The stories Nuruddin Uncle tells.

b. The stories are compared to music (and drums or bells).

c. They keep repeating themselves, and are remembered, just like when a bell rings and the sound continues for a long time afterwards.

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

1. HERE ARE SOME USEFUL VERBS. They have special uses. Read them aloud and make your own sentences.

2. WRITE SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN, USING THE VERBS ABOVE.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

Join the following sentences using which.

a. This is the pen which I sold to you last week.

b. This is the letter which I sent to my mother.

c. This is the rice which I bought yesterday.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. FIND TWO RHYMING WORDS IN THE POEM FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING.

a. lunch, munch (hunch, bunch)

b. goes, nose (pose, throws, toes)

c. tall, all (ball, call, hall) • Here are some more words: crew, blue, too (grew, you, shoe); mould, old, gold (bold, sold, rolled); flies, wise, eyes (dies, lies)

2. ADD AT LEAST ONE RHYMING WORD (NOT IN THE POEM) TO EACH SET ABOVE. Read the sets of words aloud.

UNIT:  BROTHER BENT-NOSE PAGE:128-129

The end

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