NOTES: PETER MOSS OXFORD SECONDARY SOCIAL STUDIES (SST-2) Class7

NOTES: PETER MOSS OXFORD SECONDARY SOCIAL STUDIES SST-2 Class 7

CH:1 GEOGRAPHY of THE MUSLIM WORLD       P:3

Q1:                

           Look at the world map in your atlas. Although there are Muslims in every country of the World, there are no Islamic states in two continents. Can you name them?

ANS

There are no Islamic states in Australasia (Oceania) and America.

Q2:                

There are tiny state in Southern Europe where 70 per cent of the population of three million are of Muslim origin, though only about 20 per cent practise the religion.

ANS

This is Albania, adjoining Greece. Albania became an independent country in 1912; it was a socialist state but it is a parliamentary democracy now. It is also a member state of the OIC.

Q3:                

      Look at the map given above, and note the details of the natural vegetation in the Muslim world. Make a table, showing the names of the Muslim countries and their natural vegetation.

ANS

 

Ch:1   1-MATCH COLUMN A WITH COLUMN B.

Column A shows the four main religions of the world, and others, and column b shows the estimated number of their followers

Sr A B
a

b

c

d

e

Buddhists

Hindus

Muslims

Christians

Others

26%

06%

33%

21%

14%

ANSWERS:

a) = 6% b) = 14% c) = 21% d) = 33% e) = 26%                    

 

  1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.
  2. a) Most of the Muslim countries of the world are located in——————————————————- .                                                     i) deserts and scrubland (ii) temperate grasslands                       iii) rainforests (iv) tropical grasslands
  3. b) The highest regions are in—————————— .   i) yemen and Oman (ii) Libya and Egypt                                   iii) Afghanistan and Pakistan (iv) Syria and Iraq
  4. c) The main mountain range in North Africa is—————————————————————————–                                                    i) Karakoram (iii) Hindu Kush                                                 iii) Himalayas (iv) Atlas Ranged)

d)Temperate grasslands are found in —————————————————————————————–.                                                           i) Malaysia (ii) Saudi Arabia                                                             iii) Sudan (iv) Central Asia

  1. e) There are tropical rainforests in ——————————————————————————————-.                                                       i) South Asia (ii) South-east Asia                                                 iii) Middle East (iv) North Africa

ANSWERS:                                                                                      a) = i) b) = iii) c) = iv) d) = iv) e) = ii)

  1. FILL IN THE BLANKS.
  2. a) The River Nile is in—————————————– .
  3. b) The Tigris and Euphrates flow into the ————————————————————————————-.
  4. c) The River Indus flows into the————————— .

ANSWERS:                                                                                                a) = Egypt/Sudan b) = The Gulf c) = Arabian Sea                                      

 

CH:2 CLIMATIC REGIONS of THE MUSLIM WORLD     P:9

Q1:                

     Describe why the monsoons are important for South and South-east Asia.

ANS

Monsoons are important for South and South-east Asia because they bring heavy rainfall which is beneficial for growing crops. Also, the places which receive rain from the monsoons have thick, rich vegetation.

Q2:                

How is Pakistan affected   by the monsoons?

ANS

Pakistan gets its monsoon rains from the winds that come in from the South-east. These winds reach Pakistan after crossing India, where they have already shed much of the rain. Only the north of the country gets real monsoon rainfall.

Q3:                

     Find out where these deserts a by the 5 are in your atlas. Make an outline map of the world and

Mark them on it.

a) Sahara                                       b) Thar

c) Dasht-e-Lut                               d)Kyzyl Kum

ANS

 

Q4:              

List the advantages and disadvantages of tropical forests and rainforests.

ANS

Advantages and disadvantages of tropical forests and rainforests:

ADVANTAGES:

               Forests supply timber, especially valuable hardwoods; renew the atmosphere by providing much-needed oxygen; protect the soil from erosion; and forests are home to a variety of flora and fauna that would become extinct if their habitat was destroyed.

Unknown species of plants and trees are being discovered especially in the Amazon rainforest. Some of these may provide valuable medical drugs; the cinchona tree was discovered here, which is the original source of quinine, the famous anti-malarial drug.

DISADVANTAGES:

                 Forests are unhealthy because of the heat and humidity; they engender diseases such as malaria; and when cleared for crops, the soil which is of limited fertility is soon exhausted and more areas have to be felled.

Q5:                

     What are the benefits for countries that have temperate grasslands? How does this climate affect their products?

ANS

Countries that have temperate grasslands are excellent for rearing of animals, especially livestock. The climate here is suitable for cereal crops and with irrigation, a wide variety of other plants and fruits can be grown.

Q6:                

Compare the kinds of climatic conditions you find in

a)    Pakistan

b)    Indonesia

ANS

Pakistan has a wide variety of climatic regions—hot and cold deserts, scrub and semi-desert, monsoon vegetation, and humidity. The vegetation found in Pakistan is more wide-ranging.

Indonesia has a tropical monsoon climate. The vegetation in Indonesia is dense and perennial, typical of the monsoon regions.

Ch#2

MATCH COLUMN A WITH COLUMN B.

A B
i) dasht-e-Lut

ii) Sahara

iii) Kyzyl Kum

iv) Rub-al-Khali

v) Thar

a)            Uzbekistan

b)            Pakistan

c)             Iran

d)            Africa

e)            Saudi Arabia

ANSWERS: i) dasht-e-Lut—Iran ii) Sahara – Africa iii) Kyzylkum – Uzbekistan iv) Rub-al-Khali – Saudi Arabia v) Thar – Pakistan

 

  1. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH CORRECT ANSWERS.
  2. a) The Sahara in Africa makes up of the total desert area of the world.                                                         i) 6%       ii) 75%     iii) 60%     iv) 25%
  3. b) The South-east Asian countries have a ————–.                                                                           i) temperate                                   ii) desert                                                                       iii) monsoon                                 iv) Mediterranean
  4. c) ————————of all the major deserts in the world are in Muslim countries.                                                       i) One fourth          ii) One third                                      iii) Half                 iv) Three fourths
  5. d) Tropical forests receive of rainfall a year.                 i) 500 – 1500 mm ii) 1800 – 2500 mm                             iii) 50 – 300 mm iv) 400 mm
  6. e) Uzbekistan is the largest cotton-growing state in the world.                                                                                     i) 4th ii) 2nd iii) 3rd iv) 5th
  7. f) The Mediterranean climate region has—————- .                                                                                         i) dry winters ii) mild, wet winters                                             iii) heavy rainfall iv) no rainfall
  8. g) In Pakistan the monsoon is———————— .                                                                                           i) from July to September ii) from March to May                         iii) in October iv) in April
  9. h) Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon are————————–                                                                                            i) Temperate grasslands ii) Semi-deserts                 iii) Tropical grasslands iv) Temperate deserts

j)Safar is in———————– are a great tourist attraction.                                                                                          i) Pakistan ii) Africa iii) Saudi Arabia iv) Iran

  1. k) In tropical forests the temperature remains at all year round.

i)45o–60oC ii) 10o–20oC                                                          iii) 35o–45oC iv) 20o–30oC

ANSWERS: a) = iii) b) = iii) c) = ii) d) = ii) e) = ii)

 

 

CH:3 MAIN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS Of THE MUSLIM WORLD     P:16

Q1:

Which agricultural products do you consider the most important? Give your reasons?

ANS

1-    Grains must be perhaps the most important agricultural product because they form the basic diet of all people.

2-    Fibres are probably next—cotton, wool, and then linen from flax—as everyone has to be clothed.

3-    Plant foods—vegetables, roots, leaves (cabbage, spinach, etc.) are important as they supply essential nutrients, such as vitamins, to the body.

Q2:                

Prepare a presentation on the agricultural products of Pakistan. Try to show as many actual samples as possible.

ANS

 

Q3:                

Find out what other products are made from natural rubber.

ANS

Products made from natural rubber, other than the ones mentioned in the book, are gloves, toys, balloons, adhesives, rubber bands, pencils, erasers, etc.

Q4:                

Pakistan imports and consumes a lot of tea. Find out the amounts imported and consumed.

ANS

Pakistan’s consumption is comparatively lower at 0.7 kg per person per year.

Q5:                

     On an outline map of the Muslim world, mark the countries where these agricultural products are found. Make your own symbols for each product.

ANS

 

Q6:                

Make a list of the national dishes of the Muslim countries mentioned above. Also write main ingredients of each dish is.

ANS

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:3

  1. COMPLETE THESE STATEMENTS.
  2. a) ————————————————————————– is the world’s leading producer of palm oil.
  3. b) ———————————————————————– is the tropical equivalent of wheat.
  4. c) The Aztecs called cocoa————————————————
  5. d) Coffee was discovered in the————————————— / —————————————————————— region.
  6. e) ——————————————————— is the main producer of coffee in the Muslim world.
  7. f) Muslim countries produce————————————— of the world’s tea.
  8. g) The rubber plant was originally found only in the——————————————————————– rainforests.
  9. h) The main Muslim countries producing rubber are ———————————— and ——————————————–.
  10. i) Muslim countries produce ————————————— % of the world’s cotton.
  11. j) ————————————————————- produces 3.5% of the world’s sugar.
  12. k) —————————————————————–produces high quality wool.
  13. l) ————————————————————- is the world’s biggest producer of cotton.
  14. m) ————————————————————-is the world’s largest producer of sugar cane.
  15. n) bagasse is the by-product of—————————————– .
  16. o) The word coffee comes from the Arabic word ———————————————————————————.

ANSWERS: a) Malaysia b) rice c) Xoco latl d) Somalia/Ethiopia e) Indonesia f) 15% g) Amazon h) Malaysia and Indonesia i) 20% j) Pakistan k) Turkey l) China m) brazil n) Sugar cane o) Kahwah

 

 

CH:4 MINERALS ANd NATURAL RESOURCES Of THE MUSLIM WORLd     P:24

Q1:                

Gold and silver are precious metals: find out about their different uses. How are these metals mined and purified?

ANS

Uses of gold and silver:

Gold: used in computers, electronic equipments, satellites, space equipment, computers, dental work, and in making jewellery.

Silver: used in computers, photographic films, manufacture of chemicals, solar panels, medicines, water purification process, and in making jewellery, cutlery, and silverware.

MINING AND PURIFICATION:

Gold is mined in two ways:

from placer deposits and from lode or reef deposits.

1- Placer deposits are usually gravelly, river beds or streams, where the gold is mined and refined on site.

                   In placer deposits, the gold is obtained through panning, washing, and filtering.

 

2- In lode or reef deposits, gold is extracted by power shovels, drilling, and blasting, and it is refined through chemical means.

Silver is also found along with other ores, and two thirds of the world’s silver is obtained as a by-product. It is refined through smelting, concentration, and chemical means (cyanide process).

Q2:

Look at the variety of things which are made from oil. How many of these have you used or come into contact with today: at home, at school, or travelling to and fro?

ANS

we use LPG or pipe gas for cooking breakfast; travel on a bus using petrol.

We may be wearing some form of make-up. Our clothes would be dyed; we would probably be wearing some synthetic material.

Our vegetables and fruit would most probably have been grown using artificial fertilizer.

Everything around them would have been painted, and though we may not have used the old pen and ink, the type on the page we are reading is oil-based.

We would have used tyres, whether we came to school on bicycles, cars, or buses, along a road coated with bitumen. So, today we have already used every one of the by-products of petroleum that are listed.

Q3:

Why do you think , is coal not commonly used? Discuss the reasons.

ANS

Coal is not commonly used where there are other sources of energy available because

•  coal is dirty and very polluting when burned; its transport and storage are a problem as it pollutes the surroundings;

• it is bulky and awkward to transport; it has to be transported by rail or occasionally by road;

•  the coal generally available in Pakistan is low grade—only about one third is combustible material—so that it gives out relatively little heat;

• disposing of residue—ashes—is messy and involves much work;

•  gas and oil are much cleaner, more easily manageable and easier to transport (coal furnaces need constant stoking);

• the smoke from burning coal pollutes the atmosphere.

Q4:                

A famous scientist once said to the author, ‘Oil is far too valuable to be burnt as fuel. It should be saved for all of other things that are made from it.’ Talk about this.

ANS

Oil is considered valuable because of its many uses and products. It is also a non-renewable energy resource—at least for the foreseeable future—hence it must be used judiciously. Oil is wasted as an automobile fuel by people driving around in fuel-heavy vehicles.

Q5:

Develop a key showing symbols/letters for these products. Mark them on an outline map of Europe, Africa and Asia in your book.

ANS

 

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:4

  1. FILL IN THE BLANKS.
  2. a) The Muslim world is the most important region of the world for producing ——————————————- and gas.
  3. b) Muslim countries produce ———————————- of the world’s output of oil and   —————————————-per cent of natural gas.
  4. c) USA has to import oil in spite of its own oil production because it ———————————–more than it produces.
  5. d) Oil in its original form is a thick, black ————————————————————————–.
  6. e) The only important producer of coal in the Muslim world is ——————————

ANSWERS:                                                                                    a) oil b) a third, 15 per cent                                                                             c) consumes     d) sludge e) Kazakhstan

  1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.
  2. a) Algeria ranks in the world’s output of natural gas.
  3. i) fourth          ii) fifth             iii) third             iv) sixth
  4. b) Indonesia ranks ——————————- in the world’s output of tin.
  5. i) second                    ii) fifth               iii) sixth             iv) third
  6. c) Iran ranks —————————–in the world’s output of oil.
  7. i) second                 ii) fourth                     iii) third          iv) fifth
  8. d) Pakistan ranks ——————————in the world’s output of cotton.
  9. i) fourth                     ii) second                     iii) third          iv) fifth
  10. e) Nigeria ranks —————————————– in the world’s output of cocoa.
  11. i) second                        ii) eight                     iii) sixth         iv) fifth

ANSWERS: a) = ii) b) = ii) c) = ii) d) = i) e) = iv)

CH:5 INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE MUSLIM WORLD     P:30

Q1:

What are the reasons behind the late industrialization in the Muslim world? Explain.

ANS

Reasons for late development of industrialization in the Muslim world:a. Colonial powers deliberately discouraged industrialization in the Muslim world lest it should damage their own industries.

b. Asia was seen as a source of raw materials for the West and a market for their goods.

c. There was not enough high-grade iron ore which is the basis of industrial development.

d. There was also less high-grade coal which was the source of power for the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The discovery of oil, and later gas in the 20th century provided a stimulus with its cheap power for industry.

e. The workforce had little experience or education in technology.

f. Transport systems were very poor.

Q2:                

From the chart on industries, shown on page 26, calculate the total value of the industrial products of the Muslim countries: shown.

ANS

 

Q3:                

     Plan a holiday to anyone of these countries. Find out how to get there, the routes,
and the main spots to visit. Make a display chart or a class presentation.

ANS

 

Q4:                

Pakistan has many tourist spots of historical and cultural interest: name the places you have visited or would like to visit it.

ANS

 

 

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:5

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS BELOW.
  2. a) Why is industry important for a country?

b-Which is the most industrialized Muslim country, and what does it produce?

c-List the main industries in Indonesia.

Answer: a. Industry adds to country’s economy by producing goods for local use and export.

  1. b) Malaysia is the most industrialized Muslim country. It produced high-tech electronic goods, chemicals, tin, rubber products, palm oil, and processed foods.
  2. c) Products based on its minerals—tin and oil—pewter goods, rubber, timber, textiles, and paper.
  3. COMPLETE THESE STATEMENTS.
  4. a) The capital of the United Arab Emirates is———————— .
  5. b) The world’s biggest flower, ———-is named after ——————————————————————————————- .
  6. c) —————————-besides the manufacture of various goods, is the other important industry in the Muslim countries.
  7. d) People visit Saudi Arabia mainly for——————————— .
  8. e) Langkawi and Sarawak are famous for the ancient ————- and ——————————————————————– .

ANSWERS: a) Abu dhabi b) Rafflesia, Sir Stamford Raffles c) tourism   d) pilgrimage e) Temureen falls, Niah Caves

 

CH:6                         P:

Q1:                

     ‘i W

Why is it important for a country to balance its exports and imports?

ANS

lt is important for a country to balance its exports and imports because if a country imports more

than it exports ít has to borrow from international organizations like the World Bank, and will then

have to repay the loan with high interest. This means it will have less to spend on services such as

schools, hospitals, law and order, roads, etc.

 

 

 

 

 Q2: This activity can be carried out in groups or pairs and then a general discussion can be carried out

in class comparing the value of different currencies.

Q3:                

   Find out and list the raw materials that Pakistan imports for its industries. Also list the list the finished products that are imported from abroad into Pakistan?

ANS

 

 

Some imported raw materials are: petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, fertilizers, chemicals,

synthetic yarns; wheat; soya bean and palm oils; iron and steel.

 

 

Some imported finished products are: power generating and mining machinery; textile, agricultural

and electrical machinery; electronic appliances and apparatus; petroleum products, transport vehicles

and equipment including aircraft, paper, electronic, and electrical equipment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q4:                

How have Pakistanis working abroad helped the economy?

ANS

 

 

Pakistanis working abroad earn much higher wages than what they can earn here in Pakistan; they

send home money and thus help the economy of the country.

 

 

 

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:6

CH:7     P:

Q1:                

    

ANS

Some ways in which computer technology has changed our lives:

a) We can solve many problems quickly and easily.

b) Access a vast amount of information on almost any subject

c) Communicate with other people if equipped with computers quickly, easily, and cheaply

d) Look for bargains on the net

e) Find new areas of interest

f) Play games for entertainment

g) Know much more about our world and its people

h) We can keep in touch with the latest news.

(These are a few suggestions; you can brainstorm for many more uses of computer technology.)

Q2:                

 

ANS

Number of vehicles especially cars have doubled or trebled since 1990 due to a number of reasons.

The standard of living has risen; most people have more money to spend which enables them to

invest in their own transport and make their lives more convenient.

Also people are travelling further and further to go to work and need quick, reliable transport without

waiting for uncertain and overcrowded buses or trains. Car ownership has made life much more

flexible, and allows people to travel further from their homes for holidays and other leisure activities.

lt has made life better in many ways, for example, simple things such as shopping for food; one can

drive to the supermarket, buy all the food and bring it home.

Q3:                

    

ANS

The first part of this question can be discussed with reference to the graphs given on page 35. Draw

the students’ attention to the fact that there has been a rise in the number of vehicles (especially

motor cars and motorbikes), roads, and highways but there has been less or no increase in extension

of roads or railways.

Use of roads for movement of freight and passengers has increased as compared to rail.

The causes for the fall in rail traffic are outlined below.

Now many more people use buses or have their own cars, which is much more convenient for shorter

journeys as well as flexible in terms of routes.

Freight by rail has fallen because using trucks is easier as they can go directly from the factory or

warehouse to the delivery point, whereas if the railway, is used, goods have to be loaded onto trucks

to take them to the station, then on to the train, and finally at the end unloaded onto trucks or vans

for delivery. Trains are more suitable for substances such as coal or cement which are heavy and can

be taken directly without unloading.

Q4:                

 

ANS

Road transport: Advantages: Roads can go right up to the source of the goods, for example, farms,

factories, etc. They connect smaller destinations to the main outlets such as airports, ports, and

railway stations. Roads allow life-saving vehicles such as ambulances or fire engines to speed up.

Disadvantages: In remote areas, especially mountain regions, roads can be blocked by landslides,

snowfalls, floods, etc. Also very heavy or large loads cannot be conveniently carried by road. There

are more chances of casualties on roads; one person on average is killed on every 3 km of national

highways every year. Throughout Pakistan, it is estimated that 400,000 people are seriously injured

or killed each year in motoring accidents, half of these are males aged 15-44. The cost of these in

medical and other care is estimated at Rs 100 billion a year.

In Karachi, alone in the first seven months of 2008, 356 people were killed in car accidents and 550

very seriously injured. The reasons are largely inexperienced drivers, speed, and disregard for traffic

laws.

 

Q5: Problems that might be faced with pipelines as a means of transport:

  1. a) expensive to build and maintain;
  2. b) as these are above the ground there is always the fear of accidents;
  3. c) easy prey to terror attacks as these can be blasted, resulting in explosíon and damage.

Q6: The advantages of container ships is that goods can be loaded at the factory into containers, sealed

and not opened until they arrive at their destination. This avoids pilfering which was universal under

ordinary transport. As containers are gigantic boxes of the same size they can be stacked like a pile

of bricks, so getting much more on any ship. They are easily loaded and unloaded at their ports by

means of special, but expensive, equipment.

Q7: Students can work in groups to answer this question.

WORKSHEET-Ch:7

CH:8  ENVIRONMENT   P:

Q1:                

    

ANS

Problems caused by overpopulation are: pressure on food supplies, housing, all services such as

health, education, law and order; lack ofjobs, coupled with increasing automation and machinery

which increase the problem; discontent among those who have no work, increase in criminality.

(These are just a few suggestions to start off the discussion.)

Q2:                

 

ANS

Charts, wall displays, and projects on pollution and global warming can be made as group projects

and presented.

Q3:                

    

ANS

Students can discuss and give reason for their answers. The most obvious is atmospheric pollution,

smoke and fumes that cause respiratory diseases, and chemical pollution of land and Water, resulting

in life-threatening diseases and birth defects.

Q4:                

 

ANS

Students’ own suggestions based on discussions. Teachers can generate cues.

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:8

CH:9     P:

Q1:                

    

ANS

Factors having a negative effect on development of a country: lack of education and professional

skills, poor health and lower life expectancy; poor resources, few commodities for export; agrarian

economy; overpopulation; conservative attitudes; political lnstability without a good, strong

government.

Q2:                

 

ANS

Brunei, Kuwait, and Bahrain have huge reserves of oil; this may be the common reason behind them

having a high income per head. Another common factor is that all have high life expectancy and

literacy rates.

Q3:                

    

ANS

China is in East Asia; capital: Beijing; Cuba is south of the USA; capital: Havana; Brazil is in South

America; capital: Brasilia, a new city created in the 19505 and 605 from scratch, with all modern

buildings and facilities. Literacy has always been a top priority in China, but like Cuba it is now communist, and communism

places a high priority on being able to read and write. The same applies to the lower table: the three

countries with 99% literacy are all ex-communist states. Kuwait has a high literacy level because it is

very prosperous (from oil income) and the rulers wisely see the advantages of having a well-educated

Workforce.

Q4:                

 

ANS

These three countries have a higher literacy rate because they were once part of the communist

Russian federation where education was a high priority.

Q 5 Students can refer to the atlas to answer this question.

WORKSHEET-Ch:9

 

 

 

 

 

CH:10 THE EARLY MUSLIMS     P:51

Q1:                

     What was significant about the Umayyad period?

ANS

The Umayyad period is known mainly for the conquests by the Arab armies and its navy. This was the period of dramatic and rapid Muslim expansion to North Africa, Spain, a brief excursion into France, to what is now known as the Middle East, into Russia until stopped by the relatively barren steppes, and eastwards into the borders of China, where the lines of communication were too far stretched, and no further advance was made. Under the Umayyads, the Arab empire expanded in all directions.

Q2:                

Why is the Abbasid rule known as the IAge of wealth and culture’?

ANS

The Abbasids ruled at a time of greater political stability and security. Their rule is known for its emphasis on knowledge, research, scientific and cultural growth, and its economic power. This was a period of great culture and learning, especially in mathematics, science and medicine. Ancient manuscripts from Greece and Rome were collected and translated; in this way they were saved for posterity. It is rightly known as the ‘Age of wealth and culture.’

Q3:                

     How did the Europeans benefit from Crusades?

ANS

The Europeans learnt a great deal from the Arabs of those times as the latter had developed a more advanced civilization. details are given in the textbook, pages 48 to 50. In addition, there were great advances in learning and science. The new products, especially steel, silks, cotton, and carpets, led to a dramatic rise in trade between East and West, and ultimately, the voyages of discovery.

Q4:                

Find out about those places in Spain which have Muslim/Arab history. Look up words that have Arab origins, for example
,alchemy, algebra. Can you think of more?

ANS

Places in Spain that have an Islamic history are Granada, Cordoba, and Toledo, to name a few. The influence is seen in the architecture, culture, literature and language, and music as well as cuisine. The entire Iberian Peninsula was known as Al-Andalus, and a province in southern Spain is still called Andalusia. (Words with Arabic origins can easily be found on the Internet; the range is fascinating.)

Q5:                

     Find out more about the Mongols. Who were their later descendants in the subcontinent?

ANS

The Mongols were a mainly Mongolian race from the north of China; due to the harsh surroundings they lived in, they were fierce and competitive. They were nomadic tribes and were nature worshippers.

Changez Khan united them into one tribe and later they converted to Islam. Their later famous descendants were the Mughal rulers of the subcontinent who established the Mughal Empire.

WORKSHEET-Ch:10

  1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.
  2. a) Major expansion of the Muslim rule took place during the Caliphate of ——————————-.
  3. i) Hazrat Ali (RA) ii) Hazrat Usman (RA)                                             iii) Hazrat Umar (RA) iv) Hazrat Abu bakr (RA)
  4. b) The Umayyad dynasty came to power in—————————————-
  5. i) 771 CE ii) 661 CE iii) 601 CE iv) 610 CE
  6. c) ——————————–was a berber general.
  7. i) Changez Khan ii) Halaku Khan                                                iii) Salauddin al Ayyubi iv) Tariq
  8. d) The fatimids founded the city of—————————————————
  9. i) Cairo ii) Baghdad iii) damascus iv) Constantinople
  10. e) In Islamic history the period is known as ‘The age of wealth and culture’.
  11. i) Ummaiyad ii) Seljuqiii) Ayyubid iv) Abbasid

ANSWERS: a) Hazrat Umar (RA) b) 661CE c) Tariq d) Cairo e) Abbasid

 

 

 

  1. MATCH THE DYNASTIES WITH THEIR FOUNDERS.
sr A B
A

B

c

Umayyad dynasty

Seljuq

Ayubids

i) Seljuq beg

ii) Nuruddin Zangi

iii) Amir Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan

ANSWERS: a) = iii)     b) = i) c) = ii)

 

  1. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS.
  2. a) The Abbasid rule ended with the ——————————————————————————–in 1258.
  3. b) —————————————————-is given the credit for building up the Muslim naval power.
  4. c) The Umayyads in Spain made ——————————————————— their capital and developed it into one of the finest cities in the world.
  5. d) It is believed that——————————— has existed at its present site for the last 9000 years.
  6. e) Gibraltar is a variation of—————————————————– named after .
  7. f) ——————————established Bait-ul-Hikmah, the ‘House of Wisdom’ in baghdad.
  8. g) The most important contribution by the Arabs was in the field of —————————————-.
  9. h) ——————————————recaptured Jerusalem from the Crusaders in 1188.
  10. i) The astrolabe is an————————————— used in the past for   the distances of stars and the position of ships.
  11. j) The word ‘Mamlook’ means——————————————— in Arabic.
  12. k) The Mongols converted to Islam in the ———————————–and ————————————- centuries.
  13. l) The Ottomans were of——————————— origin.
  14. m) The fatimids were based in ———————————

ANSWERS:                                                                                                                                                                         a) fall of baghdad b) Amir Muawiya c) Cordoba d) damascus e) Jabal-al-Tariq, Tariq f) Mamoon g) mathematics h) Salahuddin Ayubi i) instrument j) slave k) 13th and 14th l) Turkish m) Egypt

 

 

 

CH:11 ISLAM IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA     P:54

Q1:                

          How did Islam spread to South-east Asia, and when?

ANS

Islam was spread to South-east Asia by the Muslim merchants and traders of Arabia and India who went to trade in spices and jewels in the 7th century CE. They later settled down along the coasts of Malaysia and Indonesia from the 16th century onwards.

Q2:                

Find out more about the muslims in Indonesia, Malaysia, and China in present times. What are the common practices
and features among them?

ANS

 

Q3:                

     Look up the facts about the Central Asian states that are now part of the Muslim world. How have their lives changed over the years?

ANS

 

 

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:11

  1. COMPLETE THERE STATEMENTS.
  2. a) Islam was taken to South-east Asia by ——————————————————————- merchants and traders from .
  3. b) The period between ————————–and———————————— was crucial in the spread of Islam in South-east Asia.
  4. c) Islam was established on the rich island of Java by the year———————————————- .
  5. d) has the largest number of Muslims compared to any other country in the world.
  6. e) The Aceh Kingdom was known as————— in the   century.
  7. f) In Central Asia, the ————————————— was the focal place for the spread of Islam in the region.

Answers: a) Muslim, Hadramaut b) 1500 and 1800 c) 1800 d) Indonesia e) golden age of Islam, 17th century   f) Khanate of bukhara

2 Name three non-Muslim countries of South-east Asia which have large Muslim populations, and state their percentage.
Answers:

The Philippines, China, and India are the non-Muslim Asian countries with large Muslim populations. India = 13.4%; Philippines = 5%; China = 1.5%

 

 

 

CH:12 MUSLIM SCIENTISTS, PHILOSOPHERS, ANd TRAVELLERS     P:59

Q1:                 What are mechanics, meteorology, and philosophy?
ANS

Mechanics is the study and science of machines that deals with movement, force and motion; how they work, etc.

Meteorology is the study of weather and climate. It helps in forecasting the weather. Philosophy (from two Greek words: ‘philo’–love of and ‘sophos’–wisdom) is the study of the nature of knowledge, reality, and existence. It is the study of the truth or wisdom through argument.

Astrology is the study of the movements of the planets, stars, etc. in the belief that these can influence people’s character and future. This is of course quite ridiculous.

Q2:                

What is the difference between astrology and astronomy?

ANS

Astrology and magic were considered as much reality in the past as geography or mathematics. People really believed that the stars could influence lives and characters. Magic was something that lay behind things that people could not understand. Primitive people till a few years ago believed that things such as aeroplanes and telephones were ‘magic’.

Astronomy is the scientific study of the stars and planets and their movements by means of telescopes and many other scientific instruments.

Q3:                

     Write about the importance of AI-Khwarizmi’s work: how did this help later scientists and scholars?

ANS

Al Khwarizmi’s work on mathematics, especially algebra and the concept of zero, revolutionized the application of mathematics to science and engineering. His major contribution was the adoption and use of ‘0’ in mathematical calculations.

Previously a dot had been used to indicate nothing and this led to confusion. He also was the inventor of what we call algebra, and the complicated term used in higher mathematics called algorithm which is extensively used in computers today. His advances in astrolabes were also important.

Q4:

Mark on an outline of the map of Africa and Euro-Asia as many of the places as you
you can visited. Join these up, using different colours for the different journeys.

Do you think travelling was easier in Ibn Batuta’s time than it is now? Discuss this in class.

ANS
Q5:                 From these interesting figures, who do you think made the most lasting contributions khowledge? who do you find the most interesting person? Why?

WORKSHEET-Ch:12

  1. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER.
  2. a) Ibn batuta’s journeys covered a total of—————————                                                             i) 40,000 km     ii) 120,000 km   iii) 75,000 km.
  3. b) He was appointed as a Qazi at the court of————————                                              i) Humayun     ii) Sher Shah Suri   iii) Mohammad bin Tughlaq
  4. c) Al beruni head mastered many languages but he always wrote in——————————————————                                                                                                             i) Turkish     ii) Hebrew     iii) Arabic
  5. d) In order to study the country in depth, Al-beruni visited ———————————————————————                             i) Persia     ii) India     iii) China
  6. e) Ibn Sina was a philosopher and also a physician, whose main contribution was to——————————————————-                                                                                      i) philosophy     ii) science     iii) medicine
  7. f) The Persian solar calendar was developed by ———————                                                           i) Al-Khwarizmi   ii) Omar Khayyam   iii) Ibn Khaldun

ANSWERS:                                                                                                       a) = ii) b) = iii)   c) = iii)   d) = ii)   e) = iii)   f) = ii)

 

  1. MATCH THE BOOKS WITH THEIR AUTHORS.
  2. a) Canon
  3. i) Ibn Khaldun
  4. b) Qanoon-e-Shifa
  5. ii) Al-Khwarizmi
  6. Muqaddama

iii) Omar al-Khayyam

  1. Al-Maqalah fi Hisab al-Jabr Wal Muqabalah
  2. iv) Ibn Sina
  3. e) Rubaiyaat
  4. v) al beruni

ANSWERS: a) = v)   b) = iv)   c) = i) d) = ii)   e) = iii)

 

3. Which of these famous Muslims would you like to meet? Give your reason.

i) Ibn batuta   ii) Al-beruni   iii) Omar Khayyam

Answer:

 

 

 

 

CH:13 THE dECLINE ANd THE REAWAKENING Of THE MUSLIMS     P:64

Q1:                

     What were the factors that led to the decline of Muslim states in the 17th and 18th centuries?

ANS

The reasons underlying the decline of the Muslims in the 17th and 18th centuries have been discussed in detail in the textbook (pages 60–61) viz.

(a) weak, incompetent, or aggressively ambitious rulers;

(b) decline in education;

(c) the Industrial Revolution gave the Europeans great wealth and technical superiority, especially in weaponry;

(d) corruption in many Muslim states weakened them; (e) internecine strife;

(f) pursuit of worldly power and wealth.

Q2:

Why were the subcontinent and the South-east Asian   Muslim states important to the colonial powers?

ANS

The subcontinent and South-east Asian states were important to the colonial powers because they formed a guaranteed market for European goods. India was flooded with cheap cotton goods from Lancashire (UK) although it had a long-established hand-weaving industry of its own, but which could not compete with the machinery of the West.

The colonies were also a source of raw materials of all kinds, especially for textiles, gold, and precious stones.

Q3:                

     How would the countries of the Muslim   world have retained their independent

ANS

Muslims might have maintained independence by adhering to the laws of Islam especially regarding equality and just treatment. Had the rulers spent more time and effort in the social development and uplift of their people, they would have had stronger economies, as a result of education and industry, and would have been able to retain their independence.

Q4:                

In what ways can the ideas of Shah Waliullah and Syed Ahmed Shaheed   be called progressive?

ANS

both Shah Waliullah and Syed Ahmed Shaheed were religious thinkers and leaders who believed in and promoted a fair and just system. They also tried to unite the people into a nation. Their ideas can be called progressive because Waliullah, by translating the Quran into the vernacular, hoped that people could understand its teachings properly.

He fought for more equality and urged people to return to the tenets of their faith. Syed Shaheed tried to put many of these ideas, well ahead of their time, into practice through the   concept of jihad as a struggle for liberation from oppressive rulers and a movement towards the spirit of Islam.

Q5:

Find out and list some of the natural resources of the Muslim countries that came under western domination in the 17th and 18th centuries.

ANS

             The Muslim countries in Asia were rich in natural resources—spices, minerals, precious metals and stones, ivory, and timber. North African Muslim countries were colonized after the 19th century. The population of all these Muslim and other colonized countries was a source of cheap labour for the West.

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:13

  1. COMPLETE THESE STATEMENTS:
  2. a) The ——————-century saw the rise of European powers.
  3. b) The chase for power and loss of focus were the main causes for the ———————- of the —————————— states.
  4. c) The ‘Maghreb’ states comprise of———————————- , —————————- and ————————————.
  5. d) The—————- in the West made Europe rich and powerful.
  6. e) The ——————————–and———————– were among the sources of Muslim revival.

Answers: a) 19th b) decline, Muslim c) Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia   d) Industrial Revolution   e) Madrassas, maktabs

  1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:
  2. a) Shah Walliullah was educated at a madrassa in —————–.                                               i) Hyderabad      ii) delhi       iii) Punjab      iv) Lucknow
  3. b) The Holy Quran was translated by Shah Waliullah into——– .                        i) Sindhi         ii) Urdu           iii) Persian      iv) Punjabi
  4. c) Shah Waliullah stayed in Makka for——————————- .                                                             i) One and half year    ii) 12 years   iii) four years   iv) 14 years
  5. d) Syed Ahmed Shaheed marched to —————with his men.                                   i) Kabul       ii) Ghazni         iii) Heart       iv) Bukhara
  6. e) The NWfP was renamed Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the year— .                       i) 2000          ii) 2010             iii) 2005       iv) 2001

ANSWERS: a) = ii) b) = iii) c) = iv) d) = i) e) = ii)

 

 

 

CH:14 NATIONAL UNITY & FREEDOM MOVEMENTS     P:69

Q1:                

     What did   Jamaluddin Afghani think was required for Muslims to succeed in the modern world?

ANS

Jamaluddin Afghani thought that to succeed in the world the Muslims needed to learn new technology and science; he also believed that modernization was essential to meet the challenges of the West.

Q2:                

Who was Mohammad Abduh and how did he influence the Muslims?

ANS

Mohammed Abduh was an enlightened Egyptian scholar who believed in the importance of education and also supported the rights of the Muslim women to education. He made arrangements for women to join the universities.

Q3:                

     Who was Maulana Mohammed AIi Jauhar’s will? What did this mean?

ANS

Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar’s will was that he should be buried in bait-ul-Muqaddas; this meant that he did not wish to be buried in a slave country.

Q4:                

In what way did Allama Iqbal’s views about Muslims influence their destiny?

ANS

Iqbal urged that the Muslims of the subcontinent should be united in a single independent state, roughly in the boundaries occupied by the present Pakistan.

He taught that though Islam had been great in the past it had fallen into apathy, and that the people should be politically active.

Q5:

Describe Chaudhri Rehmat AIi’s contribution to Pakistan.

ANS

Chaudhri Rehmat Ali was strongly in favour of an independent Muslim state. He created the name ‘Pakistan’ for our country.

 

 

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:14

  1. MATCH THE GIVEN PERSONALITIES WITH THEIR LIFESPAN.
  2. a) Jamaluddin Afghani 1878–1931
  3. b) Mohammad Abduh 1897–1951
  4. c) Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar 1877–1938
  5. d) Allama Iqbal 1838–1897
  6. e) Chaudhri Rehmat Ali 1849–1905

ANSWERS:                                                                                                              a) = iv) b) = v) c) = i) d) = iii) e) = ii)

  1. GIVE ‘ONE WORD’ ANSWERS FOR THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS.
  2. a) To solve a problem by reasoning, for which no example is found in the Quran or Sunnah.

b)—————————————–following closely the traditional beliefs and practices of a religion.

  1. c) A government by the elected representatives of the people.   d) The present name of Bait-ul-Muqaddas.
  2. e) Unity of all the Muslims into a single community.

ANSWERS:                                                                                                            a) ijtihad b) orthodox c) parliamentary or democratic               d) Jerusalem e) Pan-Islamism

 

  1. NAME:
  2. a) The two magazines started by Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar:                                                                                                                 (1) —————————————————————————  (2) ——————————————————————————
  3. b) The place where the Ali brothers were tried in 1921:———————————————————————————————– .
  4. c) The mother of the Ali brothers: ————————————————————————————————————————–.
  5. d) The Grand Mufti and a member of the Supreme Council of Al-Azhar University in Cairo in the late 19th century:————————————————————————————————- .

ANSWERS:                                                                                                         a) Comrade, Hamdard b) Khaliqdina Hall, Karachi                               c) bi Amma d) Mohammad Abduh

 

 

 

CH:15 THE STRUGGLE OF FREEDOM     P:70-74

Q1:                

     Explain the importance of the Government of India Act in 1858.

ANS

The parts of the subcontinent controlled by the East India Company would henceforth be ruled by the British Government, with a viceroy living in India. Three universities were opened in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras for the people of the subcontinent.

Q2:   What did the Indian Councils’ Acts of 1861 and 1892 mean for the people of the subcontinent?            
ANS

These Acts meant a lot to the people as they acquired a few rights as stated below:

The Indian Councils’ Act of 1861 allowed that some Indians would be allowed to sit on the viceroy’s

Legislative Council.

The Indian Councils’ Act of 1892 gave the Muslims separate electoral rolls. This meant that the Hindus

voted for Hindus and the Muslims voted for Muslims.

Q3:                

     Lord Curzon established primary and secondary schools in the subcontinent, What was the usefulness of this step?

ANS

The establishment of primary and secondary schools in the subcontinent by Lord Curzon was a vital

step because it allowed children from this region, especially Muslims, to get an education that would

lead to entry to the already established higher educational institutions, a step so strongly advocated

by Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan (page 71, textbook)

Q4:                

Why are the Morley-Minto reforms considered important?

 

ANS

The Morley-Minto reforms brought about political changes in the colonial set-up and paved the way

for the ultimate independence of the subcontinent although they did not envisage two separate

states. The separate representation for Muslims and Síkhs, and the appointment of Indians to the

viceroy’s Executive Council gave a prospect of the future as well as giving a small group of Indian

people the experience of administrative power.

5 Describe Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan’s contribution for the Muslims of the subcontinent,

Ans: Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan tried to explain the Muslim point of view to the British and to establish friendly

relationships between both communities. He set up the Anglo-Oriental School in Aligarh; he

suggested that there should be separate states for the Hindus and Muslims.

 
6
Make a time line from 1858-1910 to show the social and political developments in the subcontinent.

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:15

CH:16 the road to independence P:75-78

Q1: Why, do you think, were the Montague Chelmsford reforms not very popular?    
ANS

The Montague-Chelmsford reforms were not very popular because they excluded the Muslims who were generally poor; in some areas the Sikhs were over-represented, and the Congress also rejected this proposal as they did not want to work with the Muslims.

Q2:   What were the circumstances that led to the Government of India Act of 1935?
ANS

           The Round Table Conferences failed because of the implacable, uncompromising attitude of Gandhi, demanding that all of his conditions be fulfilled. Jinnah on the other hand was more conciliatory, and looked favourably on what seemed a reasonable solution suggested in the Communal Award. Gandhi resorted to emotional tactics-threatening to starve himself to death if he did not have his way. He whipped up fanaticism, resulting in riots and violence all over the subcontinent. As neither side was giving way, the British Government passed the Act of 1935.

Q3:                

     Was this Act a solution to the problems of the sub-continent? Discuss the reasons.

ANS

The act did not solve the problem-in fact, it intensified it. The reasons are given in the text.

Q4:                

In what ways did the Fourteen Points stated by l\/lr .linnah influence the future of Muslims in India?

ANS

Jinnah’s Fourteen Points drew the Muslims’ attention to their possible situation under a Congress-led Government and strengthened the Muslim demand for a separate homeland, independent of the Hindus as well as the British.

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:16

CH: 17 LEADING THE FREEDOM MOVEMENT   P: 79-85

Q1:       Mr Jinnah vi/as, for a considerable period, in favour of a united, independent India.

What were the factors that changed his mind in favour of a separate state for the Muslims?

ANS

Jinnah, an advocate of a united India, changed his mind largely because of the total intransigence

(stubbornness) of Gandhi and the Congress Party. The refusal after the 1937 elections of Congress to

allow Muslims any part in the government in areas where the Muslims had a very strong hold, if not

an actually controlling, representation. He realized that in at least seven of the eleven provinces in

which India Would be divided, the Muslims would always be a powerless minority, and subject to the

whim of the Hindu majority.

 

 

Q2:                 What was the importance of the Lahore Resolution in the struggle for Independence?
ANS

The Lahore Resolution basically spelt out the need for a separate homeland for the Muslims of the

subcontinent. lt said that if the Muslims were to have any life at all in an independent india, there

would have to be partition into two separate states.

 

 

Q3:                

     How did Miss Fatima Jinnah’s participation help her brother in his mission?

 

ANS

Miss Fatima Jinnah’s unswerving support of her brother was vital to Mr Jinnah’s career. She also

organized the Woman’s Wing of the All India Muslim League and founded the All lndia Women

Students’ Federation. Other details are given in the textbook. Miss Jinnah’s role can be further

highlighted by the teachers.

 

Q4:                

Find out more about Quaid-i-/-\zam’s early life. Make a collection of pictures from old

newspapers and magazines.

 

ANS

Question 4 can be given as group work with the teacher’s guidance where required.

Q5: As a class project, prepare displays to highlight the contribution of any three women
 Question 5 can be given as group work with the teacher’s guidance where required.

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:17

CH:18     P:

Q1:                

    

ANS

lt was harder for Pakistan to establish itself as a working country, after partition because as compared to India, it had less than its due share of everything at Partition-except problems! lt was financially in a desperate state, and was bailed out, to some extent, by the Nizam of Hyderabad. lt had no administrative, military, industrial, or professional infrastructure. With the death of its two ablest leaders, it had a leadership crisis as Well. Some other problems were the poor communication system; millions of refugees to be accommodated; virtually, a total lack of equipment, even such basic items as typewriters and office machinery; lack of efficient, competent, and trained personnel to run a new state, and those that Were good often lacked experience in círcumstances of such magnitude; the usual widespread corruption and inefficiency of officials; the Kashmir problem; India’s control of the vital water supply; poor natural resources; low numbers of trained administrators, civil servants as most were taken over by India. The disaster of the death of the Quaid-i-Azam so early and followed soon by the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan posed more problems for Pakistan.

Q2:                

 

ANS

The sheer pressure of the Second World War on the western countries loosened their grip on their colonies. Britain, as one of the biggest colonizers, felt a greater impact and its largest colony, the subcontinent, was among the earliest to gain independence.

 

Q3:                

    

ANS

The Cabinet Mission’s proposals pleased no one. The Muslims would always be a minority in a united India, and though they would have some autonomy in the four provinces, control of defence, foreign affairs, and communications would always be in the hands of Hindus. The princes objected to losing power (and wealth) in a new democracy. The Híndus wanted complete and permanent domination and rejected even the small concessions suggested to Muslims by the mission.

Q4:                

 

ANS

The countries that gained independence soon after World War ll were Korea, Israel, Palestine, and Sri Lanka (Ceylon).

Question 5 can be given as group work; guide students where needed, with some points such as ‘Did your grandparents migrate to Pakistan? If so, when?’ (i.e. if they did, at alll)

 

WORKSHEET-Ch:18

CHAPTER 19 PAKISTAN 1947-71 AND BEYOND  P:

Answer : 1. Some of the significant aspects of the Ayub era are: improvement in law and order; establishment

and progress of industry; improvement in agricultural methods and output; fair distribution of water

resources in the west Wing; legislation of family laws.

Answer : Devolution of power’ means giving the common man a greater say in matters that affect his life,

livelihood, and security, among other things. lt means decentralization of power, by giving authority

at the ‘grass-roots level’.

Answer :

If the political situation is stable, the country will have a better climate for investment and economic

growth. This generates jobs and provides incomes and spending power. The increased revenues allow

the government to invest in schemes beneficial to the people, such as health care and education.

Answer :

A good topic for discussion-students can jot down points and answer.

Answer :

 

CHAPTER 20 P:

Answer :

People’s wishes about their lives and future should be respected because: a) everyone has the right

to live according to their choice (albeit within the social and cultural norms), b) the individual is

directly affected, therefore, whatever is decided for him/her should be by mutual consent.

Answer :

Yes, because both thinkers put forward ideas that were ahead of their times and more in line with

modern thought.

Answer :

 

Confucius’ views were culturally apt for his country and people as there was a culture of ancestor

worship. However, a ruler and his government must be very good and correct to be universally loved

and obeyed, otherwise it is unrealistlc and too much power corrupts the ruler.

Answer :

 

The Magna Carta is important because it defined and limited the rights and privileges of the rulers

and nobility. This became the basis of rights for the common people.

Answer :

This can be a group discussion and will generate interesting feedback.

 

Answer :

Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi is known for his fair and just governance, and his chivalry and generosity of

spirit. lt would be interesting to do research and compare him with his contemporaries in the East

and the West.

 

Answer :

The French Revolution toppled the French monarchy and gave greater power to the common man.

The success ofthe French Revolution inspired the Americans to fight the British for their independence

and also to give freedom and more rights to the black Americans who were treated as slaves.

 

Answer : This is another topic for pair work and class discussion.

 

end

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