Twinning (crystallography)

Twinning (crystallography)

A process in which two or more crystals, or parts of crystals, assume orientations such that one may be brought to coincidence with the other by reflection across a plane or by rotation about an axis. Crystal twins represent a particularly symmetric kind of grain boundary; however, the energy of the twin boundary is much lower than that of the general grain boundary because some of the atoms in the twin interface are in the correct positions relative to each other.

Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner. The result is an intergrowth of two separate crystals in a variety of specific configurations. A twin boundary or composition surface separates the two crystals.

Simple twinned crystals may be contact twins or penetration twins. Contact twins share a single composition surface often appearing as mirror images across the boundary. Quartz, gypsum, and spinel often exhibit contact twinning. In penetration twins the individual crystals have the appearance of passing through each other in a symmetrical manner. Orthoclase, staurolite, pyrite and fluorite often show penetration twinning.

If several twin crystal parts are aligned by the same twin law they are referred to as multiple or repeated twins. If these multiple twins are aligned in parallel they are called polysynthetic twins. When the multiple twins are not parallel they are cyclic twins.

Albite, calcite, and pyrite often show polysynthetic twinning. Closely spaced polysynthetic twinning is often observed as striations or fine parallel lines on the crystal face. Rutile, aragonite and chrysoberyl often exhibit cyclic twinning, typically in a radiating pattern.

There are three modes of formation of twinned crystals. Growth twins are the result of an interruption or change in the lattice during formation or growth due to a possible deformation from a larger substituting ion. Annealing or Transformation twins are the result of a change in crystal system during cooling as one form becomes unstable and the crystal structure must re-organize or transform into another more stable form. Deformation or gliding twins are the result of stress on the crystal after the crystal has formed. Deformation twinning is a common result of regional metamorphism.

Of the three common crystal structures: BCC, FCC AND HCP, the HCP structure is the most likely to twin. Crystals that grow adjacent to each other may be aligned to resemble twinning. This parallel growth simply reduces system energy and is not twinning.

Twin boundaries occur when two crystals of the same type intergrow, so that only a slight misorientation exists between them. It is a highly symmetrical interface, often with one crystal the mirror image of the other; also, atoms are shared by the two crystals at regular intervals. This is also a much lower-energy interface than the grain boundaries that form when crystals of arbitrary orientation grow together.

Twin boundaries are partly responsible for shock hardening and for many of the changes that occur in cold work of metals with limited slip systems or at very low temperatures. They also occur due to martensitic transformations: the motion of twin boundaries is responsible for the pseudoelastic and shape-memory behavior of nitinol, and their presence is partly responsible for the hardness due to quenching of steel.…




the formation in a single crystal of regions of regularly changed orientation of the crystal structure. The structures of twin formations are either mirror images of the atomic structure of the parent crystal (matrix) in a certain plane (the twinning plane) or are formed by rotation of the matrix structure about the crystallographic axis (twinning axis) to an angle that is constant for a given material or by other symmetry transformations. The pair made up of the matrix and the twin formation is called the twin.

Twinning takes place during crystal growth because of violations in the packing of atoms during the growth of the atom layer on the nucleus or on the formed crystal (stacking faults) and the intergrowth of neighboring nuclei (growth twins; see Figure l). It also takes place because of deformation upon mechanical action on the crystal, such as the impact of an indentor, tension, compression, twisting, bending (mechanical twins); rapid thermal expansion and contraction; heating of deformed crystals (recrystallization twins); and transition from one crystal modification to another.

In metals, the shift of a part or of the entire crystal into the twin position is accomplished by the layered glide of the atomic planes. Each plane is successively displaced by a fraction of the interatomic distance, in which case all the atoms in the twinning region are displaced by a distance proportional to their distance from the twinning plane (plane of regular reflection). In other crystals this process is more complex—for example, for calcite, CaCO3, rotation of the CO3 groups also occurs. Mechanical twins are formed when deformation by glide in the direction of the applied force is inhibited.

Twinning may be accompanied by changes in the dimensions and shape of the crystal; this is characteristic, for

Figure 1. Growth twins

example, of CaCO3. Twinning of CaCO3 may also be achieved by the pressure of a blade (see Figure 2), in which case the region of the right-hand part of the crystal shifts to the twin position. Twinning accompanied by a change in shape is observed in all metals, semiconductors (such as germanium and silicon), and many other dielectrics. Another form of twinning, which is not accompanied by changes in shape, is observed in such substances as quartz and tri-glycine sulfate.

Figure 2. Twinning of calcite by the pressure of a blade (Baumhauer’s method)

If the structural homogeneity of a single crystal is disrupted by a great number of twin formations, the crystal is called a polysynthetic twin (Figure 3). In ferroelectrics, twinning

Figure 3. Polysynthetic twin of Rochelle salt (left); polysynthetic twin of triglycine sulfate, developed by etching and photographed in reflected light (right)

formations are also ferroelectric domains, which are, however, characterized by different optical properties (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Diagram of the position of the optical indicatrix: (a) in a rhombic crystal of Rochelle salt; (b) and (c) in the components of a twin that are stretched along the axes c and b) of a monoclinic crystal

Twinning strongly affects the mechanical properties of crystals, such as strength, plasticity, and brittleness, as well as their electrical, magnetic, and optical properties. It also reduces the quality of semiconductor devices.

The principles of mechanical crystal twinning are used in geology in the diagnosis of minerals and for determining the conditions of rock formation. The distribution of twinned crystal layers in rock-forming minerals makes it possible to characterize the influences to which the rock was subjected. Mechanical twinning is taken into account by geologists and petrographers during analysis of the flow of rock after deformation.

<a href=””>Twinning</a>

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.





TWINNING occurs when two separate optics share some of the same optics lattice points in a symmetrical manner. The result is an intergrowth of two separate optics in a variety of specific configurations. A twin boundary or composition surface separates the two optics.

Crystallographers classify twinned optics by a number of twin laws. These twin laws are specific to the optic system. The type of twinning can be a diagnostic tool in mineral identification.

Twinning can often be a problem in X-ray crystallography, as a twinned optic does not produce a simple diffraction pattern.


Simple twinned optics may be contact twins or penetration twins. Contact twins share a single composition surface often appearing as mirror images across the boundary. Plagioclase, quartz, gypsum, and spinel often exhibit contact twinning.

Merohedral twinning occurs when the lattices of the contact twins superimpose in three dimensions, such as by relative rotation of one twin from the other. An example is metazeunerite.

In penetration twins the individual optics have the appearance of passing through each other in a symmetrical manner. Orthoclase, staurolite, pyrite, and fluorite often show penetration twinning.



Galvanized surface with macroscopic crystalline features. Twin boundaries are visible as striations within each crystallite, most prominently in the bottom-left and top-right.

If several twin optic parts are aligned by the same twin law they are referred to as multiple or repeated twins. If these multiple twins are aligned in parallel they are called polysynthetic twins.

When the multiple twins are not parallel they are cyclic twins. Albite, calcite, and pyrite often show polysynthetic twinning. Closely spaced polysynthetic twinning is often observed as striations or fine parallel lines on the optic face. Rutile, aragonite, cerussite, and chrysoberyl often exhibit cyclic twinning, typically in a radiating pattern.




Twinned optics (e.g., see Figure ) may be described as follows:

Simple twins – composed of only two parts
Multiple twins – composed of more than two orientations
Contact twins – this occur if a definite composition plane is present

Penetration twins – occur if two or more parts of a optic appear to interpenetrate each other with the surface between the parts being indefinable and irregular

(Figure ).



The feldspar minerals plagioclase and microcline are the most common triclinic minerals that show twinning.

Two common twin laws are observed in these feldspars.



As described above, plagioclase (NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) very commonly shows albite polysynthetic twinning.  The twin law – {010} indicates that the twining occurs perpendicular to the b crystallographic axis. Albite twinning is so common in plagioclase, that it’s presence is a diagnostic property for identification of plagioclase.



o                        The pericline law has [010] as the twin axis.  As stated above, pericline twinning occurs as the result of monoclinic orthoclase or sanidine transforming to microcline (all have the same chemical formula – KAlSi3O8).

o                      Pericline twinning usually occurs in combination with  albite twinning in microcline, but is only observable with the polarizing microscope.  The combination of pericline and albite twinning produce a cross-hatched pattern, called tartan twinning, as discussed above,  that easily distinguishes microcline from the other feldspars under the microscope.



                         The most common twins in the monoclinic system occur on the planes {100} and {001}.  The feldspars – orthoclase and sanidine – are the most commonly twinned minerals in the monoclinic system.  Both contact twins and penetration twins occur, and both types result from accidents during growth.


 MANEBACH LAW – {001} –

             It forms a contact twin commonly observed in the mineral orthoclase. This twinning is very diagnostic of orthoclase when it occurs.


 CARLSBAD LAW – [001] –

o                     It forms a penetration twin in the mineral orthoclase. Optics twinned under the Carlsbad Law show two intergrown optics, one rotated 180o from the other about the [001] axis. Carlsbad twinning is the most common type of twinning in orthoclase, and is thus very diagnostic of orthoclase when it occurs.


 BRAVENO LAW – {021} –

It forms a contact twin in the mineral orthoclase.



They are commonly observed in the mineral gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O).



                     Orthorhombic optics commonly twin on planes parallel to a prism face.  The most common is a {110} twin that results in many orthorhombic minerals having cyclical twins.



The mineral aragonite (CaCO3) , chrysoberyl (BeAl2O4), and cerrusite (PbCO3) commonly develop twinning on {110}.  This results in a cyclical twin which gives these minerals a pseudo-hexagonal appearance.


               The mineral staurolite is really monoclinic, but it has a ß angle very close to 90o so it has the appearance of an orthorhombic mineral.  Two types of interpenetration twins occur in staurolite the {031} twins from a right-angled cross and the {231} twins form a cross at about 60o.



Twinning in the tetragonal system usually occurs on {011} forming cyclical contact twins.  The minerals rutile (TiO2) and cassiterite (SnO2)  commonly show this type of twinning.



The minerals calcite (CaCO3) and quartz (SiO2) are the most common hexagonal minerals and both show the types of twinning common in hexagonal minerals.



o                  The two most common twin laws that are observed in calcite optics are {0001} and the rhombohedron {012}.  Both are contact twins, but the {012} twins can also occur as polysynthetic twins that result from deformation.

Quartz shows three other hexagonal twins.

o    BRAZIL LAW – {110} –

o                 It is a penetration twin that results from transformation.

o    DAUPHINÉ LAW – [0001] –

o             It is also a penetration twin that results from transformation.

o    JAPANESE LAW – {112} –

o               It is a contact twin that results from accidents during growth.


Three types of twins are common in the isometric system.



o    SPINEL LAW – {1} –

It is a twin plane, parallel to an octahedron.  It occurs commonly in mineral spinel (MgAl2O4).


 [111] – The twin axis perpendicular to an octahedral face adds three fold rotational symmetry.
 IRON CROSS [001] –

The mineral pyrite (FeS2) often shows the iron cross made of the interpenetration of two pyritohedrons.  Since this occurs in the class 2/m, with no 4-fold rotation axes, the [001] twin axis gives the mineral apparent 4-fold symmetry about 3perpendicular axes.


Occurs when three or more individuals are repeated alternately on the same twinned plane. If the individuals of polysynthetic twins are thin plates, the twinning is called lamellar e.g. plagioclase feldspars.



There are three modes of formation of twinned optics. Growth twins are the result of an interruption or change in the lattice during formation or growth due to a possible deformation from a larger substituting ion. Annealing or transformation twins are the result of a change in optics system during cooling as one form becomes unstable and the optics structure must re-organize or transform into another more stable form.

Deformation or gliding twins are the result of stress on the optics after the optics has formed. If a FCC metal like aluminum experiences extreme stresses, it will experience twinning as seen in the case of explosions. Deformation twinning is a common result of regional metamorphism.


Optics that grow adjacent to each other may be aligned to resemble twinning. This parallel growth simply reduces system energy and is not twinning.






             The team of writers have stated a problem (POPULATION-BASED OSTEOPOROSIS EDUCATION FOR OLDER WOMEN) of the present world which is ignored probably all over the world especially in developing countries. They want to enhance the importance of OSTEOPOROSIS. In which bones to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses like bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.

Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn’t keep up with the removal of old bone.

It affects men and women of all races. But white and Asian women — especially older women who are past menopause — are at highest risk.


  • Osteoporosis is an age related metabolic disease that primarily affects women and causes bone demineralization that results in fractures. Early identification of risk factors for osteoporosis and development of prevention programs is needed to halt the increasing incidence of the disease.

Public health nurses (PHNs), with their emphasis on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention with individuals and families, are in a unique position to protect the health of these vulnerable populations who are at risk for osteoporosis.

  • This article describes the implementation and program evaluation of three osteoporosis prevention educational programs that use three levels of intensity of design. Each design is based upon the learning needs of the targeted audience. The goals of each program were to increase knowledge of osteoporosis, increase health beliefs, and increase the frequency of osteoporosis preventing behaviors.

Theoretical aspects from adult learning and the Health Belief Model (HBM) were used to develop the programs.

3-  The impact of osteoporosis education and bone mineral density testing for postmenopausal women in a managed care setting.

4-  The Relation of Exercise Habits to Health Beliefs and Knowledge about Osteoporosis.

5-  Adherence to Osteoporosis Medications After Patient and Physician Brief Education:

To examine whether adherence to osteoporosis medications can be improved by educational interventions targeted at primary care physicians (PCPs) and patients. Improving patient adherence with osteoporosis medications is an important challenge.

Higher levels of adherence may be associated with reduced fracture rates1; however, studies2,3 demonstrate suboptimal adherence among patients in the community.

Oft-cited barriers to achieving adequate adherence include insufficient patient education, specific patient health beliefs, complex medication regimens, polypharmacy, poor provider-patient relations, patient forgetfulness, and medication costs.46 Strategies targeting these barriers, as well as patient monitoring systems and feedback based on clinical markers, have been proposed to improve medication adherence for osteoporosis treatments.

Successful medication adherence interventions for other chronic diseases such as hypertension and asthma have been multifactorial and focused on the patient.5 A small randomized trial attempted to enhance adherence to raloxifene hydrochloride among 75 women with osteopenia; a nurse-run patient monitoring program with clinic appointments every 12 weeks improved adherence to raloxifene at 1 year.

10 Another population-based study11 of patients with osteoporosis who sustained distal forearm fractures showed that timely provision of educational brochures, primary care provider appointments, and bone mineral density testing appointments improved adherence over 6 months of follow-up. However, many of the most adherent patients had the best bone mineral density.

While medication adherence may be primarily a patient behavior, it is unclear whether physician-directed interventions can influence this behavior. To our knowledge, no prior intervention for osteoporosis medication adherence has focused on the physician. In this study, we performed a post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial for improving osteoporosis management to determine whether a brief physician-oriented intervention improved compliance or persistence with osteoporosis medications.

  • In my opinion, this study measures medication compliance as the primary end point and persistence as a secondary end point. Patients and caregivers may access this content for use in relation to their own personal healthcare or that of a old family members.

               Education regarding osteoporosis prevention seems to encourage women to make lifestyle changes. The inclusion of BMD testing enhances the likelihood that women will consider pharmaceutical therapy.



  1. Were the pre- to post-test knowledge changes significant:                                                                                                      (a) for the total group and                                                                 (b) for the three individual groups?


In community-based health strategies, community members have control; the nurse is partner and coach to the community (Wells, 2000). The knowledge, skill, and experience assets of individual members and their community are incorporated into the design, implementation, and evaluation of community programs (National Institute of Nursing Research, 2000; Brownson, Baker, & Novick, 1999). With this community-nurse partnership community-based health education is more likely to be culturally appropriate, promote social support, and create collective attitudes and actions that support individual health activities.


               It took me the longest time to learn this distinction.

           The key to designing any experiment is to look at what research variables could affect the outcome. There are total four groups in this thesis. Variables aren’t always ‘quantitative’ or numerical. It’s also important to realize that variables aren’t only things that we measure in the traditional sense.

       For instance, in much social research and in program evaluation, we consider the treatment or program to be made up of one or more variables (i.e., the ’cause’ can be considered a variable).

         So even the program can be considered a variable (which can be made up of a number of sub-variables).

An attribute (specific value) is taken as a variable.

               Another important distinction is taken as to do with the term ‘variable’ is the distinction between an independent and dependent variable. This distinction is particularly relevant during investigating cause-effect relationships in this thesis.

       In my opinion, Descriptive variables are used which are reported on, without relating them to anything in particular.

Identifying the key variables in this thesis which are not found here because they are very important for the following reasons:

  • The key variables provide focus when writing the Introduction section.
  • The key variables are the major terms to use when searching for research articles for the Literature Review.
  • The key variables are the terms to be operationally defined if an Operational Definition of Terms section is necessary.
  • The key variables provide focus to the Methods section.
  • The Instrument measures the key variables. These key variables must be directly measured or manipulated for the research study to be valid.


  • The purpose, research questions, and hypotheses is written about the variables based on the research design.
  • The Instruments is developed to measure the key variables       are written to describe the instruments.
  • The Procedures section describes the treatment for experimental studies and/or how the instrument will be administered.
  • The Method of Data Analysis describes how the data is summarized and tested based on the research questions and hypotheses.






Community-based health education synthesizes ideas from community health nursing, health education, and adult learning. Communities are aggregates of human beings bound together by one or more geographic or social characteristics, such as age, socioeconomic status, and health status. Community-based health care seeks to improve aggregate health, Community-based strategies and partnerships appear to be effective tools for improving health; however———————————————————————-


     (a) Literature review of this thesis is not fully equipped with attributes of Literature review criteria given by experts.

According to Caulley (1992) of La Trobe University, the literature review should:

  • compare and contrast different authors’ views on an issue
    • group authors who draw similar conclusions
    • criticise aspects of methodology
    • note areas in which authors are in disagreement
    • highlight exemplary studies
    • highlight gaps in research
    • show how your study relates to previous studies
    • show how your study relates to the literature in general
    • conclude by summarising what the literature says


             After completing the study of thesis we feel that on many places the literature review is not qualifying the purposes described by experts like

  • it does not define and limit the problem you are working on
    • it does not place your study in an historical perspective
    • it does not avoid unnecessary duplication
    • it does not evaluate promising research methods
    • it does not relate your findings to previous knowledge and suggest further research


The overall structure of review depends largely on their own thesis or research area.

courtesy of the University of Melbourne states the checklist for literature review:

Selection of Sources

Have you indicated the purpose of the review?
Are the parameters of the review reasonable?
Why did you include some of the literature and exclude others?
Which years did you exclude?
Have you emphasised recent developments?
Have you focussed on primary sources with only selective use of secondary sources?
Is the literature you have selected relevant?
Is your bibliographic data complete?

Critical Evaluation of the Literature

Have you organised your material according to issues?
Is there a logic to the way you organised the material?
Does the amount of detail included on an issue relate to its importance?
Have you been sufficiently critical of design and methodological issues?
Have you indicated when results were conflicting or inconclusive and discussed possible reasons?
Have you indicated the relevance of each reference to your research?

             On the other hand it is lengthy and detailed description and informative literature review.

In community-based health strategies, community members have controlled. The nurse is partner and coach to the community (Wells, 2000). The knowledge, skill, and experience assets of individual members and their community are incorporated into the design, implementation, and evaluation of community programs (National Institute of Nursing Research, 2000; Brownson, Baker, & Novick, 1999).—————————–





Experts argue that a “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:

  • information about the author
  • the title of the work
  • the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source
  • the date your copy was published
  • the page numbers of the material you are borrowing

Citation has several important purposes:

-to uphold intellectual honesty (or avoiding plagiarism),

– to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources,

-to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author’s argument in the claimed way, and

– to help the reader gauge the strength and validity of the material the author has used.

The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally accepted citations systems, such as the Oxford, Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), and other citations systems, as their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its respective advantages and disadvantages relative to the trade-offs of being informative (but not too disruptive) and thus are chosen relative to the needs of the type of publication being crafted. Editors often specify the citation system to use.

Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include:

  • Book: author(s), book title, publisher, date of publication, and page number(s) if appropriate.
  • Journal: author(s), article title, journal title, date of publication, and page number(s).
  • Newspaper: author(s), article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number(s) if desired, date of publication.
  • Web site: author(s), article and publication title where appropriate, as well as a URL, and a date when the site was accessed.
  • Play: inline citations offer part, scene, and line numbers, the latter separated by periods: 4.452 refers to scene 4, line 452. For example, “In Eugene Onegin, Onegin rejects Tanya when she is free to be his, and only decides he wants her when she is already married” (Pushkin 4.452-53).
  • Poem: spaced slashes are normally used to indicate separate lines of a poem, and parenthetical citations usually include the line number(s). For example: “For I must love because I live / And life in me is what you give.” (Brennan, lines 15–16).
  • Interview: name of interviewer, interview descriptor (ex. personal interview) and date of interview.



This article has sufficient references which accommodate readers to read about the topic with all aspects in detail freely.




















RELEVANCE (Clustering)

                 Relevance denotes how well a retrieved document or set of documents meets the information need of the user. Relevance may include concerns such as timeliness, authority or novelty of the result. It is also called bibliometrics.

A second interpretation, most notably advanced by Ellen Voorhees, focuses on the local relationships between documents. The local interpretation avoids having to model the number or size of clusters in the collection and allow relevance at multiple scales. Methods in this spirit include,

  • multiple cluster retrieval
  • spreading activation and relevance propagation methods
  • local document expansion
  • score regularization

In my opinion, because the local methods require an accurate and appropriate document similarity measure. So as parameters states the thesis does not support appropriate document similarity measure.

         One more thing that could be used for retrieval of relevant papers is comparison of references in different papers and decision how similar they are based on that overlap (falling into comparative genomics, I guess).

Alex Voznyy argues “The problem of finding the new knowledge is enhanced by the fact that all potential knowledge is not directly available to you, i.e. you cannot analyze what is relevant to you without knowing that it exists. Publishers could do such analysis, and maybe they do (though, not sure they use the above mentioned references overlap).”


Problem is that the writer still basing relevance and quality on popularity. However a paper that is completely wrong may appear “popular” among respected researchers in the field – because people read things that they agree with, and also that they disagree with. There may be a need for some sort of rating system to go alongside it in order to separate the reason for reading from the fact that someone is reading an article.













Way of writing is easy and simple according to the topic. On the other hand, so many words are used only to stuff the thesis.

This process-rather-than-substance view of writing invites a final, dual reflection:

  1. Writers may not be special or talented in any usual sense. They are simply engaged in sustained use of a language skill we all have. Their “creations” come about through confident reliance on stray impulses that will, with trust, find occasional patterns that are satisfying.
  2. But writing itself is one of the great, free human activities. There is scope for individuality, and elation, and discovery, in writing.
  3. For the person who follows with trust and forgiveness what occurs to him, the world remains always ready and deep, an inexhaustible environment, with the combined vividness of an actuality and flexibility of a dream. Working back and forth between experience and thought, writers have more than space and time can offer.
  4. They have the whole unexplored realm of human vision.







To generate awareness of health issues among community.

———————————-Individuals can become more aware of health issues, change personal expectations for health. and build skills needed for high-level wellness (Pender, l997).                                                                                                                                      Knowles’s (1970) theory of adult learning theory shares several principles with community health nursing. These Include;                                                                                                  -Respecting persons and recognizing their individual and collective wealth of experiences, talents, and personal resources.                                                                                                  – Supporting learner self-direction, with an emphasis on self-help and solving current problems.                                                                                                                          – Actively engaging the learner as partner in planning, implementing, and evaluation.                                                                                                                                         – Providing opportunities to free self from preconceptions.                                                     – Viewing the teacher/nurse as a facilitator, consultant, and partner to the learner.                                                                                                                                              – Advocating for a community in which teacher and learner are in dialogue and in a mutual process,                                                                                                         Because education of communities and adults focuses on partnerships between learners and teacher, information-giving strategies, such as lecture, should be used in combination with participative and collaborative meth- ods such as task groups, games, and discussion groups.


ASSIGNMENT: critical discourse analysis

                               ASSIGNMENT       DATED:21/07/1436 H



                     CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS (CDA) is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice.

Scholars working in the tradition of CDA generally assume that (non-linguistic) social practice and linguistic practice constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use.



The term “level of analysis” is used in the social science to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. “Level of analysis” is distinct from the term “unit of observation” in that the former refers to a more or less integrated set of relationships while the latter refers to the distinct unit from which data have been or will be gathered.

Although levels of analysis are not necessarily mutually exclusive the three general levels into which research may fall are the micro level (short for “microscopic” or “microscopic level”), the meso level (short for “mesoscopic level”) or middle range, and the macro level (short for “macroscopic” or “macrosociology level”).



The smallest unit of analysis in the social sciences is an individual in their social setting. At the micro-level, also referred to as the local level, the research population typically is an individual in their social setting or a small group of individuals in a particular social context.

Examples of micro-level levels of analysis include, but are not limited to, the following.


In general, a meso-level analysis indicates a population size that falls between the micro- and macro-levels, such as a community or an organization. However, meso-level may also refer to analyses that are specifically designed to reveal connections between micro- and macro-levels. Sometimes referred to as mid-range, especially in sociology.

Examples of meso-level units of analysis include, but are not limited to, the following.


Macro-level analyses generally trace the outcomes of interactions, such as economic or other resource transfer interactions over a large population. Also referred to as the global level. Examples of macro-level units of analysis include, but are not limited to, the following.

Iran has expressed hope that national dialog among Yemeni parities.

Saudi Arabia has “ended Operation Decisive Storm based on a request by the Yemeni government” and former president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi.

“The coalition will continue to prevent the movement of Al hoti militias from

moving or undertaking any operations inside Yemen.

“Before this, we said the crisis in Yemen had no military solution, and   a halt

to killing innocent and defenseless people is absolutely a step forward,”

The new push will usher in diplomatic and political efforts along with military


They are not talking about a ceasefire. Operation Restoring Hope has a

military component.

“Operation Restoring Hope” will include aerial and naval supervision,

According to Asiri.

The rebels targeted in Ibb were assembling to head to Aden as reinforcements in the battle against forces loyal to President Abd Rabbo Mansour Hadi, who fled the country from Aden to Saudi Arabia last month.

In Sana’a, the death toll from air strikes on Monday targeting rebel

depots and weapon caches in the Fag Atan mountains overlooking the city rose to 38, medical officials said. The strikes flattened houses and sent villagers fleeing for their lives.

Saudi Arabia accuses Iran of arming the Houthis – a claim both

Tehran and the rebels deny, though the Islamic Republic has provided political and humanitarian support to the Shiite group. For its part, Shiite Iran has long accused Saudi Arabia of supporting

Sunni militants, including the Islamic State group in Syria and Iraq.

“All the failures have accumulated and caused mental and emotional

imbalance for that country according to Rouhani,

There were no further details on the scope of the deployment but it appeared to be another step toward a possible ground invasion.


The purpose of this analysing the two newspapers articles is as;

  • to explore how are modifiers,
  • intertexuality
  • naming used to convey the political ideologies latent


  1. METHODOLOGY                                                               



Following methods (linguistics devices) that i am going to use in my critical discourse analysis of the two articles

  • active/passive voice,
  • transitivity,
  • theme and rhyme,
  • naming,
  • modifier,
  • direct/ indirect.
    • Linguistic devices that attract attention to words, sounds, or other embellishments instead of to ideas are inappropriate in scientific writing.
    • Avoid heavy alliteration, rhyming, poetic expression, and clichés.
    • Use metaphors sparingly; although they can help simplify complicated ideas, metaphors can be distracting.
    • Avoid mixed metaphors (e.g., a theory representing one bunch of a growing body of evidence) and words with surplus or unintended meaning (e.g., cop for police officer), which may distract if not actually mislead the reader.
    • Use figurative expressions with restraint and colorful expressions with care; these expressions can sound strained or forced.

Sociological Inquiry: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods,


  1. A microlevel approach to research, and provide an example of a microlevel study.
  2. A mesolevel approach to research, and provide an example of a mesolevel study.
  3. A macrolevel approach to research, and provide an example of a macrolevel study.

Before we discuss the more specific details of paradigms and theories, let’s look broadly at three possible levels of inquiry on which social scientific investigations might be based.

These three levels demonstrate that while sociologists share some common beliefs about the value of investigating and understanding human interaction, at what level they investigate that interaction will vary.

At the micro level, sociologists study small-group interactions.

At the micro level, sociologists examine the smallest levels of interaction; even in some cases, just “the self” alone.

Microlevel analyses might include one-on-one interactions between couples or friends. Or perhaps a sociologist is interested in how a person’s perception of self is influenced by his or her social context. In each of these cases, the level of inquiry is micro. When sociologists investigate groups, their inquiry is at the meso level.






  1. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION                                


                         ANALYSIS OF DATA is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.


Sociologists who conduct meso level research might study how norms of workplace behavior vary across professions or how children’s sporting clubs are organized, to cite two examples.


At the macro level, sociologists examine social structures and institutions. Research at the macro level examines large-scale patterns. In recent years, sociologists have become increasingly interested in the process and impacts of globalization. A study of globalization that examines the interrelationships between nations would be an example of a macro level study.


  1. CONCLUSION                                                                          




By declaring the end of its Decisive Storm operation, the kingdom is opening the door to humanitarian assistance – Saudi has pledged more than $270m to this end – but still reserving the option of additional coalition military intervention.

Most importantly, the decision to end military operations followed the successful elimination of the grave threat resulting from Houthi control of the Yemeni air force and ballistic missile capabilities. The kingdom has also disrupted any possible military support of the Houthis from Iran through tight control of Yemeni air and sea space.

Iran has been embarrassed politically by its inability to offer military support to the Houthis, their key ally in Yemen. Consequently, a political solution seems to be the only possible solution for the survival of their Yemeni allies, which means giving diplomacy a chance and bowing to Saudi political winds for the time being. After all, Iran and the Houthis were never prepared for the air strikes, which were supported internationally.

There is no guarantee that the Houthis and Saleh will honour any future political agreements, based on their history of broken political promises and commitments during the crisis that has gripped Yemen since 2011. Accordingly, it is possible that despite the initiation of political negotiations between all Yemeni political actors, the coming weeks could bring intense ground battles between the Saleh-Houthi alliance and Hadi’s supporters, making Saudi support for the Hadi government critical at this juncture.

It is unclear whether a quick political solution and an end to hostilities would result in a new political initiative to bring Yemen closer to its Arab neighbours and lay the groundwork for its integration into the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Potential accession to the GCC could be strategically useful to motivate significant institutional reforms in Yemen, to encourage the southerners to continue their political union with the north, and most importantly to limit Iranian influence in Yemen.





Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society.

It is the study of language in relation to social factors, including differences of regional, class, and occupational dialect, gender differences, and bilingualism.
Sociolinguistics can help us understand why we speak differently in various social contexts, and help uncover the social relationships in a community.
For example, you probably wouldn’t speak the same to your boss at work as you would your friends, or speak to strangers as you would to your family.
Sociolinguistics may also wonder whether women and men speak the same as each other.
Or why do people the same age or from the same social class or same ethnicity use similar language?
Sociolinguistics attempts to explain all these questions and more.
Ultimately, sociolinguistics is everywhere.

               To explain all these questions there are many different micro and macro approaches of sociolinguistics such as:

Sociolinguistics is a move towards studying language performance, and there are two arguments on why this should be studied within language:

  • Language is an interactive and cultural phenomenon which should be studied.
  • Actual language use is highly structured and not at a random.

These arguments split into two strands of sociolinguistics:

  • There are two approaches to the study of sociolinguistics ‘micro’ and ‘macro’.
  • Sociolinguistics focuses on ‘linguistic performance’.
  • It is studied in relation to the actual language that is produced and the way it is used in its wider social context.
  • As a fairly new discipline areas of inquiry in the past primarily studied language in relation to ‘linguistic competence’.


The social and linguistic influence on specific linguistic features. They look at individual differences and the way they are used e.g. the variation between ‘singing’ and ‘singin”.  Studies about language and communication more generally. Look at language data on a wider scale which leads to generalisations and conclusions to be identified e.g. the choices made about conversational structure.



Competence: Study of language in relation to:

  • Linguistics Competence
  • I – Language

Noam Chomsky argued that the focus of linguistics should address the innate capacity humans have of language. He proposed his theory of ‘Universal Grammar’ which he defined as “The systems of principles, conditions and rules that are elements of properties of all languages… The essence of human language” (Chomsky: 1976)


Performance: Study of language in relation to:

  • Linguistics Performance     
  • E – Language  

The way language is used in social and cultural contexts is structured in a way to fulfill particular social goals.

The focus for a linguistic study must have a purpose and that purpose must be to answer a particular linguistic or social question. The way in which it is studied is through sociolinguistic theory and linguistic data, however any conclusions that are drawn from this must be based on empirically tested evidence to be of any sociolinguistic significance.
So, how do sociolinguists collect speech data for scientific and empirical analysis?

               Field work conducted within a community to study the linguistic behaviors between different cultures and social groups through observation and interpretation by which a recoding device is used to document the findings. This type of observation strives to collect natural speech data and uncover what social factors may influence it e.g. age, gender, social class, ethnicity etc.

Language can be extremely dependent on social context for example we manipulate our speech depending on the receiver, so in other words we wouldn’t speak to our manager or work colleague in the same way we might talk to a friend or family member.

However one problem in trying to elicit natural speech data when they know they are being observed is labelled ‘observers paradox’ which refers to the presence of the observer affecting the language produced, the speaker may become self-conscious which raises the question, how natural is the speech data? One way to overcome this problem is by conducting research using the sociolinguistic interview developed by William Labov.




The Sociolinguistic Interview (Variationist):

This sort of methodology is used to collect different styles of speech in the format of an interview. Examples of speech data are elicited by either reading a passage, reading a word list, reading minimal pairs or through an emotionally driven interview.

Participants are generally less self-conscious and pay less attention to their speech when they become involved in an emotionally engaging narrative. They become so immersed in the content of what they are saying they almost forget that they are being observed therefore producing more natural spontaneous speech for example “Have you ever been emotionally, verbally or physically attacked?”


Statistics enables the researcher to quantify masses amounts of data and find out what they mean by using numbers.

An understanding of statistical depends on four notions:

1.    Population: This is also referred to as a sample which consists of people that are important to a researcher based on some quality, which is usually a demographic quality such as gender, age, ethnicity etc.

2.    Characteristic: Some sort of characteristic of the population e.g. linguistic diversity. Another name for a characteristic is a variable and there are two different sorts – ‘independent variables’ and ‘dependent variables’.

3.    Quantification: This is a way of measuring the data. For example ‘matched guise questionnaires’ and ‘verbal guise tests’ are helpful in finding out about attitudes towards language accent and dialect. Using questionnaires to find out demographic information can reveal patterns between a demographic value e.g. social class, gender, age etc and the variable under study.

4.    Distribution:  A way of calculating an average of the measurements (scores). Descriptive statistics is useful in finding out the distributions within a set of data as it calculates the mean (adding the scores for every person within the sample then dividing it by the total number of the sample size) and the standard deviation (how the scores are positioned in relation to the mean e.g. a small standard deviation means they are close to the mean and a large standard deviation means that they are more widespread i.e. a few further away from the mean).


  • “There are several possible relationships between language and society. One is that social structure may either influence or determine linguistic structure and/or behavior. . . .

    “A second possible relationship is directly opposed to the first: linguistic structure and/or behavior may either influence or determine social structure. . . . A third possible relationship is that the influence is bi-directional: language and society may influence each other. . . .

    “Whatever sociolinguistics is, . . . any conclusions we come to must be solidly based on evidence.”
    (Ronald Wardhaugh, An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 6th ed. Wiley, 2010)

metaphor noun definition in Linguistic devices topic from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary


noun: Linguistic devices topic

a word or phrase used to describe somebody/something else, in a way that is different from its normal use, in order to show that the two things have the same qualities and to make the description more powerful, for example She has a heart of stone; the use of such words and phrases a game of football used as a metaphor for the competitive struggle of life the writer’s striking use of metaphor

metaphor noun – See dictionary definition

Explore synonyms and entries related to Linguistic devices




Ethnography of communication is related to language. It was introduced by Dell Hymes (ethnography of speaking). It studied base on speech community.

Speech community is a group of people that tied with at least one language / variety language and they also have norms.

Speech community consists of:

1.    Ways of speaking; it is tied by norm. It is the most general or primitive term.


2.    Speech situation; it is not related with speech but it’s a kind of umbrella. Many situations associated with or marked by the absence of speech. Example: Javanese wedding party: ceremonies, meal, etc.


3.    Speech event; it is activities or aspect of activities that are directly governed by rules or norms for the use of speech. Example: In Javanese wedding party. There is speech event hat related to language, such as atur pambagyo and ular-ular.


Speech act; it is not related to sentence and grammatical level but it implicates both linguistics and social norms.

         Example: ular-ular in Javanese wedding party is giving advice to the couple, joke and even singing traditional songs. They are having close relationship.

———————————————–THE END——————————————-