AFGHANISTAN                                                                                                                                    Afghan Persian / Dari (official) 50%, Pashtu (official) 35%, Turkic languages (Uzbek & Turkmen etc) 11%, 30  ( Balochi & Pashai ETC )

ALBANIA                                                                                                                                      Albanian (official ), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects

ALGERIA                                                                                                                                            Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

AMERICAN SAMOA                                                                                                                        Samoan 90.6% (closely related to Hawaiian & other Polynesian languages), English 2.9%, Tongan 2.4%, other Pacific isl & er 2.1%, other 2%

ANDOR                                                                                                                                        Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

ANGOLA                                                                                                                                      Portuguese (official), Bantu & other African languages

ANGUILLA                                                                                                                                          English (official)

ANTIGUA & BAR BUDA                                                                                                         English (official), local dialects

ARGENTINA                                                                                                                                      Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

ARMENIA                                                                                                                                     Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)

ARUBA                                                                                                                                                           Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish.

AUSTRALIA                                                                                                                                                                                            English 79.1%, Chinese 2.1%, Italian 1.9%, other 11.1%, unspecified 5.8% (2001 Census)

AUSTRIA                                                                                                                                               German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland).

AZERBAIJAN                                                                                                                                          Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

BAHAMAS, THE                                                                                                                             English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

BAHRAIN                                                                                                                                                    Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

BANGLADESH                                                                                                                           Bangla/ Bengali (official), English

BARBADOS                                                                                                                                                      English

BELARUS                                                                                                                                                                             Belarusian, Russian, other

BELGIUM                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%.

BELIZE                                                                                                                                                       English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole

BENIN                                                                                                                                                    French (official), Fon & Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages six .

BERMUDA                                                                                                                                       English (official), Portuguese

BHUTAN                                                                                                                                      Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

BOLIVIA                                                                                                                                         Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

BOSINIA AND HERZEGOVINA                                                                                          Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

BOTSWANA                                                                                                                                   Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1% (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% .

BRAZIL                                                                                                                                           Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

BRITHS VIRJIN ISLANDS                                                                                                    English (official)

BRUNEI                                                                                                                                                         Malay (official), English, Chinese

BULGARIA                                                                                                                                        Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other & unspecified 1.8%

BURKINA FASO                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90%.

BURMA                                                                                                                                                   Burmese, many other languages

BURUNDI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili ( Tanganyika &  Bujumbura )

CAMBODIA                                                                                                                                         Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

CAMEROON                                                                                                                                                                                24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)

CANADA CANADA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%

CAPE VERDE                                                                                                                                                                                  Portuguese, Crioulo

CAYMAN ISLANDS                                                                                                                        English

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC                                                                                                                                                                                                                        French (official), Sangho , tribal languages

CHAD French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), and 120 languages

CHILI Spanish

CHINA                                                                                                                                                              Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages

CHRISTMAS ISLAND                                                                                                                                      English (official), Chinese, Malay

COCOS (Keeling) ISLANDS                                                                                                        Malay (Cocos dialect), English

COLOBIA                                                                                                                                                                    Spanish

COMOROS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro

CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           French (official), Lingala , Kingwana , Kikongo, Tshiluba

CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE                                                                                                        French (official), Lingala & Monokutuba , many local languages.

COOK ISLANDS                                                                                                                            English (official), Maori

COSTA RICA                                                                                                                                                            Spanish (official), English

CROATIA                                                                                                                                                      Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other & undesignated 2.9% (Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, & German)

CUBA                                                                                                                                              Spanish

CYPRUS                                                                                                                                                Greek, Turkish, English

CZECH REPEBLIC                                                                                                                                             Czech

CÔTE D’IVOIRE                                                                                                                                             French (official), 60% Dioula

DENMARK                                                                                                                                         Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic, German (small minority)

DJIBOUTI                                                                                                                                                French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

DOMINICA     ( (دومینیکا                                                                                                                                     English (official), French patois

DOMINICAN REPEBLIC                                                                                                     Spanish

EAST TIMOR                                                                                                                                         Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English

ECUADOR                                                                                                                                      Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)

EGYPT                                                                                                                                               Arabic (official), English & French widely understood by educated classes

EL SALVADOR                                                                                                                                    Spanish, Nahua

EQUATORIAL GUINEA                                                                                                                           Spanish (official), French (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

ERITREA                                                                                                                                                Afar, Arabic, Tigre & Kunama, Tigrinya,

ESTONIA                                                                                                                                         Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%,

ETHIOPIA                                                                                                                               Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, English

FALAK AND ISLANDS (ISLAS MALVINAS)                                                                                            English


Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish


English (official), Fijian, Hindustani


Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official),


French 100%,  regional dialects & languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

FRENCH GUIANA                                                                                                                              French

FRENCH POLYNESIA                                                                                                                   French 61.1% (official), Polynesian 31.4% (official), Asian languages 1.2%,

GABON                                                                                                                                                 French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, B&jabi

GAMBIA, THE                                                                                                                                        English (official), M&inka, Wolof, Fula,

GAZA STRIP                                                                                                                                        Arabic, Hebrew , English

GEORGIA                                                                                                                                           Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%,

GERMANY                                                                                                                                         German

GHANA                                                                                                                                               English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, & Ga)

GIBRALTAR                                                                                                                                   English (used in schools & for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

GREECE                                                                                                                                                                             Greek 99% (official), English, French

GREENLAND                                                                                                                            Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English

GRENADA                                                                                                                                        English (official), French patois

GUADELOUPE                                                                                                                                                  French (official) 99%, Creole patois

GUAM                                                                                                                                                      English 38.3%, Chamorro 22.2%, Philippine languages 22.2%, other Pacific island languages 6.8%, Asian languages 7%,

GUATEMALA                                                                                                                                    Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, & Xinca)

GUERNSEY                                                                                                                                                                             English, French, Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts

GUINEA                                                                                                                                                          French (official),

GUINEA-BISSAU                                                                                                                     Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languages

GUYANA                                                                                                                                               English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Hindi, Urdu

HAITI                                                                                                                                               French (official), Creole (official)

HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY)                                                                                                               Italian, Latin, French,

HONDURAS                                                                                                                                          Spanish,

HONG KONG                                                                                                                                      Chinese (Cantonese), English; both are official

HUNGARY                                                                                                                             Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)

ICELAND                                                                                                                                     Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German

INDIA                                                                                                                                                English ; Hindi   30% of the people; 14 other : Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, & Sanskrit; Hindustani .

INDONESIA                                                                                                                                              Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the Javanese

IRAN                                                                                                                                                    Persian & Persian dialects 58%, Turkic & Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%

IRAQ                                                                                                                                                          Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian

IRELAND                                                                                                                                       English (official) is the language generally used, Irish (official) (Gaelic or Gaeilge) spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard

ISRAEL                                                                                                                                       Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English

ITALY                                                                                                                                                           Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region ), French (small French- in Valle d’Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene- in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

JAMAICA                                                                                                                                       English, patois English

JAPAN                                                                                                                                          Japanese

JERSEY                                                                                                                                        English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)

JORDAN                                                                                                                                                        Arabic (official), English among upper & middle classes

KAZAKHSTAN                                                                                                                                             Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official) 95%

KENYA                                                                                                                                               English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

KIRIBATI                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I-Kiribati, English (official)

KOREA, NORTH                                                                                                                             Korean

KOREA, SOUTH                                                                                                                                  Korean, English

KUWAIT                                                                                                                                          Arabic (official), English widely spoken

KYRGYZSTAN                                                                                                                             Kyrgyz (official), Russian (official)

LAOS                                                                                                                                                   Lao (official), French, English, & various ethnic languages

LATVIA                                                                                                                                                    Latvian (official) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian & other 4.3%

LEBANON                                                                                                                                       Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian

LESOTHO                                                                                                                                        Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa

LIBERIA                                                                                                                                                           English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages,

LIBYA                                                                                                                                                Arabic, Italian, English,

LIECHTENSTEIN                                                                                                                            German (official), Alemannic dialect

LITHUANIA                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other & unspecified 4.4%

LUXEMBOURG                                                                                                                      Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)

MACAU                                                                                                                                           Cantonese 87.9%, Hokkien 4.4%, M&arin 1.6%, other Chinese dialects 3.1%, other 3%

MACEDONIA, REPUBLIC of                                                                                                Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8%

MADAGASCAR                                                                                                                                   French (official), Malagasy (official)

MALAWI                                                                                                                                          Chichewa 57.2% (official), Chinyanja 12.8%, Chiyao 10.1%, Chitumbuka 9.5%, Chisena 2.7%, Chilomwe 2.4%, Chitonga 1.7%, other 3.6%

MALAYSIA                                                                                                                                        Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese, M&arin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai

MALDIVES                                                                                                                                                 Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most government officials

MALI                                                                                                                                                                            French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

MALTA                                                                                                                                              Maltese (official), English (official)

MAN, ISLE of                                                                                                                                          English, Manx Gaelic

MARSHALL ISLANDS                                                                                                                Marshallese 98.2%, other languages 1.8%

MARTINIQUE                                                                                                                                 French, Creole patois

MAURITANIA                                                                                                                                         Arabic (official), Pulaar, Soninke, French, Hassaniya, Wolof

MAURITIUS                                                                                                                                          French Creole(French patois) 80.5% French creole , Bhojpuri 12.1%, French (official), other 3.7%, unspecified 0.3%

MAYOTTE                                                                                                                                     Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French (official language) spoken by 35%

MEXICO                                                                                                                                      Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, & other regional indigenous languages

MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES of                                                                                                                                                                                                        English (official & common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi

MOLDOVA                                                                                                                                       Moldovan (official, same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

MONACO                                                                                                                                             French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

MONGOLIA                                                                                                                             Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian

MONTSERRAT                                                                                                                           English

MOROCCO                                                                                                                                   Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French

MOZAMBIQUE                                                                                                                            Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27%), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3%

NAMIBIA                                                                                                                                                   English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language , German 32%, indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama

NAURU                                                                                                                                           Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, & used for most government & commercial purposes

NEPAL                                                                                                                                              Nepali 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5%

NETHERLANDS                                                                                                                                                         Dutch (official), Frisian (official)

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES                                                                                                        Papiamento 65.4% (a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect), English 15.9% (widely spoken), Dutch 7.3% (official), Spanish 6.1%, Creole 1.6%, other 1.9%, unspecified 1.8%

NEW CALEDONIA                                                                                                                      French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

NEW ZEALAND                                                                                                                               English (official), Maori (official)

NICARAGUA                                                                                                                                          Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8%

NIGER                                                                                                                                                French (official), Hausa, Djerma

NIGERIA                                                                                                                                        English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani

NIUE                                                                                                                                                  Niuean, a Polynesian like Tongan & Samoan; English


English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century English & ancient Tahitian

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS                                                                                      Philippine languages 24.4%, Chinese 23.4%, Chamorro 22.4%, English 10.8%, other Pacific isl& languages 9.5%, other 9.6%

NORWAY                                                                                                                                               Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- & Finnish-speaking

OMAN                                                                                                                                                                Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects

PAKISTAN                                                                                                                                                      Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English , Burushaski, & other 8%

PALAU                                                                                                                                               Palauan 64.7% official in all islands except Sonsoral (Sonsoralese & English official), Tobi (Tobi & English are official), & Angaur (Angaur, Japanese, & English are official), Filipino 13.5%, English 9.4%, Chinese 5.7%, Carolinian 1.5%, Japanese 1.5%, other Asian 2.3%, other languages 1.5%

PALISTINE                                                                                                                                   Arabic (official), Hebrew, French

PANAMA                                                                                                                                     Spanish (official), English 14%; note – many Panamanians bilingual

PAPUA NEW GUINEA                                                                                                               Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2%, Motu spoken in Papua region

PARAGUAY                                                                                                                                                 Spanish (official), Guarani (official)

PERU                                                                                                                                                   Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, & a large number of minor Amazonian languages

PHILIPPINES                                                                                                                                          2 official languages – Filipino (based on Tagalog) & English; eight major dialects – Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, & Pangasinan

PITCAIRN ISLANDS                                                                                                                                                   English (official), Pitcairnese (mixture of an 18th century English dialect & a Tahitian dialect)

POLAND                                                                                                                                              Polish 97.8%, other & unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)

PORTUGAL                                                                                                                                               Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official – but locally used)

PUERTO RICO                                                                                                                                 Spanish, English

QATAR                                                                                                                                                 Arabic (official), English

ROMANIA                                                                                                                                    Romanian (official), Hungarian, German

RUSSIA                                                                                                                                                Russian, many minority languages


Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili)

RÉUNION                                                                                                                                   French (official), Creole widely used

SAINT HELENA                                                                                                                                  English

SAINT KITTS & NEVIS                                                                                                               English

SAINT LUCIA                                                                                                                                 English (official), French patois

SAINT PIERRE & MIQUELON                                                                                                     French (official)

SAINT VINCENT & THE GRENADINES                                                                             English, French patois

SAMOA                                                                                                                                        Samoan (Polynesian), English

SAN MARINO                                                                                                                                     Italian

SAUDI ARABIA                                                                                                                                Arabic ,English Urdu and many other languages

SENEGAL                                                                                                                                             French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka

SERBIA & MONTENEGRO                                                                                                                              Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%

SEYCHELLES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Creole 91.8%, English 4.9% (official), other 3.1%, unspecified 0.2%

SIERRA LEONE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          English (official), Mende (in the south), Temne ( in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, a lingua franca & a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)

SINGAPORE                                                                                                                                          Mandarin 35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9%

SLOVAKIA                                                                                                                                     Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6%

SLOVENIA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%

SOLOMON ISLANDS                                                                                                                    Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca; English is official but spoken by only 1%-2% of the population

SOMALIA                                                                                                                                                   Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

SOUTH AFRICA                                                                                                                                  IsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2%

SPAIN                                                                                                                                                                                   Castilian Spanish 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%; note – Castilian is the official language nationwide; the other languages are official regionally

SRI LANKA                                                                                                                                 Sinhala (official & national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%

SUDAN                                                                                                                                                   Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English

SURINAME                                                                                                                                       Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles & much of the younger population & is lingua franca among others), Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese

SVALBARD                                                                                                                                Norwegian, Russian

SWAZILAND                                                                                                                                            English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)

SWEDEN                                                                                                                                            Swedish, small Sami- & Finnish-speaking minorities

SWITZERLAND                                                                                                                                            German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 20.4%, Italian (official) 6.5%, Serbo-Croatian 1.5%, Albanian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2%, Spanish 1.1%, English 1%, other 3.3%

SYRIA                                                                                                                                                                 Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian; French, English

SÃO TOMÉ & PRÍNCIPE                                                                                                               Portuguese (official)

TAIWAN                                                                                                                                            Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects

TAJIKISTAN                                                                                                                                                    Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government & business

TANZANIA                                                                                                                                                  Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official), Arabic ( in Zanzibar), many local languages

THAILAND                                                                                                                                              Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic & regional dialects

TOGO                                                                                                                                                   French (official & the language of commerce), Ewe & Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) & Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)

TOKELAU                                                                                                                                         Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English

TONGA                                                                                                                                           Tongan, English

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO                                                                                                                      English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese

TUNISIA                                                                                                                                               Arabic (official & one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)

TURKEY                                                                                                                                            Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek

TURKMENISTAN                                                                                                                    Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

TURKS & CAICOS ISLANDS                                                                                                      English (official)

TUVALU                                                                                                                                   Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the isl& of Nui)

UGANDA                                                                                                                                              English (official), Ganda or Luga , other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic

UKRAINE                                                                                                                                                       Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%; small Romanian-, Polish-, & Hungarian-speaking minorities

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES                                                                                                                Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu

UNITED KINGDOM                                                                                                                                                                                 English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

UNITED STATES                                                                                                                                         English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian & Pacific isl& 2.7%, other 0.7%

URUGUAY                                                                                                                                                            Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)

UZBEKISTAN                                                                                                                                                                       Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

VANUATU                                                                                                                                            local languages (more than 100) 72.6%, pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama) 23.1%, English 1.9%, French 1.4%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.7%

VENEZUELA                                                                                                                                 Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects

VIETNAM                                                                                                                                      Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, & Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer & Malayo-Polynesian)

Virgin ISLANDS                                                                                                                              English 74.7%, Spanish or Spanish Creole 16.8%, French or French Creole 6.6%, other 1.9%

WALLIS & FUTUNA                                                                                                                     Wallisian 58.9% (indigenous Polynesian language), Futunian 30.1%, French 10.8%, other 0.2%


Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers & many Palestinians), English (widely understood)

WESTERN SAHARA                                                                                                                     Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

YEMEN                                                                                                                                              Arabic

ZAMBIA                                                                                                                                              English (official), major vernaculars – Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, & 70 other

ZIMBABWE                                                                                                                                                    English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects

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