ASSIGNMENT: critical discourse analysis

                               ASSIGNMENT       DATED:21/07/1436 H



                     CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS (CDA) is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice.

Scholars working in the tradition of CDA generally assume that (non-linguistic) social practice and linguistic practice constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use.



The term “level of analysis” is used in the social science to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. “Level of analysis” is distinct from the term “unit of observation” in that the former refers to a more or less integrated set of relationships while the latter refers to the distinct unit from which data have been or will be gathered.

Although levels of analysis are not necessarily mutually exclusive the three general levels into which research may fall are the micro level (short for “microscopic” or “microscopic level”), the meso level (short for “mesoscopic level”) or middle range, and the macro level (short for “macroscopic” or “macrosociology level”).



The smallest unit of analysis in the social sciences is an individual in their social setting. At the micro-level, also referred to as the local level, the research population typically is an individual in their social setting or a small group of individuals in a particular social context.

Examples of micro-level levels of analysis include, but are not limited to, the following.


In general, a meso-level analysis indicates a population size that falls between the micro- and macro-levels, such as a community or an organization. However, meso-level may also refer to analyses that are specifically designed to reveal connections between micro- and macro-levels. Sometimes referred to as mid-range, especially in sociology.

Examples of meso-level units of analysis include, but are not limited to, the following.


Macro-level analyses generally trace the outcomes of interactions, such as economic or other resource transfer interactions over a large population. Also referred to as the global level. Examples of macro-level units of analysis include, but are not limited to, the following.

Iran has expressed hope that national dialog among Yemeni parities.

Saudi Arabia has “ended Operation Decisive Storm based on a request by the Yemeni government” and former president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi.

“The coalition will continue to prevent the movement of Al hoti militias from

moving or undertaking any operations inside Yemen.

“Before this, we said the crisis in Yemen had no military solution, and   a halt

to killing innocent and defenseless people is absolutely a step forward,”

The new push will usher in diplomatic and political efforts along with military


They are not talking about a ceasefire. Operation Restoring Hope has a

military component.

“Operation Restoring Hope” will include aerial and naval supervision,

According to Asiri.

The rebels targeted in Ibb were assembling to head to Aden as reinforcements in the battle against forces loyal to President Abd Rabbo Mansour Hadi, who fled the country from Aden to Saudi Arabia last month.

In Sana’a, the death toll from air strikes on Monday targeting rebel

depots and weapon caches in the Fag Atan mountains overlooking the city rose to 38, medical officials said. The strikes flattened houses and sent villagers fleeing for their lives.

Saudi Arabia accuses Iran of arming the Houthis – a claim both

Tehran and the rebels deny, though the Islamic Republic has provided political and humanitarian support to the Shiite group. For its part, Shiite Iran has long accused Saudi Arabia of supporting

Sunni militants, including the Islamic State group in Syria and Iraq.

“All the failures have accumulated and caused mental and emotional

imbalance for that country according to Rouhani,

There were no further details on the scope of the deployment but it appeared to be another step toward a possible ground invasion.


The purpose of this analysing the two newspapers articles is as;

  • to explore how are modifiers,
  • intertexuality
  • naming used to convey the political ideologies latent


  1. METHODOLOGY                                                               



Following methods (linguistics devices) that i am going to use in my critical discourse analysis of the two articles

  • active/passive voice,
  • transitivity,
  • theme and rhyme,
  • naming,
  • modifier,
  • direct/ indirect.
    • Linguistic devices that attract attention to words, sounds, or other embellishments instead of to ideas are inappropriate in scientific writing.
    • Avoid heavy alliteration, rhyming, poetic expression, and clichés.
    • Use metaphors sparingly; although they can help simplify complicated ideas, metaphors can be distracting.
    • Avoid mixed metaphors (e.g., a theory representing one bunch of a growing body of evidence) and words with surplus or unintended meaning (e.g., cop for police officer), which may distract if not actually mislead the reader.
    • Use figurative expressions with restraint and colorful expressions with care; these expressions can sound strained or forced.

Sociological Inquiry: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods,


  1. A microlevel approach to research, and provide an example of a microlevel study.
  2. A mesolevel approach to research, and provide an example of a mesolevel study.
  3. A macrolevel approach to research, and provide an example of a macrolevel study.

Before we discuss the more specific details of paradigms and theories, let’s look broadly at three possible levels of inquiry on which social scientific investigations might be based.

These three levels demonstrate that while sociologists share some common beliefs about the value of investigating and understanding human interaction, at what level they investigate that interaction will vary.

At the micro level, sociologists study small-group interactions.

At the micro level, sociologists examine the smallest levels of interaction; even in some cases, just “the self” alone.

Microlevel analyses might include one-on-one interactions between couples or friends. Or perhaps a sociologist is interested in how a person’s perception of self is influenced by his or her social context. In each of these cases, the level of inquiry is micro. When sociologists investigate groups, their inquiry is at the meso level.






  1. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION                                


                         ANALYSIS OF DATA is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.


Sociologists who conduct meso level research might study how norms of workplace behavior vary across professions or how children’s sporting clubs are organized, to cite two examples.


At the macro level, sociologists examine social structures and institutions. Research at the macro level examines large-scale patterns. In recent years, sociologists have become increasingly interested in the process and impacts of globalization. A study of globalization that examines the interrelationships between nations would be an example of a macro level study.


  1. CONCLUSION                                                                          




By declaring the end of its Decisive Storm operation, the kingdom is opening the door to humanitarian assistance – Saudi has pledged more than $270m to this end – but still reserving the option of additional coalition military intervention.

Most importantly, the decision to end military operations followed the successful elimination of the grave threat resulting from Houthi control of the Yemeni air force and ballistic missile capabilities. The kingdom has also disrupted any possible military support of the Houthis from Iran through tight control of Yemeni air and sea space.

Iran has been embarrassed politically by its inability to offer military support to the Houthis, their key ally in Yemen. Consequently, a political solution seems to be the only possible solution for the survival of their Yemeni allies, which means giving diplomacy a chance and bowing to Saudi political winds for the time being. After all, Iran and the Houthis were never prepared for the air strikes, which were supported internationally.

There is no guarantee that the Houthis and Saleh will honour any future political agreements, based on their history of broken political promises and commitments during the crisis that has gripped Yemen since 2011. Accordingly, it is possible that despite the initiation of political negotiations between all Yemeni political actors, the coming weeks could bring intense ground battles between the Saleh-Houthi alliance and Hadi’s supporters, making Saudi support for the Hadi government critical at this juncture.

It is unclear whether a quick political solution and an end to hostilities would result in a new political initiative to bring Yemen closer to its Arab neighbours and lay the groundwork for its integration into the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Potential accession to the GCC could be strategically useful to motivate significant institutional reforms in Yemen, to encourage the southerners to continue their political union with the north, and most importantly to limit Iranian influence in Yemen.

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