A glossary of English grammatical and linguistic terms, with definitions, explanations & example sentences.

ACTIVE VOICE One of two voices in English; a direct form of expression where the subject performs or “acts” the verb; see also passive voice
eg: “Many people eat rice”
ADJECTIVE part of speech that typically describes or “modifies” a noun
eg: “It was a big dog.”
adjective clause seldom-used term for relative clause
adjunct word or phrase that adds information to a sentence and that can be removed from the sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical
eg: I met John at school.
adverb word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb
eg: quickly, really, very
adverbial clause dependent clause that acts like an adverb and indicates such things as time, place or reason
eg: Although we are getting older, we grow more beautiful each day.
AFFIRMATIVE statement that expresses (or claims to express) a truth or “yes” meaning; opposite of negative
eg: The sun is hot.
AFFIX language unit (morpheme) that occurs before or after (or sometimes within) the root or stem of a word
eg: un- in unhappy (prefix), -ness in happiness (suffix)
logical (in a grammatical sense) links between words based on tensecase or number
eg: this phone, these phones
ANTECEDENT word, phrase or clause that is replaced by a pronoun (or other substitute) when mentioned subsequently (in the same sentence or later)
eg: “Emily is nice because she brings me flowers.”
APPOSITIVE noun phrase that re-identifies or describes its neighbouring noun
eg: “Canada, a multicultural country, is recognized by its maple leaf flag.”
ARTICLE determiner that introduces a noun phrase as definite (the) or indefinite (a/an)
ASPECT feature of some verb forms that relates to duration or completion of time; verbs can have no aspect (simple), or can have continuous or progressive aspect (expressing duration), or have perfect or perfective aspect (expressing completion)
verb used with the main verb to help indicate something such as tense or voice
eg: I do not like you. She has finished. He can swim.
BARE INFINITIVE unmarked form of the verb (no indication of tense, mood, person, or aspect) without the particle “to”; typically used after modal auxiliary verbs; see also infinitive
eg: “He should come“, “I can swim
BASE FORM basic form of a verb before conjugation into tenses etc
eg: bespeak
CASE form of a pronoun based on its relationship to other words in the sentence; case can be subjectiveobjective or possessive
eg: “I love this dog”, “This dog loves me“, “This is my dog”
CAUSATIVE VERB verb that causes things to happen such as “make”, “get” and “have”; the subject does not perform the action but is indirectly responsible for it
eg: “She made me go to school”, “I had my nails painted”
CLAUSE group of words containing a subject and its verb
eg: “It was late when he arrived
form of an adjective or adverb made with “-er” or “more” that is used to show differences or similarities between two things (not three or more things)
eg: coldermore quickly
COMPLEMENT part of a sentence that completes or adds meaning to thepredicate
eg: Mary did not say where she was going.
COMPOUND NOUN noun that is made up of more than one word; can be one word, or hyphenated, or separated by a space
eg: toothbrush, mother-in-law, Christmas Day
COMPOUND SENTENCE sentence with at least two independent clauses; usually joined by a conjunction
eg: “You can have something healthy but you can’t have more junk food.”
CONCORD another term for agreement
CONDITIONAL structure in English where one action depends on another (“if-then” or “then-if” structure); most common are 1st2nd, and 3rd conditionals
eg: “If I win I will be happy”, “I would be happy if I won”
CONJUGATE to show the different forms of a verb according to voice,moodtensenumber and person; conjugation is quite simple in English compared to many other languages
eg: I walk, you walk, he/she/it walks, we walk, they walk; I walked, you walked, he/she/it walked, we walked, they walked
CONJUNCTION word that joins or connects two parts of a sentence
eg: Ram likes tea and coffee. Anthony went swimmingalthough it was raining.
CONTENT WORD word that has meaning in a sentence, such as a verb or noun (as opposed to a structure word, such as pronoun or auxiliary verb); content words are stressed in speech
eg: “Could you BRING my GLASSES because I’ve LEFTthem at HOME
verb form (specifically an aspect) indicating actions that are in progress or continuing over a given time period (can be past, present or future); formed with “BE” + “VERB-ing”
eg: “They are watching TV.”
CONTRACTION shortening of two (or more) words into one
eg: isn’t (is not), we’d’ve (we would have)
COUNTABLE NOUN thing that you can count, such as apple, pen, tree (seeuncountable noun)
eg: one apple, three pens, ten trees
DANGLING PARTICIPLE illogical structure that occurs in a sentence when a writer intends to modify one thing but the reader attaches it to another
eg: “Running to the bus, the flowers were blooming.” (In the example sentence it seems that the flowers were running.)
DECLARATIVE SENTENCE sentence type typically used to make a statement (as opposed to a question or command)
eg: “Tara works hard”, “It wasn’t funny”
relative clause that contains information required for the understanding of the sentence; not set off with commas; see also non-defining clause
eg: “The boy who was wearing a blue shirt was the winner”
pronoun or determiner that indicates closeness to (this/these) or distance from (that/those) the speaker
eg: “This is a nice car”, “Can you see those cars?”
DEPENDENT CLAUSE part of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb but does not form a complete thought and cannot stand on its own; see also independent clause
eg: “When the water came out of the tap…”
DETERMINER word such as an article or a possessive adjective or other adjective that typically comes at the beginning of noun phrases
eg: “It was an excellent film”, “Do you like my new shirt?”, “Let’s buy some eggs”
DIRECT SPEECH saying what someone said by using their exact words; see also indirect speech
eg: “Lucy said: ‘I am tired.'”
DIRECT OBJECT noun phrase in a sentence that directly receives the action of the verb; see also indirect object
eg: “Joey bought the car“, “I like it“, “Can you see the man wearing a pink shirt and waving a gun in the air?”
EMBEDDED QUESTION question that is not in normal question form with a question mark; it occurs within another statement or question and generally follows statement structure
eg: “I don’t know where he went,” “Can you tell me where it is before you go?”, “They haven’t decided whether they should come
FINITE VERB verb form that has a specific tense, number and person
eg: I work, he works, we learned, they ran
FIRST CONDITIONAL “if-then” conditional structure used for future actions or events that are seen as realistic possibilities
eg: “If we win the lottery we will buy a car”
FRAGMENT incomplete piece of a sentence used alone as a complete sentence; a fragment does not contain a complete thought; fragments are common in normal speech but unusual (inappropriate) in formal writing
eg: “When’s her birthday? – In December“, “Will they come? – Probably not
FUNCTION purpose or “job” of a word form or element in a sentence
eg: The function of a subject is to perform the action. One function of an adjective is to describe a noun. The function of a noun is to name things.
tense* used to describe things that will happen in the future at a particular time; formed with WILL + BE + VERB-ing
eg: “I will be graduating in September.”
FUTURE PERFECT tense* used to express the past in the future; formed with WILL HAVE + VERB-ed
eg: “I will have graduated by then”
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS tense* used to show that something will be ongoing until a certain time in the future; formed with WILL HAVE BEEN + VERB-ing
eg: “We will have been living there for three months by the time the baby is born”
FUTURE SIMPLE tense* used to describe something that hasn’t happened yet such as a prediction or a sudden decision; formed with WILL + BASE VERB
eg: “He will be late”, “I will answer the phone”
GENITIVE CASE case expressing relationship between nouns (possession, origin, composition etc)
eg: “John’s dog“, “door of the car“, “children’s songs“, “pile of sand
GERUND noun form of a verb, formed with VERB-ing
eg: “Walking is great exercise”
GRADABLE ADJECTIVE adjective that can vary in intensity or grade when paired with a grading adverb ; see also non-gradable adjective
eg: quite hot, very tall
GRADING ADVERB adverb that can modify the intensity or grade of a gradable adjective
eg: quite hot, very tall
HANGING PARTICIPLE another term for dangling participle
HELPING VERB another term for auxiliary verb
IMPERATIVE form of verb used when giving a command; formed with BASE VERB only
eg: “Brush your teeth!”
INDEFINITE PRONOUN pronoun does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and “not definite”.
eg: anythingeachmanysomebody
group of words that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence; see also dependent clause
eg: “Tara is eating curry.“, “Tara likes oranges and Joe likes apples.”
INDIRECT OBJECT noun phrase representing the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb; see also direct object
eg: “She showed me her book collection”, “Joey bought his wife a new car”
INDIRECT QUESTION another term for embedded question
saying what someone said without using their exact words; see direct speech
eg: “Lucy said that she was tired
INFINITIVE base form of a verb preceded by “to”**; see also bare infinitive
eg: “You need to study harder”, “To be, or not to be: that is the question”
INFLECTION change in word form to indicate grammatical meaning
eg: dogdogs (two inflections); taketakestooktaking,taken (five inflections)
INTERJECTION common word that expresses emotion but has no grammatical value; can often be used alone and is often followed by an exclamation mark
eg: “Hi!”, “er”, “Ouch!”, “Dammit!”
INTERROGATIVE (formal) sentence type (typically inverted) normally used when asking a question
eg: “Are you eating?”, “What are you eating?”
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN pronoun that asks a question.
eg: whowhomwhich
INTRANSITIVE VERB verb that does not take a direct object; see also transitive verb
e.g. “He is working hard”, “Where do you live?”
INVERSION any reversal of the normal word order, especially placing the auxiliary verb before the subject; used in a variety of ways, as in question formation, conditional clauses and agreement or disagreement
eg: “Where are your keys?”,”Had we watched the weather report, we wouldn’t have gone to the beach”, “So did he”, “Neither did she”
verb that has a different ending for past tense and past participle forms than the regular “-ed”; see also regular verb
eg: buy, boughtbought; do, diddone
LEXICON, LEXIS all of the words and word forms in a language with meaning or function
LEXICAL VERB another term for main verb
LINKING VERB verbs that connect the subject to more information (but do not indicate action), such as “be” or “seem”
MAIN CLAUSE another term for independent clause
any verb in a sentence that is not an auxiliary verb; a main verb has meaning on its own
eg: “Does John like Mary?”, “I will have arrived by 4pm”
auxiliary verb such as can, could, must, should etc; paired with the bare infinitive of a verb
eg: “I should go for a jog”
MODIFIER word or phrase that modifies and limits the meaning of another word
eg: the house => the white house, the house over there, the house we sold last year
MOOD sentence type that indicates the speaker’s view towards the degree of reality of what is being said, for example subjunctive, indicative, imperative
MORPHEME unit of language with meaning; differs from “word” because some cannot stand alone
e.g. un-, predict and –able in unpredictable
MULTI-WORD VERB verb that consists of a basic verb + another word or words (preposition and/or adverb)
eg: get up (phrasal verb), believe in (prepositional verb),get on with (phrasal-prepositional verb)
NEGATIVE form which changes a “yes” meaning to a “no” meaning; opposite of affirmative
eg: “She will not come”, “I have never seen her”
NOMINATIVE CASE another term for subjective case
relative clause that adds information but is not completely necessary; set off from the sentence with a comma or commas; see defining relative clause
eg: “The boy, who had a chocolate bar in his hand, was still hungry”
NON-GRADABLE ADJECTIVE adjective that has a fixed quality or intensity and cannot be paired with a grading adverb; see also gradable adjective
eg: freezing, boiling, dead
NON-RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSE another term for non-defining relative clause
NOUN part of speech that names a person, place, thing, quality, quantity or concept; see also proper noun and compound noun
eg: “The man is waiting”, “I was born in London“, “Is that your car?”, “Do you like music?”
NOUN CLAUSE clause that takes the place of a noun and cannot stand on its own; often introduced with words such as “that, who or whoever”
eg: “What the president said was surprising”
NOUN PHRASE (NP) any word or group of words based on a noun or pronoun that can function in a sentence as a subject, object or prepositional object; can be one word or many words; can be very simple or very complex
eg: “She is nice”, “When is the meeting?”, “The car over there beside the lampost is mine”
NUMBER change of word form indicating one person or thing (singular) or more than one person or thing (plural)
eg: one dog/three dogsshe/they
OBJECT thing or person affected by the verb; see also direct objectand indirect object
eg: “The boy kicked the ball“, “We chose the house with the red door
OBJECTIVE CASE case form of a pronoun indicating an object
eg: “John married her“, “I gave it to him
PART OF SPEECH one of the classes into which words are divided according to their function in a sentence
eg: verbnounadjective
PARTICIPLE verb form that can be used as an adjective or a noun; seepast participlepresent participle
PASSIVE VOICE one of two voices in English; an indirect form of expression in which the subject receives the action; see also active voice
eg: “Rice is eaten by many people”
tense used to talk about an action, event or situation that occurred and was completed in the past
eg: “I lived in Paris for 10 years”, “Yesterday we saw a snake”
PAST CONTINUOUS tense often used to describe an interrupted action in the past; formed with WAS/WERE + VERB-ing
eg: “I was reading when you called”
PAST PERFECT tense that refers to the past in the past; formed with HAD + VERB-ed
eg: “We had stopped the car”
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS tense that refers to action that happened in the past and continued to a certain point in the past; formed with HAD BEEN + VERB-ing
eg: “I had been waiting for three hours when he arrived”
PAST PARTICIPLE verb form (V3) – usually made by adding “-ed” to the base verb – typically used in perfect and passive tenses, and sometimes as an adjective
eg: “I have finished“, “It was seen by many people”, “boiled eggs”
PERFECT verb form (specifically an aspect); formed with HAVE/HAS + VERB-ed (present perfect) or HAD + VERB-ed (past perfect)
PERSON grammatical category that identifies people in a conversation; there are three persons: 1st person (pronouns I/me, we/us) is the speaker(s), 2nd person (pronoun you) is the listener(s), 3rd person (pronouns he/him, she/her, it, they/them) is everybody or everything else
PERSONAL PRONOUN pronoun that indicates person
eg: “He likes my dogs”, “They like him
PHRASAL VERB multi-word verb formed with a verb + adverb
eg: break upturn off (see phrasal verbs list)
NB: many people and books call all multi-word verbs “phrasal verbs” (see multi-word verbs)
PHRASE two or more words that have a single function and form part of a sentence; phrases can be noun, adjective, adverb, verb or prepositional
PLURAL of a noun or form indicating more than one person or thing; plural nouns are usually formed by adding “-s”; see alsosingularnumber
eg: bananasspoonstrees
POSITION grammatically correct placement of a word form in a phrase or sentence in relation to other word forms
eg: “The correct position for an article is at the beginning of the noun phrase that it describes”
POSITIVE basic state of an adjective or adverb when it shows quality but not comparative or superlative
eg: nicekindquickly
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE adjective (also called “determiner”) based on a pronoun: my, your, his, her, its, our, their
eg: “I lost my keys”, “She likes your car”
POSSESSIVE CASE case form of a pronoun indicating ownership or possession
eg: “Mine are blue”, “This car is hers
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN pronoun that indicates ownership or possession
eg: “Where is mine?”, “These are yours
PREDICATE one of the two main parts (subject and predicate) of asentence; the predicate is the part that is not the subject
eg: “My brother is a doctor“, “Who did you call?”, “The woman wearing a blue dress helped me
PREFIX affix that occurs before the root or stem of a word
eg: impossible, reload
PREPOSITION part of speech that typically comes before a noun phrase and shows some type of relationship between that noun phrase and another element (including relationships of time, location, purpose etc)
eg: “We sleep at night”, “I live in London”, “This is fordigging”
PREPOSITIONAL VERB multi-word verb that is formed with verb + preposition
eg: believe inlook after
PRESENT PARTICIPLE -ing form of a verb (except when it is a gerund or verbal noun)
eg: “We were eating“, “The man shouting at the back is rude”, “I saw Tara playing tennis”
PRESENT SIMPLE (ALSO CALLED “SIMPLE PRESENT”) tense usually used to describe states and actions that are general, habitual or (with the verb “to be”) true right now; formed with the basic verb (+ s for 3rd person singular)
eg: “Canada sounds beautiful”, “She walks to school”, “Iam very happy”
PRESENT CONTINUOUS(ALSO CALLED “PRESENT PROGRESSIVE”) tense used to describe action that is in process now, or a plan for the future; formed with BE + VERB-ing
eg: “We are watching TV”, “I am moving to Canada next month”
PRESENT PERFECT tense that connects the past and the present, typically used to express experience, change or a continuing situation; formed with HAVE + VERB-ed
eg: “I have worked there”, “John has broken his leg”, “How long have you been in Canada?”
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS tense used to describe an action that has recently stopped or an action continuing up to now; formed with HAVE + BEEN + VERB-ing
eg: “I’m tired because I‘ve been running“, “He has been living in Canada for two years”
PROGRESSIVE another term for continuous
PRONOUN word that replaces a noun or noun phrase; there are several types including personal pronounsrelative pronouns andindefinite pronouns
eg: youhehimwhowhichsomebodyanything
PROPER NOUN noun that is capitalized at all times and is the name of a person, place or thing
PUNCTUATION standard marks such as commas, periods and question marks within a sentence
eg: , . ? ! – ; :
QUANTIFIER determiner or pronoun that indicates quantity
eg: somemanyall
QUESTION TAG final part of a tag question; mini-question at end of a tag question
eg: “Snow isn’t black, is it?”
QUESTION WORD another term for WH-word
RECIPROCAL PRONOUN pronoun that indicates that two or more subjects are acting mutually; there are two in English – each other, one another
eg: “John and Mary were shouting at each other“, “The students accused one another of cheating”
construction similar to a relative clause, but containing aparticiple instead of a finite verb; this construction is possible only under certain circumstances
eg: “The woman sitting on the bench is my sister”, “The people arrested by the police have been released”
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN pronoun ending in -self or -selves, used when the subject and object are the same, or when the subject needs emphasis
eg: “She drove herself“, “I’ll phone her myself
verb that has “-ed” as the ending for past tense and past participle forms; see also irregular verb
eg: work, worked, worked
RELATIVE ADVERB adverb that introduces a relative clause; there are four in English: wherewhenwhereverwhenever; see alsorelative pronoun
RELATIVE CLAUSE dependent clause that usually starts with a relative pronounsuch as who or which, or relative adverb such as where
eg: “The person who finishes first can leave early” (defining), “Texas, where my brother lives, is big” (non-defining)
RELATIVE PRONOUN pronoun that starts a relative clause; there are five in English: whowhomwhosewhichthat; see also relative adverb
REPORTED SPEECH another term for indirect speech
RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSE another term for defining relative clause
SECOND CONDITIONAL “if-then” conditional structure used to talk about an unlikely possibility in the future
eg: “If we won the lottery we would buy a car”
SENTENCE largest grammatical unit; a sentence must always include asubject (except for imperatives) and predicate; a written sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop/period (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!); a sentence contains a complete thought such as a statement, question, request or command
eg: “Stop!”, “Do you like coffee?”, “I work.”
SERIES list of items in a sentence
eg: “The children ate popsicles, popcorn and chips
SINGULAR of a noun or form indicating exactly one person or thing; singular nouns are usually the simplest form of the noun (as found in a dictionary); see also pluralnumber
eg: bananaspoontree
SPLIT INFINITIVE situation where a word or phrase comes between the particle “to” and the verb in an infinitive; considered poor construction by some
eg: “He promised to never lie again”
STANDARD ENGLISH (S.E.) “normal” spelling, pronunciation and grammar that is used by educated native speakers of English
STRUCTURE WORD word that has no real meaning in a sentence, such as a pronoun or auxiliary verb (as opposed to a content word, such as verb or noun); structure words are not normally stressed in speech
eg: “Could you BRING my GLASSES because I’ve LEFTthem at HOME”
SUBJECT one of the two main parts (subject and predicate) of asentence; the subject is the part that is not the predicate; typically, the subject is the first noun phrase in a sentenceand is what the rest of the sentence “is about”
eg: “The rain water was dirty”, “Mary is beautiful”, “Whosaw you?”
case form of a pronoun indicating a subject
eg: Did she tell you about her?
SUBJUNCTIVE fairly rare verb form typically used to talk about events that are not certain to happen, usually something that someone wants, hopes or imagines will happen; formed with BARE INFINITIVE (except past of “be”)
eg: “The President requests that John attend the meeting”
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE another term for dependent clause
SUFFIX affix that occurs after the root or stem of a word
eg: happiness, quickly
SUPERLATIVE,SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVE adjective or adverb that describes the extreme degree of something
eg: happiestmost quickly
SVO subject-verb-object; a common word order where the subject is followed by the verb and then the object
eg: “The man crossed the street”
SYNTAX sentence structure; the rules about sentence structure
TAG QUESTION special construction with statement that ends in a mini-question; the whole sentence is a tag question; the mini-question is a question tag; usually used to obtain confirmation
eg: “The Earth is round, isn’t it?”, “You don’t eat meat, do you?”
TENSE form of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past, present or future). Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when the action happens. The “present continuous tense”, for example, can be used to talk about the present or the future.
THIRD CONDITIONAL “if-then” conditional structure used to talk about a possible event in the past that did not happen (and is therefore now impossible)
eg: “If we had won the lottery we would have bought a car”
TRANSITIVE VERB action verb that has a direct object (receiver of the action); see also intransitive verb
eg: “The kids always eat a snack while they watch TV”
thing that you cannot count, such as substances or concepts; see also countable nouns
eg: waterfurnituremusic
USAGE way in which words and constructions are normally used in any particular language
V1, V2, V3 referring to Verb 1, Verb 2, Verb 3 – being the base, past and past participle that students typically learn for irregular verbs
eg: speak, spoke, spoken
VERB word that describes the subject‘s action or state and that we can change or conjugate based on tense and person
eg: (to) work, (to) love, (to) begin
VOICE form of a verb that shows the relation of the subject to the action; there are two voices in English: activepassive
WH-QUESTION question using a WH-word and expecting an answer that is not “yes” or “no”; WH-questions are “open” questions; see also yes-no question
eg: Where are you going?
word that asks a WH-question; there are 7 WH-words: who, what, where, when, which, why, how
WORD ORDER order or sequence in which words occur within a sentence; basic word order for English is subject-verb-object or SVO
YES-NO QUESTION question to which the answer is yes or no; yes-no questions are “closed” questions; see also WH-question
eg: “Do you like coffee?”
ZERO CONDITIONAL “if-then” conditional structure used when the result of the condition is always true (based on fact)
eg: “If you dial O, the operator comes on”

* note that technically English does not have a real future tense
** some authorities consider the base form of the verb without “to” to be the true infinitive


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