NOTES: WORD PERFECT SPELLING(Ronald Ridout Ginn) WPS-3

Name:                                           Class: 3   Sub: WORD PERFECT SPELLING-3

 

P:3

Bricks bless bound child                                                                             bust block club damp                                                                                    tie grand hook why                                                                                 belt heel card while

1 Instead of    br in brick write: tr, th, st, cl, ft.

2 Instead of   b   in  bust write: d, j, m, r, tr, cr.

3 Instead of    t in tie write: I, p, d.

4 Instead of    b   in belt write: f, m, sm, sp.

5 Instead of  bl    in bless write: m, I, dr, pr, cr.

6 Instead of  bl in block write: d, m, cl, fl, sh, fr, st, kn.

7 Instead of  gr  in grand write: b, h, I, s, st, husb.

8 Instead of h   in heel write: f, p, st, wh, kn.

9 Instead of      b in bound write: f, h, m, p, r, s, w, gr, ar

11Instead of h in hook write: b, c, l, r, t, sh, br, cr.

12 Instead of  c in card write: y, h, I, cow, must, wiz, forw, cwt, cust

13 Instead of ch in child write: m, w.

14 Instead of d in damp write: c, I, st, cr, tr, cl, sw.

15 Instead of wh in why write: m, fl, fr, er, tr, dr, sh, sl.

16 Instead of wh in while write: f, m, p, t, st, sm,fert.

17 Instead of  k in hook write: d, f, p, t, ter.

18 Instead of st in bust write: zz, mp, nch, ng, lb, cket.

P:4

cake leaf frog beach                                                                                                           spoon twig   weed   spade                                                                                                       plate branch water swimmer                                                                                               bread bird tadpole children

 

desk dress apples sheets                                                                                                   chalk Frock soap chair                                                                                                      pencils skirt eggs brushes                                                                                                         teacher   gloves butter slippers

 

train letters eye Tuesday                                                                                                      porter   words ear Wednesday                                                                                           driver paper   arm Thursday                                                                                                          tickets sentences mouth Friday

 

 

 

These are words that you have men before. Can you still spell them? Write down the four most likely to be:

1 at the seaside

2 in a school

3 at the grocer!

4 on the tea-table

5 on a tree

6 in a pond

7 in a book

8 in a wardrobe

9 in a bedroom

10 on a calendar

11 at a station

12 belonging to a body

 

P:5

Once upon a time there was a young boy who was never tidy. He left his hooks on the chairs and his muddy shoes on the table. He put his fingers in the pudding and then wiped them on his shire. He upset palm on his shirt: clothes, and he dropped

Tooth-paste on the bathroom flour, He hardly ever brushed his hair. He was so untidy that we called him Tidy Tom as a joke.

 

past swing wiped muddy                                                                                                             paste finger tidy dropped                                                                                                              fast once untidy pudding                                                                                                                                     fasten clothes hardly young

Write our ten words in the box that can be built from the letters in this sentence:

OUR DONALD WAS FRYING THE POTATOES.

P:6

slight cool done sprang                                                                                                                 fright   roof none sang                                                                                                            sight broom some slang                                                                                                           might stood gone rang

scrap lift again died                                                                                                                     strap swift against cried                                                                                                      slack silk obtain dried                                                                                                                                                                                         swank thinner grain carried                                                                                                                              shabby trigger faint married

 

Can you arrange the first list in alphabetical order? Fright comes before might, because f comes before m in the alphabet. But if two words begin with the same letter, you must look at the second letters. Thus sight comes before slight, because i comes before l. In alphabetical order, the same list is: fright, might, sight, slight

Now arrange the other lists in alphabetical order, and number them i to 7.

 

8 Arrange this list in alphabetical order:

tried, Flight, foolish, something, Hnish, strain
 

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

 

P:7

1.    three, two, one

2.    one, two, three

3.    two, one, three

4.    three, four, five

5.    five, six, seven

6.    four, Eve, six

7.    six, seven, eight

8.    eight, seven, six

9.    seven, eight, nine

10. nine, ten, eleven

11. seven, nine, eleven

12. eight, ten, twelve

13. thirteen, eleven, nine

14. fourteen, ten, six

15. five, ten, fifteen

16. four, sixteen, eight

17. seven, seventeen, eleven

18. seventeen, eighteen, nineteen

19. eighteen, nineteen, twenty

20 two, ten, twenty

21 one, ten, twenty-one

28 twenty, twenty-eight, eleven

30 twenty twenty-eight, two

40 ten, twenty, thirty

50 forty, thirty, twenty

60forty, Fifty, sixty

70 sixty forty, twenty

80 thirty fifty seventy

90 Sixty seventy, eighty

100 ninety one hundred, eighty

106 eighty, one hundred, ninety

346 ten, six, one hundred and six

1000 three hundred and forty-six, one

one thousand, two thousand

 

 

(a) Write down the figures and choose the right words to put after them. Begin like this: 1 one 2 two

1 one

2two

3three

4four

5five

6six

7seven

8eight

9nine

10ten

11eleven

12twelve

13thirteen

14fourteen

15fifteen

16sixteen

17seventeen

18eighteen

19nineteen

20twenty

21twenty-one

28 twenty-eight

30 thirty

40 forty

50Fifty

60 sixty

70 seventy

80 eighty

90 ninety

100 one hundred

106 one hundred and six

346 three hundred and forty-six,

1000 one thousand

 

(b) White in words all the even numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, etc.) up to twenty.

2two 4four   6six 8eight 10ten 12twelve 14fourteen 16sixteen 18eighteen 20twenty

 

(c)Write in words all the odd numbers (1, 3, 5, 7, etc.) up to nineteen.

1 one 3three 5five 7seven 9nine 11eleven 13thirteen   15fifteen 17seventeen 19nineteen

 

player

owner

farmer

butcher

smoker

grocer

driver

miner

writer

skater

draper

knitter

gardener

footballer

hairdresser

fish manger

 

In each sentence put in the right word from the box:

  1. A man who dig; coal is called a——————.
  2. A man who sells fish is called——————–.
  3. A ——————– is someone who plays football.
  4. A —————-is a man who sells meat.
  5. The—————- cut my hair yesterday.
  6. The—————-of a cat is the person to whom it belongs.
  7. The—————-of this letter is the person who sent to me.
  8. A person who runs a farm is called a———————
  9. Anyone who works in a garden is called a in————————
  10. Anyone who takes part in a game is called a———————
  11. The man who drives the bus is called the ———————–
  12. A ————-is someone who knits.
  13. The——————sold me a pair of sheets and a towel.
  14. A man who smokes cigarettes is called a———————-
  15. The——————– sold me some bread, eggs and cheese.
  16. The—————–glided swiftly across the ice.

 

P:9

Betty bought a bit of butter,

But said, ‘My bit of butter’s bitter.

Lf I put it in my batter.

lt will make my barter bitter,

Better buy some fresher butter.

Betty’s mother said shell let her,

So she bought some better butter

And it made her batter better.

 

 

better buy say I stop

bitter bought said stopped

butter ought paid stopping

batter thought afraid stopper

 

Stopper comes from the shorter word stop.

 

Write the shorter words that these come from:

1 rubber 2 clapped 3 shopper 4 runner 5 planning 6 skater 7 bragging 8 writing
1 rub 2 clap 3 shop 4 run 5 plan 6 skate 7 brag 8 write

Complete these tables:

9 thin ,thinner ,thinnest

10 slim, ———–,slimmest

11 ———-,————, biggest

12 ———–, hotter,————-

13 ———–, worse, worst

14 good,————-,best

15 Hap, flapping, Happed

16 drag, dragging, —————

17 ————-, Fitting ————–

18 slip,—————–,—————

19 bring, ————– ,brought

20 ———–, saying —————-

 

P:10

bus

dress

box

ditch

brush

branch

buses

dresses

boxes

ditches

brushes

branches

match

Patch

Watch

glove

stove

month

matches

patches

watches

gloves

stoves

months

 

A singular noun means one only A plural noun means more than one. To make a singular noun plural, we usually add just   –s But if the noun ends in a hissing letter like s, ch, sh, or x, we have to add –es.

1- Write out the three plural nouns from the box that have had just -s added to them.

Month, glove, stove

 

2 Write out the nine plural nouns that have had -es added to them.

Bus, dress, box , ditch , brush ,branch

 

WRITE DOWN THE SINGULAR NOUNS FROM WHICH EACH OF THESE HAS BEEN MADE.

words singular nouns
3. branches

4. watches

5. months

6.gloves

7. brushes

8. glasses

9. dishes

10. churches

 

WRITE DOWN THE PLURALS THESE;

words Plurals
11. match

12. patch

13. bus

14. box

15. class

16. thrush

17.stove

18. peach

 

P:11

 

first

second

third

fourth

fifth

sixth

seventh

eighth

Toffees

Sugar

coal

carrots

apples

bottles

chocolates

potatoes

 

Draw the bags and write on each to say what is inside. Then write eight sentences, beginning like this:

 

1 The first bag is full of chocolates.
2 The second bag is full of—————————-
3 The third bag is full of—————————-
4 The fourth bag is full of—————————-
5 The fifth bag is full of—————————-
6 The sixth bag is full of—————————-
7 The seventh bag is full of—————————-
8 The eighth bag is full of—————————-
Ans:2- Toffees 3- Sugar 4- coal 5- carrots 6- apples 7- bottles 8- potatoes

 

Complete these:

9 one shoe but two shoes

10 one ——— but two dresses

11 one ———- but two buses

12 one fox but two—————

l3 one apple but six—————

14 one ————–but four marches

15 one chocolate but six—————

16 one—————–but two bottles

17 one church but two—————–

18 one bush but nine——————-

19 one —————- but two doves

20 one catch but eight—————–

Ans: 10- dress 11- bus12- foxes 13- apples 14- march 15- chocolates 16- bottle 17- churches 18- bushes 19- dove 20- catches

 

P:12

aunt ounce instant prince

uncle inch infant princess

prison bench order poem

apron branch border poet

 

 

The five vowels arc: a, e, i, o, u. All the other letters of the alphabet are consonants.

We use a before a word that begins With 3 consonant, but we must use an before a word beginning with a vowel, thus we say a lesson, but an inch. We say an odd uncle, but a broken branch.

1 Write out all the consonants.

BCDFGHJKLMNPQRSTVWXYZ

 

2-17 Write out the words from the box, putting a or an in front of each. Number them 2-l 7.

a an
prince, princess, prison bench poem

Branch, border, poet

aunt, ounce, instant, uncle, inch, infant , order, apron

 

Write out these, putting a or an in each gap;

18 ————– ounce of pepper

19 in ————- instant

20 —————– long lesson

21 —————- rich prince

22 —————- empty bench

23 —————- short poem

24 ————— even border

25 —————- old scarf

26 ———- prince and ——— princess

27 ———— aunt in ————– apron

28 —————- oven in the kitchen

29 in —————- few minutes

30 —————- oil-can in his hand

31 as —————- gift

32 ————- apple a day

33 ———– ok tree and———- elm

Ans: 18- an 19- an 20- a 21-a   22- an 23-a 24- an 25- an   26-a, a 27- an, an 28- an   29- a 30- an 31-a 32- an 33- an, an

 

P:13

           Diana Brown likes drawing. In the summer she sits on the lawn and draws. One day she drew a man going to work. Then she drew the man falling into the river. Next, she drew another nun diving into the river after him. Last of all, she drew a large crowd. Everyone was clapping the diver because he had saved the other man from drowning.

 

Town word   law crowd

brown worm claw worth

crown work straw drawing

drown world lawn worker

 

1 Instead of s in saw write: I, p, r, j, cl, dr, str, outl
law paw raw jaw claw draw straw outlaw
 

2 Instead of d in word write: m, k, th, ld, se, st, ship.

worm work worth world worse worst worship
 

3 Instead of l in lawn write: d, s, y, dr, sp,

dawn sawn yawn drawn spawn
 

4 Instead of t in town write: d, br, cr, cl, dr,fr, gr.

down brown crown clown drown frown grown

 

P:14

soft shave steam shape

often slave dream cheat

soften shade scream squeak

softly grape steal after

 

 

1 From the box below choose the six words that have the same short 0 vowel sound as you can hear in soft.

Both, soften, toffees, bottle, Joyce, lower, often, loaf, shoes, pound, John, lorries
Both, John, often, toffees, soften, pound

 

 

2 From this box choose the six words that have the same long a vowel sound as you can hear in shape.

Grape,steam,shade,waste,fame,April,cheat,shave, scream, fasten, draper, March,
Grape, shade, waste, fame, shave, fasten

 

 

Arrange these lists in alphabetical order. If in doubt, run back to page 6.

 

3 Jane

Grace

Kate

George

David

David

George

Grace

Jane

Kate

4 Richard

Betty

Ronald

Simon

Jessica

Betty

Jessica

Richard

Ronald

Simon

5 Jean

John

Jill

James

Judy

James

Jean

Jill

John

Judy

6 Charles

Andrew

Thomas

Clare

Cecil

Andrew

Cecil

Charles

Clare

Thomas

 

P:15

1 paste You can stick paper with this.(P:5)
2 eight The number than comes after seven(7
3 branches The plural of branch. (10)
4 soften to make soft, (14)
5 often Many times. (14)
6 worker Anyone who works is called this.(13)
7 suger This is used to make food sweet(11)
8 inch There are twelve of these in afoot(l2)
9 young The opposite of old. (5)
10 Twenty two Twice eleven make this number.(7)
11 steal To do something unfairly(14)
12 butcher A man who sells meat. (8)
13 footballer A person who plays football.(8)
14 obtain To get (6)
15 broom A kind of brush. (6)
16 tadpole A baby frog. (4)
17 butter Fat to spread on bread. (9)
18 ditches The plural of ditch. (10)
19 fishmonger A man who sells fish. (8)
20 grape Wine is made from this fruit, (14)
21 dress The singular of dresses. (10)
22 Wednesday The day after Tuesday (4)
23 infant A child under the age of seven.(12)

 

P:16

I/et’s make sure

 

1 Lead     harm   water       joke

Beads   march bathe   spoke

Beach   part   seaside close

teacher party diver     wrote

2 lift     dead       getting band

swift bread   batting blank

mist ahead     better crab

print instead flattest slack

3 eight       sugar         prison hither

twelve     chocolates lesson brother

eighty     grocer       apron   baby

hundred butcher       lemon   infant

 

       Mrs Brown walked down the road to do her shopping. She bought some bread from the baker and some meat from the butcher. Then, she stepped across the street to the toyshop, there, she bought beach ball for Diana and a little spade for the baby.

 

P:17

January     May       September

February   June       October

March         July     November

April           August December

 

1- Write the last month in the year.
December
2- Write the month that it is now.
August
3- Write the month that it was last month.
July
4- Suppose the year went backwards. Write the months in the order they would then come.
December, November, October, September, August ,July , June, May, April, March, February, January
5- Write the month in which your birthday comes.
August
6- Write the months in alphabetical order. (March comes before May, and July comes before June.
April ,August, December, February, January, July, June, March, May, November, October, September

Write these sentences, putting in the right months:

7-The first month of the year is—————–

8—————–is the last month of the year,

9- After February comes———————-

10———————— comes after July.

11———————— comes between January and March.

12- The months between July and October are ———- and————–

13————–,—————-and—————– come between February and June.

13—————–,——————,——————,and —————- all end in –er.

Answers: (8- January )(9- December)(10- March )(11- February)(12- August, September)(13- September, October, November, December )

 

P:18

Michael Short is just ten years old, He likes helping in the garden. His father has put him in charge of one of the flow-beds. There are forty Sunflowers in this bed. They are very large and tall. They tower right up above Michael. There has not been a shower for a long time. So today, Michael is busy watering his flowers.

Sort large power report

Sport barge flower shower

short charge tower busy

forty great towel sunflower

 

1-instead of s in sort write: f,p, sh, rep, imp, exp, comf
             
2-Instead of er in tower write: el, n, ered
     
3-Write the first list in alphabetical order.
 
4-Write the words from the box that are the opposites of these:

tiny, tall, idle, work, retreat.

Great, short, busy, charge
5-Write these words in alphabetical order:

shower sunflower port power sport skirt

Port, power, shower, skirt, sport, sunflower

P:19

Cheese  dozen   bottle       currants

Kilo          packet   lemonade sandwiches

gram            oranges pepper     chocolates

bread       loaf           biscuit     potatoes

 

a packet of biscuits

a bottle of lemonade

a packet of sandwiches

a loaf of bread

a kilo of cheese

100 grams of sweet

a dozen oranges

a box of chocolates

a sack of potatoes

kilo of currants

kilo of butter

25 grams of pepper

 

 

Draw the pictures and put the right description under each one.

 

P:20

stick sticking          tug tugging

creep creeping      drag dragging

crawl crawling        skid skidding

chop chopping

write writing          knit knitting

choose choosing      stir stirring

dance dancing        strip stripping

 

 

Here are the rules about adding -ing:

(a) To most words you can just add –ing.

(b) But to words ending in e you must drop the e and then add –ing, (Except Words iike see, be, tie.)

(c) To words that end with a single consonant before which comes a single vowel you must double the consonant and then add –ing,

 

From what word has each of these been formed?

1 dancing 2 crawling 3 knitting 4

racing

5 stopping 6 writing 7 smoking 8 swimming
1 dance 2 crawl 3 knit 4 race 5 stop 6 write 7 smoke 8 swim

 

9-Which rule do these follow? Make three equal groups & mark them (a),(b),(c)

stare – staring           pray – praying         please – pleasing

bring – bringing        shop – shopping     knot – knotting

shine – shining         fetch – fetching       whir – whirring

Answer:

a- stare – staring

shine – shining

please – pleasing

b- bring – bringing

pray – praying

fetch – fetching

c- shop – shopping

knot – knotting

whir – whirring

 

P:21 WRITE THE SINGULAR OF THE FOLLOWING NOUNS:

1. daisies 2.worries 3. armies 4. Cherries 5. lilies 6.parties 7. stories 8. berries    9. ladies 10. babies
1. daisy 2.worry 3. Army 4. cherry 5. lily 6.party 7. Story 8. berry   9. lady             10. baby

 

WRITE THE PLURAL OF THESE NOUNS:

words Plurals
11. lily

12. party

13. story

14. army

15. fairy

16. copy

17.spy

18. sky

19. worry

20. baby

11. lilies

12. parties

13. stories

14. armies

15. fairies

16. copies

17.spies

18. skies

19. worries

20. babies

WRITE THE PLURAL OF THESE NOUNS:

words Plurals
21. bury

22. tidy

23. carry

24. hurry

25. try

26. dry

27.reply

28. pity

29. marry

30. empty

21. buries

22. tidies

23. carries

24. hurries

25. tries

26. dries

27.replies

28. pities

29. marries

30. empties

P:22 WRITE A WORD FROM THE LIST THAT RHYME WITH:

words rhyme
1.battle

2. brief

3. shield

4. pimple

5. niece

1.rattle

2. thief

3. field

4. simple

5. piece

WRITE FROM THE BOX THE WORD MEANING THE OPPOSITES OF:

words opposites
6. unhappy

7.proud

8.difficult

9.whole

6. happy

7.humble

8.simple

9.piece

 

ARRANGE EACH LIST BELOW IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER:

16 Ruth             17 Robert        18 cattle      19 Jones

Tony                        Albert               battle            Thomas

Roger                      Arthur               belief            Taylor

Mary Henry            chief         Jennings

Molly                        Harry                field              Price

16- Mary

Molly

Roger

Ruth

Tony

17- Albert

Arthur

Harry

Henry

Robert

18- battle

Belief

Cattle

Chief

field

19- Jennings

Jones

Price

Taylor

Thomas

 

P:23

I- N spells in.

l was in my kitchen

Doing a little stitching.

Old Father Nimble

Came and took my thimble.

I fetched a great big stone

And knocked him on the funny bona.

O – U – T spells out.

 

Fetch nimble health knock

Scratch thimble healthy death

Kitchen bundle wealth funny

Stitching handle wealthy great

 

Write the words from the box that rhyme with:

1 candle 2 shock 3 sunny 4 thimble 5 catch
1 handle 2 knock 3 funny 4 nimble 5 scratch

 

6-Instead of f in fetch Write: str, sk.
stretch sketch
7- Instead of st in stitch write: w, d, p, sw, tw
witch ditch pitch switch twitch
8-Instead of scr in scratch write: c, m, p, sn, th.
catch match patch snatch thatch
9- Instead of b in bone write: st, ph, al, thr
stone phone alone throne
10- Instead of th in death write: d,f,lt,dly
dead deaf dealt deadly
11- Instead of tch in fetch write: ll, lt, nee, nder, rry
fell felt fenee fender ferry

Make new words by adding y to these:

12 dust 13 rust I4 wealth I5 health 16 luck I7 pluck 18 cloud 19 Frost
12 dusty 13 rusty I4 wealthy I5 healthy 16 lucky I7 plucky 18 cloudy 19 Frosty

P:24

someone anyone nowhere towards

something anything nothing afterwards

sometimes anybody nobody forward

somewhere anywhere everywhere together

 

No and thing make nothing. Can you do these?

1 Be and come make ——————-. 9 Bur and ton make———————

2 Black and board make ————-. 10 Less and on make ———————

3 After and noon make —————– 11 Under and stand make—————-

4 Butter and fly make —————— 12 For and ward make ——————-

5 Birth and day make ——————- 13 Re and ward make ——————–

6 Every and one make —————— I4 Break and fast make ——————

7 How and ever make ——————- 15 Be and fore make ———————-

8 Rain and how make ——————- 16 Be and lieve make ———————

 

Pair each word with its opposite, Begin like this:

17 something ————nothing

18 nowhere

17 something    poor                                23 afterwards         nobody

18 nowhere     heavy                             24 black                saving

19 Light            nothing                            25 great                 before

20 hating       backward                         26 spending            white

21 wealthy       loving                               27 often                   little

22 forward       somewhere                      28 somebody         never

Answers:    17 something- nothing  18 nowhere- somewhere 19 Light- heavy        20 hating- loving    21 wealthy- poor 22 forward- backward     23 afterwards- before 24 black- white      25 great- little      26 spending- saving        27 often- never                       28 somebody- nobody

 

P:25

This is the key of a country

ln that country there is a county.

ln that county there is a village.

ln that village there is a square.

In that square there is a cottage,

ln that cottage there is a room.

ln that room there is a table.

 

On that table there is a basket,

And in that basket there are some Flowers.

village town county table

cottage flower country unable

cabbage dare mountain basket

garage square fountain ticket

 

 

1 Write the jingle backwards, beginning like this:

The flowers were in the basket.

The basket was on

2 Instead of d in dare write: c, f , r, sp, st, sq, sh, sc, aw, bew
care fare rare spare stare sqare share scare aware beware
3 Instead of t in ticket write: w, cr.
wicket cricket
4 Instead of t in table write: st, c, f, un, cap.
stable cable fable unable capable
5 Instead of fl in flower write: p, t , sh
power tower shower

Write the plural of these nouns:

6 county    7 country        8 furry  9 square     I0 basket
6 counties 7 countries 8 furies 9 squares I0 baskets

P:26

shape aloud shed idea

busy enough roar area

Draw your own puzzle

 

Draw you own puzzle. Then use some of the words from the box to solve it.

Here are the clues:

 

Across

1 To guide.

Pains that go on and on.

3- Belonging to us.

7 Tail-less animal that can walk on two feet.

8 The opposite of always.

9- Not in a whisper.

Down

1 In a Shari time,

2 A loud deep sound.

3 Amount of surface.

4 A building used to store things.

6-The opposite of down.

 

A O

AN   ON

APE      QUR

ALSO        OVER

ALOUD         OTHER

ACHING            OWNERS

These are word tents. Each word has to have one more letter than the one above it. Make tent beginning with A. Then make one with I:

P:27

if you want to keep healthy you must make sure that your teeth are clean. lt is a good plan

to brush them every night before going to bed. In the picture, you can see john in the bathroom. He has a tube of toothpaste. He is just going no put some on his tooth-brush.

What kind of tooth-paste do you use for your teeth?

Tub tube rude pure

Cub cube tune sure

cur cure fuse picture

us use refuse, excuse

 

Notice that when you add a silent e to tub, the short vowel sound 1 becomes a long vowel sound. Make new words by adding a silent e to:

1 slid 2 Cub 3 slop 4 spin 5 cur 6 scrap
1 slide 2 Cube 3 slope 4 spine 5 cure 6 scrape

 

Curing comes from cure.har do these come from?

7 using 8 refusing 9 sliding 10 excusing ll tuning
7 use 8 refuse 9 slide 10 excuse 11 tune

P:28

high knee lamb quite

light kneel comb alone

bought knock climb above

thought knot thumb starve

 

Notice the silent letters. In the list gh is silent. ln the second it is In the third it is k, and in the last it is e.

Arrange these words in four lists in the same way:

knit strike climbing nought

thought scrape knitting thumbs

axe knelt kneeling brought

crumb fought combing flame

 

Pair each numbered word with is opposite.

l high  many              9 bought wrong

2 above   dull            10 right     rude

5 few  empty            11 light     ill

4 bright hard           l2 valive     sold

5 full  low                  13 liked    highest

6 asleep below         14 lowest dead

7 easy   took away    15 polite    hated

8 brought  awake    16 healthy heavy

 

P:29

1 garage Place to keep a car. (P:25)
2 daisies Plural of daisy (21)
3 kneel To go down on your knees. (28)
4 empty To take everything out. (21)
5 rude The opposite of polite. (27)
6 wealthy Means the same as rich. (23)
7 aches Pains that go on and on. (26)
8 january The first month of the year. (17)
9 towel You can dry your hands on this. (18)
10 busy You are this when you have a lot to do, (18)
11 steam This comes from boiling water. (14)
12 fetch To go and get (25)
13 cloth You can make dresses from this material. (22)
14 oranges The plural of orange. (19)
15 choose   to pick out. (20)
16 worry The singular of worries. (21)
17 knitter A person who knits. (8)
18 piece Means the same as a part. (22)
19 handle You cake hold of this, (23)
20 basket You carry your shopping in this. (25)
21 nothing The opposite of everything. (24)
22 starve To have nothing to eat. (28)
23 thief This is a person who steals. (22)

P:30

Let’s make sure

4 Chew price Began float

Flew twice begun Coast

crew clay being soak

threw pray become roar

5 Soil vain better rage

Spoil rail cutter trade

Coin laid knitter grave

voice raise spanner waste

6 Bread enter dance work

Spread tender dancing since

Instead spider chance change

ready poker glance changing

 

Jane likes helping her mother. She always lays the cable for tea. Afterwards she washes up and dries the dishes. On Saturday mornings she polishes the floor, and then goes shopping.

P:31

half halves wife Wives

shelf shelves knife knives

loaf loaves thief thieves

leaf leaves himself themselves

 

When a noun ends in f, you often have to change the f into v and then add -es no make the plural.

With word ending in -fe, you must change the f into v and add only -s, because the e is already there.

Write the singular of these nouns:

1 leaves 2 wives 3 halves 4 calves 5 thieves 6 scarves 7 Wolves 8 lives
1 leaf 2 wife 3 half 4 calf 5 thief 6 scarf 7 Wolf 8 life

 

Write the plural of these nouns:

9 shelf 10thief 11 calf I2wife 13knife 14wolf 15life I6 elf 17 himself 18scarf
9 shelves 10 thieves 11 calves I2 wives 13 knives 14 wolves 15 lives I6 elves 17 themselves 18 scarves

Arrange each list in alphabetical order:

19 shelves

loaves

thieves

leaves

wives

halves

knives

 

halves

knives

leaves

loaves

shelves

thieves

wives

20

elves

flowers

thumbs

knees

calves

Crumbs

churches

 

calves

churches

Crumbs

elves

flowers

knees

thumbs

21

knots

sights

keys

thrushes

teeth

stitches

showers

 

keys

knots

showers

sights

stitches

teeth

thrushes

22

excuses

cubes

combs

tubes

themselves

towers

chocolates

 

Chocolates

combs

cubes

excuses

themselves

towers

tubes

P:32

On Easter Monday John had breakfast early, so that lie could visit the mo. Itwm nor a long journey, and he was soon there. He paid his money and went inside. He looked at the lions, tigers and bears first. Then he visited the cages where the monkeys lived. there he met a friend. No, it was not a monkey! It was Peter from the next street. After they had seen all the monkeys, they had a ride together on an elephant.

Lion wolf money Easter

tiger deer monkey early

bear camel journey friend

zebra visit elephant breakfast

 

Write the singular of:

1 camels 2 friends 3 wolves 4 journeys 5monkeys 6 calves 7 tigers 8 watches
1 camel 2 friend 3 wolf 4 journey 5 monkey 6 calf 7 tiger 8 watch

 

Make new words by adding these endings to visit:

9 -s 10 -ed 11-ing 12 -or 13 -ors
9 – visits 10 – visited 11- visiting 12 – visitor 13 – visitors

 

Write the words from the box that rhyme With:

14 honey 15 steer 16 rare 17 yearly 18 mend
14 money 15 deer 16 bear 17 early 18 friend

P:33

bus aeroplane bicycle liner

car seaplane tricycle yacht

lorry helicopter motorcycle lifeboat

tractor airliner scooter submarine

 

Write these, putting in the words from the box:

1 A —————– has pedals and two wheels.

2 A—————— has pedals and three Wheels.

3 A —————- is a bicycle driven by a motor.

4 A child drives a———————-by pushing on the ground with one foot. It is also a name for a light motorcycle.

5 A large passenger boat is called a—————–.

6 Goods are taken by road in a ————————.

7 A —————— is like a big car that carries many people.

8 Four or five people can travel by road in a ———————–

9 An ———————— is driven by propellers or jets and can land only on the ground.

10 A———————–however, can land on Water.

11 A ——————– can land almost straight down.

12 A sailing boat used for racing is called———————–

13 An ———————– is an aeroplane that carries many passengers.

14 A —————— is used for pulling things over rough ground.

15 A ship that sails under water is called a———————-

16 A ——————–is used for making rescues at sea.

Answers: (1- bicycle)(2- tricycle)(3- motorcycle)(4- scooter)(5-liner)(6- lorry)(7- bus)(8- car)(9- aeroplane )(10- seaplane)(11- helicopter)(12- yacht)(13- airliner)(14- tractor)(15- submarine) (16- lifeboat)

 

P:34

ragged rascal clever pickled

rugged stripe river tickled

pepper piper polite paddled

rubber wiper invite cuddled

 

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper;

A peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked.

If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper,

Where is the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked?

Round and round the rugged rock

The ragged rascal ran

Say how many R`s in that

And you’re a clever man.

 

Odd build listen buy

Usual built earth laugh

music building plenty people

huge sign present view

 

This is an extra list. You will often need these odd words; so make sure you can spell them.

1 Write the eight words that can be built from the letters of this sentence:

WAS ROBIN HOOD BOLD ENOUGH TO WIN?

Saw, English, twin ,bin, load, robbed , winner, golden,

2 Write in alphabetical order the eight that are left.

 

P:35

There was an old man who said, “Well

Will nobody answer this bell?

l have pulled day and nigh:

Till my hair has turned white,

But nobody answers the bell!”

Loose wear quick answer

goose bear, quickly freeze;

geese tear quiet weary

cheese pea: quietly question

 

Write the ADJECTIVES from which these ADVERBS come:

1 quickly 2 quietly 3 loosely 4 politely 5 rudely 6 silently 7 selfishly 8 wrongly
1 quick 2 quiet 3 loose 4 polite 5 rude 6 silent 7 selfish 8 wrong

 

Choose one of the adverbs above to fill each gap:

9 John ran —————– and soon caught the goose.

10 Susan answered the question quite ———————— when she said that two and two make five.

11 The picture was hanging so ———————— that it fell down as soon as I touched it.

12 Christopher very ———————— left no pudding for his sister.

I3 With a soft voice you can speak ———————— but never ———————

14 The opposite of speaking —————————- is speaking ————————

Answers: (9-quickly)(10- wrongly)(11- loosely)(12- selfishly)(13- quietly , politely )(14- politely , rudely )

 

P:36

shirt penny won month

skirt pennies wonder , monk

birth pence Wonderful squirt

third fence Monday birthday

 

JANUARY

Sunday              6 13 20 27

Monday              7 14 21 28

Tuesday        1    8 15  22 29

Wednesday  2  9 16  25 30

Thursday      3 10 17 24   31

Friday            4 11 18 25

Saturday        5 12 19 26

1 Margaret:   2nd January

2 Philip:        5th January

3 Paul:          9th January

4 Diana :       16th January

5 lan:            16th January

6 Elizabeth:   19th January

7 Sheila:         23rd January

8 Norman:      26th January

9 Alan:            31st January

 

On the right above are the dares of the birthdays of nine children. On what days will their birthdays be? Begin your answers like this:

1 Margaret’s birthdays will be on a Wednesday.

Arrange each of these lists in alphabetical order:

10 Christine

Jennifer

Colin

john

Judith

Charles

11

Michael

Margaret

Douglas

David

Arthur

Andrew

12 Elizabeth

Ernest

Donald

Derek

Diana

Ethel

13

Morris

Austin

Hillman

Standard

Singer

Ford

 

P:37

Hue is the weather forecast. Today it will be warm and sunny in Wales and the south

of England. In the north of England there will be some showers late in the day. In Scotland it will be foggy at first, and in the afternoon there may be thunderstorms. Tomorrow’s outlook is less good. It will be dull and cloudy over the whole of the British Isles, and rain is likely to spread from the west.

Yesterday fuggy       thunder England

Tomorrow lightning sunny Scotland

Weather sunshine storm Wales

forecast dull gale British Isles

 

1 Instead of w in weather write: f ,l, h
feather leather heather
2 In front of under Write: th, bl, pl
thunder blunder plunder
3 Instead of ll in dull write: st, sk, ck, sty, ster,
dust dusk duck dusty duster
4 Instead of st in frost write: ck, g, m, nt, sty, wn.
frock frog from front frosty frown
5 Instead of Eng England write: Scot, Ire, is, main, Hol
Scotland Ireland Island Main Holland Holland
6 Instead of m in storm Write: e, k, my, y
store stork stormy story
7 Instead of g in gale write: p, t, s, st, sc, wh.
pale tale sale stale scale whale

P:38

reply   hammer sorry mother

repeat stammer silly copper

funny summer hilly river

furry sudden spilling penny

 

Each of these words has two parts. Thus, summer is made up of sum and mer. We call these parts syllables, Summer has two syllables. From each group of syllables below, make up the two Words asked for. All the words are in the box,

ny pen fun 1- A copper coin

2- another word for amusing

er riv   moth 3- a woman who has children

4- a very large stream

fur sor   ry 5-covered with fur

6- feeling regret

peat ply re 7- to say again

8- to give an answer

mer ham   sum 9- tool for knocking in nails

10-the season than follows spring

ly hil   sil 11- full of hills

12- not sensible

Answers:   (1-penny)(2-funny)(3-mother)(4-river)(5-furry)(6-sorry)(7-repeat)(8-reply)(9-hammer)(10-autumn) (11-hilly)(12-silly)

 

P:39

Polish forgive across afraid

Finish forget above forest

Punish forbid around English

furnish forward alike British

Add the missing syllable to each of these, ro make one of the words in the box:

I —————-give  5 pol————— 9—————ward 13 fin————

2 —————bove 6 Eng————– 10 ————round 14 —————-fraid

3——————est 7 Bri—————- 11 pun————– 15 furn————–

4 —————–get 8 —————bid 12—————- like 16 ——————cross

Answers: (1-for)(2-a)(3-for)(4-for)(5-ish)(6-land)(7-tish)(8-for)(9-for)(10-a)(11-ish)(12-a)(13-ish)(14-a)(15-nish)(16-a)

 

Divide these words into two syllables each:

17 cannot 21 upstairs 25 between 29 England

17 can-not 21 up-stairs 25 bet-ween 29 Eng-land

18 before 22 himself 26 carpet 30 Tuesday

18 be-fore 22 him-self 26 car-pet 30 Tues-day

I9 forget 23 summer 27 unless 31 July

I9 for-get 23 sum-mer 27 un-less 31 Ju-ly

20 across 24 snowdrop 28 invite 32 Berry

20 a-cross 24 snow-drop 28 in-vite 32 Ber-ry

Some words have three syllables. Thus, afternoon can be divided like this: after f noon. (Notice than every syllable has a vowel in it.)

 

Divide these words into three syllables each:

33 yesterday

Yes-ter-day

34 suddenly

Sud-den-ly

35 understand

un-der-stand

36 understood

Un-der-stood

37 November

No-vem-ber

38 December

De-cem-ber

39 forgiven

For-giv-en

40 forgotten

For-got-ten

41 polishing

Po-lish-ing

42 punishment

Pun-ish-ment

43 forbidden

For-bid-den

44 butterfly

But-ter-fly

 

P:40

baked

enjoyed

munched

wanted

divided

opened

tried

stole

fought

lifted

upset

kept

nibbled  

gobbled

captured

quartered

pointed

jumped

viewed

inspected

reached

heated

 

 

Write out this alphabet, putting in the right wards from the box. The first three have been done to show you how to carry on.

A was an apple pie. H heated  it. O opened it. V viewed it.
B baked it. I inspected it. P pointed it. W wanted it.
C captured it. J jumped it. Q quartered it. X Y Z all longed for it.
D divided it. K kept it. R reached it.
E enjoyed it. L lifted it. S stole it.
F fought it. M munched it. T tried it.
G gobbled it. N nibbled  it. U upset it.

 

P:41

Andrew was a lucky boy His parents took him for a holiday in France. ‘They went ro London Airport by coach. ‘Huey saw many aeroplancs raking off and touching clown. Soon Andrew

was climbing into an airliner. The pilot revved up the engine. The airliner raced down the runway A moment later they were airborne. Far below them they could sec the river, roads and houses growing smaller and smaller.

 

France airport     revved pilot

London airliner raced engine

Andrew airborne touching parents

aeroplane coach climbing holiday

 

P:42

return lose excite prove

remain loser exciting improve

repair move enjoy depart

remark remove enjoyable suddenly

 

The vowels have been left out. Put them in, and write out the words and their meanings.

1 R—- M —-V —- To make away.

2 R —- M —- —- N —-To stay where you are.

3D—-P—–R—-To go away.

4 R—-T—-R—-N To comeback.

5 L —- S —– R —–A person who los

6 S—-DD—-NLY All of a sudden.

7 —-NJ—-Y—–BL—- Able to be enjoyed.

8 —- M P R —- V —- To become better.

9 R —- P — — R To make good again.

10 —- X C —- T —– N G Which stirs up one’s feelings.

Answers: (1-remove)(2-remain)(3-deport)(4-return)(5-loser)(6-suddenly)(7-enjoyable)(8-improve)(9-repair)(10-exciting)

 

Can you make these into words ending in -ing?

11 excite 14 enjoy 17 remove 20 begin
11 exciting 14 enjoying 17 removing 20 beginning
12 lose 15 repair 18 dig 21 waste
12 losing 15 repairing 18 digging 21 wasting
13 improve 16 invite I9 forget 22 glide
13 improving 16 inviting I9 forgetting 22 gliding

 

Make adjectives by adding -able to these verbs:

23 enjoy 24 remark 25 agree 26 obtain 27 suit
23 enjoyable 24 remarkable 25 agreeable 26 obtainable 27 suitable

 

Make adverbs by adding -ly to these adjectives:

28 sudden 29 quiet 30 fair 31 unfair 32 clever
28 suddenly 29 quietly 30 fairly 31 unfairly 32 cleverly

 

P:43

thirst dirty hasty tiny

thirsty stormy icy nasty

taste weary tidy noisy

tasty sleepy rosy wavy

 

Make new words by adding -y to these:

1 rain 4 thirst 7 curl 10 fair

2 dirt 5 health 8 bus 11 read

3 Wind 6 wealth 9 part 12 ever

Sol:

1 rainy 4 thirsty 7 curly 10 fairy

2 dirty 5 healthy 8 busy 11 ready

3 Windy 6 wealthy 9 party 12 every

 

Notice that when you add -y to a word ending in a silent -e, like taste, you have to drop the -e and then add –y. Now make new words by adding -y to these:

13 haste 16 shine 19 bone 22 laze

14 ice 17 shade 20 stone   23 craze

I5 Wave 18 rose 21 noise 24 juice

Sol:

13 hasty 16 shiny 19 bony 22 lazy

14 icy 17 shady 20 stony 23 crazy

I5 Wavy 18 rosy 21 noisy 24 juicy

 

Pair each adjective with its OPPOSITE.

25 tasty    quiet

26 noisy    full

27 dirty      tasteless

28 empty straight

29 cloudy  clean

30 heavy light

31 wavy   sunny

32 nasty     ugly

33 ready     shaky

34 steady   nice

35 tiny         polite

36 early       huge

37pretty       late

38 rude       unready

SOLUTION:

25 tasty     tasteless

26 noisy   quiet  

27 dirty     clean

28 empty   full

29 cloudy   sunny

30 heavy   light

31 wavy   straight

32 nasty     nice

33 ready     unready  

34 steady   shaky

35 tiny        huge      

36 early      late    

37pretty      ugly    

38 rude      polite

 

P:44

1 kitchen 1.    Place where you cook, (page 25)

2.    Largest animal in the World. (32)

3.    A person who loses, (42)

4.    The opposite of rude. (34)

5.    The day after today, (37)

6.    Another way of saying twelve. (19)

7.    The plural of penny. (36)

8.    Needing a drink. (43)

9.    The opposite of right. (35)

10. The plural of thief (31)

11. A ship than sails under the water. (35)

 

12. You give this to a question. (35)

13. The one before the fourth. (56)

14. Making a lot of noise. (43)

15. To come back. (42)

16. Mother and father. (41)

17. Took little bites, (40)

18. A large wood. (39)

19. The season that follows spring. (33)

20. Having plenty to do. (18)

21. The opposite of away from. (24)

22. A person who cuts hair, (8)

23. Means the same as to end. (39)

2 elephant
3 loser
4 polite
5 tomorrow
6 dozen
7 pennies
8 thirsty
9 loose
10 thieves
11 submarine
12 answer
13 three
14 noisy
15 return
16 parents
17 gobbled
18 forest
19 autumn
20 busy
21 towards
22 hairdresser
23 finish

 

P:45

Let’s make sure

7 path

bath

rather

father

utter

suffer

rubber

offer

treat

eaten

beaten

broken

8 dinner

ladder

rabbit

bottom

brought

fought

Worse

worst

wool

stool

bloom

blood

9 charm

charge

farmer

army

cheer

feeling

indeed

weedy

friend

people

women

children

 

Last year we spent a whole month of our summer holidays in the country. We stayed on Uncle John’s farm. I liked riding on the tractor best but Judy thought that riding the pony was better.

P:46

For extra work

1 careless

careful

useful

useless

heart

hearth

heaven

dreadful

pillow

yellow

shallow

hollow

nurse

purse

burst

burnt

2 person

pardon

serve

turn

content

moment

defend

pretend

illness

darkness

shadow

dying

Scout

guide

whistle

explore

3 anger

angry

hunger

hungry

cover

silver

shelter

murder

Chimney

Cupboard

animal

history

station

travel

voyage

adventure

4 darling

starling

partner

farther

beginning

together

enough

cough

easy

easier

heavy

heavier

Christmas

Christine

Christopher

Christian

 

NOTES: SOCIAL STUDIES (OXFORD)-2

NAME:                        CLASS:2 SUB:SOCIAL STUDIES

LESSON: 01

Myself and My Family PAGE: 01

Question: Write a short note about yourself?
Answer:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

LESSON: 02

FAMILIES PAGE: 04

Question No.      Who is the YOUNGEST person in the Ali family?
ANSWER? Mumtaz is the YOUNGEST person in the Ali family.
Question No.‚                      How many COUSINS does Mahmood have?
ANSWER?             Mahmood has two COUSINS.
Question No.ƒ                   How many AUNTS AND UNCLES does Mumtaz have?
ANSWER?               Mumtaz has Two AUNTS AND UNCLES.
Question No.„                 What are their names?
ANSWER?1.Imran

2.Tehmina

A:Question No. …

                 What is your FAMILY NAME?

ANSWER?
 
 
Question No. †                  What is your MOTHER’S NAME?
ANSWER?
 
Question No.‡                     How many COUSINS do you have?
ANSWER?
Question No.ˆ                   What is your MOTHER’S DAUGHTER called?
ANSWER?
 
Question No.‰                     How is she RELATED to you?
ANSWER? 

 

1-What is your name?
 
2-What is your father’s name?
 
3-How many sisters do you have?
 
4-How many brothers do you have?
 
5-How many members are there in your family?
 
6-How many people live in your house?
 

 

LESSON: 3

Mr Raza Ali’s day PAGE:07-08

Question No.                    Where does Mr Raza Ali WORK?
ANSWER?:                Mr Raza Ali works in BANK.
Question No.‚At what time does he GO to work?
ANSWER?             He goes to work at 7:30 am.
Question No.ƒ                     When do you WAKE UP on Sunday?
ANSWER?:                I wake up at 6:00 am on Sunday.
Question No.„                   What time do you GO TO SCHOOL?
ANSWER?:                I go to SCHOOL at 6:45 am.

B:

who Where they are What they do
I At school Studying
My mother At home Cooking
My father In office Working
My grandmother At home Sleeping
My grandfather At home Sleeping
My teacher At school Teaching
Van driver In van Driving
Tuck shopkeeper At shop working

 

LESSON: 4

Your school PAGE:10-11

Question No.                 What is the NAME of your SCHOOL?
ANSWER?:              Al-Aqeeq International School Al-Madina Al-Munawwrah.
Question No.‚               How long have you been STUDYING here?
ANSWER?:                I have been studying here for 4 years.
Question No.ƒ                 For how many years will you be STUDYING at this school?
ANSWER?               I shall have been studying here for Ten years.

 

LESSON: 5

Learning PAGE:13-14

Question No.                    In which subject do you learn about NUMBERS?
ANSWER?:                We learn about NUMBERS in Mathematics.
Question No.‚                 Write the names of the LANGUAGES you learn in school?
ANSWER?:              English,

             Arabic and

             Urdu

Question No.ƒ                   Why are SPORTS good for us?
ANSWER?:              SPORTS make us healthy.

A:

MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

Column-A Column-B
1-History2-Mathematics

3-Languages

4-Art

5-Sports

6-Science

7-geography

a-Reading,writing and speakingb-About plants animals and how things work

c-About numbers

d-Exercising the body

e-About the past

f-About the peoples and countries of the world

g-Drawing and painting

Answers:

B:

FILL IN THE FORM BELOW:

My favourite subject:——————————-
My teacher:——————————————–
Title of my text book:——————————
Author’s name:————————————–
Number of pages:———————————-
I like ———————————– because————————————————————————————————————————————————-

 

LESSON: 6

Living together PAGE:16-17

Question No.                                                                                 How do RULES help us?
ANSWER?:                RULES help us live together.
Question No.‚                     Do you have lots of FRIENDS?
ANSWER?:                Yes, I have lots of FRIENDS.
Question No.ƒ                    Do you ever FEEL LONELY? When?
ANSWER?:              Yes, I FEEL LONELY when I am alone.

 

Write down tow things which make you SAD?
1-TO SEE SICK PEOPLE
2- TO SEE NEEDY PEOPLE
Write down tow things which make you ANGRY?
1-     TELLING A LIE
2-     THEFT
Write down tow things which make you HAPPY?
1-     SPEAKING TRUTH
2-     HELPING OTHERS

 

LESSON: 7

Keeping healthy PAGE: 19-20

Question No.                  What do you do to keep your SCHOOL CLEAN?
ANSWER?:              We do not throw things everywhere.
Question No.‚                   Why is it important to keep OURSELVES CLEAN?
ANSWER?:               It is important to keep OURSELVES CLEAN to live healthy.
Question No.ƒ                       How can we keep our HOMES CLEAN?
ANSWER?:                  Do not throw things everywhere.

A:Write one sentence to say what each object is used for:

  • I comb daily.
  • This is my brush
  • I bath with soap.

B:

Write the names o two BRANDS of:

Bath soap
LUX, DOVE
Washing power
TIDE, AERIAL
Shapoo
SUNSILK, HEAD&SHOULDER
Toothpaste
SPARKLE, COLGATE

LESSON: 8

Safety PAGE: 22-23

Question No.                   What is the meaning of the saying,

‘LOOK BEFORE YOU LEAP?

Write the ANSWER in your own words?

ANSWER?:              Always think before doing things.
Question No.‚                 Why are BARE ELECTRIC WIRES dangerous?
ANSWER?:                BARE ELECTRIC WIRES are dangerous because of current.
Question No.ƒ                   What are the SAFETY RULES in your school?
ANSWER?: 1. Use emergency stairs

2. use of hose pipe

Question No.„                   Why is it important to FALLOW them?
ANSWER?:                It is important to FALLOW the SAFETY RULES to be safe.

 

A:

Signs are used to warn us of danger.

Here are a few. Do you know what they mean?

  • (THE FIRST SIGN IS SKULL AND CROSSBONES): it is dangerous. Do not go near.
  • (DIGGING WITH A SPADE.): construction/ repair work is taking place
  • (SPEED BREAKERS.): slow down the speed of your car.

LESSON: 9

Food PAGE:25-26

Question No.                  Why do we need FOOD?
ANSWER?:                  We need FOOD to live.
Question No.‚                     Where do we GET OUR FOOD from?
ANSWER?:              We GET OUR FOOD from corn, vegetables and fruits.
Question No.ƒ                 Why are crops SPRAYED?
ANSWER?:                Crops are SPRAYED to save from diseases.
Question No.„                   What else can we make from CORN?
ANSWER?:              We can make OIL from CORN.

 

A:

Find out what you need to make the following foods:

ICE CREAM:Ice cream is made from milk, cream, sugar, and flavouring as well as fruit,
BREAD:Bread is made of flour, water, and yeast, (to rise the bread.)
KEBABS:Kebabs are made from minced meat and spices.
AN OMELETTE:Omelette is made by frying beaten eggs in oil.
JAM:Jam is made from fruit and sugar.
BIRYANI:Biryani is made from rice and meat.

 

LESSON: 10

Clothes PAGE: 30-31

Question No.                   What kinds of clothes keep us WARM?
ANSWER?:                Wool clothes keep us WARM.
Question No.‚                  Where does WOOL come from?
ANSWER?:              WOOL comes from sheep.
Question No.ƒ                 What clothes do you WEAR AT SCHOOL?
ANSWER?:              We WEAR pant shirt AT SCHOOL
Question No.„                 What FABRICS are they made of?
ANSWER?:                FABRICS are made of COTTON, WOOL, SILK AND YARN.

 

A:

How many differences can you find in the clothes of these people?

An inuit A Nigerian
Warm clothes 

 

 

 

 

 

Normal clothes 

 

Why are their clothes different?

Answer:           Each country has its own traditional clothes. They reflect;

1-    the culture

2-    climate of the place.

 

B:

Answer the following questions:

1-   why does a soldier or policeman need special clothes?
Answer:
2-   Why does a doctor wear a white coat?
Answer:
Why does a doctor wear a white coat?
Answer:

 

L: 11     BUILDINGS     P: 33      

QUESTION No. 1                   What materials are houses made of?
ANSWER:1-     CEMENT

2-     STONE

3-     STEEL

4-     BRICKS

5-     WOOD

QUESTION No.2         What parts of your house are made of wood?
ANSWER:Windows are made of wood.
QUESTION No.3               Talk about the differences that you can see between the bungalows and the huts.
ANSWER:Bungalows are good and big

Huts are bad and small

 

L:12   BUILDERS   P: 37

QUESTION No.A         Name the person who:
1. puts in the pipes and taps:
2. works with wood:
3. designs the house:
4. carries, lifts, helps, and digs:
5. does the electrical work:
6. builds the walls with bricks:
7. puts plaster on the walls:
ANSWER:(1-         plumber )        

(2-         carpenter)

(3- engineer   )

(4-labourer )

(5-electrician)

  (6- builder )  

      (7-   mason   )

 

L:13   TOOLS           P:38-39

QUESTION No.1               Have you seen any of these tools?
ANSWER: yes
QUESTION No.2               Ask your parents if they use any of these.
ANSWER:

 

L:14 TIME     P:41                        

QUESTION No.1What is the difference between day and night?
ANSWER:
QUESTION No.2When is the Sun directly overhead?
ANSWER:
QUESTION No.3How many seconds are there in a minute?
ANSWER:
QUESTION No.4   Write what you have learnt about a leap year?
ANSWER:

WORK PAGE

A:The letters in these words have been jumbled.

Write the words correctly.

They are the names of the days.

1-DRYSAATU
2-STAYDUE
3-MYDONA
4-TRYDUSHA
5-SANDYWEED
6-IFYARD
7-DANYUS
ANSWERs:1-Saturday ,2-Tuesday, 3-Monday , 4-Thursday , 5-Wednesday , 6-Friday ,7- Sunday

 

B: Match the following:

a-   7 days 1-   in one day
b- 24hours 2-   in September
c- 365days 3-   in a minute
d- 30days 4-   in one week
e- 366days 5-   in a leap year
f-60secons 6-   in one year
ANSWER: (a-4)(b-1)(c-6)(d-2)(e-5)(f-3)

 

3: Write the number of days in each month.

MONTH DAYS
January 31
February 28
March 31
April 30
May 31
June 30
July 31
August 31
September 30
October 31
November 30
December 31

 

L:15 DIRECTIONS     P:45

QUESTION No.1               What is the island called?
ANSWER:Island is a place surrounded by water.
QUESTION No.2Is the ship in the north?
ANSWER:Yes, the ship is in the north.
QUESTION No.3In which part of the island is the forest?
ANSWER:           The forest is in the west.
QUESTION No.4                   Where is the village of Amnabad?
ANSWER:Amnabad is in the south.
QUESTION No.5In which direction are the small islands?
ANSWER:The small islands are in west.
QUESTION No.6                 Where are the mountains?
ANSWER:Mountains are in the north.

L:16 IMPORTANT PLACES P:47

         QUESTION No.1    Is there a market near your house? What does it sell?
ANSWER:Yes, it sells every thing.
QUESTION No.2          Make a list of eight things you can buy there.
ANSWER:1-   bread

2-   butter

3-   cheese

4-   apple

5-   banana

6-   orange

7-   water

8-   cake

9-   sweet

10-        dress

QUESTION No.3                   Have you been to a post office? Why?
ANSWER:Yes, I posted a letter.
QUESTION No.4                   How do you think does the post office send and receive the mail?
ANSWER:The post offices send and receive the mail by aeroplanes and trains.

 

L:17 PLANTS AROUND US P:49

QUESTION No.1In which ways are plants useful for us?
ANSWER:1-   Plants are useful because they keep the air clean.

2-   Plants provide fruits

3-   they look and smell good.

QUESTION No.2               How are plants useful for animals?
ANSWER:Plants provide food for animals.
QUESTION No.3      Name some things that can be made from plants.
ANSWER:1-   paper

2-   gum

3-   furniture

 

L: 18 ANIMALS AROUND US P:52

QUESTION No.1                   Which animals pull carts and wagons?
ANSWER:Bullocks pull carts and wagons.
QUESTION No.2What work do elephants do?
ANSWER:         Elephants carry heavy logs.
QUESTION No.3                 How are chickens useful to us?
ANSWER:             Chickens give meat and eggs.
QUESTION No.4 Name three farm animals. Talk about how they are useful.
ANSWER:1-   Hen for eggs

2-   Sheep for wool

3-   Camel for meat

QUESTION No.5                 Why should we be kind to animals?
ANSWER:Because the animals are living beings.

 

L: 19  WEATHER P:54

QUESTION No.1               Have you ever seen a rainbow? What are the colours in a rainbow? Find out.
ANSWER:Yes, I have seen a rainbow. It has 7 colours.
QUESTION No.2                 Have you heard thunder and seen lightning? What did you feel?
ANSWER:Yes, I have heard thunder and seen lightning. I frightened.

 

L: 20 SEASONS         P:56

QUESTION No.1                   What season is it nowadays?
ANSWER:It is summer nowadays.
QUESTION No.2                 Does snow fall where you live?
ANSWER:No, it does not snow fall where I live.

 

L: 21 WATER               P: 59

QUESTION No.1                   Name two sources of fresh water.
ANSWER:1-   River

2-   Canal

QUESTION No.2                 Where does a city get its water from?
ANSWER:A city gets its water from dam.
QUESTION No.3           Why is it important to have clean drinking water?
ANSWER:Because dirty water makes us ill.
QUESTION No.4How do we get clean water for our daily use?
ANSWER:We get clean water by filtering.

 

L: 22 OUR COUNTRY   P: 62

QUESTION No.1                 What is the name of your city?
ANSWER:Karachi
QUESTION No.2What is the name of your province?
ANSWER:Sind
QUESTION No.3                   How many places in your province have you visited? Write about one of them.
ANSWER:Karachi

WORK PAGE: B P:63

Complete this form about your country.
Country:                                                 .

Capital:                                                     .

 

Provinces:                                                   .

 

The Largest city:                                           .

 

My favourite place:                                       .

NOTES:COMPUTER-2(QUICK WAY)

NAME:                         CLASS:2   SUBJECT: COMPUTER

CHAPTER: 1

WHAT IS A MACHINE?                                      Page: 8

QUESTION NO.1 FILL THE BLANK SPACES WITH CORRECT WORDS.

  • Machine is a ———————————————tool made by————————————————

ii            There are ——————————————————major types of machines.

iii– ——————————————— is plain in shape and very easy to use.

iv- ———————————————– has several parts and each part has a function.

v- There are ———————————————major types of automatic machines.

ANSWERS:

(i-                   Use ful,   man)

(ii-                 3)

(iii-               Simple machine )

(iv-               Automatic machine )

(v-                 Four )

 

QUESTION No.2. In each statement two options are given, tick the correct one

i-Machine helps us to work at

a) Slow speed   b) Faster speed

ii-Machine that we use with our muscular power is called——————————

a) Manual machine b) Automatic machine

iii- Machine which is driven by fuel

a) Aero plane     b) Microwave

iv- Machine which is driven by electricity

a) Car           b) Computer

v- Machine which is driven by solar energy

a) Computer   b) Calculator

 

ANSWERS:

(i-                   b)

(ii-                 a)

(iii-               a)

(iv-               b)

(v-                 b)

 

QUESTION No.3. Mark a cross X against each wrong statement.

i- Simple machine is very difficult to use.

ii-Manual machine is driven by electricity.

iii-Machines save our time and energy.

iv-Machines help us to work at a faster speed.

v-Automatic machines produce accurate results

and save us from errors.

 

ANSWERS:

(i-                   F)

(ii-                 F)

(iii-               T)

(iv-               T)

(v-                 T)

4- DRAW &COLOUR THE FOLLOWING MACHINES AND WRITE DOWN THEIR NAMES.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER: 2

MORE ABOUT COMPUTER      page: 14

QUESTION No.1. Fill the blank spaces with correct words.

  • Computer is an————————————- machine. Computer converts data——————————– into meaningful information.
  • We can divide Personal Computer into——————————————————-
  • We sometime call our computer as————————
  • PDA Computer is also a type of—————————-

 

ANSWERS:

(i-                   Electronic machine,   input)

(ii-                 4)

(iii-               PC)

(iv-                Personal Computer)

 

QUESTION No.2. Mark a cross X against each wrong statement.

  • Computer is also called a Thinking Machine.
  • Laptop Computer is a small computer and looks like a Notebook.
  • Palmtop Computers faster than that the Desktop Computer.
  • Desktop Computer is the most common type of Personal Computer.
  • PDA stands for Personal Digital Assistant.
ANSWERS:

(i-                   F)

(ii-                 T)

(iii-               F)

(iv-               T)

(v-                 T)

 

QUESTION No.3-i

What is a COMPUTER?

ANSWER:

Computer is an electronic machine. It converts input into output.

QUESTION No.3-ii

How many types does a Personal Computer have? Write down their names?

ANSWER:

1-    DESKTOP

2-    LAPTOP

3-    PALMTOP

4-    PDA

QUESTION No.3-iii

What is a DESKTOP COMPUTER?

ANSWER:

 

QUESTION No.3-iv

What is a LAPTOP COMPUTER?

ANSWER:

 

QUESTION No.3-v

What is a PALMTOP COMPUTER?

ANSWER:

 

QUESTION No.3-vi

What is a PDA COMPUTER?

ANSWER:

 

 

4-DRAW &COLOUR THE FOLLOWING PICTURES AND WRITE DOWN THEIR NAMES TOO.

CHAPTER:3

HOW TO START A COMPUTER? PAGE: 22

QUESTION No.1. Fill the blank spaces with correct words.

i- Power cable of the PC must be attached to the——————————

ii- Monitor has two cables one is ————————————- and other is—————————————–

iii-Microsoft ————————————-is the most popular operating system.

  1. We can open any program by clicking on its —————————-with the help of pointer.
  • To start a program we can use ———————————-
ANSWERS:

i-             Main power supply)

ii-            Data cable , power cable)

iii-          Windows )

iv-          Icon )

v-           Start Button )

 

 

QUESTION No.2-i

What is the popular Operating System?

ANSWER:

Micro soft windows is the popular Operating System.

QUESTION No.2-ii

What does a PC stand for?

ANSWER:

PC stands for;

Personal Computer.

QUESTION No.2-iii

What is a Pointer?

ANSWER:

Pointer is like an arrow. It is used to point and click the icons.

QUESTION No.2-iv

What are Icons?

ANSWER:

Icons are the sign of a particular program.

QUESTION No.2-v

What is Start Button?

ANSWER:

Start Button is a button which is used to;

1-    Start a program

2-    To open a document

3-    To get help etc.

 

3-THE PICTURES GIVEN BELOW SHOW SOME SWITCHS. WRITE THE NAMES OF EACH OF THEM.

(ON BOOK)

  • IN THIS PICTURES, FILL THE EMPTY BOXES ACCORDING TO THE ARROWS.

(ON BOOK)

CH:4 HOW DOES A COMPUTER WORK? P: 29

1: FILL THE BLANK SPACES WITH CORRECT WORDS.

  1. —————————and ———————————————————- are two basic parts of computer system.
  2. Computer parts which are used to enter the information into a computer are called—————————.
  3. Mouse is an——————————
  4. Printer is an —————————————–device.
  5. ——————————–works in computer like our brain.
  6. ENCIRCLE THE RIGHT ANSWER.

1-Computer parts, which are used to get information from the computer are called input devices.

2-Keyboard is an output device.

3- Software means computer parts.

4- Computer has two kinds of memory.

5- CPU is also called Microprocessor.

QUESTION No.3-i

What is Hardware?

ANSWER:

Hardware means parts of computer.

QUESTION No.3-ii

How many kinds of monitors are there?

ANSWER:

1-    Coloured Monitor

2-    Black and white Monitor

QUESTION No.3-iii

What is the System Unit?

ANSWER:

System Unit is box shaped part of computer.

QUESTION No.3-iv

What is the brain of a Computer?

ANSWER:

C. P.U. is the brain of a Computer.

QUESTION No.3-v

How many types of a printer are there? Write down their names?

ANSWER:

1-    Dot matrix printer

2-    Inkjet printer

3-    Laser printer

 

CHAPTER:5 USES OF KEYBOARD P:34-35

  1. FILL THE BLANK SPACES WITH CORRECT WORD.

i- Keyboard is used to give ————————-to the computer.

ii- The buttons on the keyboard are called————————-

iiiThe Alphabetic Keys are the part of——————————————–in a keyboard.

iv- The Numeric Keypad of a keyboard has————————————————-keys.

v- ————————————————-are used to move the cursor on the screen in any direction.

  1. IN EACH STATEMENT THREE OPTIONS ARE GIVEN, TICK THE CORRECT ONE.
  • The Numeric Keys are used to type:

( a) Words     (b) Numbers (c) Symbols

  • The Alphabetic Keys are used to write:

( a) Numbers     (b)   Symbols (c) Words

  • Numeric Keypad is used for:

( a) special functions(b) Quick calculations(c) Write different names

  • Function Keys are used for

( a)   mathematical problems       (b) special functions     (c) Write different names

  • Page UP and Page DOWN keys are part of the:

( a) function keys       (b) Cursor Control Keys                         (c) Typewriter Area

Answers: (i-       )   (ii-       )     (iii-       )     (iv-         )       (v-         )

 

3-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

QUESTION No.3-i

Write down the names of four groups of Keys on a keyboard.

ANSWER:

1-    Function Keys

2-    Typewriter Area

3-    Numeric Key pad

4-    Cursor Control Keys

QUESTION No.3-ii

What are Cursor Control keys on a keyboard? Write down their names.

ANSWER:

Cursor Control keys are used to move the cursor

-UP

-DOWN

-LEFT

-RIGHT

QUESTION No.3-iii

What is the function of Numeric keypad in a computer?

ANSWER:

Numeric keypad is used for the quick calculation of math.

QUESTION No.3-iv

Explain the Typewriter Area in a keyboard?

ANSWER:

Typewriter Area is main part of a keyboard. It is like typewriter.

QUESTION No.3-v

What is the purpose of Function Keys in a keyboard?

ANSWER:

Function Keys have pre- defined purpose according to the program.

 

CHAPTER:6

WHAT CAN WE DO WITH A COMPUTER?

                                                             PAGE:

CHAPTER:7

MORE ABOUT WINDOWS PAINT

                                                           PAGE:

 

 

Twinning (crystallography)

Twinning (crystallography)

A process in which two or more crystals, or parts of crystals, assume orientations such that one may be brought to coincidence with the other by reflection across a plane or by rotation about an axis. Crystal twins represent a particularly symmetric kind of grain boundary; however, the energy of the twin boundary is much lower than that of the general grain boundary because some of the atoms in the twin interface are in the correct positions relative to each other.

Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a variety of specific configurations. A twin boundary or composition surface separates the two crystals.

Simple twinned crystals may be contact twins or penetration twins. Contact twins share a single composition surface often appearing as mirror images across the boundary. Quartz, gypsum, and spinel often exhibit contact twinning. In penetration twins the individual crystals have the appearance of passing through each other in a symmetrical manner. Orthoclase, staurolite, pyrite and fluorite often show penetration twinning.

If several twin crystal parts are aligned by the same twin law they are referred to as multiple or repeated twins. If these multiple twins are aligned in parallel they are called polysynthetic twins. When the multiple twins are not parallel they are cyclic twins.

Albite, calcite, and pyrite often show polysynthetic twinning. Closely spaced polysynthetic twinning is often observed as striations or fine parallel lines on the crystal face. Rutile, aragonite and chrysoberyl often exhibit cyclic twinning, typically in a radiating pattern.

There are three modes of formation of twinned crystals. Growth twins are the result of an interruption or change in the lattice during formation or growth due to a possible deformation from a larger substituting ion. Annealing or Transformation twins are the result of a change in crystal system during cooling as one form becomes unstable and the crystal structure must re-organize or transform into another more stable form. Deformation or gliding twins are the result of stress on the crystal after the crystal has formed. Deformation twinning is a common result of regional metamorphism.

Of the three common crystal structures: BCC, FCC AND HCP, the HCP structure is the most likely to twin. Crystals that grow adjacent to each other may be aligned to resemble twinning. This parallel growth simply reduces system energy and is not twinning.

Twin boundaries occur when two crystals of the same type intergrow, so that only a slight misorientation exists between them. It is a highly symmetrical interface, often with one crystal the mirror image of the other; also, atoms are shared by the two crystals at regular intervals. This is also a much lower-energy interface than the grain boundaries that form when crystals of arbitrary orientation grow together.

Twin boundaries are partly responsible for shock hardening and for many of the changes that occur in cold work of metals with limited slip systems or at very low temperatures. They also occur due to martensitic transformations: the motion of twin boundaries is responsible for the pseudoelastic and shape-memory behavior of nitinol, and their presence is partly responsible for the hardness due to quenching of steel.
http://www.glossary.com/encyclopedia.php…

 

Twinning

 

the formation in a single crystal of regions of regularly changed orientation of the crystal structure. The structures of twin formations are either mirror images of the atomic structure of the parent crystal (matrix) in a certain plane (the twinning plane) or are formed by rotation of the matrix structure about the crystallographic axis (twinning axis) to an angle that is constant for a given material or by other symmetry transformations. The pair made up of the matrix and the twin formation is called the twin.

Twinning takes place during crystal growth because of violations in the packing of atoms during the growth of the atom layer on the nucleus or on the formed crystal (stacking faults) and the intergrowth of neighboring nuclei (growth twins; see Figure l). It also takes place because of deformation upon mechanical action on the crystal, such as the impact of an indentor, tension, compression, twisting, bending (mechanical twins); rapid thermal expansion and contraction; heating of deformed crystals (recrystallization twins); and transition from one crystal modification to another.

In metals, the shift of a part or of the entire crystal into the twin position is accomplished by the layered glide of the atomic planes. Each plane is successively displaced by a fraction of the interatomic distance, in which case all the atoms in the twinning region are displaced by a distance proportional to their distance from the twinning plane (plane of regular reflection). In other crystals this process is more complex—for example, for calcite, CaCO3, rotation of the CO3 groups also occurs. Mechanical twins are formed when deformation by glide in the direction of the applied force is inhibited.

Twinning may be accompanied by changes in the dimensions and shape of the crystal; this is characteristic, for

Figure 1. Growth twins

example, of CaCO3. Twinning of CaCO3 may also be achieved by the pressure of a blade (see Figure 2), in which case the region of the right-hand part of the crystal shifts to the twin position. Twinning accompanied by a change in shape is observed in all metals, semiconductors (such as germanium and silicon), and many other dielectrics. Another form of twinning, which is not accompanied by changes in shape, is observed in such substances as quartz and tri-glycine sulfate.

Figure 2. Twinning of calcite by the pressure of a blade (Baumhauer’s method)

If the structural homogeneity of a single crystal is disrupted by a great number of twin formations, the crystal is called a polysynthetic twin (Figure 3). In ferroelectrics, twinning

Figure 3. Polysynthetic twin of Rochelle salt (left); polysynthetic twin of triglycine sulfate, developed by etching and photographed in reflected light (right)

formations are also ferroelectric domains, which are, however, characterized by different optical properties (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Diagram of the position of the optical indicatrix: (a) in a rhombic crystal of Rochelle salt; (b) and (c) in the components of a twin that are stretched along the axes c and b) of a monoclinic crystal

Twinning strongly affects the mechanical properties of crystals, such as strength, plasticity, and brittleness, as well as their electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. It also reduces the quality of semiconductor devices.

The principles of mechanical crystal twinning are used in geology in the diagnosis of minerals and for determining the conditions of rock formation. The distribution of twinned crystal layers in rock-forming minerals makes it possible to characterize the influences to which the rock was subjected. Mechanical twinning is taken into account by geologists and petrographers during analysis of the flow of rock after deformation.

<a href=”http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Twinning”>Twinning</a>

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

 

 

ARTICLE:GEOLOGY TWINNING IN OPTICS

GEOLOGY TWINNING IN OPTICS

TWINNING occurs when two separate optics share some of the same optics lattice points in a symmetrical manner. The result is an intergrowth of two separate optics in a variety of specific configurations. A twin boundary or composition surface separates the two optics.

Crystallographers classify twinned optics by a number of twin laws. These twin laws are specific to the optic system. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic tool in mineral identification.

Twinning can often be a problem in X-ray crystallography, as a twinned optic does not produce a simple diffraction pattern.

TYPES OF TWINNING

Simple twinned optics may be contact twins or penetration twins. Contact twins share a single composition surface often appearing as mirror images across the boundary. Plagioclase, quartz, gypsum, and spinel often exhibit contact twinning.

Merohedral twinning occurs when the lattices of the contact twins superimpose in three dimensions, such as by relative rotation of one twin from the other. An example is metazeunerite.

In penetration twins the individual optics have the appearance of passing through each other in a symmetrical manner. Orthoclase, staurolite, pyrite, and fluorite often show penetration twinning.

 

 

Galvanized surface with macroscopic crystalline features. Twin boundaries are visible as striations within each crystallite, most prominently in the bottom-left and top-right.

If several twin optic parts are aligned by the same twin law they are referred to as multiple or repeated twins. If these multiple twins are aligned in parallel they are called polysynthetic twins.

When the multiple twins are not parallel they are cyclic twins. Albite, calcite, and pyrite often show polysynthetic twinning. Closely spaced polysynthetic twinning is often observed as striations or fine parallel lines on the optic face. Rutile, aragonite, cerussite, and chrysoberyl often exhibit cyclic twinning, typically in a radiating pattern.

 

 

 

Twinned optics (e.g., see Figure ) may be described as follows:

Simple twins – composed of only two parts
Multiple twins – composed of more than two orientations
Contact twins – this occur if a definite composition plane is present

Penetration twins – occur if two or more parts of a optic appear to interpenetrate each other with the surface between the parts being indefinable and irregular

(Figure ).

COMMON TWIN LAWS

  • TRICLINIC SYSTEM

The feldspar minerals plagioclase and microcline are the most common triclinic minerals that show twinning.

Two common twin laws are observed in these feldspars.

 

 ALBITE LAW

As described above, plagioclase (NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) very commonly shows albite polysynthetic twinning.  The twin law – {010} indicates that the twining occurs perpendicular to the b crystallographic axis. Albite twinning is so common in plagioclase, that it’s presence is a diagnostic property for identification of plagioclase.

 

 PERICLINE LAW

o                        The pericline law has [010] as the twin axis.  As stated above, pericline twinning occurs as the result of monoclinic orthoclase or sanidine transforming to microcline (all have the same chemical formula – KAlSi3O8).

o                      Pericline twinning usually occurs in combination with  albite twinning in microcline, but is only observable with the polarizing microscope.  The combination of pericline and albite twinning produce a cross-hatched pattern, called tartan twinning, as discussed above,  that easily distinguishes microcline from the other feldspars under the microscope.

 

  • MONOCLINIC SYSTEM

                         The most common twins in the monoclinic system occur on the planes {100} and {001}.  The feldspars – orthoclase and sanidine – are the most commonly twinned minerals in the monoclinic system.  Both contact twins and penetration twins occur, and both types result from accidents during growth.

 

 MANEBACH LAW – {001} –

             It forms a contact twin commonly observed in the mineral orthoclase. This twinning is very diagnostic of orthoclase when it occurs.

 

 CARLSBAD LAW – [001] –

o                     It forms a penetration twin in the mineral orthoclase. Optics twinned under the Carlsbad Law show two intergrown optics, one rotated 180o from the other about the [001] axis. Carlsbad twinning is the most common type of twinning in orthoclase, and is thus very diagnostic of orthoclase when it occurs.

 

 BRAVENO LAW – {021} –

It forms a contact twin in the mineral orthoclase.

 

 SWALLOW TAIL TWINS – {100}-

They are commonly observed in the mineral gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O).

 

·     ORTHORHOMBIC SYSTEM

                     Orthorhombic optics commonly twin on planes parallel to a prism face.  The most common is a {110} twin that results in many orthorhombic minerals having cyclical twins.

 

 {110} CYCLICAL TWINS –

The mineral aragonite (CaCO3) , chrysoberyl (BeAl2O4), and cerrusite (PbCO3) commonly develop twinning on {110}.  This results in a cyclical twin which gives these minerals a pseudo-hexagonal appearance.

  STAUROLITE LAW

               The mineral staurolite is really monoclinic, but it has a ß angle very close to 90o so it has the appearance of an orthorhombic mineral.  Two types of interpenetration twins occur in staurolite the {031} twins from a right-angled cross and the {231} twins form a cross at about 60o.

 

  • TETRAGONAL SYSTEM

Twinning in the tetragonal system usually occurs on {011} forming cyclical contact twins.  The minerals rutile (TiO2) and cassiterite (SnO2)  commonly show this type of twinning.

 

  • HEXAGONAL SYSTEM

The minerals calcite (CaCO3) and quartz (SiO2) are the most common hexagonal minerals and both show the types of twinning common in hexagonal minerals.

 

 CALCITE TWINS

o                  The two most common twin laws that are observed in calcite optics are {0001} and the rhombohedron {012}.  Both are contact twins, but the {012} twins can also occur as polysynthetic twins that result from deformation.

Quartz shows three other hexagonal twins.

o    BRAZIL LAW – {110} –

o                 It is a penetration twin that results from transformation.

o    DAUPHINÉ LAW – [0001] –

o             It is also a penetration twin that results from transformation.

o    JAPANESE LAW – {112} –

o               It is a contact twin that results from accidents during growth.

  • ISOMETRIC SYSTEM

Three types of twins are common in the isometric system.

 

 

o    SPINEL LAW – {1} –

It is a twin plane, parallel to an octahedron.  It occurs commonly in mineral spinel (MgAl2O4).

 

 [111] – The twin axis perpendicular to an octahedral face adds three fold rotational symmetry.
 IRON CROSS [001] –

The mineral pyrite (FeS2) often shows the iron cross made of the interpenetration of two pyritohedrons.  Since this occurs in the class 2/m, with no 4-fold rotation axes, the [001] twin axis gives the mineral apparent 4-fold symmetry about 3perpendicular axes.

POLYSYNTHETIC TWINNING –

Occurs when three or more individuals are repeated alternately on the same twinned plane. If the individuals of polysynthetic twins are thin plates, the twinning is called lamellar e.g. plagioclase feldspars.

 

MODES OF FORMATION

There are three modes of formation of twinned optics. Growth twins are the result of an interruption or change in the lattice during formation or growth due to a possible deformation from a larger substituting ion. Annealing or transformation twins are the result of a change in optics system during cooling as one form becomes unstable and the optics structure must re-organize or transform into another more stable form.

Deformation or gliding twins are the result of stress on the optics after the optics has formed. If a FCC metal like aluminum experiences extreme stresses, it will experience twinning as seen in the case of explosions. Deformation twinning is a common result of regional metamorphism.

 

Optics that grow adjacent to each other may be aligned to resemble twinning. This parallel growth simply reduces system energy and is not twinning.