Important questions/ guess paper Elements of Education (EM) 11/ hssc1/ FA

Important questions/ guess paper Elements of Education (EM) 11/ hssc1/ FA

  1. Briefly discuss the academic gains of education.
  2. Briefly discuss the general types of individual differences.
  3. Briefly discuss the political gains of education?
  4. Briefly discuss the role of school in the society.
  5. Briefly discuss the salient points of psychological foundation of education.
  6. Briefly discuss the significance of the knowledge of individual differences for a teacher.
  7. Briefly explain the significance of assessment in detail.
  8. Define ‘community’ and also discuss the differences between society ad community.
  9. Define ‘economic foundation of education’.
  10. Discuss the relationship between education and economics?
  11. Define ‘educational psychology‘ and what its role (significance) is in the educative process?
  12. Define ‘growth’. Also differentiate between growth and development.
  13. Define ‘integration of  curricular components’ and what its significance is?
  14. Define ‘learning by imitation’ and what the steps in learning by imitation are?
  15. Define ‘learning by insight and what the steps in learning insight by are?  
  16. Define ‘learning by role playing. What the steps in learning role playing by are?
  17. Define ‘social foundation of education’ and also briefly discuss the salient points regarding social foundation of education.
  18. Define ‘society’. What is the relationship between education and society?
  19. Define conditioning and what its significant types are? 
  20. Define education?
  21. Define foundations of education and what are its significant types?
  22. Define general education and write down its general functions.
  23. Define individual differences.
  24. Define Intelligence Quotient. Also discuss the types of children as per Intelligence Quotient classification?
  25. Define Islamic education and what its significant aims are?
  26. Define Islamic life ideology and what are its elements?
  27. Define objectives of education and what are the significant foundations (factors) kept in mind while determining the objectives of education in a system of education?
  28. Define philosophy of education. What is the relationship between philosophy and education or Discuss the role of philosophy in education?
  29. Define philosophy’ and what its scope (branches) is?
  30. Define professional education and give an account of its types.
  31. Define sources of knowledge and what the types of sources of knowledge are according to the Islamic point of view.
  32. Define textbook’ and also discuss the characteristics of a good textbook
  33. Define the concept ‘components of curriculum’ and discuss these components in detail.
  34. Define the concept ‘curriculum’ in the light of the views of distinguished scholars.
  35. Define the concept of assessment’. Also explain the differences among them with examples.
  36. Define the concepts of ‘curriculum’, ‘syllabus’ and ‘course’. And also explain the differences among them with examples.
  37. Describe  ‘evaluation’ AND measurement’ ?
  38. Describe a comparative study of formal, non-formal and-informal education.
  39. Describe a system of education. what its salient elements are and which IS the most significant element?
  40. Describe the relationship between education and society.
  41. Describe the significance of education in the light of the holy Koran.
  42. Describe the significance of education in the light of holy Hadith.
  43. Discus the rule of education in the development of society.
  44. Discuss community and also discuss its salient characteristics.
  45. Discuss development. Also discuss  (characteristics) of development,
  46. Discuss learning and also discuss its basic characteristics.
  47. Discuss school as a social centre.
  48. Discuss the economic gains of education.
  49. Discuss the elements of curriculum in detail.
  50. Discuss the factors influencing development with reference to solid arguments.
  51. Discuss the determinants of development in detail.
  52. Discuss the moral aims of education.
  53. Discuss the objectives of curricular evaluation in your own words.
  54. Discuss the principles which determine the hereditary traits.
  55. Discuss the role of education in the development of an individual.
  56. Discuss the role of teachers, parents, and government in connection with the altitudinal differences of the students.
  57. Discuss the salient points of ‘economic foundation of education?
  58. Discuss the scope of curriculum in detail.
  59. Discuss the significance of the knowledge of the principles of development for a teacher.
  60. Discuss the theories of learning in detail. 
  61. Discuss three significant learning theories which have been  developed by the cognitive theorists.
  62. Elaborate the conditions of learning. or Discuss in detail the factors which influence the process of learning.
  63. Elaborate the nature of curriculum in brief.
  64. Explain  the role and significance of determining objectives of education in a system of education.
  65. Give an account of the abilities an individual possess.
  66. Give an account of the characteristics of good curriculum.
  67. Give an account of the comparative evaluation of cognitive, affective and psychomotor change ?
  68. Give an account of the laws of learning in detail.
  69. Harmony between heredity and environment is necessary. Give arguments in favor of the statement.
  70. How can the studies of individual differences help the educationists in curriculum development?
  71. How can the studies of individual differences help the educationists in the selection of instructional methodology?
  72. What are basic needs for fulfillment of educational objectives?
  73. What are the academic aims of education?
  74. What are the cognitive aims of education?
  75. What are the cultural aims of education?
  76. What are the economic aims of education?
  77. What are the elements of education?
  78. What are the Islamic foundations of education?
  79. What are the levels (stages) of general education?
  80. What are the modes of education?
  81. What are the moral aims of education?
  82. What are the professional aims of education?
  83. What are the social aims of education?
  84. What are the spiritual aims of education?
  85. What is learning by trial & error. What the steps in learning by trial & error are?
  86. What is the concept of education?
  87. What is the role of a teacher in the educative process?
  88. What is the-scope of education?
  89. What‘ are the functions of education?




(a) The term Civics is derived from—————

1- civics & civitas 2- civics & cavats 3- civics & civilization 4-civics & culture

(b) Civics is both—————

1- science & culture 2- science & arts 3- knowledge & arts 4- music & arts

(c) Civics is a———— science.

1- normal 2- mini 3- social 4- auto

(d) Sociology is a ————science.

1- father 2- sister 3- brother 4- mother

(e) Ethics is the science————-or the good.

1- morality  2- care  3- love  4- none of them

(f) A man who lives in an organized political community, enjoying rights and performing duties is called a————-.

1-citizen 2- creator 3- lover 4- servant

(g) Civics aims at making every man and woman a ————- citizen.

1- poor 2-good 3- high 4- rich


a- society is a partnership in ————– life.

1- good 2- bad 3- normal 4- fail

b- community is ————– plus commonness of traditions interests and sentiments.

1- country 2- society 3- culture 4- forest

c- ——————- opened that a being who lives alone is either a god or a beast but not a man.

1- John 2-  Roussu 3- Aristotle 4- none of these

d- A good ————– is based on the love and understanding between  both mother and father.

1- country 2- continent 3- village 4- family

e- Society is based on the principle of division of ———— or labour.

1- function 2- role 3- part 4- work

f- A ————plays an important economic role.

1- country 2- family 3- culture 4- society


  1. State is a numerous assemblage of—————–

1-human being 2- animals 3- things 4- items

  • According to Rousseau the general will is——————

1- Islamic 2- sovereign 3- high 4- free

  • A State has —————- essential elements.

1- two 2- three 3- four 4- five

  • Patriarchal theory of the State was propounded by—————

1-Rousseau  2- Maclver 3- John H 4- Sir Henry

  • —————–propounded the Social Contract theory of the origin of the State.

1-Rousseau 2- 2- Maclver 3- John H 4- Sir Henry

  • Pakistan is a sovereign State in ————sense.

1-        quarter 2- the fullest 3- half 4- none of these

  • ————– played a vital role   in the establishment of the State.

1-people 2- matter 3- Religion 4- science

  • An Islamic State is truly ———— State

1-fail 2- weak 3- Welfare 4- scientific


a) The term Sovereignty has been derived ————— word

1-Latin  2- French 3-English  4-Arabic

b) De facto and Dejure are  ————-words.

1-Latin   2- French 3- 4-Arabic

c) John Austin was a famous —————– jurist.

1- America 2-French,  3-English 4- Arabic

d) In lslam sovereignty belongs to —————

1- nothing 2-People  3-State. 4-Allah,

e) —————– is an attribute of sovereignty.

1- Absoluteness 2- poorness 3-richness 4- soundness

f)—————- is an absolute and inalienable power

1- sovereignty  2- Absoluteness 3- Islamic injunctions 4- power

g) Lectures on jurisprudence been written by ————-

  1. Malver 2-John Austin 3- Roussu 4- Aristotle

h) The Islamic state is founded  on the ————— injunctions.

  1. Scientific 2- real 3-Qur’anic 4- none of these


a- Government is one of the four components of ————-

1- state 2- country 3- continent 4- world

b- ——————— is a Government in which  everybody has a share.

1-people 2- Democracy 3-politics 4-civil

c- The judiciary is the ———————–the civil  and political liberties.

1-  friend of  2- enemy of 3- custodian of  4- caretaker of

d- A —————- constitution is one of the essentials of a Federal Government.

1-flexible 2-unwritten 3-oral 4-written

e- Real powers rest with the—————  in a parliamentary form Federal Government.

1- Prime Minister 2-Speaker 3-President 4- king

f- —————— opined that a second chamber is a superfluous house.

1- Laski 2-Abbey sayes 3-John Austin 4- Malver

g- —————– is organized on the rule of/the majority

1-Government 2- country 3-Democracy 4- constitution

h- A country with the unitary constitution has only ————- Government.

1- four 2- three 3-two 4- one

i- Democracy stands For the welfare of the people.

1-welfare 2-rule  3- govern 4- punish

j- ————– also interprets the constitution in a Federation.

1-people 2-Judiciary  3- Democracy 4- President


a- John Austin defined law as the command of the ——————

1-sovereign 2- power 3- rule 4- government

b- The word liberty has been derived from the Latin ‘liber’ which means ———–

1-slave 2- free 3- slow 4- fast

c- Law is a —————-  condition of liberty

1-unnecessary 2- moral 3-essential 4- real

d- Ijtehad is one of the sources of —————- law.

1-Greek 2-Roman 3- Latin 4-lslamic

e- ————- liberty is a particular form of civil liberty.

1- Political 2- basic 3- moral 4- economical

f- ————— equality is the true equality.

1-basic  2-Natural 3-moral  4- economical

g- ———— is not made by legislature but by the executive

1- government 2-principle  3-Odinance 4- country

h- Laws are based upon the moral rules and ————–.

1- things 2- roots 3- words 4-principles

i- Independence of judiciary is a ————- of liberty.

1- safeguard 2- problem 3- enemy 4- friend

j- The ————–  one of moral rules sources of Islamic ls law.

1-  people 2-Holy Quran 3- country 4- Ijtehad



a- A citizen is a person who owes allegiance to the ————- enjoys rights.

1- state 2- country 3- nation 4- government

b- The—————— known by the rights that it maintains.

  1. country 2- state 3- nation 4- government

c- An alien enjoys only ————— right;..

1- legal 2- Political 3- civil 4- economical

d- concept of rights is bound up with that of—————-

1- society 2-Religion 3-Nationhood 4- Citizenship

e-  A citizen enjoys full legal and ————– rights.

1-political 2- social 3- economical 4- moral

f- —————–is a quality of good citizenship.

1-Intelligence  2- wealth 3- money 4- power

g- A natural born citizen is a citizen by ——————-

1- Government 2- freedom 3-birth-right 4- none of these

h- Good citizens make the ————–  Assembly strong, prosperous and independent

1- home 2- province 3- country 4- State

i- UniversaI Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the ————

1-General 2- State 3-country  4- province

j- —————– State gives a full system of right and duties for an individual

1-secular 2-Islamic  3-hindu 4- communal


a- Rules which regulate the functioning of the state are called ——————–

1-constitution  2- state 3- country 4- government

b- The constitution of the —————is a rigid constitution.

1-  India 2- USA 3- German 4- Britain

c- The word constitution came into use only in the middle of the —————- century.

1- 16th  2-17th 3- 18th 4- 19th

d- A good constitution should be —————–

1- oral 2- short 3- rigid 4- written

e- American constitution is a ————–document.

1-breif  2- long 3- short 4- failed

f-  A flexible constitution can face an —————– successfully.

1- normal 2-emergency 3- friendly 4- none of these

g- A written constitution may be a ————– document.

1- double 2- triple  3-single 4- none of these

h- A rigid Constitution has the merits of clarity, fixity and —————.

1- solidity 2- humbleness 3- wealthy 4- definiteness

i- A good constitution bears —————rights.

1- fundamental 2- natural  3- human 4- basic


a- Public opinion must be related to common————–

1-good 2- badness 3- sickness 4- right

b- political parties educate the people and formulate ———

1- voters 2- public 3- workers 4- members

c- Universal franchise give the right to vote to ————-

1- few 2-all 3- majority 4- none of these

d- An Islamic State is a —————- state.

1- rigid 2- secular 3- social 4- ideological

e- Public opinion plays a ————-role in the modern States.

1-decisive  2- basic 3- final 4- none of these

f- ————– puts every responsibilities on the citizens for an organized society.

1- Christianity 2-Islam 3- Hinduism 4- none of these

g- Political party controls its —————– in legislature.

1-workers 2- members 3-representatives 4- none of these

h- The ——— government can make its own rules and by- laws.

1- strong 2- poor 3- foreign 4-local

i- A ————–means the electoral area or district.

1-constituency  2- state 3- legislature 4- district

اہم تعلیمی نکات

ڈاکٹر عبدالکلام کہتے ہیں:

  1. اپنے طالب علموں کو کبھی اپنے دروازے کے پیچھے انتظار کرنے نہیں چھوڑیں کیونکہ  دروازے کے پیچھے کھڑا ہونا عزت نفس کو ختم کر دے گا۔
  2. جو طالب علم دیر سے آئے اسے شرکت کی اجازت دیں، چاہے وہ کلاس ختم ہونے سے دس منٹ پہلے ہی کیوں نہ ہو، اس کا مطلب ہے ذمہ داری کا احساس۔
  3. کبھی بھی مکمل 40 منٹ تک نہ پڑھائیں ، کیونکہ اچھے، اوسط اور کمزور طلبہ کی حوصلہ افزائی مختلف ہوتی ہے۔
  4. کبھی نقد جرمانہ نہ کریں کیونکہ کلاس میں کوئی یتیم یا غریب بچہ بھی  ہوسکتا ہے۔
  5. کلاس  کو اسقدر توجہ طلب اور پرکشش بنائیں کہ کبھی بھی لفظ کو دو بار سے زیادہ نہ دہرانا پڑے۔
  6. کلاس اتنی دلچسپ ہوتاکہ طلباء کو خود ہی آنا پڑے۔
  7. کلاس روم میں خوف پیدا کرنے کی کوشش نہ کریں کیونکہ کلاس روم طلباء کا دوسرا گھر ہوتا ہے۔
  8. ہمیشہ اجتماعی سزا کو انفرادی سزا سے بہترسمجھیں ، کیونکہ “گروہ “ناقابل فراموش تفریح ​​ہے، لیکن “فرد” دل دہلا دینے والا ہے۔
  9. ہمیشہ طالب علم کو بورڈ پر بلایں اور اس سے وہ پوچھیں  جو کچھ وہ جانتا ہو۔



1 CHEETAH vs LEOPARD The CHEETAH and LEOPARD are large cats and among Africa’s major predators. Both animals have dark spots covering their tan fur, but their spots differ. The CHEETAH’S spots are evenly spaced, and have an oval or round shape, while the leopard’s spots are called rosettes. These 2 animals also differ in the following ways:  •    CHEETAHS are taller than LEOPARDS, ranging from 26-37 inches tall. The leopard’s height varies from 23.6-27.6 inches. •     At the same time, LEOPARDS are the heavier of the two. They weigh between 81.6-198.4 lbs, while CHEETAHS weigh between 46-159 lbs. •     LEOPARDS live in savannas and forests, while CHEETAHS live in grasslands and deserts. •     LEOPARDS are nocturnal, while CHEETAHS are diurnal. •     LEOPARDS are muscular, with a broad head and legs. CHEETAHS, on the other hand, have a long, slender, and flexible body, and their head is small and rather short in relation to the body. LEOPARDS are stronger than CHEETAHS, but CHEETAHS are faster. They are the fastest land animals on Earth.
2 DONKEY vs MULE The DONKEY is the offspring of a jack and jenny, while the MULE is the offspring of a male DONKEY and a mare. Thus, the MULE is a hybrid. •          MULEs are usually larger and taller than DONKEYs. Their height at the withers varies from 50 inches to 70 inches. While the DONKEY’s height ranges from 35-59 inches. •          DONKEYs have wide, long ears. The ears of the MULE are smaller, and more like those of a horse. The MULE has a horse tail, which consists of long and thick hairs falling from the tailbone. DONKEYs have a long and thin tail with a tuft of hair on the end.
3 EUROPEAN BISON vs AMERICAN BISON        The EUROPEAN BISON and the AMERICAN BISON belong to the same biological genus of Bison. Their main difference is that the EUROPEAN BISON inhabits Europe while the AMERICAN BISON lives in North America. These 2 animals are also slightly different in appearance: •          The EUROPEAN BISON is taller than the AMERICAN BISON. The EUROPEAN BISON is 78 inches tall while the AMERICAN BISON is 60-73 inches tall. •          The AMERICAN BISON has shorter, curvier, sharper horns than the EUROPEAN BISON, whose horns point forward. The AMERICAN BISON’s horns are about 24 inches long, while those of the EUROPEAN BISON are about 31 inches long. •          The AMERICAN BISON has shorter legs than the EUROPEAN BISON. The AMERICAN BISON has longer hair on the neck, head and forequarters than the EUROPEAN BISON. But the EUROPEAN BISON has more hair on the tail.  
4 IMPALA vs GAZELLE IMPALAs and GAZELLEs belong to the bovid family. These 2 species are mainly different by their appearance. For example •          The IMPALA is bigger than the GAZELLE. It can reach 30-36 inches in height and weigh between 117-168 lbs. The GAZELLE stands 24-28 inches at the shoulders and weighs 44-75 lbs. •          The IMPALA has reddish-brown coloration, pale belly and a light muzzle with white rings around the eyes. The coat of the GAZELLE varies from sandy brown to red with a dark stripe along the body. The face also has white rings around the eyes, but there are black lateral stripes that run from the corners of the eyes to the nose, and red stripes that run from the horns to the nose. Only male IMPALAs have horns. In GAZELLEs, horns develop in both males and females.
5 KANGRAROO vs WALLABY Wallabies and KANGRAROOs are the most recognizable marsupials of Australia. Although they both belong to the same family, they are still very different: •          KANGRAROOs are larger than wallabies. The KANGRAROO weighs an average of 110-145 lbs, while the WALLABY weighs only around 24 lbs.  •         KANGRAROOs have powerful and long legs, while those of a WALLABY are small and short. •          The body of a KANGRAROO is large with a powerful tail, while that of a WALLABY is short with a small tail. •          KANGRAROOs have dull fur, while wallabies have a shiny coat. KANGRAROOs live in savannahs and open woodlands, while wallabies prefer forests with dense shrubbery.
6 LABRADOR RETRIEVER vs GOLDEN RETRIEVER LABRADOR RETRIEVERs and GOLDEN RETRIEVERs look very much alike. It seems that it’s very difficult to distinguish these 2 DOG breeds, but the following features will help you with this: •     The LABRADOR RETRIEVER has a broad muzzle, while the GOLDEN RETRIEVER has a narrow muzzle. •     The LABRADOR RETRIEVER has a short, dense and coarse coat, while the GOLDEN RETRIEVER has a long coat with a soft, feathery undercoat. •     The LABRADOR RETRIEVER has a pointy tail, while the GOLDEN RETRIEVER has a fluffy one. Both DOGs are outgoing and friendly. But the LABRADOR RETRIEVER is noisier, while the GOLDEN RETRIEVER is prone to be calmer.
7 Llama vs ALPACA LLAMAS and ALPACAs both belong to the camelid family and live in South America, mainly in the Andes. LLAMAS form a genus of the same name, and ALPACAs belong to it. They look alike. But here’s how they are different: •          ALPACAs are shorter than LLAMAS. They reach a height of 30-35 inches, while LLAMAS are 40-50 inches tall. •          ALPACAs have a small face and nose, short ears and legs, and shaggy soft wool, while LLAMAS have an elongated snout and nose, large ears, long legs, and coarse wool. Both animals are calm and social. ALPACAs spit if they feel threatened, while LLAMAS can become very aggressive in stressful situations.
8 MOOSE vs DEER MOOSE and DEER are also related, just like other animals that look alike. Together with the fallow DEER and the roe DEER, they belong to the artiodactyl family Cervidae. But there are key differences between them: •          The MOOSE is the largest member of the family. On average, an adult MOOSE stands 4 ft 7 inches to 6 ft 11 inches high at the shoulder, while a red DEER’s shoulder height is about 37-51 inches. •          MOOSE are distinguished by wide and massive antlers whose span can reach 79 inches, and weight can reach 79 lbs. In DEER, the antlers are usually thin and branching. On average, they grow up to 28 inches and weigh 2.2 lbs. Although some red dear can grow antlers up to 45 inches long and 11 lbs in weight. There is also a difference in the social behavior of these animals. MOOSE prefer to live alone and seek the company of others only during the mating season. DEER, on the other hand, form small or rather large herds on a permanent basis.
9 RACCOON vs RACCOON DOG Unlike other pairs mentioned in our article, the RACCOON and the RACCOON DOG are not related. They just happened to look alike. The RACCOON belongs to the procyonid family, and the RACCOON DOG closely related to foxes. It’s easy to confuse the RACCOON and the RACCOON DOG. They have almost the same dark spots around the eyes, a small black nose, and a light-colored muzzle. Their weight, length, and height are also about the same. However, there are features by which you can distinguish them: •          The RACCOON has a gray-black fur coat with patches of light gray, while the RACCOON DOG has dark brown undertones and tan underside. •          The RACCOON has pointed ears, while the RACCOON DOG has wide and round ears. •          The RACCOON has a striped tail, while the RACCOON DOG has a tail of solid dark color. •          Unlike the paws of the RACCOON DOG, the paws of the RACCOON are very dexterous. It uses them for eating and grooming. RACCOONs live in North and South America, as well as in Western Europe. RACCOON DOGs are widespread throughout Eurasia.
10 RED WOLF vs COYOTE Wolves and COYOTEs are different species that, together with jackals and DOGs, form the genus of the Caninae. Since these species are closely related, it’s easy to confuse them—especially the RED WOLF and the COYOTE, which have a similar coat color. But they also have some differences: •          The COYOTE is smaller than the wolf. The COYOTE grows up to 35 inches long while the wolf reaches 47 inches in length. At the same time, their height is approximately the same, reaching up to 26 inches. The weight of the COYOTE is also less, reaching up to 45 lbs, while the body of the wolf is quite massive, reaching up to 90 lbs. •          The howl of a COYOTE is intermittent and sounds like yapping. The wolf produces a long howl. •          The COYOTE has a long and narrow muzzle, while the RED WOLF has a short and thick one. The color of the RED WOLF is distinguished by red hues, while the COYOTE’s coat is yellowish-brown.
11 SEAGULL vs ALBATROSS The SEAGULL and the ALBATROSS are not related either, they share only the habitat — both species can often be seen at the sea. They are also easy to be confused because they have similar plumage and beak structure. But these features will help you distinguish them: •          ALBATROSSES are larger than SEAGULLs. They can weigh up to 22 lbs, while SEAGULLs weigh only up to 4 lbs.  •         The wingspan of ALBATROSSES is also larger, ranging from 6.5-11 feet. The wingspan of SEAGULLs is only 2-5 feet. •          SEAGULLs are omnivores, while ALBATROSSES are carnivorous. SEAGULLs can be found everywhere, but ALBATROSSES can only be found in the Southern Hemisphere, on the coast of the Southern and Pacific Oceans.
12 SEAL VS SEA LION SEALS and SEA LIONS are related. Together with walruses, fur SEALS and elephant SEALS, they are both pinnipeds. These 2 species differ in appearance and behavior: •          SEALS have short flippers and a small body, while SEA LIONS have long flippers and a massive body. •          SEA LIONS have small ears, while SEALS only have small holes on the sides of their heads. There are some differences in their behavior too. Thanks to their large flippers, SEA LIONS move freely both on land and in water. But SEALS are active mainly in water, and on land they are not so mobile.







a) Dividing living things into groups helps us to understand how all the different living things in the world fit into a pattern.

b) Biologists already know about more than one million different kinds of animals and more than 350,000 kinds of plants.

c) Once inside the cell the virus uses the cell’s materials to live and reproduce. It can make hundreds of copies of itself.

d) Protists are small living things that cannot easily be classified as animals or plants.

e) Euglena moves about in the water by a whip-like projection called a flagellum.

f) Bacteria belong to the group Monera.

g) The four main groups of plants are: algae and fungi mosses and liverworts ferns, club mosses, and horsetails seed-bearing plants

h) Fungi are made up of thin threads called ‘hyphae’.

i) Lichens are plants that consist of fungi and algae living together.

 j) Mosses and liverworts reproduce by spores formed in capsules.


FISH—backbone, fins, scales, lays eggs, gills

AMPHIBIAN—backbone, damp skin, lays eggs, gills, lungs Reptile—scales, lays eggs, lungs

BIRDS—backbone, lays eggs, feathers, lungs

MAMMALS—backbone, has live babies, hair, milk glands, lungs


 Animal/Plant Group




















I. VIRUS= Simplest Living Organism

II. PROTIST= Cannot Be Classified As Plant Or Animal

III. BACTERIUM= Small Living Things Made Up Only One Round Elongated Or Spiral Cell

IV. ALGA= Green Plant That Usually Live In Water

V. FUNGUS= Non-Green Plant Made Up Of Hyphae

VI. LICHEN= formed by Algae And Fungi Living Together

VII. MOSS= has Tiny Pear-Shaped Capsules That Contain Spores

VIII. FERN= Their Leaves Are Called Fronds

IX. GYMNOSPERM= Seed-Bearing, Non-Flowering Plant

X. ANGIOSPERM= seed-bearing, flowering plants

5. sponge, crab, starfish, centipede




Bringing new living things of one’s own kind into this world is called reproduction.

(b) Describe the life cycle of


ii- a cockroach

iii-a frog


(i) It has four stages. An egg hatches into a caterpillar. The caterpillar forms cocoon, around its body. Then it becomes a pupa then butterfly.

(ii) It has three stages. A tiny nymph hatches from each egg. The nymph grows to form a complete insect.

(iii) A tiny tadpole comes out of each egg of frog. The tadpole grows to form a complete frog.

C Name three animals that lay eggs?





d. How does a stickleback fish look after its fry?


The female stickleback fish lays eggs in a nest. The male fish looks after the eggs for 10 days. When the fry hatch, they are kept in the nest for a month. Then they leave the nest and begin to feed themselves.


1. What is reproduction?

(a) Bringing new living things of one’s own kind into this world is called reproduction.

(b) Describe the life cycle of

i-butter fly

ii- a cockroach

iii-a frog

(i) The life cycle of a butterfly has four stages. The female lays eggs. An egg hatches into a caterpillar. The caterpillar produces a fine thread and forms a shell, called a cocoon, around its body. Inside the cocoon the insect becomes a pupa. A complete butterfly forms inside the pupa. The pupa splits and the newly-formed butterfly emerges from it.

(ii) The life cycle of a cockroach has three stages. The female lays eggs. A tiny nymph hatches from each egg. The nymph grows to form a complete insect.

(iii) The female frog lays eggs. A tiny tadpole comes out of each egg. The tadpole grows to form a complete frog.

C Name three animals that lay eggs?

(c) fish, frog, bird

d. How does a stickleback fish look after its fry?

(d) The female stickleback fish lays eggs in a nest. The male fish looks after the eggs for 10 days. When the fry hatch, they are kept in the nest for a month. Then they leave the nest and begin to feed themselves.

E why do birds look after their young ones?

(e ) Baby birds are covered with small feathers and their eyes are closed. Therefore, their parents have to look after them until they become strong enough to fly.

f. What is the mamals?

(f) A mammal is an animal that gives birth to babies. It feeds its babies on the mother’s milk.

g. why are flowers important for a plant?

(g) Flowers are important because they produce fruits and seeds from which new plants grow.

h. What are the functions of sepals and petals?

(h) Sepals protect the flower before it opens. Petals attract insects for pollination.

i. Describe a stamen?

(i) A stamen has a stalk. At the tip of the stalk, there is an anther, which contains pollen.

j. Name the parts of a carpal?

(j) The parts of a carpel are stigma, style, and ovary.

k. What is pollination?

(k) When pollen of a flower is taken to the stigma, we call it pollination.

l. What is fertilization ?

(l) The joining of the male and female cells is called fertilization.

m. Which part of the flower makes the seeds and fruits?

(m) The ovary of the flower makes the fruit and seeds.

n. How are seeds and fruits scattered?

(n) Seeds are scattered by wind, water, and animals. Some fruits burst open and scatter their seeds.


 Parts of a flower: Refer to page 20 of the Pupil’s Book.


 Stages of germination of a bean seed: Refer to page 24 of Pupil’s Book.


 Life cycles of a butterfly and fish: Refer to pages 17 and 18 of Pupil’s Book.


(a) ovary

(b) whorls

(c) nectar

(d) pollen

(e) ovule

(f) fruit

(g) testa

(h) cotyledons

(i) germination


Answers to Exercises in Unit 3:


(a) We should look after our bodies so that all the parts of the body work properly.

(b) To stay healthy we must:

i) eat a balanced diet

ii) exercise daily

iii) rest

vi) keep ourselves and our surroundings clean

(c) Exercise keeps the body strong and fit. It keeps the muscles and joints healthy. It makes the blood reach every part of the body and helps the body to use up the food consumed.

(d) Washing and bathing keeps the body free from dirt and disease. The bathroom and kitchen should be kept clean. The rubbish of the house should be kept in a covered bin. Drains around the house should be covered.

(e) We become ill when disease, germs, and worms live inside our bodies.

(f) Bacteria and viruses are germs. They are tiny livings things that live in our bodies. They make us ill.


i) cholera

ii) measles


i) Always wash your hands with soap and water before touching food.

ii) Keep food covered to protect it from flies.

iii) Cover cuts and scratches on the body with a plaster.

(i) White blood cells attack and kill germs. They also produce chemical substances which can kill germs.


(a) true

(b) false

(c) true

(d) false

(e) false


 Eat a balanced diet. Exercise regularly. Keep yourself clean.


Answers to Exercises in Unit 4:


(a) Three-fourths of the surface of the Earth is covered with water. It is found in oceans, seas, rivers, lakes and streams, and as ice caps at the poles.

(b) Water is found in three states in nature: solid is ice, liquid is water, gas is water vapour

(c) People in villages store river water and rainwater in pools. They also dig wells and draw up groundwater by buckets or pumps.

(d) Drinking water is purified in a water filtration plant. Particles of soil and plant material are filtered out by passing the water through beds of sand and gravel. Chlorine gas is added to it to kill germs. Sometimes fluoride is added to it to help prevent tooth decay. It is then pumped into storage tanks and brought to our homes by underground pipes.

(e) We use water for drinking, washing, and cooking. It is also used in factories and industries.


(a) springs

(b) water vapour

(c) ice

(d) water

(e) water

(f) hail

(g) reservoirs

(h) salt

(i) goitre


 The students will make their own drawings.




(a) The Earth gives us air, food, water, and materials for making clothes and building houses.

(b) Cutting down of trees, emission of smoke and fumes, disposal of waste materials, making new harmful chemicals, and oil spillage, etc. have a very bad effect on the Earth.

(c) Plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen, which animals and people use for breathing. They produce food from simple new substances and feed all the other living things.

(d) Trees provide food as well as homes for many animals. They prevent the soil from drying up. They also affect the rainfall of an area. They provide pulp for making paper and timber for making furniture and houses, etc.


i) The natural world that surrounds a living thing is called its environment.

ii) The contamination or defiling of an environment by unwanted and harmful things is called pollution.

iii) Anything which contaminates the environment is called a pollutant.

(f) The different types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, and noise pollution.

(g) Harmful gases, smoke and chemicals from factory chimneys, and carbon dioxide from burning wood, oil, gas, and coal can cause air pollution.

(h) When a river passes through a town or a farm, chemicals from factories and dirty water from houses and farmyards flow into it.

(i) If an oil tanker leaks in the sea, it is called an oil spill. This spilt oil forms a layer on top of water and thus kills fish, seabirds, and other animals.


(a) 6

(b) oxygen

(c) soil

(d) noise

(e) Fumes

(f) acid

(g) ozone

(h) Carbon dioxide

(i) sewage

(j) weeds




(a) Matter is anything which has weight and volume and occupies space.

(b) Matter is made up of very tiny particles which have spaces between them. These particles keep moving and bumping into each other all the time.

(c) Matter is found in three different states: solid, liquid, and gas. These three states are due to the amount of space present between the particles.

 The particles of a solid are very tightly packed because the spaces between them are very small. The forces with which the particles pull each other are very strong and their movement is very limited. Therefore, solids have a fixed volume and shape and they cannot be compressed, like rock, wood, and ice. The particles in a liquid are very close together, but the forces of attraction between them are weak. There are spaces between the particles which allow movement to a certain extent. Liquids have a fixed volume but no fixed shape. They take up the shape of the vessel in which they are kept. They can flow but they cannot be compressed as in water, milk, and oil. The particles of a gas are very far apart so they can move about freely. Therefore, a gas has no fixed volume or shape. There are no forces of attraction between the particles and so gases can spread easily. Due to large spaces between the particles, gases can be compressed as in air, oxygen, and hydrogen.

(d) The particles of matter are always moving. It can be proved by the following experiment. Sprinkle some pollen grains on the surface of warm water in a dish. The pollen grains will appear to be dancing on the surface of water. The particles of warm water move about and bump into the pollen grains and make them jump about.

(e) The mixing of particles is called diffusion. Put a drop of red ink into a beaker containing water. The red colour of the ink will spread evenly in water, making it pink. The particles of ink fill the spaces between the water particles and so the water appears pink.


(a) solid, liquid, gas

(b) melts

(c) gas

(d) evaporation

(e) sublimation


(a) water

(b) bigger than in a liquid or solid

(c) it has a fixed volume and shape

(d) they have large spaces between the particles

(e) sublimation


(a) Brownian motion was discovered by Robert Brown.

(b) Particles in a gas are very far apart.

(c) When a liquid changes into a gas, the process is called evaporation.

(d) A gas can be pressed because its particles are very far from each other.

(e) If a substance is heated, its particles will move away from each other.


Solids: wood, rubber, ice, stone, glass Liquids: water, oil, milk, petrol Gases: air, oxygen




(a) Friction is a force that is produced when things rub against each other.

(b) Friction is partly due to tiny bumps on the surfaces which are in contact with each other and partly due to atoms in the two materials which tend to stick to each other.

(c) A lot of energy is needed to overcome the force of friction. It produces heat, which wastes a lot of energy. The moving parts of a machine wear out by rubbing against each other. Friction helps in all kinds of motion such as walking, writing, climbing, etc. It helps vehicles to move on roads by allowing their tyres to grip the surface.

(d) Lubricants such as oil and grease are used in machines to reduce friction. Ball bearings are used between moving parts of machines. Submarines, ships and racing cars, and aircraft are streamline shaped to move smoothly through air and water. Wheels are often used to cut down friction.

(e) The downward pull of the Earth is called gravitational force.

(f) Mass is the amount of material contained in an object. It is measured in kilograms. Weight is the gravitational force acting on a body. It is measured in newtons.

(g) Newton’s first law of motion states that if something has no force acting on it, it will stay still. If moving, it will keep moving at a steady speed in a straight line.

(h) The moving parts of an object which help to make our work easier are called simple machines. The extra force that is gained by applying less effort to do more work is called the mechanical advantage of the machine.

(i) A lever is a simple machine which helps us to use a small effort to lift a large load.

(j) An inclined plane is a plank that can be used to pull a load along a sloping surface rather by lifting it. A wedge is two inclined planes put together which changes the direction of the force as well as increases it.


(a) energy.

(b) rubbing

(c) force

(d) effort

(e) friction

(f) inclined plane


(a) It will keep still.

(b) It will continue moving at a steady speed.


(a) useful

(b) nuisance

(c) useful

(d) nuisance

 (e) useful

(f) useful.


Answers to Exercises in Unit 8:


(a) Light is a kind of energy which travels in the form of waves.

(b) Sources of light are the Sun, electric bulbs, lamps, candles, and glowing as well as burning objects.

(c) Take three equal-sized pieces of card and make a pinhole in the centre of each. Stand them in a straight line so that the pinholes are aligned. Place a candle in line with the cards so that its flame can be seen through the pinholes. Now shift the middle card slightly and observe the flame. The flame will not be visible because light can only travel in a straight line.

(d) Refer to pages 76 and 77 of the Pupil’s Book.

(e) Refer to page 74 of the Pupil’s Book.

(f) A shadow is formed when an object is placed in the path of light, a dark patch resembling the shape of the object is formed on the side opposite the source of light.


(a) ray

(b) laser

(c) seven

(d) umbra

(e) solar

(f) 300,000 km per sec.


 (a) is a form of energy.

(b) is made of many rays.

(c) is composed of seven colours.

(d) was invented by Al-Haitham


 (a) 300,000 km/sec.

(b) faster than sound

(c) small and inverted

(d) laser

(e) 7

(f) penumbra


Answers to Exercises in Unit 9:


(a) An atom is made up of a central nucleus which contains positively charged particles called protons and neutral particles called neutrons. Negatively charged particles called electrons spin around the nucleus in definite paths called orbits.

(b) Materials that allow an electric charge to pass through them are called conductors as in metals.

(c) Electricity is made in a special building called a power plant. The machine that makes electricity is called a generator. A generator makes electrical energy, but it uses energy to do so. It uses running water, burning fuel, or nuclear energy to run the generator.

(d) An electric circuit is a pathway along which charged particles can move.


i) A switch is a device which is used to turn a current on or off. When you turn the switch on, a small metal piece inside the switch completes the circuit and the current flows along the circuit. When you turn the switch off, the metal piece moves away from the wire and the current stops flowing.

ii) A fuse is made of a thin fuse wire, which has a low melting point. If a large current flows through it, the fuse wire melts and thus the circuit breaks and the electrical appliance stops working.

(f) The effects caused by charged particles collected in one place are called static electricity.

(g) If a charged particle is brought close to a neutral object it produces an opposite charge on it. This process is called electrostatic induction.

(h) A body can be tested for the presence of a charge by an instrument called a gold leaf electroscope.

(i) When clouds become highly charged due to rubbing against each other, a large number of electrons jump from one cloud to another or to the Earth. This flow of electrons produces a flash of lightning.

(j) In order to protect high buildings from damage due to lightning, a pointed metallic rod, called a lightning conductor, is fixed to the highest point on them. This repels any charges that may be induced in the building from the clouds.


(a) atoms

(b) protons and neutrons

(c) Electrons

(d) positively

(e) no

(f) neutral

(g) repel

(h) induction

(i) charged

(j) lightning


 (a) 4

(b) positive

(c) neutral

(d) gained

(e) induction

(f) electron

(g) electrons

(h) no charge

(i) lightning

(j) positive ion


 (a) positive

(b) negative


 (a) positive

(b) negative

6. Refer to page 82 of the Pupil’s Book.

7. b




 (a) Magnetism is an invisible force that can make some things move towards or away from each other.

(b) The force with which a magnet pulls iron and steel towards itself is known as its magnetic force.

(c) The area around a magnet where it exerts its magnetism is called its magnetic field. When some magnetic material is placed in a magnetic field the magnet will pull it towards itself.

(d) A compass consists of a small compass needle which is actually a small bar magnet placed inside a round metallic box with a glass top. The compass needle always points in the NorthSouth direction because of the magnetic field of the Earth that is why it helps to find direction.

(e) All the particles inside a magnet have a north pole and a south pole and they are arranged in such a manner that the north poles of all the particles face in the same direction, while the south poles face in the opposite direction.

(f) When an electric current is passed through a coil of wire, it behaves like a magnet, that is, it can attract iron or steel. If a piece of soft iron is placed inside the coil, it will be magnetized and will remain so as long as the current flows in the coil. This kind of magnet is called an electromagnet. The magnetic field around an electromagnet can be made stronger by passing a stronger current through the wire, or by increasing the number of turns in the wire. (g) An electric bell and a telephone.


(a) coal

(b) at both poles

(c) weak

(d) an electromagnet

(e) it is beaten with a hammer


 (a) copper

(b) hard

(c) two magnets

(d) magnetic field

(e) at the poles

(f) Earth


If we place a bar magnet on a sheet of white paper and sprinkle some iron filings onto the paper. The iron filings will arrange themselves around the magnet in a definite pattern of lines, which are the magnetic lines of force of the magnet. The iron filings will be clustered at each pole of the magnet. This shows that the magnetic force is strongest at the poles of a magnet.


 Hang a bar magnet from a piece of string. It will swing around and when it stops it will be hanging in a north-south position which shows approximately the North Pole and South Pole of the Earth.

6. Refer to page 91




 (a) Soil is the outer layer of the crust of the Earth. It is a mixture of small pieces of rocks, air, minerals, salts, water, humus, and microbes.

(b) The components of soil are rocks and stones, air, water, microbes, and living organisms.

(c) Soil microbes are useful because they breakdown dead plants and animal bodies to form humus which returns minerals and other useful substances to the soil.

(d) Humus is the dead and decaying remains of plants. It binds large particles of sand so that they are not easily blown away by wind or washed away by flowing water. It helps to loosen up the small clay particles so that the water present between them is drained away and more air can circulate in it. It releases important minerals in the soil, which are needed by plants for their healthy growth. It helps to keep the soil in good condition for the healthy growth of plants.

(e) If a piece of land is denuded of its plant cover, i.e. by chopping down of trees, etc. then the land becomes bare. The top layer of this bare soil can easily be washed away by rainwater.



This type of soil is made up of tiny particles which stick to each other. There are very few air spaces so water is trapped between them. This type of soil is called heavy soil because it has a lot of water and very little air. It also has a large amount of minerals. Plants and animals cannot live in such a soil because they cannot breathe in it.


This type of soil is made up of bigger particles which have large spaces between them so water and air can freely circulate in them. Water drains very quickly from it and takes away most of the minerals with it. Therefore, this type of soil is also called hungry soil. Plants and animals cannot live in such a soil because there is no water or minerals for their healthy growth.


This soil contains a mixture of large and small particles as well as a lot of minerals due to the presence of humus. It is the best type of soil for the healthy growth of plants and animals because it contains air, water, and minerals.

(g) It is the best type of soil because it contains air, water, and minerals.

(h) The removal of the fertile top layer of soil is called erosion. It is harmful because no plants can grow in that area.


(a) is the outer layer of the Earth’s crest.

(f) has poor drainage.

(b) provides oxygen for respiration.

(g) is hungry soil.

(c) is absorbed by plant roots.

(h) is the best type of soil for plants.

(d) breakdown dead organisms.

(i) is an organic fertilizer.

(e) is the removal of the topsoil.

(j) is a chemical fertilizer.


 (a) Rocks and stones in soil hold the roots of plant firmly.

(b) Air provides oxygen for the respiration of roots and other living organisms in the soil.

(c) The removal of the top layer of soil by wind and water is called erosion.

(d) Water breaks rocks to form sand particles.

(e) A sandy soil has large airspaces in it.

(f) Clay soil is heavy soil.

(g) Loam is the best type of soil for the growth of plants.

(h) Humus is the dead and decaying remains of living organisms.

(i) Topsoil is the fertile top layer of soil.


Answers to Exercises in Unit 12:


(a) Nebulae are great clouds of gas and dust in space.

(b) Stars are formed in the nebulae. The force of gravity pulls gas and dust particles together into a tight mass. Its temperature rises and it gives off energy in the form of heat and light.

(c) An island of stars spinning through space is called a galaxy.

(d) Bodies that go around the Sun are called planets.

(e) The Sun, all the planets, and their moons make up the Solar System.

(f) Scientists think that the planets and moons are made from the same gas cloud that formed the Sun.

(g) An asteroid is a lump of rocky material in space.


 (a) Space is the area outside the Earth’s atmosphere.

(b) There is no air in space.

(c) Great clouds of gas and dust in space are called nebulae.

(d) The force of gravity pulls gas and dust particles to make stars.

(e) A band of stars in the sky on a dark night is called the Milky Way.

(f) An island of stars in the sky on a dark night is called a galaxy.

(g) Bodies that go around the Sun are called planets.

(h) The Earth is a planet.

(i) A lump of rocky material in space is called an asteroid.


 (a) 330,000

(b) 1,384,000

(c) 149 million

(d) 14,000,000°C

(e) 6000°C

(f) Mercury

(g) Venus

(h) Earth

(i) Mars

(j) Jupiter

(k) Saturn

(l) Uranus

(m) –200°C

(n) Jupiter

(o) Jupiter