A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1Write a short note on the “universe”


The universe is a limitless space including the earth and its creatures, the sky, the stars, planets, steroids and all existing things. The universe is very vast.

The world we see around us is just a tiny part of the limitless universe.

Q No.2 What is the solar system and how did it come into being? Also write down the names of the heavenly bodies included in the solar system?

                 SOLAR SYSTEM

The sun and the planets revolving around it form the solar system.


The solar system came into being in the result of the near-collision a star with our sun. This star came so close to our sun the it burst away and took the shape of planets. But the gravitainol pull of our sun allowed them to move round and round our sun. When it broke away it was intensly hot. As time passed it’s surface cooled down and took the shape of various came in about 13.7 billion years ago.

                   HEAVENLY BODIES

The solar system includes the following nine planets which move around the sun.

1. Mercury 2. Venus 3. Earth 4. Mars 5. Jupiter 6. Saturn      7. Uranus 8. Neptune 9. Pluto

Q No.3write a brief note on each of the meber planets of the solar system?


Mercury is the nearest planet to the sun. It is also the smallest one in the solar system. It is at a distance of 57.90 million kilometres from the sun. The diameter of Mercury is 4990 kilometres. It has no satellite. It revolves round the sun in 88 days. Being nearest to the sun it is so hot that no life can exist on it.

2.        Venus

Venus is closer to the earth than any other planet in the solar system. Its diameter is 12112 kilometres. Thus it is about the size of the Earth. Like Mercury, Venus is also too hot to have any kind of life on it. It is surrounded by thick clouds which reflect light to make it very bright in the sky. Venus is at a distance of 108.23 million kilometres from the sun. It has no satellite. It completes its revolution round the sun in 225 days.

3.        Earth

Our Earth is the only planet in the solar system or perhaps in the whole universe where different kinds oflife can exist. Its diameter is 12756 kilometres and its distance from the sun is 149.60 million kilometres. It has one satellite, i.e. the moon. The earth revolves round the sun in 365 days six hours.

4.        Mars

The Mars is at a distance of227.70 million kilometres from the sun and its diameter is 6760 kilometres. It has two days. The photographs of the Mars surface obtained by the astronomers show deep gorges and dust heaps caused by the dust storms. There are patches of ice on its north and south poles. Water vapour has also been found on the Mars.

5.     Jupiter

Being 142,700 kilometers in diameter, Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. It is about ten times as large as our earth. It is at a distance of778.12 million kilometres from. the sun. It has 16 satellites. It revolves around the sun in 11 years. It is covered by thick gassy clouds.

6. Saturn

The diameter of Saturn is 114,310 kilometers and its distance from the sun is 1,425 million kilometers. It has 19 satellites. It completes its revolution around the sun in 29 years 168 days. Saturn is the most beautiful planet. It is also called the Red Star. It is surrounded by rings made up of millions of small rocks which circle round the planet.

7.     Uranus

Uranus is the last planet that can be seen by the naked eye. Being 52,200 kilometres in diameter it is about four times as large as our earth. It is at a distance of 2,873 million kilometers from the sun.It has 17 satellites that go around it. It completes its revolution round the sun in 84 years.

8.     Neptune

Neptune can be seen only through a telescope. Its diameter is about 49,500 kilometres and its distance from the sun is about,4,498 million kilometres. It has eight satellites. It takes’ about 165 years for the Neptune to complete its revolution around the sun.

Q No.4 How did the earth come into being? What leads us to believe that the earth is the only planet where various kinds of life exist?
QNo.5   Describe the structureof the earth and write down the characteristics of the layes of the earth.

Structure of the earth can be divided into three main layers.


The solid outer portion of the earth is known as its crust. It is made up of clay, sand, vegetable refuse, soil, marsh etc. The depth of the crust is different at different places. Its average thickness is about 35 kilometres.

2.      Mantle

The mantle lies just below the earth’s crust. The inner part ofthe mantle is more densely compressed than its the upper part. The mantle is the thickest of the three layers of the earth. Its thickness is about 2,900 kilometres. This portion consists of magnesium and silica. These rocks are lighter than the rocks of nickel andiron.

3.      Core

The core is the most interior or the central part of the earth. It lies below the mantle. It is believed to be a mass of iron and nickel. Its thickness is about 2,250 kilometres. The upper rim of the core is under less pressure. This part of the earth is so hot that the rocks. found here are in a molten form.
However, some rocks in the core of the earth are under such a great pressure that they have resumed the solid shape.

Q No.6:Why is the core of the earth very hot?


               The core is the most interior or the central part of the earth. It lies below the mantle. It is believed to be a mass of iron and nickel. Its thickness is about 2,250 kilometres. The upper rim of the core is under less pressure. This part of the earth is so hot that the rocks. found here are in a molten form.
However, some rocks in the core of the earth are under such a great pressure that they have resumed the solid shape.

Q No.7Account for the changes that occurred in the structure of the earth during its cooling period?

During the cooling period the earth passed through many dramatic changes,
Disturbances that took place in the interior of the earth caused the crust to crumble and crack. As a result the soft rocks turned into fold-mountains. The hard and resistant rocks did not fold on cooling, but they broke forming cracks to be known as faults and depressions. These depressions were filled with water to form the seas and oceans.

On the upfolds, the rain W ater flowed downwards and the rivers were formed. The rocks were eroded by the running waters of rivers thus pebbles and sand were formed.

These pebbles and sand, along with rivers, were carried and spread on the bottom ofthe sea.

Gradually vast plains were formed. The rising waves of the seas beat the rocky shores with heavy strokes and thus the coastal plains came into being.

Q No.8How did the moon come into being? What do you know about the surface of the moon?
Q No.9 Explain for the different phases of the moon?


During a month the moon appears in different forms. These forms are called the phases ofthe moon.

The different phases of the moon are due to its revolution around the earth.
The moon completes its revolution around the earth in about 28 days. The new moon appears after the lapse of29 or 30 days, which are the days of the lunar months. There are 355 days in a lunar year.

CRESCENT: The moon when appears in the first night of the lunar month, is called the crescent. The crescent is very thin and soon it disappears.

The crescent is the first phase of the moon. Its size increases night after night.

HALF MOON: In the seventh night it becomes the half moon.

FULL MOON:In the fourteenth night we see it as full moon.

Then the moon begins to decrease and it starts rising a little later every night and keeps shining till morning.

On the 21 st night once again we see the half moon. It goes on decreasing till it disappears a night before the appearing of the new moon.

Actually the size of the moon does not increase or decrease, but we can see only the part of the moon which is lit up by the rays of the sun.

Q No.10 How are the solar eclipse and the lunar eclipse caused?

You have learnt that the earth and the moon are made up of the solid rocks. The rays of light cannot pass through these rocks. The earth and the moon become bright when the rays of the Sunlight sun fall on them.

Sometimes it so happens that the moon, while revolving round the earth, takes such a position that it comes between the sun and the earth and the three heavenly bodies form a straight line. In such a case as the rays of the sun cannot reach the earth, the sun disappears.

This disappearance of the sun is called solar eclipse.

The eclipse can be noticed only on the parts of the earth from which the sunlight has been cut off.

We have partial solar eclipse at a place where a part of the sun disappears. We have a total eclipse of the sun at a place where the entire disc ofthe sun disappears.


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers:(1-countless)(2-sun)(3-solar system)(4- Mercury)(5- Venus)(6-12756)(7-365 days +six hours)(8- Saturn)(9- Uranus)(10- Pluto)(11- sun)(12-12)(13- crust)(14- oxygen)(15- phases)


C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-d) (2-b) (3-a) (4-d) (5-a) (6-a) (7-d) (8-a)
  D. Write ‘T’   (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-F)(2-T)(3-T)(4-F)(5-T)(6-F)(7-F)(8-T)(9-F)(10-T)
       E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘B’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’ according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1-without the sun)(2-the solid rocks)(3-about 35 kilometres)(4-2,900 km)(5-2250 km)(6-the crescent) (7national emblem) (8-the solid rocks) (9-solar eclipse)



A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1Describe the distribution of water and land on earth. Name the continents and oceans of the world?



On the earth there are seven big land masses called continents. These continents are
named as Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica.

Q No.2How did the continents come into being?
Q No.3 What do you know about the sea vegetation?


Just as on land, there are trees, plants, sea-weeds and grasses in oceans. The sea vegetation is, however, of different type from that found on land.
The sea plants also need the heat and light of sun and some sort of gas to breathe in; That is why the vegetation in oceans isfound up to the depth where sunlight can reach.

The sea plants can adapt themselves according to the environment in water They can flourish even where the sunlight is in a very small quantity.


There is no change of seasons in the depths of oceans. The sea vegetation can live in the same environment for thousands of years and do not become the subject of autumn or spring or spring.

Sea weeds and grasses are now being used as fodder for cattle. Sea plants are used for the preparation of prote and for medicinal purposes.

Q No.4: Into how many types can the seabed be divided? Describe each type briefly.        
Answer: SEABED

The depth of the sea varies from place to place. According to depth the sea bed can
divided into four types.

1.Continental Shelf

The depth of the sea water near the edge of a continent is not more than 1 fathom (180 metr).

Beneath these shallow waters the sea bed is called ‘Continental Shelf. The continental shelf has a gentle slope. The areas where the coast of a continent is bordered by mountains, the continental shelf is narrow and its edge lies close to the shore-line. However, in the areas where the land the continent slopes gently to the shore-line, the gentle slope continues beneth the sea and the shelf is broad.

2.    Continental Slope

The continental shelf which is not more than 180 metres in depth at last dips steeply into the bed of the ocean. This steep slope beyond 180 meters is called the ‘Continental Slope’.

If the continental shelf is taken as a part of continent, the continental slope is then the starting point of the ocean.

3.    Ocean Floor

The ocean floor lies beyond the continental slope. The ocean floor is more than three kilometres deep in water. It receives very little of the land silt brought by rivers. There are only the marine animals one can find scattered around on the ocean floor.

4.     Sea Trenches

There are some deep gorges in some places of the ocean floor. These are called sea trenches or sea ravines.

Some sea trenches are very deep. The deepest sea trench lies in the Pacific Ocean near the Philippine Island. Here the sea is eleven kilometres deep.

Q No.5 What are the movements of the sea? Give a short description of each movement?

The water of the sea is never at rest. Sometimes it advances to the sea coast and sometimes it recedes; The rise and fall of water never comes to an end. The movements of the sea are of following kinds.


If you stand at the edge of a pond or a lake and gaze at the water for some time” you will see small ripples on the surface of water. These ripples are sometimes rising, sometimes falling, sometimes moving forward and sometimes moving backward. This movement of water is due to the blowing of the wind. The gusts of wind cause ripples on the surface of water which rises and falls and moves to’ and fro but it comes back to its previous position after pushing the water around.
Such movements of water are called waves.
Waves do not rise very high in open seas. However, near the coasts in close seas,
they can rise very high due to the coastal hurdle.

A wave rises very high when it makes its way from an open sea to a narrow sea. Waves can rise dangerously high when the wind is blowing strongly.


         For six hours the sea water advances towards the coast, and for the next six hours it gradually recedes. Thus in 24 hours, the sea water rises twice and falls twice. This advancement and recession of sea water twice in about 24 hours is called the ‘Tide’ in geographical terms.
Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. The moon pulls the sea water to itself.


There is a constant flow of water much like flow of rivers on land. A good number of such sea rivers keep on moving from one place to another.

These rivers are called the “Ocean Currents“.

The ocean currents are in a way the rivers of warm and cold water flowing in an ocean. Their banks and beds also consist of water.

Q No.6: What are the spring tides and neap tides? How many tides do take place in a day?

Spring tides are tides when the rise and fall of water is above the normal practice. This occurs at the time of the new moon and full moon. These are the days when the sun, moon and earth are in a straight line. Due to the combined pull of both the sun and the moon, the rise and fall on the two opposite sides of the earth is greater than the average.
Naturally at that time the low tides on the other two opposite sides of the earth are lower than the average.

The 7th and the 21st days of the lunar month are the days when we see the half moon. One these days both the sun and moon pull the earth at a right angle to each other.
This position of the two bodies (sun and moon) lessen each other’s force of tide raising to some extent. As the tide raising force of moon, which is more important, is lessened, a high tide is much below the average height and a low tide is higher than the average.
Thus there is a less difference between the high tide and the low tide. Such tides are known as neap tides.

Q No.7 What is the importance of tides?

1. Tides keep the sea water in motion. The water in motion remains fresh and does not give unpleasant smell which is given by the standing water.

2. A tide washes away all the refuses which are generally thrown away by the people of the nearby locality.

3. Tides sometimes deposit sand and silt near the harbour and make the water shallow.

4. Tides wash away all the mud and silt deposited by the rivers near their mouths. Thus the sea harbours remain open for trade and other purposes.

5. When the tide is low the water near the river mouth is deep enough for big ships to reach the harbour. Similarly when the tide is high, big ships in the harbor can go to the open sea.

6. “High tides bring with them shells, conches and even pearls to spread them on the coast. The local people collect them and make use of them. Some people earn their living by selling different items made up of these things.

Q No.8What are the ocean currents and how are they caused?

There is a constant flow of water much like flow of rivers on land. A good number of such sea rivers keep on moving from one place to another.

These rivers are called the “Ocean Currents“.

The ocean currents are in a way the rivers of warm and cold water flowing in an ocean. Their banks and beds also consist of water.

HOW OCEAN CURRENTS ARE CAUSED The chief causes ofthe ocean currents are as follows:

1.   Unequal distribution of Heat

Near the Equator, the sun rays fall vertically throughout the year and keep the ocean water warm. On the other hand in the polar regions the sun rays fall slantingly and there the ocean water remains cold.

According to the law of nature the warm water is lighter than the cold water and it expands whereas the cold water gets pressed down.

So waters from the equatorial regions expand and in order to keep their level begin to flow towards the poles. To fill the vacuum created by this flow, the cold waters from the polar regions begin to flow as an under current towards the equatorial regions.

Thus a cycle of warm currents and cold currents are produced.

2.    Winds

The currents of hot waters flowing from the equatorial regions to the polar regions and those-of cold water flowing from the polar regions to the equatorial regions are earth currents. If winds blow in one direction for a considerable period of time, they cause a part of the ocean water to flow in the same direction and thus the currents are produced.

The permanent trade winds blowing from east to west interfere with the course of currents from the equatorial regions to polar regions and set them in an east-west direction.

However, when these currents strike the land masses of continents in the Northern Hemisphere, they start heading towards the north. Similarly the currents that strike the land masses in the Southern Hemisphere, they start heading towards the south.

3.    Unequal Evaporation

Sometimes unequal evaporation in two neighbouring seas cause local currents.

According to the law of nature, water keeps its surface even. When a sea loses a
great deal of water by evaporation, then to make up this deficiency a current flows from another sea where the evaporation is relatively less.

Q No.9Write short notes on the following.

a.   Currents of the Atlantic Ocean b.Currents of the Pacific Ocean c.Currents ofthe Indian Ocean


There are the following nine currents:

1.        A.North Equatorial Current of the Atlantic Ocean

It is a warm current that flows in the North Atlantic Ocean. It flows in the north of the Equator from the north-western coast of Africa to the eastern coast of America. This is known as the North Equatorial current of the Atlantic Ocean.

2.        B.Gulf Stream

When the North Equatorial current of the Atlantic Ocean reaches near the eastern coast of North America, it flows northwards to join the Gulf of Mexico. After issuing out of the Mexico Gulf it is called the Gulf Stream.

It flows with the speed of 8 k/h. It has good effects on the climate of the Western Europe and Britain.

3.        C.Canary Current

When the Gulf stream reaches 45° latitude, it is split up into two streams. One stream turns north-east and flows past the coast of Britain and Norway to the Arctic Ocean. The other off-shoot of the Gulf stream, under the influence of western winds turns eastward. When it reache near the north-west coast of Africa, it turns southward. Here it is called Canary Current. The Canary Current eventually joins the North Equatorial Current thus completing a cycle of currents.

D.Arctic Ocean Drift

This is a warm water current. One off shoot of the Gulf current makes its way through U.K. and falls into the Arctic Ocean.

E.South Equatorial Current of the Atlantic Ocean

In South Atlantic too, under the trade winds, a warm current flows in the south of the Equator from east to west.

F.Brazil Current

When the South Equatorial Current of the Atlantic Ocean reaches near the coast of South America, it turns southward along the east coast of Brazil. Here it is When the Brazil Current reaches 45° latitude, it turns eastward. Here it becomes a cold current and is called ‘Benguela Current’.


They closely correspond to the currents of the Atlantic Ocean.

1.        North Equatorial Current of the Pacific Ocean

             In the North Pacific Ocean, a warm current flows in the north of the Equator from east to west under the influence of the trade winds. It is called the ‘North Equatorial Current of the Pacific Ocean’.

2.        Kuro Siwo Current

A branch ofthe North Equatorial Current of the Pacific Ocean flows northwards along the east coast of Asia and flows past the coast of Japan. This warm current is called Kuro Siwo or Japan Current.

3.        California Current

                       Reaching 45° latitude, the Kuro Siwo Current turns northeastward. Then it turns southward along the west coast of America till it reaches California where it is called the cold current of California. The California Current eventually joins the North Equatorial Current of the Pacific Ocean.

4.        South Equatorial Current of the Pacific Ocean

It is a warm current and flows in the south of the Equator from east to west under the influence of trade winds.

5.        South Wales Current

It is a warm current. It flows in the south of the Equator along the east coast of Australia andjoins the Atlantic Drift.

Q No.10 Explain how ocean currents influence the climate of a region.  

life is greatly influenced by the Ocean Currents. They exercise a good deal of influence on the climate of many parts of the world. Following are the effects of the ocean currents on climate:

1.    Temperature

The ocean currents greatly influence the temperature of the coastal areas. Warm currents raise and cold currents lower the temperature of the coastal regions along which they flow. For example, the warm Gulf Current which passes along the eastern coast of America raise the temperature of the local areas.

On the other western coast of America on the same latitude is colder due ot the cold California Currents. Thus ocean currents also help to reduce the intensity of

weather and make it mild in many parts ofthe world.


Regions influenced by warm currents receive more rainfall than those influenced by cold currents. The reason is that the winds blowing over a warm current pick up a great deal of moisture which when it condenses causes heavy rain.

On the other hand winds blowing over cold currents do not pick up so much moisture and, therefore, do not cause rain. For example, Western Europe receives heavy rain on account of the Gulf Stream, whereas the western coast of South Africa is dry on account of the cold Benguela Current.

3.Fogs and Storms

At places where the warm and cold currents meet, a variation in temperature is caused. This variation in temperature in its turn causes dense fogs and severe storms.

For example the cold Labrador Current when joins the warm Gulf stream near Newfoundland, dense fogs and hurricanes are caused.


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1-71) (2- continents)(3- Pacific )(4- Panama)(5- sunlight)(6- prote+ medicinal)(7-1)(8- North Sea+)(9- New- found land.)(10- prime+ lag)(11- vertically+ slantingly)(12- North Equatorial )(13- monsoons)(14- fogs+ storms)(15- fish)


C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-)(2-d)(3-a)(4-a)(5-b)(6-b)(7-c)(8-b)


D. Write ‘T’ (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-T)(2-T)(3-T)(4-F)(5-T)(6-F)(7-T)(8-T)(9-T)(10-T)(11-T)(12-T)


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’ according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1-180 meters in depth)(2- the continental slop)(3- the new moon and full moon)(4- in motion)(5-shells, conches and pearls)(6- from south-west to north-east)(7- from north-east to south-west )(8-do not cause rainfal)(9-cause rainfal)



A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1What are the factors which divide the world into natural regions? Of these factors which is the most important one? Also name the major natural regions of the world.

                   We can divide the world into different natural regions on the basis of physical features, climate, natural vegetation, agricultural products, animals and occupations of the people.


     Of all these factors climate is the most important one as it influences the natural vegetation, agriculture and social life of the people. While taking climate into consideration, the main importance is given to temperature. The division of the natural regions is not subject to change; it is permanent.

A natural region may include many countries, and a country may have more than one natural region.

For example the monsoon region includes the Indo-Pak subcontinent and coastal territory of middle America. These areas are located at considerable distances from one another.

On the other hand the southern part of Sri Lanka lies in the Equatorial region whereas its northern part is in the monsoon region.

However, there in no sharp line separating one natural region from the other. The change occurs gradually.


The major natural regions of the world are as follows:
1 Equatorial Region

2 Tropical Grasslands/ Savannas
3 Monsoon Region

4 Hot Desert Region

5.    MediterraneanRegion

6.    Temperate Grasslands

7.    Tundra Region

QNo.2Describe the location, climate, natural vegetation and minerals found in the Equatorial Region?


             The Equatorian Region lies on both sides of the Equator roughly between latitude 5°
north and latitude 5° south. The territories included in this region are Indonesia, Southern Malaysia, Southern Sri Lanka and Singapore in Asia, New Guinea (the western Pacific Ocean), the Congo Basin, Guinea Coast and Kenya in Africa and the Amazon Basin in South America.


Since the Equatorial Region lies on both sides of the Equator, the rays of the sun fall almost vertically all the year round, and evaporation is in great quantity. As a result the climate of this region is hot and moist throughout the year.

The average temperature for the year varies from 24° C to 28° C.

Almost everyday there is a big shower in the afternoon.
Because of excessive heat and rain the climate is not considered to be suitable for health.

Natural Vegetation

In the Equatorial region, it rains throughout the year, temperature is uniformly high and the sun shines brightly in the afternoon everyday. Thus the region offers ideal conditions for the growth of vegetation.

The trees that grow in the Equatorial Region are generally very tall. In struggle
for light and air the trees are forced to shoot up sometimes to a height of more than 70 metres. They are evergreen and continue to shed old leaves and sprout
the new ones. Moreover the trees are of many varieties.

The chief trees of the forests of the Equatorial Region are rubber, mahogany, ebony, cinchona, bread-fruit, palms, teak and on the sea-coast coconut trees.


The Equatorial region is not rich in minerals. Malaysia produces nickel. Some
reservoirs of gold are found in Ghana (Western Africa). Brazil (South America) is famous for the mines of diamonds. The Congo Basin (Africa) has, deposits of many important minerals. Columbia (North America), is known for the production of gold, silver and petrol. Indonesia also produces petrol.

Q No.3What occupations are the people of the Equatorial Region engaged in ? Also describe the agricultural products ofthe region.
Answer: People & Occupations of the Equatorial Region

The climate of the Equatorial Region is not suitable for health. The people of this
region are mostly black in complexion and short in structure.

Majority of the people of Indonesia and Malaysia are Muslims. They are industrious people. They have cleared large tracts of forests and turned them into crop fields. They
cultivate valuable crops not only to meet their domestic needs but also to export
them to other countries.

These two countries are also rich in mineral wealth. Petroleum and tin are the chief minerals found in these countries. They are making remarkable progress in industry. If these Muslim’ countries could train their manpower properly they could become great economic powers in the world.

Agricultural Products

Sunlight, high temperature and rainfall are the ideal conditions for the cultivation of crops, too.

In the areas where the dense forests have been cleared, almost all kinds of crops are being cultivated.

In Indonesia and Malaysia are cultivated the crops that require a hot and moist climate. These crops are rice, sugar-cane, coffee, Cocoa, rubber, maize, black pepper, tobacco, betels, -spices Peninsula is famous for rubber, Java for sugar and the East Indies for spices.

Q No.4: Write a short but comprehensive note on the Tropical Grasslands.

The Tropical Grasslands are also called Savannas. This region lies on both sides of the
equatorial forests. The most important area of this region is the country of Sudan (Africa). In Africa other countries that are included in this region are Niger, a part of Nigeria, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

In South America, the areas of southern Brazil and Paraguay are included in the Tropical Grasslands. In Australia the Tropical Grasslands lie in the north.


There are equatorial forests on one side of the region and deserts on the other. In summers the interior parts of the region receive moderate rain. The region has long and hot summers, and short and cool winters. Woollen clothes are never used.


During rains grass shoots up in slumps. In the region one can see the trees like
acacia and eucalyptus that can withstand the dry season of the region. Such trees are found here and there.

In some places they grow in clusters especially on the banks of streams. Such trees shed their leaves in cool and dry season.


In African grasslands there are found hoofed animals such as the antelopes, giraffes, buffaloes, zebras and elephants. The region is also the abode of wild animals like the tigers, lions, leopards and hyenas. There are also ostriches and emus in the region.


The chief and traditional occupation of the people of this region is stock raising. In the developed areas of the region like Australia and South America stock- raising is carried out on modem lines. The region exports tinned meat, hides and butter in large quantities.

The chief crops of the region are cotton, sugar-cane and maize. Brazil is known for producing coffee. The chief crops in drier areas are millets and ground-nuts.

Q No.5State the location of the Monsoon Region and the countries included in it. Also describe its climate and the agricultural crops cultivated in the region.

The Monsoon Region lies at 5° to 30° north and 5° to 30° south on both sides of the Equator.

The Asian countries included in the Monsoon Region are Pakistan, Bharat,
Bangladesh, Myanmar (new name of Burma), Thailand, Northern Sri Lanka, Southern China, Southern Japan and Korea.

In the continents of North America and South America, the Monsoon Region inc1udes Central America, the coast of Mexico, the coastal area of the Caribbean sea, Venezuela, West Indies and the coastal area of Eastern Brazil.

In the continent of Australia, the Monsoon Region includes the coastal area of
northern Australia.


In the Monsoon Region, the summers are hot and moist while winters are cool and dry. Since rain falls only in summer, this region is also known as the “Region of Summer Rainfall”.

The region includes the areas receiving heavy rain as well as the grasslands of light rain. During summer, the winds on land get heated and they rise above to create low pressure over the land. To fill this vacuum the sea winds, which are comparatively less hot, start blowing towards the land. These water-laden winds cause rainfall.

Cultivated Crops

1.The Monsoon Region is rich in cultivated crops which can be classified as followsHot and moist plains mainly grow rice, linseed, cotton, sugar-cane, jute, indigo and tobacco inthe hot months of the year. Mulberry is also cultivated.

2.      In winter wheat, barley, millets (jawar and bajra) and oil seeds are cultivated.

3.      Hill slopes are famous for the cultivation of tea.

Q No.6:What do you know about the Hot Desert Region? In your, answer describe the territories, climate, vegetation, minerals, animals and people of the region.

                 It lies roughly between latitudes 20° and 30° north and south of the Equator. The region lies mostly on the western sides and interiors of the continents. The region consists of the following main hot deserts.

1.     In Asia the Hot Desert Region includes the Arabian Desert, the Thar Desert
(Pakistan), and the Rajputana Desert (Bnarat).

2.    In Africa there are the Sahara (north of the Equator), the Namib Desert and the
Kalahari Desert (south of the Equator).

3.    In North America there are the deserts of Arizona and southern California, and
the Sonaran Desert (Mexico)

4.    In SouthAmerica these are the Atacama Desert (Chile) and the Peruvian Desert.


In the Northern Hemisphere, the Hot Desert Region is the hottest region in the world. In desert areas summer temperatures are higher than those in the Equatorial areas. The reason is that in desert areas there appear no clouds.

In deserts the summer temperature rises to 50° centigrade.
Because of the absence of clouds in the Desert Region, the days are very hot and
the nights are very cold. When the sun sets, the heat of the day is lost into space.
In the Hot Desert Region, the rainfall is scanty. The trade winds blow on the eastern sides of the continents.


In the Desert Region, there is very little vegetation due to lack of rain and water.
However, the soil can be made fertile by irrigation. In certain “areas there are found some oases. In oasis , maize, wheat and millet can be cultivated on a small scale. People begin to settle around an oasis.

In the region the natural vegetation consists of thorny bushes and the trees such as acacia and date-palms which can obtain underground water.

In the semi-deserts there grow deep-rooted acacia “and dwarf eucalyptus trees.


Some of the areas of the Hot-Desert Region are rich in minerals. The Atacama
Desert of Chile (South America) has large deposits of nitrate and copper. In Colarado (North America), there are reservoirs of gold, silver and copper.

The deserts of Western Australia have gold deposits. The deserts of Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Libya and Bahrain are famous for their oil fields.


The camel is the most important animal of this region. It has padded feet which
do not sink in the sand, and helps the animal walk easily in the desert. The camel is known as the “Ship of the Desert”. In the desert of Arabian Peninsula horses, mules and donkeys of good breed are also found. In the Kalahari Desert (Africa), ostriches are found in large number.

People and their Occupations

Most of the people in the Hot Desert Region are nomads. They are called ‘Beduins’. They earn their livelihood by rearing animals like camels, horses, sheep and goats. They travel in groups called caravans from place to place, and buy and sell goods and animals. Most of nomads live in the deserts of Arabian Peninsula and Syria. Some nomads now live settled life around oases. They cultivate wheat, maize and millet.

Q No.7State the countries included in the Mediterranean Region. Also discuss the climate and agricultural products ofthe region.
Answer:Mediterranean Region

The Mediterranean Region lies at latitudes 30° to 45° north and 30° to 45° south of the Equator.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the areas included in the Mediterranean Region are Central California (North America), countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, e.g. Portugal, Spain, Southern France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Israel, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Mediterranean islands such as Cyprus, Sicily, Malta, Crete etc.

In the Southern Hemisphere the countries included in this region are Cental Chile (South America), southern part of Australia, New Zealand and southern part of Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)


The Mediterranean Region is very important from climatic point of view. The main feature of the climate of this region is that summers are hot and dry and winters are mild and rainy. Hence this region is also called the ‘Region of Winter Rainfall’. The average annual rainfall is between 400 and 500 mm.

The Mediterranean Region has moderate temperature. Summers are hot but not too hot.
Thus the climate of this region, on the whole, is mild and moderate.


As summers in the Mediterranean Region are hot and dry, only such plants
which can stand heat and dryness can grow here.

1.Plants having long roots such as mulberry so that they may obtain water even

2.Thick barks such as cork, oak etc. so that they may prevent evaporation.

Plants with pointed and cony leaves such as lime, olive, fig, orange etc. so that they may not allow much evaporation.

Agricultural and Commercial Produds

The bright sunny conditions in the Mediterranean region are suitable for growing different types of fruit. The chief fruit of the region are olive, orange, lemon, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, pear, apple, fig and mulberry. The areas where irrigation is possible, wheat, maize, tobacco and rice are grown. The climate of this region is specially suited for the cultivation of wheat.

Q No.8Which are the countries included in the Temperate Grasslands? What names are given to the region in different continents? Also discuss the life style and occupations of the people of the region.


The Temperate Grasslands lie at latitudes 30° to 45° north and 30° to 45° south of the Equator.

Names :

         This region is known as ‘Prairie’ in North America, ‘Pampas’ in South America,
‘Steppe’ in Central Asia and ‘Downs’ in Australia.

In Northern Hemisphere this region includes the central plains of ‘Asia, Europe
and North America. In Southern Hemisphere it includes central areas of South America, South Africa and Australia. The region is bound on the north by cool forests
and on the south by dry lands.


The inhabitants of’Steppe’ (Central Asia) are mostly nomads. Their tribes move
from place to place in search of fresh pastures, and live in tents. They are
industrious, warlike and fine horsemen. Their staple food is milk, butter, cheese
and meat. They rear horses and cattle.

The womenfolk weave shawls, rugs, saddles, gloves etcIn Prairie (North America), Pampas (South America) and Downs (Australia), agriculture has been considerably developed on account of effective irrigation.
Most of the agricultural activities are carried out by machines. The inhabitants of these areas are not nomads. They rear sheep and cattle and live a settled life. In more advanced areas of this region, industry is making progress by leaps and bounds.

The population of the Temperate Grasslands is less and sparse in comparison to the regions situated near the Equator.

Q No.9Where is the Tundra Region located and what is its climate like?

         The Tundra Region consists of the Polar low-lands. It stretches from 55° north of Equator to the North Pole.

The region covers the northern most parts of Asia, Europe and North America. It includes northern Siberia, northern European Russia, northern Norway, Greenland, northern Canada and the northern islands.


The climate of the Tundra Region is extremely cold. This region has two seasons. One is winter which is very long and cold. There is very dim sunlight or no sunlight. The region receives heavy snowfall.

For eight months in the year, from September to April, the area remains covered with snow and ice. The temperature is several degrees below the freezing point. Mostly the temperature does not exceed 15° centigrade. The land remains covered with huge icebergs.
There blow fierce cold winds laden with snow particles. The other season is the short summer season which starts in May and lasts for three months.

In May the greenish gloomy nights are followed by continuous daylight. For several weeks the sun goes round and round the horizon but does not sink below it. As the sun rays are in slanting position, they are not considerably hot. These sun rays can only melt the ice on the surface of rivers. The lower parts of the rivers, however, remain frozen.

Q No.10 What animals are found in the Tundra Region and how are these animals useful to the people ofthe region?
Answer: Animals

The most important and useful animal of the region is the reindeer. Which lives on moss and lichen. People eat its flesh, drink its milk and make tents and clothes of its hide. It is also used for driving sledges. Other animals found in the region are polar bears, whales, foxes, seals and walruses. These animals also meet the different needs of the people

People & their Occupations

Due to serve cold and lack of vegetation, the population of Tundra Region is very small. Most of the people are nomads who move from place to place to satisfy their needs. These people are called ‘Eskimos’ in North Canada, ‘Lapps’ in northern Europe and ‘Samoyeds’ in northern Siberia.

The people of the Tundra Region rear reindeer and hunt the polar bears, seals, whales etc. Most of their needs are met by the reindeer. The people travel on ice or snow in sledges, carriages without wheels, drawn by the reindeer. They live in snow houses called igloos. Due to severe cold the people cover their bodies from head to feet with thick fur. They seldom take bath. In winter when the cold is severe they move towards south with their reindeer and set up their tents made of leather.

Most of the areas of the Tundra Region are lying unpopulated. North America has now been linked with the Tundra Region through the Alaska Highway.


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1-climate)(2- hot + moist)(3- March + September.)(4-Muslim)(5- tea)(6- Sudan (Africa))(7- coffee)(8- of Winter Rainfall’)(9- rubber, mahogany, ebony, cinchona, bread-fruit, palms, teak & on the sea-coast coconuttrees)(10- Tokyo)(11- camel)(12‘Beduins’-)(13- moderate)(14-‘Prairie’ +’Steppe’+’Downs’)(15- Stock rearing)(16 igloos -)


C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-b)(2-a)(3-d)(4-c)(5-a)(6-a)(7-a)(8-b)


D. Write ‘T’   (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-T) (2-F) (3-F) (4-T) (5-T) (6-T) (7-T) (8-F) (9-F) (10-F)


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1-latitude 5° north and latitude 5° south of the Equator) (2-from 24°C to 28° C) (3- millets and ground nuts ) (4-   5° to 30° north and 5° to 30°) (5- Monsoon Region ) (6- the cultivation of tea ) (7- are found in Pakistan) (8- on the western margins of the continents) (9- capital of Italy) (10- in the interiors of the northern continents) (11- at 55° north of Equator to the North Pole)



A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1What did the early man do to meet his needs? What are the kinds of activities in respect of occupation?
Answer:   In EARLY AGES the savage man in order to fill his belly roamed around in search of wild fruit, berries, nuts, birds, eggs etc.

As TIME WENT BY and the population increased, the supply of these eatables was no longer enough to satisfy their hunger. So man started fishing and hunting animals.

Gradually he began to domesticate animals and rear stock.

With further increase in population he was forced to cultivate the land. The cultivation of land forced men to lead a settled life. Development in agriculture gave rise to the need for tools and implements.

In order to meet this need some men became craftsmen and they began to melt iron and mould it into tools and implements. Some people became weavers and potters.

Now man has learnt to make machines which are being used instead of simple tools and implements. Modem machines can comparatively do much more work for us. These machines have also played an important role in the development of industry.


Occupations can be divided into the following four kinds of activities.

1.Primary Activities

These activities include the occupations through which man explores the gifts of nature. For example he digs out minerals from the earth through mining, or grows crops by cultivating lands.

2.Secondary Activities

These activities include the occupations that help to make useful articles’ from the raw materials obtained through the primary activity. For example, we make tools of iron mined from the earth and prepare food and clothes from agricultural crops.

3.Trade Activities

       These are the activities through which the things obtained through the primary activities. Or things made by the secondary activities are sold or buy.The trade activities are carried out at domestic level as well as at international level.

Q No.2What kind of stock rearing is adopted in Pakistan? What are the special features of this kind of stock rearing?

Man has been rearing cattle since time immemorial. It is perhaps the oldest occupation of mankind. It started in the mountainous and semi -desert areas of Central Asia. Then it became popular in Europe and Africa. United States of America and Australia were the last countries to adopt this occupation.


The cattle such as cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep.ctc. supply human beings with
the basic dietary needs like milk, butter and meat.

They also supply wool and leather of which are made several useful products. The animals like camels, horses, donkeys, mules etc. are used for transport and for tilling the land.


In Pakistan, the traditional stock rearing is carried out in the Sulaiman Mountain
Range (NWFP), Cholistan (Punjab) and almost all the parts of Balochistan.
Now dams are being constructed and tube-wells installed to supply water for
irrigation purposes.

The Government is also taking steps to encourage stock rearing on scientific lines so that it brings more income to people involved in this occupation.

Q No.3What is commercial stock rearing? In which countries of the world is the commercial stock rearing adopted?

Stock rearing on commercial basis is a profitable occupation. It is carried out mostly in the grasslands of ‘Temperate Region’. The central part of Canada, the central and western parts of the United States and northern Mexico have plains, plateaus and slopes.

Stock farms CALLED’RANCHES’ have been established in these regions. A single ranch covers hundreds of acres ofland where thousands of cattle are reared on modem scientific lines. Special arrangements have been made for the treatment of ill animals and their transportation from one place to another.

1. In the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA cows are reared in big farms to meet the needs of the local population. The cows reared in the northern areas of USA supply milkbutter and cheese in such a large quantity that suffice for the needs of the densely populated areas.

In the central parts of the country, cows are reared for the supply of meat. In the central and northern areas of USA, sheep are reared on mountain slopes. The State of Texas is famous for its Angora goat and its soft wool throughout the world.

2.The most famous areas for commercial stock rearing are the southern continents, e.g. SOUTH AMERICA, AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND. Stock rearing is the chief occupation in these countries. Since the needs of the home market are limited, the stock products of these areas are exported to the densely populated regions especially the European countries.

The northern and central parts t of Argentina mostly rear cows. The southern part ofthe country, being relatively dry, mostly rears sheep.

3. In BRAZIL AND URUGUAY mostly cows are reared. These two countries rear about twenty per cent of the total sheep found in the world.

4.   In SOUTH AFRICA, sheep are reared on commercial basis. Here cattle farms are found in Kalahari Desert and the central region of the eastern coast. That is why South Africa is famous for the export of fine quality wool.

5.Pakistan has a few stock rearing farms. These farms can hardly meat the local demand for meat, milk and butter. For commercial stock-rearing, the animals must be fed sufficiently and looked after properly. In Pakistan, efforts are being made to set up big farms for stock rearing.

Q No.4:Which factors does the occupation of mining depend on? What are the methods used for obtaining different kinds of minerals?
Answer: MINING

Like stock rearing mining is also a very old profession. In ancient times, man was in search of such metals tcould be used for making tools, weapons and utensils. He was also after precious metals like gold, silver, diamonds etc.

The popularity of this occupation depends on the presence of minerals in the country.

The mineral wealth includes various metals, mineral oil, natural gas, coal, rock salt, building stones, diamonds. Some of these minerals are scattered around whereas others are found in deposits under the surface of earth. Some minerals are found in crude form.

For example iron is obtained from iron ore, i.e.The mixture of iron and earth or rock.


There are various methods to obtain the minerals.

1.  Some minerals can be obtained from open sites. Such minerals include, gypsum, limestone, marble, building stones etc.

2.  Most of the mineral deposits lie buried under the surface of the earth. Tunnels have to be dug to take them out. Minerals like coal, iron, copper, gold, silver and salt are obtained by digging tunnels.

3.The deposits of mineral oil and natural gas lie in the deep layers of the earth. They are approached by drilling and sinking pipelines thousands of feet below the surface of the earth methods.

Q No.5What are the three stages of mining? Describe each stage briefly but comprehensively.

1.     Prospecting

Prospecting means viewing the surface of the earth to locate the deposits. Minerals are usually buried deep below the surface of the earth. Great skill and hard work is required to pinpoint the location of mineral deposits.

2.     Extracting

Most of the minerals lie buried deep under the layers of the earth. In order to reach such deposits, tunnels have to be dug and machines to be used to cut the layers of rock. It is also necessary to let fresh air circulate in the mine. In order to take out the ore (crude minerals) in trolleys, rail tracks have to be laid.

3.     Refining

The ore (crude mineral) is transported to factories where its impurities are removed to make the mineral fit for use. This process is called refining. An efficient refining is possible only if there is a good transport system between the mine and the factoriesNatural gas and mineral oil are transported to factories by means of pipelines.

Q No.6:What minerals are being mined in Pakistan? What is the future of mining in our country?

          In Pakistan mineral resources are not foundin large quantity.However, salt is mined on a large scale in the southern part of Potwar.

In the central parts of this Plateau some oil wells have been drilled. Efforts are being made for the discovery of more deposits in Badin District (Sind).

Recently some mineral oil has been found in Badin District.

As for the mineral wealth, Balochistan is the most important area in Pakistan. In Balochistan some important minerals such as natural gas, coal, chromite, bauxite and magnesium are being mined in considerable quantities.


           Saindak Copper Project is a project of great importance. Its completion will ensure the yield of copper, silver and gold in large quantities. Since the greater part ofBalochistan lacks facilities oftransports, it is very difficult to conduct the survey mineral deposits. New roads are now being constructed.
Teams of scientists and technicians are busy in exploring this territory. Thus
in Pakistan, the occupation of mining will gain greater importance, and the country will soon be on the road to prosperity and development in future.

Q No.7 What is the importance of agriculture? State the areas of agricultural importance in the world.

Agriculture is also a very old occupation . Except for the snow bound Tundra Region and the mountainous and desert areas of the world, agriculture is a popular occupation everywhere.


1.  Asian fertile territories including areas of Ukraine, plains of rivers Volga & Don, south-western part of Siberia, Turkistan in Central Asia, plain of Ganges in Bharat, Indus Plain in Pakistan and vast plains in South- EastAsia.

2.   Plains of Argentina and northern and eastern parts of Brazil in SouthAmerica.

3.   Vast alluvial plain of the river Mississippi and valley of California in North America.

4.   The plain of Western Europe.

5.   The north-eastern and south-western parts of Australia and some parts of the
plains of rivers Darling and Murray.

6.   The valley of Nile, Eastern parts ofAfrica and coastal areas and plains of CentralAfrica.

Q No.8What are the different kinds of cultivation being adopted in the world? Describe each kind briefly.

         The main kinds of cultivation in the world are as under

1.    Temporary Cultivation:

                 In the Equatorial Region, it rains throughout the year, and the temperature also
remains high. This type of climate is ideal for the growth of wild plants and trees.
The creeping plants rapidly cover the vast territories, and there are hardly left any patch of land for cultivation. Some local tribes clear small patches of forests to prepare fields for cultivation.

2.Traditional Cultivation

         Such cultivation in done with the help of old fashioned plough, a pair of oxen and some simple implements. Under traditional cultivation, peasants permanently hold pieces ofland and they grow crops which are commonly used in the area.

These crops include food crops such as wheat, rice, vegetables, fruit and fibre crops such as cotton and jute. The objective of the cultivation of these crops is to meet the needs of the peasants and the local people.

3.Mechanized Cultivation
           The developed countries of the world do mechanized cultivation. Under this type of cultivation machines are used for tilling the soil, sowing the seeds, spraying the insecticides, harvesting the crops and taking them to the yield from the farms.

For this purpose, healthy seeds, agricultural machines, artificial means of irrigation and fertilizercultivation can be more successful if done on a large scale.

In USA and European countries, mechanized cultivation in being done very
successfully. China and Russia have also adopted this method of cultivation quite


Cultivation of certain crops on a large scale for commercial purposes is known as plantation. Plantation farms have been set up for the cultivation of rubber, tea, coffee, sugar-cane and bananas. Plantations were first started by the European settlers in Asiatic and African colonies. They, as a matter of fact, wanted to of their industries.

Cultivation on the basis of plantations is very successful in the islands and
coastal areas of the Equatorial and Tropical regions. In Malaya, rubber plantations have proved a wonderful success.

Q No.9Write a note on cultivation in Pakistan.

Pakistan still adheres to the traditional methods of agriculture. Around 70 per cent of our population lives on agriculture. Per acre yield of crops is very low as compared to that of other countries. We have a vast network of irrigation canals.
The soil is rich and the climatic conditions are also suitable. If we develop our
agriculture with the help of modem implements, machines and fertilizers, we can grow surplus food crops to export them to other countries.

We must introduce cooperative farming system for the prosperity of our country. To make cooperative farming a success is a patriotic duty of every citizen of Pakistan .

Q No.10What are the main kinds of industry? Explain the importance of industry for Pakistan.
Answer: MAIN KINDS OF INDUSTRY:Industry can be classified as:

1.      Cottage Industry

Cottage industries are generally set up at homes. The goods are prepared by a few individuals or the members of a family on a small scale’. Most of the manufacturing is done with personal labour and skill.

Light machines such as power looms, paper cutting and printing machines, tools, tool-making machines etc. are used in cottage industry.

2.Light Industry

             Machines used in light industry are not light, but the products are usually of small size. The preparation of flour, sugar, ghee, beverages, textiles, shoes, electric appliances and other articles of daily use is called light industry. Both human labour and machines are used in light industry. The raw material is turned into finished goods on a large scale with the help of machines and the labour force.

3.Heavy Industry

Heavy industry includes the manufacturing of heavy machines such as railway engines, electric machines, ships, aeroplans, motorcars and the like. A country must have its own steel mills and oil refineries to make these heavy
machines. Heavy industry also needs the services of a large number of skilled
technicians and experts. The establishment of heavy industry is a key to progress.


a-   Cottage industries mostly meet the needs of the local people. Some products of cottage industries are of artistic value, but they are produced and used in limited quantity.

b-   The products oflight industry are widely used and exported to foreign countries.

c-   Pakistan has also developed cotton and woollen textile mills, sugar mills and ceramic and shoe factories.

d-  Besides creating thousands of jobs for its youth, our country earns considerable foreign exchange by exporting finished goods.

It in expected that Pakistan will soon be able to make machines to cater to the basic needs of the country.


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1- environment)(2- an efficient system of irrigation, healthy seeds, modem implements, fertilizer and insecticides) (3- job) (4- occupations) (5- international) (6- Stock Rearing) (7- transport+ tilling) (8- Commercial) (9- Angora) (10-Argentma) (11- minerals ) (12- transport ) (13- Potwar) (14- Middle East ) (15- cooperative ) (16- plantation ) (17- January, 1985 ) (18- caravans )


C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-c) (2- a) (3- b) (4- d) (5- b) (6-c ) (7-a ) (8- d) (9- a)


D. Write ‘T’ (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-F)(2-F)(3-T)(4-F)(5-T)(6-T )(7- F)(8-F)(9- T) (10- F)


             E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’ according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1- in early ages) (2- the traditional methods of agriculture) (3-stock rearing farm) (4- in crude form steel, and supply of fuel.) (5- to locate the deposits) (6- peasants permanently hold pieces of land) (7- the traditional methods of agriculture ) (8- set up at homes ) (9- simple tools and implements)



             A.Give brief answers to the following Questions:

Q No.1What do you know about the density of population, and how is it expressed? Also describe the factors on which the density of population depends.

The   proportion of people to the land area they live in is called population density.

It is expressed by the average number of people living per square kilometre in a certain area.

   The density of population generally depends on the local resources. The areas
‘th resource to meet the needs of people nave naturally a large papulation. different countries the average density of population varies from 2 to 600 persons / km.

The difference becomes very sharp when we compare the densities of population between different small areas instead of different countries.

The density of population should be considered in the background of the resources of the local area. If local resources are sufficient to fulfill the requirement of a dense population, the density is generally not a matter of concern.

The countries that give due importance to the technical training of the people

d use better tools and machines, get maximum benefit of natural resources. Not only
they fulfil the needs of the people, but can also export the surplus products to earn
ign exchange.

On the other hand if the people of a country have not learnt the technical skills nor do they have the modem tools and machines, they cannot develop their natural resources. So poverty, hunger, disease and misery are the fate of such countries.

Q No.2What are the main characteristics of the distribution of population on earth?

The main characteristics of the distribution of population on earth is as follows:

1.Approximately 85% of the world population live in the Northern Hemisphere.

2.    Approximately 80 per cent of the world population live in the areas which coverIf you study the distribution of population in different regions, you will notice that there is a surprising difference between the density of one region and that of the other.

3.    In some parts of the world, the population is very dense. On the population map of the world, there are well marked limited areas where most of the worl
population is concentrated.

4.    Almost three fourths of population concentrated in four big zones. Two of the zones lie in Asia, one is in Europe, and the fourth one is situated in No America

QNo.3Name the main 4 zones where three fourths of the world population are concentrated.Also name the countries included in each zone and describe the causes of density of population there in
Answer: Around 25%of the total population ofthe world live in the following four zones


This Asiatic zone includes China, Japan, Korea, the island of Taiwan, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. More than one third of the world population lives in these areas.

China has nearly one fourth of the world population. The average density of population in China is 127.1 persons/km2.

       Fertile soil, developed industry and suitable climate are the main factors contributing to the dense population of China.

Indonesia is also a land of fertile soil. The chief occupation is agriculture. In
addition to food crops there also grow plenty of cash crops. It is for this reason that Indonesia is one of the densely populated countries.


South Asia zone includes Pakistan, Bharat, B~ngladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka. These are all developing countries.

The fertile plains of the Ganges and Indus are located in this region. The chief occupation in the region is agriculture.

In order to solve the economic problem of the people, importance is now being given to the industrial development.

The density of population in some parts of Bangladesh and Bharat is more than 625 persons/km.

Population of the two Asiatic   zones, ( East Asia and South East Asia & South Asia) forms more than one half of the world population.


In Europe, the densely populated zone consists of central and western parts of
the continent. This zone includes Germany, France, Holland, Belgium, Denmark and some parts of Italy and Britain.

In terms of agricultural and industrial development this zone has an outstanding position in the world. The whole region is developed and abounds in natural resources.

Due to high literacy rate, people have enormous capacity for work.

In some areas the population density is more than 312 persons/km. It has nearly 20 % of the world population.


As for the area and population this zone is smaller than the above three zones. It
includes the north-eastern parts of the United States and the south-eastern parts
of Canada.

The reason for the density of population in this region is its agricultural and industrial development. The region is also full of natural resources, and the people are educated and efficient. In a number of states of North America the density of population is more than 200 persons/km.
About 8 % of the total population of the world lives in this zone.

Q No.4:Name the sparsely populated regions of the world and describe the causes of sparse population over there.

There are some parts of the world which have sparse population or are uninhabited due unsuitable physical features. Nearly one third of the whole land surface is not fit for itation.


1-      Some of these areas are either too hot or too cold to sustain human life.

2-      Some Ihem receive heavy rainfall whereas some are very dry.

3-      Some areas are located on the lofty hills which are out of the reach of-human being.Such unhabitable areas are found in each continent of the world.

4-      Vast sandy areas are mostly uninhabited. Most of the northern parts of Asia, a vast desert stretching across the western coast of North Africa in form of the Sahara, the Arabian desert, the Iranian desert and the deserts of Central Asia and that of Mongolia are the regions which are uninhabited. Norway and Sweden in Europe, most of the western of USA, Canada and vast areas in Australia are sparsely populated.

5-      In the Northern Hemisphere the ice-bound waste lands include the island of Greenland and the northern parts of Asia and Europe, known as the Tundra Region.

6-      In Southern Hemisphere, the whole continent of Antarctica encircling the South Pole includes the ice-bound waste land. These vast stretches of land are too cold.

Q No.5Write a comprehensive note on the population of Pakistan.

According to the census 1998, the total population of Pakistan is about 130.5 millions which has now increased to more than 160 million.
Pakistan the average density of population is 164 persons/ km.

After the establishment of Pakistan the population of its cities increased result of development that took place in the country. When Pakistan came into being less than 18 % of its population lived in cities. Now 32.5 % of the population of the country is dwelling in urban areas. At the time of the establishment Pakistan there were only two cities, Karachi and Lahore, with a population of more a hundred thousand each.

a-      Dense population areas:

In the Indus plain, the river valley stretching from north to south is thickly populated.

In Punjab, divisions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Multan have the heaviest pressure population.

In the Sindh Province, the districts ofSukkur, Larkana.Dadu, Nawab Sh and Hyderabad are thickly populated. The districts of Peshawar and Mardan, in North Western Frontier Province, are thickly populated.

b-      Sparse population:

In Punjab the areas of sparse population are the districts of Bahawalnag
Bahawalpur, Rahimyar Khan, Mianwali, Bhakkar, Leiah, Muzaffargarh and D
Ghazi Khan. In Sindh, the areas of Mirpurkhas, Sangarh and Tharparkar have sp
population. The population is sparse in North Western Frontier Province, Balochistan is also a region of sparse population.

Q No.6:Write the physical factors influencing the density of population.

1.  Geographical Features

It is easy to inhabitate the area which has even, soft and fertile soil. The resources of life can be obtained easily. It is also easy to dwell and build houses in such places. That is why such areas are densely populated.

On the other hand areas, mountains, forests and barren and dry regions are not suitable for LIFE. They have very sparse population.

For example the Himalayan and Karakorum region ( Indo-Pak subcontinent), the Rockies region ( North America) and the Andes region (South America )


If it rains at proper time, the land yields good produce, and there is plenty of food for the dwellers. The river valleys have smooth and fertile soil and a large quantity of water is available for irrigation purposes. That is why such areas are usually densely populated.

Almost all the ancient big cities are situated on river banks. The valley of Nile in Egypt, the valley of Ganga and Jamuna in Bharat, the Indus valley in Pakistan and the valley of Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq can be quoted as examples.

On the other hand extremely cold and extremely hot areas, tropical forests and
deserts are sparsely populated. For example in the Northern Hemisphere, the ice-bound lands such as the island of Greenland and the northern parts of Asia and Europe, known as the Tundra Region, lie uninhabited.

Similarly the hot deserts such as the Sahara in North Africa, the Arabian Desert, the Iranian Desert, the deserts of Central Asia and that of Mongolia have sparse population.

3.Mineral Resources

The regions with the deposits of minerals like coal, iron ore, mineral oil, natural gas, precious stones etc. are also densely populated. People from other areas throng to the regions which are rich in minerals, in order to get jobs. Such areas have also better transportation facilities. Usually factories are established near the areas where minerals are mine us ig In us na existence and as a result the population goes on increasing.

4.        Trade Routes

The places or areas which are situated along trade routes or around, their population increases. Besides roads, the sea and air routes have also great importance. Therefore, the population of the cities and areas having trade markets and big seaports is always on the increase.

Q No.7Explain the human factors which influence the density of population.

1.   Political and Social Conditions

The population increases in the areas which are politically peaceful and when people enjoy social freedom and economic facilities. Sometimes political,religious and social factors force the people of an area to move to another place.
In 1947, at the time of partition around, 65 lac Muslims migrated from Bharat to Pakistan.

Similarly after the establishment of Israil the Jews from almost all parts of world shifted to Israel, and as a result nearly two million Palestinian Arabs had to migrate to the nearby Muslim countries.

2.   Civilization

In Europe and America civilization has given rise to increase in population. In Asia there are many big cities and their number is increasing day by day.

The alluvial plains of Asia including the Indus Valley (Pakistan), the Gang Barhmaputra Valley (Bharat), the Tigris-Euphrates Valley (Iraq) have been most ancient centres of human civilization in the world.

The United States America and Australia, are the examples of modem civilization.

3.       Urbanization

People have been adopting urban way of life for the last two hundred years. That is why the urban population is increasing throughout the world.

At present more than 40 % of the world population live in the urban areas.
In these countries, big cities have developed to the extent that different cities seem to merge into one another. Sometimes it becomes difficult to distinguish the boundaries of a city from those of a village.

4.Civic Facilities

The growth of cities has given rise to the job opportunities. These cities have
become the centres of trade and commerce, and therefore they have been surrounded by various kinds of factories.

The Urban centres also control the administration of the area. The central offices of civic facilities like railways, bus services, banks, hospitals, educational institutions etc. also lie in cities. The modem cities, as a matter of fact, are the nerve centres that control the political, social and economic life of the people. It is for this reason that more and more people from rural areas flock to cities.

Q No.8 Why do cities expand? How can we determine the economic development of a country from the proportions of the urban and rural populations?

The expansion in cities in due to the large scale industrialization which offers job opportunities to the people. As a result, unemployed and under-employed people in large number are attracted towards big cities. These cities are surrounded by various kinds of factories and commercial markets which need manpower to work effectively. Railways, bus services, banks etc. all have their central offices in cities. In short, modem cities control the economic, social and political life of the people.

In Pakistan industrialization is the main cause of increase in urban population.

In 1947, less than 18 per cent people lived in cities. Now the urban population is 32.5 % of the total population of the country.

Now the population of Lahore is approximately 6 million.

Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Multan, Gujranwala and Peshawar have more than 2.5 million of population each.

As many as 21 cities of Pakistan embrace more than one lac of population each.

Q No.9What are the advantages and disadvantages of the transfer of population from rural areas to urban areas?
Q No.10 Write a note on the growth of world population.

The world population is increasing rapidly and constantly. In 1920, the world
population was 2.1 billion (210 crore) which increased to 3.1 billion (310 crore) in 1960 and 5.1 billion (510 crore) in 1990. Now it has reached 6.5 billion (650 crore) mark.
Pakistan is also one of the regions where population is increasing rapidly. Increase in population is causing many problems. The problems of food, residence, education, health and transport are the most important ones.

If the resources of a country are not developed in proportion to the growth of
population, the people have to face many difficulties. It is therefore, necessary to keep
         Balance between population and facilities

The agricultural and industrial production can be boosted by adopting modem mechanized methods. But we must remember that increase in the number of factories, unwieldy traffic and the use of machines in every field of life can cause pollution to our environment. The polluted environment is harmful not only to human beings but also to animals and plants.

The only solution to this problem is to make use of all available resources and work hard for maximum increase in production on one hand and to limit the size of families on the other. Thus we shall be able to fulfill the needs of our present population and bring prosperity to them.

Q No.11Where are the following cities located and why are they famous?

i) Tokyo ii) New York iii)London iv) Moscow v) Bijing vi) Makkah vii) Cairo   viii) Istanbul ix)Karachi x) New Delhi xi) Paris xii)Sydney

Answer: LONDON

London is the capital and largest city of Great Britain. It stands at the mouth of river Thames in the south-eastern part of England. Along the river Thames, there have been built platforms where big ships can easily be anchored.

London is a centre of international trade and investment. Most of the business transactions of the world are carried out through the banks of London.

The traditions and modes of thinking established by the social institutions of

London have greatly been valued to this day. Some of these traditions, e.g. parliamentary system of government, law, medicine, measurement, international trade, banking and the like have become the outstanding features of the modem civilization ofthe world. London is also one of the most important cities of the world in terms of educational, literary, social, political and cultural activities.

London has an area of 1153 square kilometres. According to a recent estimate its population is about 9.27 million (92 lac twenty-seven thousand.)


Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan. Behind the harbour, there is a vast fertile plain of the river. Indus with its tributariesfor the flights from Europe to South-East Asia, Japan and Australia. Even today Karachi is the busiest airport of the air-route.

           After the establishment of Pakistan in 1947, a large number of residential colonies and industrial and business areas have been setup in Karachi. At the time of independence it had a population of 0.3 million (3 lac).
Population of Karachi is about 10 million (one crore). Karachi is linked with the markets of the hinterland by a railway line.

Karachi is the biggest industrial centre of Pakistan. The factories located in and around Karachi produce textiles, tools and light machines, cement, glassware, wheat flour, -food articles, beverages, medicines, cigarettes, . shoes etc.

Among heavy industries shipbuilding complex and refinery are the most important ones. The first steel mills in Pakistan has been built at Bin Qasim to the east of Karachi.

Karachi is also the most important commercial centre of Pakistan. It is a great market of the goods manufactured in Pakistan. The imports and exports of the country is also carried out through Karachi.

Karachi is a busy and crowded city. The places such as Kemari, Cliffton, Manora, Assembly Chambers and University are worth seeing.


Sydney is the largest city of the continent of Australia .It is the capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on the south-eastern coast of Australia. As this coast has numerous cuttings, Sydney is an excellent port of Australia .

The importance of, Sydney went on increasing with the development of hinterland and growth of commerce and industry.

According to a recent estimate, the population of Sydneyis about 40 lac. Most of the houses are single storey houses.

In the central part of the city, tall and modem buildings are now being built. The flower-shaped Opera House built on the coast is one of the marvels of the modem architecture. The Sydney Harbour Bridge built on the Sydney Port stands without any support columns.
This grand bridge was built with the help of iron girders in 1933. Sydney is an important centre of industry and trade. In the industrial plants of Sydney, mostly the articles of daily use are produced. The dairy products like milk and butter and meat are tinned for purposes of export to other countries.
The city is also famous for international tourism and public parks. The most
popular games include boating, swimming, ice-skating and surfing along the sea-shore.


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Ans:(1-6.5 billion (650 re)) (2- density) (3- large) (4-85 ) (5-127.1 ) (6- fertile )(7-not fit) (8- 130.5+160) (9- 18 + 32.5 ) (10-     6.5 ) (11- civilization )(12- Indus + Gang Barhmaputra + Tigris-Euphrates)(13- 40 ) (14industrialization) (15- 67.5) (16- population)


       C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-b) (2-a) (3-d) (4-c) (5-b) (6-c) (7- d)


D. Write ‘T’ (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrectone.
Answers: (1-F) (2-F)(3-T)(4-F )(5- T)(6- F)(7- F)(8- F)(9- T)


E.Make correct statements with the help of the following table.
Answers: (1- cannot develop their resources ) (2- are concentrated in four big zones )(3- most developed countries ) (4- are located in South Asia) (5-are mostly uninhabited ) (6- smooth and fertile soil) (7- man’s struggle) (8- live in urban areas) (9- can be boosted by mechanized methods)


Answers: (1- Japan) (2- Britain) (3- Russia) (4- France) (5- China) (6- Egypt) (7- Lebanon) (8- Argentina) (9- India )



             A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1 In olden days why was it difficult to travel from one place to another?

Which period is called the era of discoveries and why?

Answer: In olden days, the means of transport were not as developed as we have in the modem age. It was, therefore, very difficult and in some cases impossible to travel from one place to another.


During the period from 11th to 15th century, the people of different countries took interest in the discovery of new regions.

As a result, man came to know about most parts the world. It is for this reason that this age is called the era of exploration and coveries.

Q No.2 Why did Muslims go to far off countries?
Answer: Muslims took keen interest in exploration and overies of the hidden parts of the world. The Muslims visiting Makkah for pilgimage met the people belonging to far off countries.

Trade was the chief occupation of the Muslims. They were in search of new sets for the sale of commodities. The Arabs carried out their trade through sea and Many Muslim traders of the northern Africa carried out their trade with through the Mediterranean Sea.

The Arab traders had trade relations with India, Sri Lanka and even beyond.
They sailed on the Pacific Ocean as well as the Atlantic Ocean, Some Muslim sailors visited the coasts of Asia and Africa for increasing their knowledge about the world.

Q No.3Which city did Abu Rehan Albairuni belong to? What topics did he discuss in his book ‘Kitab-ul-Hind?
Answer:Abu Rehan Albairuni belonged to Khawarism.

Albairuni discussed in his book ‘Kitab-ul-Hind about geography, geology; mathematics, astronomy,philosophy and physics.

He translated several Sanskrit books into Persian. He also developed his taste for literature. He wrote more than a hundred books on various subjects.

Abu Rehan Albairuni was a staunch Muslim. He spread Islamic thoughts and arts during his stay in India.

He always expressed the truth and never concealed the fact. He made efforts to give the knowledge of new sciences to Pandits (Hindu religious scholars). The Pandits in turn became jealous of him and considered him to be a wizard.
Albairuni also made efforts to introduce Hindus to Islamic arts and sciences.

Q No.4:Where did Albairuni set up his observatory? What discoveries did he as a result of his research?

Albairuni set up an observatory in the village Nanda of Tehsil Pind Dadan Khan.


As a result of his research, he made the following discoveries:

1.    He determined the circumference of the earth and held that it was about 24739 miles.    According to the modem research, the circumference of the earth as only 200 miles (320 kilometres) more than the figure determined by Albairuni.

2.    Albairuni determined the lines of latitude and longitude.

3.    He explained that the light travels with the speed much faster than that the sound travels with.

4.    He explained the formation of springs and wells.

5.    He determined the density of at least 18 metals.

6.    He identify the exact number of the petals of flowers.

7.    He explained that the Indus Valley and the northern mountains were once a part of the sea.

Q No.5 Write a brief account of the journey of Ibn-e- Batuta to India and China.

       From Constantinople, he set out for India. Passing through Muslim territories like Bukhara, Samarkand, Kabul and Multan he reached Delhi.

The ruler of Delhi Sultan Muhammad Tughlak was greatly impressed by the
ability and intelligence of Ibn-e- Batuta and appointed him as Qazi (Judge).

Sultan also sent him as his ambassador to China. On his way via Goa he reached Maldives. There he stayed for one year and a half.

Then he visited Sri Lanka. From Sri Lanka, he proceeded to China by sea. This was a very dangerous journey. For several times, he was caught by sea storms. He was also repeatedly robbed and beaten by pirates but he did not lose his heart. He continued his voyage till he reached China.

In China, Ibn-e- Batuta spent most of his time in Canton and Peking (Beijing).

He described Zaitoon as one of the greatest harbours of the world. He closely observed the civilization, culture and customs of the Chinese people. He praised their high artistic tastes, their spacious houses and house gardens. He praised the agricultural methods used by the people of China. He also spoke of the security enjoyed by the travellers due to the efficiency of the police of this country.

Ibn-e- Batuta stayed in China for about five years and then he decided to return to his country.

Q No.6:Why did European countries feel the need to discover new sea-routes to India?

1.      Since the trade routes started from the harbours of Italy, the Italian traders enjoyed monopoly over trade with eastern countries.

2.      Other western countries like Portugal, Spain, England and France had no share in this trade.

3.      In those days, almost all the important trade routes that linked the West with the East were under the control of Muslims.

That is why the western countries felt the need to discover new routes leading to the East.So different Europeans made efforts for this purpose.

The most active nations among the European countries were the Spaniards and the Portuguese. Diyas, one of the western sailors succeeded in reaching the ‘Cape of Good Hope’ while navigating round the western and southern coasts of Africa.

Q No.7 Write an account of Marco Polo’s journey in detail.

         Marco Polo was a great Italian seafarer. He was born at Venice (Italy) in the middle of
the 13th century, His father and uncle were traders. They frequently used to go on

trade trips to eastern countries. When Marco was seventeen, he accompanied his father in one of his trade trips to China. After the journey of many months, they reached the Court of Khakan, the King of China.

Marco Polo was an eloquent and intelligent young man. The Khakan of China was so much impressed by Marco Polo that the former made him his Adviser. He also sent Marco Polo to settle some important state affairs. He, as an adviser of the King, availed of an opportunity to travel to far off areas of the vast country. During his official tours, he closely observed the civilization ofthe Chinese society.

Marco Polo lived in China for seventeen years. At last, in 1295 A.D., he along with his father returned to his motherland with many precious stones. He narrated fascinating stories about the wonderful palaces, diamonds, jewels and other wonders of China.

Hardly a year after Marco Polo reached his motherland, there broke out a war between Venice and Geneva. Marco Polo was made a prisoner of war. In prison, he wrote the stories of his travels in China with the help of his fellow prisoners. He told in his story of a palace the roof, floor, doors and windows of which were made of pure gold.

The sailors and geographists took special interest in the narrations of Marco Polo.

               He had identified an ocean beyond China. The sailors wondered if that ocean was in the west of Europe. Some of the sailors were of the view that while travelling he reached the eastern coast of China and he talked of the Pacific Ocean.

According to some sailors, Marco Polo also reached the coast of India. Marco Polo died in 1324.A.D.

Q No.8 Write a detailed account of the travels of (a)Vasco da Gama (b)Christopher Columbus.

Vasco da Gama was a great Portuguese seafarer. In his days, the Portuguese had taken me possession of the western coast of Africa. To begin with Vasco da Gama followed me whole route which had previously been covered by Diyaz. Vasco da Gama crossed me Cape of Good Hope and reached Mozambique which is situated on the eastern coast of Africa. There his ship was caught by a furious sea-storm. The crew also refused to obey their master.

Vasco da Gama was in a state of utter disappointment when he met an Arab sailor
Ahmad Bin Majid who frequently sailed between Africa and India in connection with his business trips. Vasco da Gama under the guidance of this Arab trader set sail for lndia.

After a voyage of one month, he reached Cali cut on the western coast of India in
May, 1498 A.D. This new route came to be known as Cape route.

Vasco da Gama established friendly relations with the Hindu Raja Zamorin, the ruler of’Calicut.Vasco da Gama obtained permission from the Hindu Raja for carrying out trade activities. He left India in 1499 A.D. and reached his country with spices, jewels and other precious presents.

In 1501, he came a second time to India and went back to Portugal in 1503.

Since the Portuguese were the first to discover the Cape route to reach India, they were the first European nation to trade with India. They set up many trading factories at Calicut, Cannanor etc. on the western coast of India. These factories necessitated the appointment of a Viceroy.

As a result these trade relations with India Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, became an important trade centre in Europe. Soon the other European nations also took fancy for India.

The Portuguese were followed by the Dutch, the English and the French who came by the Cape route to trade with India.

The Spanish sailors were also making efforts to discover new sea-routes.

When Vasco da Gama returned from India, Spain had already sent its expedition to cross the
Pacific Ocean through its western side. Columbus, an Italian sailor, was the captain of
iliis expedition.


Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of a new world, belonged to a poor Italian family. He was the son of a weaver. He showed no interest in his family profession, and was very fond of studying old maps and charts. He took fancy for becoming a sailorgood knowledge of navigation. He set sail on his expeditions when he was fourteen years of age. He sailed many times in the Mediterranean Sea, reached the islands of the Atlantic Ocean and sailed to northern areas.

Columbus made up his mind to discover a sea route to India. He tried to convince the Portuguese for almost 18 years, but failed. So he went to Spain where the queen and king, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, were anxious to join the race for a route to the Far East and India. They supplied him with ships and in the summer of 1492 A.D., he sailed to the western side and reached the island of San Salvador.

He made three more voyages and discovered the island of Trinidad and the continent of South America.

He thought that he had reached India. He was of the view that South America, India and China were the parts of the same continent. Columbus did not know that he had discovered a new continent.

The expeditions of Columbus earned for him a lot of fame and wealth. In 1506
A.D., only two years after his voyage, he died without knowing that he had discovered a new continent.

The expeditions of Columbus encouraged a number of sailors to discover new sea routes and lands.

Q No.9What advantages did the European countries take after the discovery of new lands?


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1- exploration + coveries) (2- Trade) (3- 973 A.D. + Khawarism) (4- Sultan Masud ) (5- ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’) (6- Persian ) (7- observatory ) (8-1304 A.D. +Tangier +Morocco ) (9- Constantinople) (10- Canton + Peking) (11- Tambakto ) (12- Italian ) (13- China )(14- Cape of Good Hope) (15- India ) (16- Captain James Cook)
C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-c) (2-a ) (3- d) (4- a) (5- b) (6-c ) (7- a) (8-c ) (9- b) (10-a )


D. Write ‘T’ (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-F)(2-F)(3-T)(4-F)(5-T)(6-T)(7-F)(8-T)(9-F)(10-T)


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’ according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1- latitude and longitude) (2- springs and wells) (3- Alexandria ) (4- from 1096 to 1193 ) (5- the Cape of Good Hope) (6- some state affairs ) (7- a prisoner of war) (8- in May, 1498 A.D.) (9- a new world) (10- a weaver)



                 A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1What were the objectives of the Western nations’ efforts to discover sea- routes and land routes to reach the East and the Far East? Were they successful in their efforts?
Answer: European nations made efforts to discover sea routes as well as land routes to reach the East and the Far East.

There were two MAIN OBJECTIVES for these efforts.

Firstly, they wanted to establish new colonies;

secondly, they needed new markets to sell their goods which they could produce on a large scale after the invention of machines.

They were successful in their efforts. They proved that the earth was round and you could reach China and the Far East whether you travelled eastwards or westwards. They also succeeded in discovering new islands and continents in the West as well as in the Far East.

Q No.2Which one of the western nations was the first to reach India and establish trade centres here? Also name the other nations which came to India for the same purpose.
Answer: Vasco da ‘Gama, a Portuguese sailor succeeded in discovering the sea route to India and reached Calicut in 1498 A.D.

The Portuguese were, therefore, the first European nation to trade with India. They established many trading factories at Calicut, Cannanor etc. on the western coast of India. Francisco Almeida was the first Portuguese Viceroy appointed in India. He defeated the Arabs who in those days traded with India. Thus all the sea-borne trade of India passed into the hands of the Portuguese.

Following other nations which came to India for the same purpose

1.The Dutch, Danes etc.

2.The British

3.The French

Q No.3 What do you know about the British East India Company?

In 1588, the English defeated the Spanish Armada eet of ships). They now resolved to trade with the Eastern countries.

In 1600 A.D. the British aders formed East India Company. The permission was duly accorded by Queen Elizabeth I on the last day of the year 1600, i.e. December 31 , 1600.

In 1698, some English merchants formed companies worked in competition with each other.

In 1708, both the companies were united. It was this United East India Company that laid the foundation of the British rule in the Indo-Pak subcontinent.

Later, the East India Company came to an end as a result of the War of Independence 1857, and the subcontinent came to be ruled directly by the British Crown.

Q No.4:Which one of the European countries was successful in establishing its rule over the subcontinent and how?
Answer: The defeat of the French opened the way for the British to take territories in their possession and establish their rule over them. The East India Company had earned wealth from its trade with India. This wealth proved helpful in defeating the French and putting an end to the centres of other European nations.


By now the Centre of the Muslim Government had become weak. The general atmosphere was favourable for the British to gain political supremacy in the subcontinent.

1.      There was anarchy in the country. The Governors of the provinces were quarrelling with one another.

2.      The Hindu Rajas, particularly the Marhattas, were the deadly enemies of the Muslim rulers.

3.      During the reign of Muhamrnad Shah (the Mughal Emperor), Ali Verdi Khan, the Governor of Bengal, declared his independence in 1741. His capital was Murshadabad. He allowed the British to carry on their business activities. However, the British were not allowed to build fortifications in the province of Bengal.

Q No.5Write a note on’ the struggle between the British and the French in the subcontinent.
Answer: Struggle between Ihe English and the French

The English and the French companies had been established with the object of doing
trade with the Indo- Pak subcontinent. But when they found that the Mughal Empire had
become weak, each of the two companies began to struggle for establishing its own empire.

As a result a war broke out between them which lasted for about twenty years.
This war can be divided into three periods known as;

– the First Karnatik War (1746- 1748),

-the Second Karnatik War(1749-1755) and

-the Third Karnatik War(1759-1763).
In this war the English came out victorious.

Q No.6:What were the causes of the defeat of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula in the Battle of Plassey?  
Answer: The famous Battle of Plassey was fought on 23rd June, 1757.The Nawab had an early success but it was soon over.

The traitor Mir Jafar deserted the Nawab and joined the British with a large number of soldiers ofNawab army.

Q No.7 What were the steps taken by Mir Qasim to get rid of the influence of the British East India Company?
Answer: After Mir Qasim had been defeated by the British in 1763, he led his army to Oudh.
There he met Nawab Wazir Shuja-ud-Daula of Oudh and the Mughal King Shah Alam
II. They promised to support Mir Qasim. Accordingly, the combined forces of Shah Alam II, Shuja-ud-Daula and Mir Qasim invaded Bengal.

The English General Major Munro defeated them in the Battle ofBuxar on 23rdOctober, 1764. Mir Qasim fled and was never heard of again. Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-Daula surrendered themselves to the British.

Q No.8 Give a detailed account of the Battle of Buxar.
Answer: Battle of Buxar (1764 A.D.)

After Mir Qasim had been defeated by the British in 1763, he led his army to Oudh.
There he met Nawab Wazir Shuja-ud-Daula of Oudh and the Mughal King Shah Alam
II. They promised to support Mir Qasim. Accordingly, the combined forces of Shah Alam II, Shuja-ud-Daula and Mir Qasim invaded Bengal. The English General Major Munro defeated them in the Battle ofBuxar on 23rdOctober, 1764. Mir Qasim fled and was never heard of again. Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-Daula surrendered themselves to the British.

In 1765, the Treaty of Allahabad was concluded between Clive on one side and Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-Dau1a on the other. According to this treaty, Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-Daula allowed the East India Company to collect the land revenue from the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. In return, the Company granted pension to Shah Alam II.

After the victory of the Battle ofBuxer, the British became the masters of the whole of Bengal.

Q No.9Who was Haider AIi? Write a note on his struggle that he made to put an find to the supremacy of the East India Company.

Haider Ali was born in 1722 A.D. in Mysore. His father was an officer in the Mysore
army. In his Childhood he received training in the art of warfare. Haider Ali began his career as an ordinary soldier in the Mysore army of a Hindu Raja.

On account of his ability, Haider Ali rose to the position of the Chief Commander of the Mysore army.
The Hindu Raja was so pleased with Haider Ali’s conduct that he entrusted almost all the important affairs of State to him. Haider Ali worked hard to solve the complicated political and financial problems. Like the British and French forces, Haider Ali also organized his army on modem lines. In 1750 A.D. he became the father of a son who was named Fateh Ali Tipu.


           In 1766 A.D. at the death of the Hindu Raja, Haider Ali captured the throne and became the Sultan of Mysore. He conquered the adjoining territories and turned Mysore into a strong kingdom.

The British, Marhattas and the Nizam of Hyderabad were against Haider Ali. They made a plan to depose him. Haider Ali knew their intention.

1.      He succeeded in winning the support of Marhattas by bribing them. The Nizam was promised the territory of Karnatik to turn him against the British.

2.   Haider Ali made a careful plan to attack the British. He sent his son Tipu to attack the Fort of Mangalore.

3.   Later on, Haider Ali himself joined him. There spread a panic among the British forces and they ran away. Haider Ali followed the enemy and made a sudden attack on Madras.

4.   A treaty was signed that they would support each other in case one of them is attacked.

5.   In order to avenge their defeat, the British conspired with the Nizam and Marhattas. Haider Ali sent Tipu to crush this alliance. Tipu defeated the British army and conquered the Fort of Tanjore. A good number of British soldiers were held prisoners.

6.   Soon a war broke up between the British and Marhattas. The Marhattas’ Peshwa Nana Franavis entered into an alliance with Haider Ali. Haider Ali inflicted crushing defeats to the British and forced Colonel Baily to lay down arms.

Q No.10 Describe the measures that Sultan Fateh Ali Tipu took to oust the British. Was he successful in his efforts? If not, why?

Fateh Ali Tipu was born in 1750 A.D. After the death of his father Haider Ali, Fateh Ali
Tipu became the ruler of Mysore in 1782, when the battle against the British was still
going on.

1-      He inflicted defeat after defeat on the British forces. In order to fight against the English he made alliance with other rulers. The English regarded him their greatest enemy.

2-      Sultan Tipu tried to strengthen relations with the foreign countries to get rid of the British rule.

3-      He sent his ambassadors to Turkey and France to get the support of their
Governments against the British.

4-      He also sought help from the ruler of Afghanistan. But none of these countries came to help him.

5-      The Nizam of Deccan and Marhattas also look sides with the British. He decided to fight the British all alone.

The British again made conspiracies and intrigues. They bribed the traitors like Mir
Sadiq, Mir Ghulam Nabi and the Sultan’s Hindu Minister Diwan Purnia.

6-      In course of time a treaty was concluded between Tipu and British. According to the the treaty they returned each other’s territories. The both sides also released each other’s prisoners of war.


The British Lord Cornawalis promised the Marhattas and Nizam great rewards for traitorship and won their support. In spite of unfavourable circumstances, Sultan Tipu courageously fought his enemies. When he saw that he could not resist his opponents, he entrenched himself in the Fort of Saranga patam.

Lord Wellesley sent a big army to attack the Fort of Sarangpatam. Sultan Tipu fought the enemy bravely but once more his own noblemen beterayed him. The British General with the help of Mir Sadiq and Pumia succeeded in pulling down the wall of the Fort.

Sultan Tipu now came out, fought his enemy bravely and sacrificed his life as a martyr in the battlefield.

His motto was, “To live for a day like a lion is better than to live for hundred years like a jackal”.

When the British General Haris saw the dead body of Sultan Tipu, he cried with joy. “Now the subcontinent is ours”.

Q No.11:Why did the local soldiers of the British army refuse to use the cartridges supplied by the British Government?
Answer:The cartridges supplied to the Indian soldiers were greased with the fat of the pig and cow. These cartridges had to be bitten before they were used. The cow is sacred for Hindus and the pig is forbidden to Muslims.

The people understood that this was intentionally done to disgrace their religions. The British army officers warned the local soldiers that they would be punished if they refused to use these cartridges.

Q No.12:What were the causes of the War of Independence 1857?


There are many causes ofthe War ofIndependence 1857. However, the main causes are as under:

1.      The policy of annexation pursued by the British rulers had caused a great deal of unrest among the local rulers and people of India. By 1857 A.D. the British had established their rule over about two thirds of the territory of the subcontinent.

3.    The British Government had used force to depose the local rulers or replace them by their favourite persons. The properties of landlords had been confiscated.

4.    The British army had forcibly captured the palace of Nawab Wazir of Oudh, and snatched the ornaments and jewels from the old ladies of the royal family.

5.The English rulers had informed Bahdur Shah Zafar that after his death his family
would have to vacate the royal palaces and fort, and his heir would not be
allowed ‘to use the title of king. He could not accept this easily. The Muslims were greatly annoyed at the dark future of the Mughal dynasty.

4.    The British policies had adversely affected the agriculture, trade and industry of
the subcontinent. The English rulers were sending the wealth of the subcontinent to England, and the local people were becoming poor.

5.    Western civilization had made the people suspicious of the designs of their British rulers. Christian missionaries had started the campaign to convert the people of the subcontinent to christianity. There was a cry that the religion and culture of the local people were in danger . So the people of the subcontinent developed hatred towards the foreign rulers.

6.The cartridges supplied to the Indian soldiers were greased with the fat of the pig and cow. These cartridges had to be bitten before they were used. The cow is sacred for Hindus and the pig is forbidden to Muslims. The people understood that this was intentionally done to disgrace their religions.

Q No.13:In which parts of the subcontinent was the War of Independence 1857 fought.
Answer: In following parts of the subcontinent the War of Independence 1857 was fought :

Delhi, Barrakpur Meerut Besides Delhi, fierce battles were fought at Oudh, Cawnpore, Rohilkhand, Lucknow, Jhansi and Bihar.

Q No.14:What was the fate of Bahadur Shah Zafar, Rani of Jhansi and Nana Sahib?

   Fate of King Zafar & Zeenat Mahal:

King Bahadur Shah Zafar and the Queen Zeenat Mahal were exiled to Rangoon where they died.

Fate of The Queen of Jhansi:

Under the Marhatta, Peshwa Nana Sahib, his soldiers killed hundreds of the British men, women and children. The British avenged this event by killing ten thousand abitants of Cawnpore. Nana Sahib fled away to forests. The Queen of Jhansi fought ravely and was killed in the battlefield.

Q No.15Briefly discuss the results of the War of Independence 1857.


As a result of the War of Independence 1857;

1-      The East India Company was dissolved and the subcontinent came under the direct rule of the British Crown.

2-      After the recapture of Delhi, the English soldiers carried out a general massacre of he local people. The whole city presented a deserted look. Seven thousand Britishers were killed in this war but the toll of the local lives reached five lac.

3-      The British held the Muslims alone responsible for the revolt. The Muslim Mohallas were destroyed and the properties of the Muslims were confiscated.

4-      As many as twenty- four Mughal princes were hanged at Delhi in a day.

5-      The Hindus assured the British of their loyalty and faithfulness.

6-      As a result of Hindu-British association, the Muslims had to suffer untold hardships at the lands of both the English and Hindus. They were denied the Government Service. They had to accept petty jobs as labourers, water-carriers, peasants etc.


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1- round) (2- Vasco da ‘Gama) (3- Francisco Almeida) (4- War of Independence 1857) (5- 1756 ) (6- Qasim Bazar) (7- Mir Qasim) (8- Mir Qasim) (9- Patna) (10- Bengal, Bihar and Orissa) (11- Haider Ali +Sultan Tipu) (12- Tanjore) (13-“To live for a day like a lion is better than to live for hundred years like a jackal”) (14-“Now the subcontinent is ours”.) (15- pig + cow) (16- Bakht Khan)


C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-c) (2-b) (3-b) (4-d) (5-a) (6-c) (7-d) (8-c) (9-a) (10-b)


D. Write ‘T’ (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-F) (2-T) (3-T) (4-F) (5-F) (6-T) (7-F) (8-F) (9-T) (10-T) (11-F)


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1- Albuquerque ) (2- the Spanish Armada) (3- formed East India Company ) (4- and conquered it) (5- the role of a traitor) (6- a capable ruler) (7- as an ordinary soldier) (8- in 1766 A.D.) (9- and arrested Bahadur Shah Zafar)



A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1Review the condition ofthe Muslims after the Independence War 1857.

Condition of the Muslims after the War of Independence 1857

1)      After the War of Independence 1857, the English became hostile towards theMuslims who were also hated by the Hindus.

2)      Although all the sectsof people in the subcontinent had taken part in the War of Independence, the English held the Muslims responsible for the revolt. As a result they had to bear untold hardships.

3)      As many as twenty four Muslim princes were hanged at Delhi in one day.

4)      The Muslim mohallas were destroyed and the properties of the Muslims were confiscated.

5)      The British wanted to see the Muslims paralysed in all the fields of life so that they might not think of regaining their lost glory.

6)      The Muslims were deprived of their government posts and these posts were offered to the Hindus.

7)      Agriculture had been the chief occupation of Muslims for centuries. They worked in the farms of landlords. The English confiscated the cultivated lands of the Muslim landlords, and their tenants were badly affected.

8)      The English did not spare even the trusts and welfare institutions of the Muslims. The income of the Muslim trusts was misused.

9)      Most of the Muslim institutions had to be closed and the Muslim cultural centers were destroyed.

10)  The books of the Muslim libraries were transferred to England.

11)  Before the War of Independence 1857, Persian was the official language of the
subcontinent. After the war, Persian was replaced by English language. This made no
difference to Hindus who had accepted English as official language.

12)  They also studied engineering and other modem sciences. The Muslims, on the otherhand, refused to learn English and lagged far behind in education. The Hindus gained leading position in almost all the fields of life.

13)  The Islamic law was gradually replaced by the English law. As a result the Muslim jurists appointed as Qazis in the courts were terminated and the posts were offered to Hindus.

Q No.2 What did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan do to persuade the British to give up their hostile attitude towards the Muslims?


     In. 1857 , when the War ofIndependence broke out, he was Munsif at Bijnor. During the War, he saved the lives of many English men, women and children. Thus, he rendered valuable services to the British Government.

After the War ofIndependence was lost, the Muslims were in a miserable condition. They were hated and doubted by the British as disloyal subjects. In such critical circumstances, Sir Syed Ahmad was the only Muslim leader who realized that their enmity towards the English could prove fatal to the Muslims.

He, therefore, made efforts to change the hostile attitude of the English towards the Muslims. For this purpose,;

1)      He tried to convince the British Government that the Muslims were not their enemy.

2)      He explained that it was not the Muslims alone who had revolted against the British Government. On the other hand, all the sects of people living in the subcontinent had taken part in the War ofIndependence 1857.

3)      In his book “The Causes of the Indian Rebellion’, he argued that the revolt of 1857 was the result of the wrong policies of the British Government.

4)      Sir Syed also appealed to the Muslims not to feel hatred for the English, and cooperate with the British Government.

Thus Sir Syed played an important role in removing the misunderstandings ofthe English about the Muslims, and the latter began to show interest in the Government affairs.

Q No.3What educational services did Sir Syed Ahmad Khan render for the Muslims of subcontinent?


Sir Syed Ahmed Khan realized that if the Muslims did not receive the modem
education, they would lag behind and would not be able to find an honourable place in society. So he started a campaign to persuade the young Muslims to receive western education andjoin the civil and army service of the Government.

a)      In order to spread education among Muslims, he established a school in Muradabad and founded Scientific Society in Ghazipur.

b)      The main objective of the Scientific Society was to translate the English books of western sciences into Urdu language.

c)      Sir Syed also started an Urdu journal “Tehzib-ul-Akhlaq” which published articles on educational and moral topics.

d)      As a result of his efforts, Muhammadan Anglo Oriental School was established atAligarh in 1875 A.D. This school was upgraded to the status of college after two years of its establishment. In 1920, it was raised to the status of a university. This institution created great Muslim leaders who later on actively took part in the independence movement.

Q No.4:How did Sir Syed lead the Muslims when they were in miserable condition after the War of Independence 1857?
Answer: Same as Q2
Q No.5Why was Bengal divided? How did Hindus react to the partition of Bengal?

         PARTITION OF BENGAL (1905)

Bengal was a vast province. It was quite difficult for the Government to run its ministration effectively.

In 1905, the Government divided it into two manageable parts-East Bengal and West Bengal. East Bengal became a Muslim majority province.
Assam was also included in it. This provided an opportunity to the Muslims of Bengal make progress in the economic field.

The Congress Hindu leaders launched a movement against the partition of Bengal. They wanted to keep the Muslims under their subjugation.

At last, the British government pressurized by the Hindu leaders annulled the partition of Bengal to make a Hindu majority province.

The Muslims realized that the Indian National Congress looked after only the interests of the Hindu community.

Q No.6 What were the demands made by the Simla Deputation?

The most important demands made in the memorandum were as follows:

1.   Separate electorate system should be introduced so that the Muslims might have a right to send their representatives to the Legislative Council as well as to the local bodies.

2.   In the provinces where Muslims are in minority, they should be given more seatsthan the proportion of their population. This demand was made on the ground of historical and political importance ofthe Muslims.

3.   The Muslims should be allocated gazetted and non-gazetted posts. They should be appointed on the posts of judges in the chief court and high courts. Muslims should also be included as representatives in the Executive Council of Viceroy.


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1- British) (2- British Crown) (3- twenty four ) (4- hostile) (5-19th) (6-“The Causes of the Indian Rebellion’) (7- Muradabad+ Ghazipur) (8-) (9- Muhammadan Anglo Oriental +1875 A.D.) (10- A.O. Hume+ Hindus )
C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-b) (2-c) (3-d) (4-d) (5-a) (6-c) (7-d) (8-a)


D. Write ‘T’   (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-F) (2-T) (3-T) (4-F) (5-T) (6-T) (7-F) (8-F) (9-F) (10-F )


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1- responsible for the revolt) (2- were destroyed) (3- were transferred to England) (4- as disloyal subjects) (5- to replace Urdu by Hindi) (6- under their subjugation) (7- in Simla Deputation)



               A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1When and how was the Muslim League founded’ and what were itsobjectives?


In October 1901, the Muslims leaders representing all the parts of the subcontinent met at Lucknow. In this meeting, the Muslim leaders felt the need of a Muslim organization in order to safeguard the political and social rights of the Muslims.

In December 1906 A.D., the annual meeting of the Muhammadan Educational
Conference took place at Dhaka.

In this meeting, the Muslim leaders laid stress on the need of forming a po litical party through which they could raise their voice and convey their feelings to the Government.

On 30th December 1906, a special session of the Conference was held under the
chair of Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk. In this session Nawab Salim Ullah Khan moved a resolution for forming All India Muslim League. The main objectives of this organization were described as under:

a.    To safeguard the political rights and interests of the Muslims.

b.    To remove the suspicions of the British Government about the Muslims and create better understanding between the Government and the Muslims of the subcontinent.

Q No.2What do you know about the Lucknow Pact? What is its important in the story of the Muslims of the subcontinent?


In the course of the First World War (1914-9198), there occurred a change in the
political views of the Hindus and Muslims of the subcontinent. They realized that by cooperating with each other they could get better concessions from the Government. So they made joint efforts in submitting their demands to the Government.

In 1915, the Indian National Congress and Muslim League held their joint session in Bombay and considered the matters of mutual interest. At that time, Quaid-e-Azam was the member of both the parties-the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League.

In 1916, both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League held their joint session at Lucknow. In this session both the parties reached an agreement which is known as Lucknow Pact.

The most important points of the Lucknow Pact :

The most important points of the Lucknow Pact were as follows:

1.  The Congress accepted the principle of separate electorate for the Muslims.

2.  In the Central Legislative Assembly, one third seats were allocated to the Muslims.

3.  It was also agreed that in the provinces where Muslims were in minority, their seats would be more they were entitled on the basis of population. Similar right was given to the Hindus in the provinces where they were in minority.

4.  No bill or resolution affecting a community was to be proceeded within the Central or any Provincial Assembly unless it is supported by three fourhts ofthe representatives of the concerned community.


a)      The Lucknow Pact was an important step towards the two-nation theory.

b)      The Congress had recognized that the Muslims were a nation separate from the Hindus.

c)      The Congress also recognized the Muslim League as a sole esentative political party of the Muslims of the subcontinent.

d)      Thus the Pact created atmosphere of unity between the Muslims and the Hindus, and both the nations began to struggle for the independence of the subcontinent.

e)      As the Lucknow Pact was the result of Quaid-e-Azam’s efforts, he came to be known as an “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity.”

Q No.3 Lay down the famous “Fourteen Points” of Quaid-e-Azam.


1.      The future constitution of India should be federal, and the residuary powers be vested in theprovinces.

2.      A uniform measure of autonomy should be granted to all provinces.

3.      All the legislatures: and 6ther elected bodies should have effective representation of mirlorities.without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even majority.

4.   In the Central Legislature, :Muslim representation should not be less than one third.

5. There should be separate electorate for every sect. It should be; however, open to any community to abandon its’ separate electorate at any time in favour of joint electorate.

6.   Any alteration in the boundaries of provinces, if it ever seemed necessary, Should in no way affect the Muslim majority in the provinces of Punjab, Bengal and North-West Frontier.

7. Full religious freedom should be guaranteed to allcommunities .

8.No bill should be passed in any legislature or any elected body if three fourths of the members of any community in that particular body opposed such a bill.

9.Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.

10.Reforms should be introduced in the NWFP and Balochistan on the same footing as in other provinces.

11.Provisions should be made in the constitution to give Muslims an adequate share
along with other Indians in all the services of State and in the Local Self Government bodies.

12.The constitution should provide an adequate protection to the Muslim culture and Muslim education. The Muslim charitable institutions should be given their due share in the grant-in-aid allowed by the State and by the self-government bodies.

13.Muslims should be given at least one-third representation in all central and provincial cabinets.

14.No change should be made in the constitution of the State without the consent of the provinces forming the Federation.

Q No.4: How did the KHilafat Movement start and how did it come to an end?


During the First World War, theTurks sided with Germany against Britain. At that time, Turkey was the biggest Muslim empire and custodian of the holy places of Muslims.
The Muslims allover the world, therefore, had a great regard for the ruler of Turkey,

who was also known as the Caliph.

In the beginning of the War, the Muslims ofthe subcontinent came out in support

of Turkey. But soon Britain promised that after the war, the Ottoman Caliphate of Turkey would be restored and the holy places of Muslims would be protected. At this the Muslims of the subcontinent became neutral, and they did not create any trouble for the British Government. But after the British came out as victorious, they went back on their word and refused to honour the promise they had made during the War. The British got the treaty signed on their own terms. They also made a plan to rehabilitate the Jews and establish their State in Palestine.

The Muslims of the subcontinent could not tolerate the hostile policy of the Britshers against the Muslims of the world. In 1919, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhsr and Maulana Shaukat Ali launched a movement against the British Government to protest against their policies. This movement is known as Khilafat Movement. The main objectives of the Khilafat Movement were:

1.    To protect the holy places of the Muslims and get the Ottoman Caliphat restored in Turkey.

2.    To liberate the subcontinent from the yoke of the British rule.


1)      Thousands of Muslims were arrested and sent to jail for taking part in KhilafatMovement.

2)      The people boycotted the English goods.

3)      During the Movement, a large number of the Muslims left their homes and marched towards Afghanistan to take refuge. The Government of Afghanistan did not allow them to enter the Afghan territory. While returning to their homes, a large number of Muslims died of cold and disease.

4)      Those who were fortunate enough to survive, found themselves homeless as their houses had been occupied by the Hindus.

5)      In the beginning, Gandhi supported the Khilafat Movement, but he left the Movement when it was in full swing.

6)      It is interesting to note that Quaid-e-Azam did not take part in the Khilafat.

7)      In the meantime, Mustafa Kamal Pasha laid the foundation of a Democratic Government in Turkey.

Consequently the KhilafatMovement came to an end. The Movement caused heavy loss and suffering to the Muslims of the subcontinent.

Q No.5 Write a note on each of the following: a) Delhi Proposals by Quaid-e-Azam b) Simon Commission c) Nehru Report   d) Round Table Conference




While introducing the Government of India Act 1919 ,the British government had announced that a commission for constitutional reforms would be set up every ten years. Accordingly in November 1927, a commission headed by Sir John Simon was appointed to assess the political condition of India.

The Commission included seven British members of Parliament, and included no Indian member. The appointment of Simon Commission spread a wave of unrest throughout the country.
Lord Birkenhead, the British Secretary of State for India argued that nobody among
Indians could represent the different sects of native people. Both the Congress and the Muslim League decided to boycott the Simon Commission. The British Secretary of India, Lord Birkenhead gave challenged the Indian leaders to produce an agreed constitution for the consideration of the British Government.


The National Congress convened an all-parties conference and appointed a committee headed by Moti Lal Nehru to prepare a draft of the future Constitution of India.

The recommendations of the committee are known as Nehru Report. The main proposals of the Nehru Report were as under:

1.   The principle of separate electorate for Muslims should be withdrawn.

2.   The reservation of seats for the provinces of Punjab and Bengal was ruled out.

3.    The reservation of seats for Muslims in the provinces where they were in minority was, however, to be retained.

4.   The reservation of seats more than those on the basis of population, should not be allowed.

5.    At the Centre the Muslim representation was reduced from two thirds to one forth.

NehruReport disappointed the Muslims because it completely ignored even the most justified The demands of the Muslims and other minorities. The Muslim leaders felt at the acceptance of the report would mean to bring the whole Muslim community under the Hindu rule.

(d) Round Table Conference

The failure ofthe Simon Commission and Nehru Report, had caused a deadlock in the development to constitutional reforms in the country. The British Government held a series of Round Table Conferences to reach an agreed solution of the political problems in the subcontinent.

The First Round Table
Conference was held in November 1930, in London. The Muslim leaders attended the Conference. The Congress leaders, who were busy in Civil Disobedience Movement, did not attend the Conference. This session of the Conference concluded without any fruitful results.

The Second Round Table

Conference was held in September 1931. Quaid-e- Azam did not participate in this Conference. Mr. Gandhi maintained that there was no communal issue in India and the Congress was the sole representative party of all Indians. As the Indian leaders failed to reach an agreement, the British Government was obliged to give a Communal Award. The main features of the Communal Award were as follows:

1.   The principle of separate electorate was maintained.

2.   Reservation of Muslim seats in Hindu majority provinces and Hindu seats in the Muslim Majority Provinces was guaranteed.

3.   Sindh was separated form the Bombay Presidency.

As the Communal Award was close to Muslim demands, the Congress leaders again started Civil Disobedience Movement.

The third Round Table Conference:

Conference was beld in ovember 1932. ‘The Congress leaders did not attend the Conference. As a result, the Conference met a complete failure.

Q No.6: What do you know about Allahabad Address?


In December 1930, the annual meeting of All India Muslim League was held at
Allahabad. The session was presided by Allama Iqbal, the national poet of the Muslims.
On this occasion, Allama Iqbal delivered his historical presidential address known as Allahabad Address. In this address Allama Iqbal presented a plan for the solution of the
political issues of the subcontinent.

According to this plan, the Muslim majority provinces, i.e. NWFP, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan were to be made a separate unit with a Muslim Government. He explained that the Muslims were entirely a different nation from Hindus, and that they had their own culture and civilization.

He argued that the two nations could not live together, hence the Muslims must get a state of their own in the Muslim majority areas.

He said that it was only in an independent state that they would be able to cultivate their religious and moral traditions.

Q No.7 How was the Congress rule established in the subcontinent and how did it come to an end?


In 1937, General Elections were held under the Government of India. Act, 1935. The Congress leaders returned successful. Beng a majority party, the Congress formed Government in all provinces.

Under the Congress rule, the song ‘Bande Matram’ which injured the feelings of
Muslims was given the status of the national anthem. The Urdu language was replaced with Hindi. In schools, the students of all religions were compelled to adopt Hindu culture. The students were also asked to bow before the picture of Gandhi. In this way, the Hindu leaders tried to promote Hinduism and bring harm to Muslim civilization.


In 1939, there broke out the Second World War. The English needed the support of the people of the subcontinent. Hindus take advantage of this situation. They started movement against the British Government.

As a first step of protest the Congress ministers resigned from their portfolios. Thus the Muslims got rid of the hostility of the Congress rule. Under the feeling of relief, they celebrated the ‘ Deliverance’ on 22nd December, 1939.


         B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1- political + social) (2- Muhammadan Educational Conference ) (3- All India Muslim League) (4- Lucknow) (5- separate ) (6- unity) (7-“Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity.”) (8- Palestine) (9- Mustafa Kamal Pasha) (10- hatredness ) (11- ‘Tableegh’ + ‘Tanzeem’) (12-Rowlatt) (13- Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar) (14-‘Bande Matram’) (15-1939)
C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-b) (2-d) (3-c) (4-b) (5-a) (6-c) (7-b) (8-b) (9-c) (10-c)


           D. Write ‘T’   (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-F) (2-F) (3-T) (4-T) (5-F) (6-T) (7-T) (8-F) (9-T) (10-T)(11-F) (12-F)


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’ according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1- the interests of the Hindus) (2- the Turks sided with Germany) (3- the people boycotted the English goods) (4- converting the Muslims to Hinduism) (5- the interests of the Hindus) (6- because it ignored their justified rights) (7- in November, 1930) (8- in September, 1931) (9- in November, 1932)



               A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1: How were the Muslims of the subcontinent justified to make a demand for an independent state?


After the subcontinent came under the domination of the British, there started a struggle for rights between the Hindus and Muslims.

The Hindus on the basis of their heavy majority wanted to trample the rights of the Muslims. Before 1940, there came certain occasions when the two nations showed unity and made agreements, but on the whole the Muslims were led to the belief that the Hindus wanted to bring the Muslims under their domination.

This background led the Muslims to think that they should demand an independent state for themselves so that they might lead their lives according to their rreligious and cultural values.

The Muslim thinkers from time to time had drawn the attention of the Muslims towards separatism. The names of Baba Jamal-ud-DinAfghani, Sir SyedAhmad Khan, Chaudhary Rahmat Ali, Maulana Hasrat Mohani and Allama Iqbal are specially table in this respect.

These Muslims thinkers had come to the conclusion that the only way to bring peace in the subcontinent was to establish an independent state comprising Muslim majority provinces.

Q No.2:When and where was the Pakistan Resolution passed? Also discuss its historical lmportance?


On 22nd, 23rd and 24th March, 1940, the sessions of the annual meeting of All India Muslim League were held in the vast ground of Minto Park, now called Iqbal Park, Lahore.

This meeting was presided by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. In his historical presidential address, Quaid-e-Azam explained the historical background of the demand for a separate independent Muslim State in the subcontinent. Jinnah’s presidential address explained the two-nations theory.

He argued that the nature of the Hindu-Muslim problem. in India was an international problem because the Hindus and Muslims were two nations each believing in a different social system. History had proved that the two peoples could never live together as one


The importance of Pakistan Resolution is not confined within South Asia; it has
global importance, too.

It is the first resolution ever passed in the world which blessedsubjugated nation with-independence, and created an unequalled spirit of unity and sacrifice

among the’ Muslims.

After the adoption of Pakistan Resolution, the Muslims
of the subcontinent started their struggle for the establishment of Pakistan.

The British and Hmdus tried to put obstacles in the way of Pakistan Movement, but the Muslims who were organized underthedynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam continued their journey towards their’ destination.To commemorate the Pakistan Resolution, we
celebrate 23rd March is Pakistan Day every year.

Q No.3:What were the main proposals of the Cripps Mission? Why did the National Congress and Muslim League reject these proposals?


l.      During the War the British would retain their rule over the subcontinent, and general elections in the provinces would be held as soon as the war ended.

2.    The subcontinent would be a Federation of Provinces under the British Crown for the period often years.

3.    After the lapse of ten years, any province would be free to leave the Federation, Both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League rejected the Crip Proposals.

To the Congress the proposals were not acceptable because they support the partition of the subcontinent in vague terms.

The Muslim League objected that there was no clear provision in the scheme for the establishment of an independent Muslim State.

Q No.4:What do you know about the Quit India Movement? What was this movement meant for?
Answer: After the failure of the Cripps Mission, the Congress passed the ‘Quit India Resolution’ at Bombay in August 1942The British Government had made preparations well in advance. Within a few hours after the ‘Quit India Resolution’ was passed, Congress was outlawed and Gandhi and other Hindu leaders were arrested. This gave rise to violent riots throughout the country. Railway stations were burnt, rail tracks were uprooted, telegraph wires were cut, means of communication were disrupted and many public buildings were burnt to ashes. At most places there were incidents of open violence and hundreds of persons were killed.

During the ‘Quit India’ campaign, the peace and order remained suspended in various parts of India. The British Government took two months to control this storm.
In the meantime the war situation changed in favour of Britain. Ultimately the Quit India Movement met a complete failure.

Quaid-e-Azam was fully aware of the designs of the Congress leaders. He made it clear to the Muslims that the ‘Quit India’ campaign meant nothing but to establish Hindu rule all over India. He also criticized the Hindu policy that a national Government should be established without the consent of Muslim League. He gave a new slogan: divide and quit.

Q No.5Write a comprehensive note on the Simla Conference.


In 1944, Lord Wavel came as a new British Viceroy of India. In 1945, the signs of British victory in the Second World War were quite apparent. Lord Wavel believed in keeping the subcontinent politically united.

He wanted to bring about an agreement between the major political parties of India on constitutional issues. In May 1945, he, with his proposals, went to London for consultation with the British Government. On 16th June, he elaborated his plan in his speech at Delhi.

He proposed that after the war, the Congress and Muslim League should be included in the Central Government with balanced representations of main communities forming equal proportions of the Muslims and scheduled caste Hindus.

In order to place his proposals before the Indian leaders, the Viceroy convened a conference in Simla. He also invited Quaid-e-Azam and Gandhi as the accepted leaders of the Muslim League and the Congress respectively. Gandhi withdrew in favour of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad who was to represent the Congress. Gandhi decided to act as an adviser outside the Conference. In fact, he wanted to show that the Congress
represented all the communities of India.

In Simla Conference, there arose a disagreement between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. Lord Wavel wanted to include five ministers from Muslims, five from Hindus and three from other communities.

The Congress refused to accept the right of the Muslim League nominate the five Muslim ministers. The Congress insisted that the Muslim League should allowed to nominate only four ministcrs and the 5th Muslim minister would be nominated by the Congress.

Quaid-e-Azam foresaw that according to the Congress formula, the Muslim League would be reduced to a minority.
He, therefore, made a demand for general elections so that the true representatives of the Muslims could join the Government. The Simla Conference proved a failure.

Q No.6How did the General Elections (1945-46) ensure the establishment of Pakistan?  

           GENERAL ELECTIONS (1945-46)

With the end ofthe Second World War in 1945, the British Government announced that
the General Elections would be held in the winter of 1945-46.

The elections of the Central Legislative Assembly were held in December, 1945. The Muslim League won all the Muslim seats which were 30 in number. The Congress also won and occupied 57 out of 62 seats in the non-Muslim constituencies.

The elections for the Provincial Assemblies were held in January 1946. The League again captured a heavy majority of seats everywhere except in NWFP. The Muslim League won 430 out of 495 Muslim seats thus securing 90 per cent seats in the Muslim provinces.

The wonderful success of Muslim League in the General Elections, 1945-46, proved that the Muslim League represented all the Muslims of India. But the Congress did not recognize the Muslim League as the sole representative of the Muslims of the subcontinent. The Hindu leaders still claimed that the congress represented all the communities living in India.

After elections, the Muslim League formed its Government in Bengal and Sindh. In Punjab, Muslim League had a clear majority, but Congress formed a coalition with Akali Sikh leaders and Unionist Muslims thus converting the Muslim League into a minority.

QNo7 What did the Cabinet Mission propose for the future constitution of India?


The grand success of the Muslim League in the General Elections held in 1945-46 gave anew shape to the politics of the subcontinent. The new Labour Government in Britain sent a special mission to India to bring about an agreement between the Congress and the Muslim League.

As all the three members of the Mission-Lord Pathic Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander-were the cabinet Ministers, it came to be known as the Caomet Mission. parties. Quaid-e-Azam argued that any democratic system based on United India would result in civil war. The only solution of the Hindu-Muslim problem was, therefore, the establishment of two independent states.

After the failure of conference with political leaders, the Cabinet Mission put forward its own proposals on which the. future constitution of India was to be based. These proposals came to be known as Cabinet Mission Plan.

The Cabinet Mission brought with it a formula of grouping the provinces on Hindu majority and Muslim majority provinces. The first group was to consist of Hindu majority provinces i.e. Madras, Mumbai, United Provinces, Bihar, Central Provinces and Orissa. The second group was to consist of the western Muslim majority provinces i.e. Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan. The third group was to comprise the eastern Muslim majority provinces i.e. Bengal and Assam. It was proposed that at the top of these groups there would be an All India Union controlling defense, communications and foreign affairs.

The most important feature of the Cabinet Plan was that any of the three groups could establish its independent Government after the period of ten years. It was also proposed that both Muslim League and the National Congress would be included in the new Government. It was also stipulated that it was imperative to either accept the whole plan or to reject it altogether, and that the accepting party would be invited to form the Government.

The Muslim League accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan because the compulsory
grouping of the six Muslim provinces would ultimately result in the establishment of an independent Pakistan.

The Congress accepted the first part of the plan but rejected its second part regarding the grouping of provinces. Jawahar Lal Nehru ridiculed the plan and gave a threat that he would not allow the grouping of provinces and in case of suchgrouping his party would not stay in the assembly.

Q No.8How was the Interim Government of India formed in the light of the Cabinet Mission Plan?


As the Muslim League had accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan in whole, it had a tified right to form the Government. But the British Government refused to give this Dghtto the Muslim League.

As a protest, the League withdrew its’decision, to take part in the new Government, and its members returned all the titles conferred on them. In protest against the unjust attitude of the British Government, the Muslims of the subcontinent served Direct Action Day on 16th August 1946.

The Government invited the Congress to form the. Interim Government. Later, the Viceroy realized that the Interim Government would not be effective without the participation of th,e Muslim League. He, therefore, invited the League to join the Government. The Muslim League accepted the offer in the largerinterest of the Muslim nation.

Five League members headed by Liaqat Ali Khan joined the Central Government. Liaqat Ali Khan, being the Finance Minister of the new Government submitted a budget which levied heavy taxes on the Capitalists and allowed concessions to the poor classes. The Congress strongly opposed the budget. This exposed the designs of the Congress who claimed to be the well wisher of the poor but in reality supported the Hindu capitalists.

Q No.9 Give the main provisions of the 3rd June Plan.


The main provisioris of the plan were as follows:

1.      The existing Constituent Assembly would carry on its work, but the constitution framed by it would be applicable to those parts of the country which would bewilling to accept it.

2.      The representatives of the Muslim majority districts and the non-Muslim majority districts of Punjab and Bengal would decide by vote whether they wanted to join Pakistan or Bharat? If they voted for the division of sub- continent, a boundary commission would be appointed to demarcate the boundaries ofthe two countries.

3.      The Sindh Constituent Assembly would decide with simple majority vote to join Pakistan or Bharat.

4.      A referendum was to be held in NWFP to know whether the people liked to join Pakistan or Bharat?

5.      A referendum was also to be held in the Sylhet District of Assam to determine whether in the event of the partition of Bengal, the people ofSylhet would like to join the Muslim part of Bengal or its Hindu part.

6.      In Balochistan, the Shahi Jarga or Municipal Committee would be empowered to decide whether they liked to join Pakistan or not?

7.      Small Royal States would be free to join Pakistan or Bharat.

Q No.10What was the Radcliff Award? How was injustice done to Pakistan under the Radcliff Award?


On the 30th of June 1947, the Viceroy appointed two commissions for the demarcations of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal. Sir Radcliff, a British Judge, was appointed as chairman of the two Boundary Commissions. He was also empowered to act as an arbitrator in case of arising any controversy on the question of demarcation.

The decision made by the Commission is known as the Radcliff Award.

Sir Radcliff did not do justice with the duty entrusted to him.

1)  Many Muslim majorityareas contagious to Pakistan were given to Bharat.

2)  The district of Gurdaspur, Tehsils of Pathankot and Ferozepur and Jalundher were Muslim majority areas but he gave them away to Bharat.

3)  This division made it easy for India to send its armed forces into Kashmir territory.

4)  Sir Radcliff also did injustice while demarcating the boundaries of East Pakistan, the present Bangladesh.

5)  He also showed partiality in the distribution of assets. Pakistan could not get its due share of properties, arms, machinery, bogies, railway engines and other precious assetss


                   B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1- Hindus + Muslims) (2- Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.) (3-Two Nations) (4- The Lahore Resolution) (5- Federation of Provinces+ British Crown) (6- the partition) (7- Maulana Abul Kalam Azad) (8- protection of its rights) (9- Bengal +Sindh) (10- Cabinet)(11- Liaqat Ali Khan) (12- Shahi Jarga + Municipal Committee)(13- first Governor General of Pakistan)(14- Prime Minister)


C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-c) (2-c) (3-b) (4-d) (5-a) (6-c) (7-d) (8-b) (9-c)
D. Write ‘T’ (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-F) (2-F) (3-F) (4-F) (5-T) (6-T) (7-F) (8-T) (9-F) (10-F)(11-T) (12-F)


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’ according to column ‘A’
Answers:1. Minto Park Lahore 2. August 1942 3. establishing Hindu and in India 4. divide and quit 5. 16th June 1945   6. 1944 7. 1945-46 8. Madras, Mumbai, United Provinces, Bihar, Central Provinces and Orisa 9. Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan 10. Bengal and Assam 11. 16 August 1946   12. 3rd June 1947 13. Sir Radcliff



A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1: What was the human society like before the advent of Islam? Where was the first Islamic State established and what changes did Islam bring to human society?


               In the days of Jahiliyyat (ignorance), before the advent of Islam:

(1)   the people were ruled by the strong dictators.

(2)   The dictators usurped the power and treated the people mercilessly.

(3)   They waged war against the weak tribes, destroyed cities, looted property
and massacred thousands of innocent people.

Islam gave a new concept of government to the savage people. It taught them that all the people including the ruler and the subjects, the rich and the poor and the strong and the weak are equal in the eyes of Allah. Islam set laws of justice to protect everyone’s rights.


The Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم) founded the first Islamic Republic in Madina. He introduced new customs based on justice and kindness to human society, and thus established for the first time an Islamic welfare state.

This state worked on the principle of the sovereignty of God. As all the citizens enjoyed equal rights, it was a democratic State in its nature. Slavery was abolished and the women, widows, orphans and the weak were granted all the rights to which they were entitled.

After the death of the Holy Prophet (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم), the four Caliphs, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqueoe), Hazrat Umar Farooque, Hazrat Usman and Hazrat Ali(رضی اللہ عنہم) performed their duties according to the teachings of Islam. They preached Islam even to the far- flung areas, and the limits of the Islamic state were extended to North Africa, Iran, Middle East and Spain.

In the Islamic state, the Caliph was not a ruler but a servant of the common people and took care of all the subjects. He led a simple and pious life. He always consulted others. The Islamic state was run truly in a democratic way.

Q No.2:What is a Constitution and what is its importance?


Civics teaches us how to live in peace with others. For this we must abide by the laws of the country. Where there are no rules and regulations, there is no peace and order in society. In olden days it was the right of the king to make laws. In the modem world the representati yes of the people perform the duty of making laws.

The system of basic laws and principles according to which a state is governed, is called Constitution. A Constitution lays down the rights of the people and the duties, responsibilities and functions of a government. A constitution, therefore, serves as a basic document for guiding the people and regulating their lives in a meaningful way.

Q No.3:Write a brief note on the Objectives Resolution? How was the first Constitution of Pakistan developed and when was it introduced?


In March 1949, the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan passed the ‘Objectives Resolution’. The Resolution laid down the guidelines as to how the future constitution of Pakistan to be framed.

According to the Objectives Resolution;

(1)  the ultimate authority lies with Allah Almighty.

(2)  The Muslims of Pakistan would exercise this authority on behalf of Allah.

(3)  The limits laid down by the Holy Quran were to be respected and preserved.

(4)  It was also laid down that the Government would create conditions “in the country to enable the people shape their lives according to the teachings of Islam.

(5)  It was expected that the future constitution would be federal, and the federal units would be given provincial autonomy.

Q No.4:In what circumstances was the Constitution of 1962 framed and when and how did it come to an end?


On October 07, 1958, the President Sikandar Mirza abrogated the Constitution of 1956 and imposed Martial Law. On October 27,1958, General Muhammad Ayub Khan took over as the President of the State. In 1962, the President lifted the Martial Law and introduced the Constitution of 1962.

In March 1969, President Ayub Khan had to resign after abrogating the “Constitution of 1962, and introducing Martial Law in the country. General Yahya Khan first became the Chief Martial Law Administrator and after three months he took over the charge as the President of Pakistan. He restored the former five provinces, i.e. Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, NWFP and East Pakistan.

Q No.5Give an account of the events that took place during the second Martial Law in the country.
Q No.6When and by whom was the Constitution of 1973 introduced? Also write the main features ofthe Constitution.

             CONSTITUTION OF 1973

In January 1972, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took over as the President of Pakistan but the country was still being run underMartial Law. A Committee of 25 members of the National Assembly framed a new Constitution which was introduced on August 14, 1973. With the introduction of the new Constitution, Martial Law came to an end, and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto became the Prime Minister.


         Under the new Constitution, our country was named ‘Islamic Republic of Pakistan’, and Islam was declared as the official religion of the State.

The new constitution was based on Parliamentary System of Government. It ensured more powers to the provinces.

The Constitution also laid down that the Government would ensure that the people moulded their lives according to the teachings ofthe Holy Quran and Sunnah.

Q No.7 How was the third Martial Law introduced in the country and when was it withdrawn? Also briefly describe the political developments that took place during the period of General Zia-ul-Haq.
Q No.8Give a brief account of the democratic governments formed during the period from 1988 to 1999.

(a)    In 1988, General Zia-ul-Haq dismissed the Junejo Government. In the same year, on August 17, the President General Zia-ul-Haq died in a plane crash.

(b)   After General Zia’s death, Ghulam Ishaq Khan became the Acting President. He held general elections in 1988. Pakistan People’s Party won the elections, and Benazir Bhutto, the daughter of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, became the first woman Prime Minister of Pakistan. Parliament elected Ghulam Ishaq Khan to be the President.

(c)    In 1990, the President dismissed the Benazir Government.

(d)   As a result of the next elections, Nawaz Sharif of the Muslim League became the Prime Minister.

(e)    In 1993, the Nawaz Sharif Government was also dismissed by the President Ishaq
Khan. The President then resigned himself, too.

(f)    As a result of the new elections held in October 1993, Benazir Bhutto of the
People’s Party again became the Prime Minister on 19th October, 1993. Parliament elected Muhammad Farooq Laghari, the President of Pakistan.

(g)    The President dismissed the Benazir Government in 1996.

(h)   The Interim Government held fresh elections in February 1997, which brought
Muhammad Nawaz Sharif again into power.

(i)     On 12th October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf took over the charge of the Government as the Chief Executive of the Country.

Q No.9Give a brief account of the working of the Federal Government in Pakistan.
Q No.10Give a brief account of the working of a Provincial Government in Pakistan.
Q No.11Write a note on each of the following:

a)   Supreme Court (b)High Court (c)Council of Islamic Ideology



The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Its functions are performed by a Chief Justice and a few other Judges. It can hear appeals against the decisions made by the Provincial High Courts. One of the most important functions of the Supreme Court is to ensure that the rights of citizens guaranteed in the Constitution are fully protected.


The High Court is the highest judicial body in a province. The function of a High
Court is carried out by a Chief Justice and a few more Judges.

The President appoints the Chief Justice on the recommendations of the Provincial Governor and the Chief Justice of Pakistan. The appointments of the Judges are made with the approval of the Chief Justice of the concerned High Court and the Governor of the concerned Province.

It is the responsibility of the High Court to supervise the work of the ‘Subordinate Courts’. The High Court can hear the-appeals against the decisions and judgments of the lower courts. Cases in the personal freedom or citizens’ rights can be filed directly in the High Court:

The judgment passed by a High Court can only be challenged in the Supreme Court which is the highest judicial body in the country.

It should be remembered that in a state there are three important institutions
namely Legislative, Executive and JUdiciary. In a democratic society the Judiciary has a special significance. The Constitution has .previ.§:ions for the rights of citizens and civic freedoms. But it is Judiciary that protects andthese rights and freedoms.


           In the Constitution it has been stressed thatthe Musfims of Pakistan should be
provided with maximum opportunities to shape their lives according to the”
teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. To achieve this end, it is essential that no bill which is against the spirit ofIslam should be passed.

A Council of Islamic Ideology has been set up In order to’ shape the country’s laws according to the spirit of Islam. The Council advises the Legislature from time to time in matters regarding the religion. The Council of Islamic Ideology do:

1.      The Council guides and advises the Government to adopt such measures that can help Muslims to become the true followers ofIslam.

2.      It suggests ways an?means to mould laws according to the spirit ofIslam.

3.      It gives its opinion whether a certain law is truly Islamic in nature or not?


B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1- power) (2- justice) (3- democratic) (4-) (5- Constitution) (6-“Islamic Republic of Pakistan”) (7-                         )                  (8- Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman) (9- Bangladesh) (10- non-party)(11- Ghulam Ishaq Khan) (12- Nazimeen + Naib Nazimeen) (13- Prime Minister) (14- National Assembly +the Senate) (15- adult franchise) (16- Supreme Court) (17- Prime Minister) (18- Chief Minister) (19-province) (20- Legislature)


C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-d) (2-c) (3-b) (4-d) (5-b) (6-a) (7-b) (8-c) (9-a) (10-b)(11-c)


D. Write ‘T’   (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-F) (2-F) (3-T) (4-F) (5-T) (6-F) (7-T) (8-F) (9-T) (10-F)(11-T)


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’ according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1-to the savage people)(2-a servant of the common people)(3-no peace and order)(4-March 1949)(5 14th October 1955) (6-23rd March 1956) (7-27thOctober195) (8- July 5, 1977)(9- 1988) (10-August17, 1988 )(11-12th October 1999) (12- Nazimeen and Naib Nazimeen) (13- November 22,2002) (14-272 general seats) (15-for 4 year)
  1. Match Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’
Answers: (1-297) (2-130) (3-99) (4-51 )



                 A.Give brief answers to the following Questions?

Q No.1When and why was the United Nations established?


         The First World War (1914 -1918) and the Second World War (1939 -1945) had caused heavy losses of life and property. Human beings usually learn lessons after suffering huge losses. So after the First World War, the League of Nations was formed to avoid wars in future.

After the Second World War, the United Nations was founded.
The idea behind establishing this world body was to safeguard the coming generations from the destruction of war and to establish peace on the principle of equality of nations. The United Nations came into existence on 24th October 1945.

Now the United Nations is working for the promotion of health, food, education,
science, industry, culture and peaceful co-existence. The headquarters – of the United
Nations are in New York (USA).

The Headquarters are in’ form of a huge box-like building which lies on the bank of the river Hudson.

Q No.2What are the main objectives of the United Nations?


According to the United Nations Charter, the objectives of the United Nations are:

1.    To establish international peace.

2.    To make joint efforts to eradicate poverty, ignorance and disease.

3.    To respect the rights and freedom of other nations.

4.    To help establish.friendly relations among the nations of the world.

5.    To play a pivota1 role to brng hamony in the measures taken by different nations for achieving the above objectives.

Q No.3 Give brief accounts of the six main agencies of the United Nations.


The United Nations Secretariat lies in New York (USA). The Secretariat performs the administrative functions of the United Nations. In the Secretariat, the highest office is that of the Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a term of five years. The other staff members of the secretariat are appointed by the Secretary General himself. The responsibilities and duties of the Secretary General are as under:

1.   He implements the decisions ofthe General Assembly.

2.    He brings to the notice of the Security Council if the world peace is threatened
anywhere in the world.

3.    He helps the member countries to settle their disputes through negotiations or by

4.    He takes proper measures to stop war between the warring countries.

5.    He holds talks with the representatives of any member country to chalk out social, economic and manpower development programmes.

6.    He submits to the annual meeting of the General Assembly his report reviewing
the performance of the United Nations during the year.


According to the United Nations Charter, the General Assembly is the largest UN Agency. All UN members are the members of the General Assembly. It started with the membership of 50 countries. As more and more countries of the world started winning independence from the colonial rule the membership went on increasing.

The General Assembly has many important functions to perform. All
international matters are discussed in the General Assembly provided such matters
come within its jurisdiction according to the UN Charter. Ordinary matters are settled
on the basis of simple majority whereas the important issues are solved on the basis of
two-third majority. Each member country can send its five representatives. It has,
however, the right to cast only one vote. The General Assembly also appoints the
Secretary General on the recommendation of the Security Council and the selection of .
the non-permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly appoints
Committees to settle various issues and takes action in the light of the reports of these

The representatives of the member countries are present in the headquarters of
the United Nations in New York (USA) so that they may participate in any General
Assembly meeting called in emergency. A matter which is already under consideration
of the Security Council cannot be discussed in General Assembly. However, if the
Security Council is unable to settle an issue, the General Assembly can take it into
consideration. The General Assembly, if it deems necessary, can also recommend an
armed intrusion.

The General Assembly meets once a year on the third Tuesday of the month of
September. However, a special session may be called if desired by the majority of the member states.


The Security Council is one of the most important agencies of the United Nations. It
akes all important decisions relating to the world peace and security. The Security Council consists of 15 members of which five are permanent and the remaining ten are non-permanent.

The permanent members include the United States of America, Russia, the Great Britain, France and China while the non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years. The permanent members of the Security Council have the right of veto. Veto means a constitutional right to reject a plan or proposal. If any of the permanent members vetoes a proposal, it cannot be accepted even if all the other members of the Security Council support it.

The Security Council can make recommendations for settling a dispute between relations, imposing sanctions on an aggressive country and taking military action against the country to ensure peace and security. All the member states of the United Nations are moral obligation to accept the recommendations of the Security Council.

The meeting of the Security Council can be called at any time. The President of the Security Council is changed on monthly basis. It is in alphabetical order that each of the member states assumes the office of the Security Council in its turn.


The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 members who are elected by the General Assembly for three years. One third of the members of the Council drop every year and new members are elected to replace them.

The Economic and Social Council is responsible for finding out the solutions of the economic and social problems being faced by the member states of the United Nations. For this purpose, the Council studies the economic, social, cultural and health problems of nations, and on this basis prepares reports and makes recommendations for implementation. Another important task entrusted to this Council is to submit its ecommendations to ensure the basic human rights and self -determination of all nations.

There are a number of important Commissions working under the supervision of this Council.

Some of these Commissions pertain to statistics, population and human rights. There are also some regional Commissions of which the most important ones are the Economic Commissions of Europe, Asia, Far East, Latin America and Africa.


The Trusteeship Council is responsible for supervising the general progress of the areas given in the care of other nations. These are the areas which were given in the care of the League of nations after the First World War or in the care of the United Nations after the Second World War. The United Nations entrusted these areas to the member countries in order to make their administration efficient, exploit their natural resources more effectively and improve the general condition of their peoples.

It is the responsibility of the Trusteeship Council to ensure that the trustee countries are taking proper measures for the economic, social and political development of the areas entrusted to them. The Trusteeship Council also takes into consideration the reports sent by the countries taking care of the areas entrusted to them. The Council also sends its deputations to the areas under trusteeship in order to get information about the true condition of these areas and to examine the complaints
lodged by the individuals or agencies.


International Court of Justice consists of fifteen Judges who are elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for nine years. The Judges themselves elect their President who holds his office for three years. From a member country only one Judge can be elected at a time.

The international Court of Justice hears only the cases of international disputes.

The member countries of the United Nations may take the case directly to the Court.
The Security Councilor the General Assembly may refer a dispute to this court for legal advice.

The International Court of Justice has its own constitution which is a part of the United Nations Charter. The headquarters ofthisCourt are at Hague in Holland. Every member country of the United Nations is supposed to respect the decisions taken by the Court.

Q No.4:Write the main responsibilities of the Security Council and those of the General Assembly.
Q No.5What is meant by veto? Also write the names of the member countries of the Security Council which have the power of veto.
Q No.6:Write a note on the formation and functions of any four of the following specific organizations ofthe United Nations.

a)UNICEF (b) UNESCO (c) FAO             d)WHO (e) ILO   f)World Bank


(a) UNICEF (United Nations International Children Education Fund)

In the world, there are many states which are called developing countries. Due to poverty, these countries cannot spend enough money for the proper growth and welfare of their children. In order to assist such countries in stepping up their programmes for the welfare of the children, the United Nations established UNICEF in 1946; This organization forms projects pertaining to the education and training of children, family health, welfare and food requirements of the developing countries.

The UNICEF carries out these projects with the cooperation of these countries.

UNICEF usually gives aid in the form of food, educational and clinical equipment, books, medicines and training of teachers. It also focuses on making up the deficiency of vitamins inchildren and mothers. To meet the expenses, funds are raised by voluntary contributions from various individuals and countries.

(b) UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
           UNSECO was also founded in 1946. It aims at enabling the developing countries to
raise their standard of living. UNESCO fulfills an important responsibility of promoting mutual cooperation among nations in the fields of education, science and culture. This approach gives rise to mutual friendship, cooperation, understanding and trust among different countries.

UNESCO establishes educational institutions and teachers’ training centres in cooperation with the developing countries. It holds educational, scientific and cultural conferences. The representatives of the developing countries are especially invited to these conferences so that they may benefit from the experience of the developed countries.

UNESCO also makes arrangements for exchanging educationists among different countries according to the economic and social requirements ofthese regions.
It believes that by promoting such activities the petty differences among nations can be removed.

The headquarters of UNESCO are located at Paris, but the regional offices are situated in different regions of the world. The regional office for Asia is located at Bangkok. This office seeks cooperation from the regional countries that lie from South Asia to Japan and helps them in the fields of education, science and culture.


WHO was established in 1948. The main concern of this organization is to exert all
efforts for the eradication of diseases, control of epidemics like cholera, malaria, typhoid, influenza and other diseases. It also makes recommendations for the promotion of physical and mental health of all human beings, and gives practical assistance to the countries for this purpose.

WHO encourages research and assists nations by providing them with monetary help and sending experts to different countries for the completion of the ongoing health programmes. WHO also grants funds for the training of doctors, nurses and paramedical staff of the developing countries. The headquarters of WHO are located at Geneva.


The World Bank was established in 1945. It provides loans on long-term basis to the
developing nations to enable them to meet their foreign exchange requirements. This gives rise to the economic growth of the less developed countries. The World Bank also gives the developing countries easy and long-term loans to enable them to complete their various projects. These countries spend the loan money on their less developed areas, and complete the projects launched for the welfare of the people. The World Bank also encourages foreign investment and provides financial and technical help to private companies.

The World Bank plays an important role in developing international trade on sound and balanced footing. It also provides technical advice to its member countries if they so desire. The headquarters of the World Bank are located at Washington.


                   B.Fill in the blanks with proper words.
Answers: (1- United Nations) (2- equality) (3- Hudson+ USA) (4- Secretary General+ General Assembly+ Security Council+ five) (5- simple) (6- USA+ Russia+UK+ France + China) (7- Trusteeship Council) (8- international) (9- United Nations) (10-education+ science +culture)(11- easy+ long-term)
               C.Four choices are given to complete each statement. Tick off the correct answer.
Answers: (1-c) (2-b) (3-c) (4-d) (5-b) (6-a) (7-a) (8-a)(9-c)


D. Write ‘T’ (True) for each correct statement and ‘F’ (False) for each incorrect one.
Answers: (1-T) (2-F) (3-F) (4-T) (5-F) (6-F) (7-T) (8-T)(9-t) (10-F)


E.Match Column ‘A’ with column ‘8’ and write the correct answer in column ‘C’ according to column ‘A’.
Answers: (1- after the First World War) (2- after the Second World War) (3- NewYork) (4- after the First World) (5- the largest UN agency) (6- fifteen members) (7-) (8-)(9- fifteen judges) (10- for three years)(11- Hague) (12-)


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