NOTES: NEW OXFORD PRIMARY SCIENCE LEVEL 4 Third EDITION NICHOLAS HOSBURGH

NOTES: NEW OXFORD PRIMARY SCIENCE LEVEL 4 Third  EDITION NICHOLAS HOSBURGH

Contents

PART 1 OURSELVES  

Unit 1 The Human Body Page 2

Unit 2 Food and a Balance Diet Page 11

Unit 3 Digestion Page 20

PART 2 LIVING THINGS

Unit 4 Characteristics of Living Things Page 31

Unit 5 Environments and Food Chains Page 42

PART 3 MATERIALS AND MATTER

Unit 6 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Page 60

Unit 7 The Study of Matter Page 67

PART 4 FORCES, ENERGY, AND MACHINES

Unit 8 Heat Page 76

Unit 9 Force and Machines Page 84

Unit 10 Circuit and Switches Page 92

Unit 11 Magnetism Page 98

Unit 12 Sound Page 104

PART 5 THE EARTH AND SPACE

Unit 13 The Movement of the Earth Page 115

PART 1 OURSELVES

UNIT 1 THE HUMAN BODY PAGE 2

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which kind of tissue gives shape to the organs and holds them in place?

a. connective ii. Cardiac muscles make up which organ?

b. heart iii. What are the muscles that perform their jobs without you even thinking about them called?

c. involuntary muscles iv. What makes our bones strong?

d. all of them v. The smallest bone of the body is in the d. ear.

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

 i. Bone is an example of a connective tissue.

ii. Cardiac muscles contract and relax when pumping blood around the body.

iii. A place in a vertebrate’s body where two or mare bones meet is a joint.

iv. The tissue that joins two bones together is known as ligament.

v. The joint which moves a part of our body only in one direction is known as a hinge joint.

vi. The joint that can move a part of our body in a circular direction is known as a ball and socket joint.

vii. The stomach is an example of smooth (or involuntary) muscles.

viii. The muscular system works with the skeletal system to help us move. ix. Smooth muscles make up the internal hollow organs in the body.

3. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B AND WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN THE SPACES GIVEN BELOW.

Column A Column B
   

ANSWERS:

i. a tissue that holds two or mare bones together at a movable joint b. ligament

 ii. the framework of bones in a body d. skeleton

iii. a group of tissues performing a specific function a. organ

iv. a thick sheet of tissues that attaches a muscle to a bone e. tendon

v. the building unit of all living things c. cell

4. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. What are the main functions of the skeleton?
ANSWER: i. What are the main functions of the skeleton? The skeleton is a framework of bones that helps to give strength and support to the body. It allows us to stand and move and provides a frame for the shape of the body. It protects internal organs.
QUESTION: ii. Joints. a. What is a joint? Which two types of joint have been discussed in this unit? Where is each of them found in the body? b. Write any one activity you can perform with the help of these joints.
ANSWER: ii. Joints. a. What is a joint? Which two types of joints have been discussed in this unit? Where is each of them found in the body? A joint is a place in a body where two or mare bones meet. The two kinds of joint discussed in the unit are the ball and socket joint and the hinge joint. The hinge joint is found at the knee, elbow, fingers etc. The shoulder and the hip are examples of the ball and socket joint. b. Write any one activity you can perform with the help of these joints. Students can name a range of activities.
QUESTION: iii. Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary muscles and give an example of each.
ANSWER: iii. Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary muscles and give an example of each one. Involuntary muscles operate automatically whereas we consciously use our voluntary muscles. If we wanted to pick something up and eat it, we would use voluntary muscles in our hand, arm and mouth to do so. The involuntary muscles of the digestive tract and the stomach would digest it automatically. Students can give other plausible examples.
QUESTION: iv. How many types of muscle are there? Describe each of them with an example.
ANSWER: iv. How many types of muscle are there? Describe each of them with an example. There are three different types of muscle: smooth, cardiac and skeletal. Students should use their own words to describe them based on the explanations given on pages 6 and 7. They may choose any of the examples given there too.
QUESTION: v. Suggest any two wags to take good care of muscles and bones.
ANSWER: v. Suggest any two ways to take good care of muscles and bones. Students can suggest exercise, eating the right kinds of foods (calcium rich for bones), or proper rest as ways to take good care of muscles and bones.

UNIT 2 FOOD AND A BALANCE DIET PAGE 11

 EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Dietary fibre can be found in b. wheat.

ii. Which of these foods is a good source of carbohydrate? a. bread

iii. This vitamin is made by the skin in sunlight: d. vitamin D

iv. Which food is a good source of protein and calcium? a. cheese

v. Which of these we should eat very little of? c. sweets

2. FIND THE ODD ONE OUT IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING.

i. milk, curds, cheese, jam, butter Jam is not a dairy product

ii. cucumber, peas, carrot, lettuce, spinach Carrot is a root vegetable (it is also orange and the others are green!)

iii. sugarcane, banana, apple, grape, guava Sugarcane is a stem rather than a fruit

iv. pistachio, cashew nut, walnut, onion, almond Onion is not a nut or seed, it is a bulb used as a vegetable

v. protein, mineral, wood, fat, vitamin Wood is not a food group

3. PUT TWO WORDS FROM THE LIST INTO EACH COLUMN OF THE TABLE BELOW.

Proteins –   Carbohydrates – Fats –                 Vitamins

eggs nuts- carrot cereals- butter chocolate -sunshine lemon

5- ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Why do we need food?
ANSWER: i. Why do we need food? Food gives us energy to live.
QUESTION: ii. What do proteins do for the body?
ANSWER: ii. What do proteins do for the body? Proteins give us energy and are body-building foods that make us grow. They help our body to build up and repair tissues and muscles. They enable your body to replace dead cells.
QUESTION: iii. Why does the body need carbohydrates?
ANSWER: iii. Why does the body need carbohydrates? The body needs carbohydrates because they give us energy.
QUESTION: iv. How do dietary  fibres help in digestion?
ANSWER: iv. How do dietary fibres help digestion? Dietary fibre helps to move waste through the digestive system.
QUESTION: v. In what wag are vitamins good for the body?
ANSWER: v. In what way are vitamins good for the body? Vitamins keep bones and skin healthy. They help eyesight, give energy, and prevent infections. They also help wounds to heal.
QUESTION: vi. What do we mean by d balanced diet?
ANSWER: vi. What do we mean by a balanced diet? A balanced diet means eating the right variety of foods in the right amounts.
QUESTION: vii. How much water is needed by the body every dog? Does this mean we hove to drink that amount?
ANSWER: vii. How much water is needed by the body every day? Does this mean we have to drink that amount? The body needs water in order to function properly. We should drink at least six to eight glasses of water daily. We also get water from our food.

UNIT 3 DIGESTION PAGE 20

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which teeth are used for biting into food? d. incisors

ii. The undigested food passes out through the c. anus.

iii. What is stored in the gall bladder? a. bile

iv. Where do the nutrients go after they pass through the intestinal walls? b. into blood vessels v. Which of the following are facts about the liver? d. All of the above.

2. MATCH THE FOLLOWING.

ANSWERS:

i. saliva b. a fluid that helps with digestion

ii. liver d. produces bile

iii. intestine e. a long tube in the digestive system

iv. gall bladder c. it stores bile

v. stomach f. stores food for several hours

vi. pancreas a. produces digestive juices that break down fats

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Saliva in the mouth helps to soften food.

ii. The stomach produces acid which kills the bacteria in food.

iii. The large intestine absorbs water from the waste and sends the solid part of it out of the anus body as faeces.

iv. The liver produces a digestive juice called bile.

v. The tongue helps to mix the food with saliva.

vi. Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.

vii. Saliva softens the food and starts the digestion of starches.

4. MARK THESE SENTENCES WITH  aOR  X .

i. The teeth which cut food are incisors. a

ii. There are salivary glands in the teeth. X

iii. Food enters the stomach through the small intestine. X

iv. The liver is bigger than the pancreas. a

v. It is better for the digestion if one stands while eating. X

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: I Name four types of teeth.
ANSWER: i. Name four types of teeth. Incisors, canines, molars, and premolars.
QUESTION: ii. What are the intestines and what are their functions?
ANSWER: ii. What are the intestines and what are their functions? The intestines are tubes that carry food from the stomach to the anus. In the small intestine more digestive juices make the food softer. The walls of the small intestine are very thin. Digested food, in the form of nutrients, passes through the walls into the blood vessels. Some of the things you eat cannot be digested. They pass into the large intestine. Here, water is absorbed from the undigested food and fibre and the solid part of it is sent out of the body as faeces through the anus.
QUESTION: iii What is saliva? How does it help digestion?
ANSWER: iii. What is saliva? How does it help digestion? Salivary glands in the mouth produce saliva. Saliva is a liquid that softens the food and starts the digestion of starches.
QUESTION: iv. What does the liver do?
ANSWER: iv. What does the liver do? The liver has many functions. It helps to filter the blood and it stores food energy (in the form of glucose). It is the largest glandular organ in the body. It produces a digestive juice called bile.
QUESTION: v. How do the nutrients from food get to the different parts of the body?
ANSWER: v. How do the nutrients from food get to the different parts of the body? The walls of the small intestine are very thin. Digested food, in the form of nutrients passes through the walls into the blood vessels. The blood vessels transport the brokendown substances to the body cells where they are used to provide energy and build new tissue.
QUESTION: iv. What is bile? Where in the body is it produced and stared?
ANSWER: iv. What is bile? Where in the body is it produced and stored? Bile is a digestive juice. The bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder and when needed, released into part of the small intestine.
QUESTION: vii. Which foods are easier to digest? Make a list of the foods you think are easy to digest and those which are not.
ANSWER: vii. Make a list of the foods you think are easy to digest and those which are not.

PART 2 LIVING THINGS

UNIT 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS PAGE 18

EXERCISES:

1. Choose the correct answer.

i. Another word for movement is c. locomotion

ii. We need to look after plants and animals because c. we depend on each other for life.

iii. What hatches from the egg of a grasshopper? b. a nymph

 iv. The egg of a butterfly hatches into a b. larva.

v. What grows from a seed when it germinates? a. roots

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Humans and animals take in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.

ii. Plants make their own food by a process called photosynthesis.

iii. All living things do the following:

a. eat b. respire c. excrete d. have sensitivity e. move f. grow g. reproduce

iv. Plants and animals depend on each other.

v. Plants produce oxygen which is the air we breathe in.

3. MARK THESE SENTENCES WITH  aOR X .

 I. Plants never move. X

ii. Only plant cells have chloroplasts. a

iii. All living things grow. a

iv. All life cycles have three stages. X

v. Frogs eggs are called fry. X

vi. Humans inherit all their characteristics from only one parent. X

4. FIND ONE WORD FOR EACH SENTENCE.

 i. The gas that we need to breathe. oxygen

ii. Another word for movement. locomotion

iii. The word for the process of getting rid of waste products. excretion

iv. The word for frog eggs. spawn

v. A young fish. fry

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Give two examples of how plants and animals relg on each other.
ANSWER: i. Give two examples of how plants and animals rely on each other. Students can come up with specific examples. Some suggestions: plants provide humans and other animals with food. Plants produce oxygen that we breathe. Humans and animals breathe out carbon dioxide that is used by plants to make food. Animals provide plants with manure and, when they die, compost.
QUESTION: ii. What is the function of a vacuole?
ANSWER: ii. What is the function of a vacuole? The function of a vacuole is to store food, water and waste substances.
QUESTION: iii. Do plants respire?
ANSWER: iii. Do plants respire? Yes, plants respire. They take in oxygen and use it to break down their food.
QUESTION: iv. What things do plants need to make their own food? What do they use the food for?
ANSWER: iv. What things do plants need to make their own food? What do they use the food for? Plants possess chlorophyll and make their food themselves through a process called photosynthesis, using sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. Plants need foodin order to perform their life processes. Food gives them energy to move, grow, etc.
QUESTION: v. Where do animals get their energy from?
ANSWER: v. Where do animals get their energy from? Animals get their energy by eating different plants and other animals.
QUESTION: vi. How long does it take a newborn calf to get up and walk?
ANSWER: vi. How long does it take a new-born calf to get up and walk? Usually, a calf will be up and walking thirty minutes after it has been born.
QUESTION: vii. What are the stages in the life cycle of a cockroach?
ANSWER: vii. What are the stages in the life cycle of a cockroach? A cockroach has a three-stage life cycle. A nymph hatches from the egg. It looks and behaves just like an adult cockroach.
QUESTION: viii. Explain how you know that humans are a different species to other animals.
ANSWER: viii. Explain how you know that humans are a different species to other animals. Students should attempt to explain this in their own words, describing the similarities that all humans share (number of limbs, organs, etc.) and their differences to other animals.

UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTS AND FOOD CHAINS PAGE 26

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. The green substance in leaves that is needed for photosynthesis is called b. chlorophyll.

ii. Pick the correct definition of aerial animals. d. Aerial animals have wings and spend a lot of time in the air.

iii. An animal which eats meat and plants is called c. omnivore.

iv. Why are aquatic plants important for animal life? d. All of the above.

v. Which of these is an omnivore? c. human.

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Decomposers feed on the dead bodies of animals and plants.

ii. Only producers can make their own food.

iii. Consumers are those living things that cannot produce their own food.

iv. Cows and goats are examples of herbivorous animals. They do not eat animals.

v. Omnivorous animals eat plants and animals.

vi. An animal which maintains its body temperature by absorbing heat from the surrounding environment is cold-blooded.

vii. An animal that maintains its body temperature internally, and does change it with the surrounding temperature, is warm-blooded.

viii. A process through which plants make their food is called photosynthesis.

QUESTION: 3 READ THE TEED CHAIN BELOW.

cabbage -—-> caterpillar -—-> sparrow -—> eagle

Which of the above is a producer and which are consumers?

ANSWER: The cabbage is a producer. All the rest are consumers.

4. HERBIVARE, CARNIVARE, OR OMNIVARE

i. Put these animals in the correct columns of the table.

tiger jackal horse elephant rabbit

bear crow deer sheep human

cat cockroach dog cow vulture

HERBIVARE CARNIVARE CARNIVARE
horse elephant rabbit deer cow sheep Tiger cat dog bear human jackal crow cockroach vulture

ii. Add other names to each list.

ANSWERS:

iii. Discuss the animals you and others have added into your lists.

ANSWERS:

QUESTION:5 FIND TWO EXAMPLES OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING.

i. desert plants    
ii. terrestrial plants    
iii. floating plants    
iv. insect-eating plants    
v. underwater plants    

ANSWERS:

i. Desert plants a. cactus b. palm

ii. Terrestrial plants a. mango tree b. daisy

iii. Floating plants a. water lily b. lotus

iv. Insect-eating plants a. Venus fly trap b. pitcher plant

v. Underwater plants a. duck weed b. algae

7. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. How many types or species of plants have scientists found?
ANSWER: i. How many types or species of plants have scientists found? Scientists have found billions of species of plants.
QUESTION: ii. What is meant by classification? Why do scientists classify things?
ANSWER: ii. What is meant by classification? Why do scientists classify things? Classification means sorting things into different groups according to specific criteria. Scientists classify things because it makes them easier to study.
QUESTION: iii. Define the following terms with examples of each: a. cold-blooded animal b. warm-blooded animal
ANSWER: iii. Define the following terms with examples of each: a. cold-blooded animal Cold-blooded animals take on the temperature of their surroundings. Their body temperature changes with the outside temperature. They are hot when their environment is hot, and cold when their environment is cold. Snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and frogs are cold-blooded animals. b. warm-blooded animal Warm-blooded animals maintain a constant body temperature. This means that they do not depend upon the temperature of their environment. Humans, mammals, and birds are warm-blooded animals.
QUESTION: iv. What do herbivores eat? Where do they find their food?
ANSWER: iv. What do herbivores eat? Where do they find their food? Herbivores eat plants. These animals eat grass or plants that are around them.
QUESTION: v. Where do terrestrial animals live? Where do they make their homes?
ANSWER: v. Where do terrestrial animals live? Where do they make their homes? Terrestrial animals live on the ground. They make their homes on land or in caves or burrows.
QUESTION: vi.  What does ‘arboreal’ mean? Name three arboreal creatures.
ANSWER: vi. What does ‘arboreal’ mean? Name three arboreal creatures. Arboreal means of the trees. Monkeys, apes, squirrels, opossums, and some kinds of lizard, are arboreal. Students may think of other animals too.
QUESTION: vii. How does colour help animals to protect themselves? Give some examples.
ANSWER: vii. How does colour help animals to protect themselves? Give some examples. Colour can help animals to protect themselves by helping them to blend in with their surroundings. Green and brown birds blend in with the leaves or earth. Certain insects also do this. The stripes of the zebra help it to blend in with the grasslands. White fur stops predators and prey from being seen in the snow. Students can come up with some general animal examples.
QUESTION: viii. What are parasites? Name some and describe what they live on.
ANSWER: viii.What are parasites? Name some and describe what they live on. Parasites live on or inside the bodies of other animals (or trees). They use the other living thing as their source of life energy. Fleas and lice live on animals and suck their blood; certain types of worm live inside the bodies of animals, feeding on their flesh, blood, or the food they eat; mistletoe lives on other plants. Students may suggest others too.
QUESTION: ix. if you could be any animal (apart from a human) which would you be? Why?
ANSWER: ix. If you could be any animal (apart from a human) which would you be? Why? Students will give their own answers and reasons.
QUESTION: x. What things do plants need to make their own food? What do they use the food for?
ANSWER: x. What things do plants need to make their own food? Plants possess chlorophyll which they use to make their food themselves through a process called photosynthesis. The process also requires sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. What do they use the food for? They use their food for energy to live.

PART 3 MATERIALS AND MATTER

UNIT 6 SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES PAGE 32

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which of the following is not a state of matter? c. oil

ii. Everything on Earth is made of tiny a. particles.

iii. Ice, water and water vapour are made of a. water particles.

iv. Which type of matter has a fixed shape and a fixed volume? a. solids

v. When wood is burned and turns into ash what type of change has taken place? b. chemical change

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Matter is made up of particles.

ii. The particles in a solid are packed very closely together.

iii. The particles in a liquid are packed loosely together. They can flow.

iv. In a gas, the spaces between the particles are bigger.

3. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B.

Column A                                                                        Column B

1. a change in which new substances are formed C. chemical change

2. a change of state but no new substances are formed A. physical change

3. everything in the world that has mass and occupies space B. matter

4. Mark these sentences with aor x .

i. Particles move. a

ii. Particles in gas are packed tightly together. x

iii. A litre of water is more when it is in a 5-litre container. x

iv. Particles in orange juice are packed less closely than those in an orange ice lolly. a

v. Ice melts into a gas. x

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. What is matter?
ANSWER: i. What is matter? Everything in this world that has mass and occupies space is matter.
QUESTION: ii. What is the difference between a solid and a liquid?
ANSWER: ii. What is the difference between a solid and a liquid? In a solid, the particles are packed closely together and cannot move about freely. Particles in solids vibrate in their place. A solid has a definite shape and volume. The particles in a liquid are not packed together so closely. This means that liquids can flow. Liquids do have a definite volume, but they do not have a fixed shape.
QUESTION: iii. Do the particles in a liquid stay in one place?
ANSWER: iii. Do the particles in a liquid stay in one place? The particles in a liquid can flow.
QUESTION: iv. Do liquids have a fixed shape? Explain your answer
ANSWER: iv. Do liquids have a fixed shape? Why not? No, liquids can be poured into any shape of container.
QUESTION: v. Why is it not a very good idea to use aerosol sprays?
ANSWER: v. Why is it not a very good idea to use aerosol sprays? Aerosol sprays contain chemicals that could harm the environment when released into the atmosphere.
QUESTION: vi. Why is it not a good idea to dispose of oil down drains or into lakes and rivers?
ANSWER: vi. Why is it not a good idea to dispose of oil down drains or into lakes and rivers? Oil, fat, and grease do not dissolve in water. They can block drains. They form a film on water and can harm wildlife and plants.

UNIT 7 THE STUDY OF MATTER PAGE 39

EXERCISES:

1. Choose the correct answer.

i. Which of the following is NOT one of the properties of water? c. It has a definite shape.

ii. Which of the following are ways to separate salt from water? b. evaporation

iii. What can you use to remove iron filings from a mixture of substances? a. magnet

iv. A solution is created when a. a solute is mixed in a solvent.

v. Which TWO of the following will NOT dissolve in water? c. oil and d. sand

2. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B.

Column A ————————————————————-Column B

i. the solid that remains on the filter paper after filtration c. residue

 ii. the liquid that passes through a filter paper d. filtrate

iii. the method used to separate heavier solid particles from a liquid a. decantation

iv. when particles in a liquid fall to the bottom e. sedimentation

v. the method of separation in which the liquid is heated b. evaporation

4. GIVE TWO PROPERTIES FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING.

 i. solid has a definite volume and a definite shape, usually hard, the particles are tightly packed together.

ii. liquid has a definite volume, takes the shape of the container it is in, flows because the particles move around each other.

iii. gas no fixed shape or volume, it occupies the whole space of the container it is in, particles move about freely in all directions.

5. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION:  i. In which states can water exist?
ANSWER: i. In which states can water exist? Water can be a solid (ice), a liquid (water), or a gas (steam/water vapour).
QUESTION: ii. Does water contain oxygen? How do we know?
ANSWER: ii. Does water contain oxygen? How do we know? Yes. We know that water contains oxygen because plants and animals live in it and all living things need oxygen to respire.
QUESTION: iii. What are all substances made up of?
ANSWER: iii. What are all substances made up of? particles
QUESTION: iv. What are some of the properties of water?
ANSWER: iv. What are some of the properties of water? has a definite volume, takes the shape of the container it is in, flows because the particles move around each other, does not smell of anything in particular.
QUESTION: v. You have a mixture of sand, salt, and iron filings. How will you separate all the components of this mixture?
ANSWER: v. You have a mixture of sand, salt, and iron filings. How will you separate all the components of this mixture? The iron filings can be removed by a magnet. The sand could be separated from the salt by mixing both with water and then filtering out the insoluble sand. The water could be evaporated to leave the salt. Students may suggest other methods.
QUESTION: vi. Where do we use the magnetic method of separation? Give an example from daily life.
ANSWER: vi. Where do we use the magnetic method of separation? Give an example from your daily life. Electromagnets are used to sort magnetic metals in a scrapyard.
QUESTION: vii. What happens to a substance when it dissolves in a liquid? in your own words, try to explain what the word ‘dissolve’ means.
ANSWER: vii. What happens to a substance when it dissolves in a liquid? In your own words, try to explain what the word ‘dissolve’ means. When a substance dissolves in water its particles mix into the entire volume of the liquid.
QUESTION: viii. Why can we not taste all substances to tell what is in them? Give at least two reasons.
ANSWER: viii. Why can we not taste all substances to tell what is in them? Give at least two reasons. Some substances have no taste, and some are poisonous.
QUESTION: ix. Does a filter separate a substance which will not dissolve in water? How will you experiment to find out?
ANSWER: ix. Does a filter separate a substance which will not dissolve in water? How will you experiment to find out? Yes. Students should use their experience of previous filtering exercises.

PART 4 FORCES, ENERGY, AND MACHINES

UNIT 8 HEAT PAGE 42

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Temperature is the b. average energy of particles.

ii. Heat is the a. total energy of particles.

iii. The flow of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object is known as a. heat.

iv. Any temperature on the Celsius scale which is lower than that of melting ice (0o ) is written with a a. minus sign.

v. The normal human body temperature on the Celsius scale is a. 37o

2. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B.

Column A —————————————————————-Column B

i. the total energy of particles of a substance a. heat

ii. the average energy of particles of a substance c. temperature iii. the flow of energy from a warmer to a cooler object b. thermal energy

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. The average energy of particles in a substance is called temperature.

ii. The total energy of particles in a substance is called heat.

iii. The flow of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object is known as heat (heat transfer).

iv. The instrument which is used to measure temperature is called a thermometer. v. All matter is made of tiny particles called atoms.

v. The normal human body temperature on the Celsius scale is 37 degrees.

vi. The melting point of ice is 32 degrees Fahrenheit and 0 degrees Celsius.

vii. The temperature at which pure water boils is 212 degrees Fahrenheit and 100 degrees Celsius.

viii. Temperature that is lower than 0o C is written with a minus sign.

ix. Nothing can get colder than -273 degrees Celsius and this is called absolute zero.

4. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Define the following terms: a. heat b. temperature
ANSWER: i. Define the following terms: a. heat is the total energy of particles in a substance. b. temperature is the average energy of particles in a substance.
QUESTION: ii. Which two scales are commonly used to measure temperature?
ANSWER: ii. Which two scales are commonly used to measure temperature? Fahrenheit and Celsius
QUESTION: iii. Which instrument is used to measure temperature?
ANSWER: iii. Which instrument is used to measure temperature? A thermometer
QUESTION: iv. What happens to the liquid in a thermometer when the air around it gets a. warmer? b. colder?
ANSWER: iv. What happens to the liquid in a thermometer when the air around it gets a. warmer? When the air around the thermometer gets hot, the liquid inside the thermometer begins to expand. It moves upwards inside the tube. b. colder? When the air around the thermometer gets cold, the liquid contracts and moves downwards.

UNIT 9 FORCE AND MACHINES PAGE 45

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which of the following is not an example of a simple machine? a. juicer

ii. A light bulb is an example of a b. screw

iii. A fork is an example of a a. lever

iv. Toilet paper on a roller is an example of a b. wheel and axle

v. The metal cap of a bottle can be opened by using a bottle opener. In this case the bottle opener works as a c. lever

vi. A flagpole is an example of a c. pulley

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

 i. A device or tool used to make the work easier and faster is called a machine.

ii. A simple machine has few or no moving parts.

iii. A compound machine is made up of two or more simple machines combined together.

iv. A simple machine made up of a bar or rod, which rests and turns on a fixed point is called a lever.

v. A simple machine used to cut or split things apart is called a wedge.

vi. A simple machine that is used to fasten or hold materials together is called a screw.

vii. A fork is an example of a simple machine called a lever.

viii. A simple machine with a slanting surface, used to move heavy loads up or down is called an inclined plane.

ix. A simple machine consisting of a rope or string, wound around a grooved wheel is called a pulley.

x. The rod that goes through the wheel and helps the wheel to move is called an axel.

3. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B AND WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN THE SPACES GIVEN BELOW.

Column A——————————————————————- Column B

i. two inclined planes joined back to back, used to cut or split things apart d. wedge

 ii. a rigid bar or rod that rests and moves on a support, and is used to move a heavy load easily e. lever

 iii. a rope or string wound around a grooved wheel, used to move objects up, down or across b. pulley

iv. a slanting surface used for moving objects from lower to higher, or higher to lower surfaces easily a. inclined plane

v. an inclined plane wrapped around a cylindrical pole that is used to fasten, or hold things together c. screw

6. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. If an object is acting as a lever, what is the force applied on the object called?
ANSWER: i. If an object is acting as a lever, what is the force applied on the object called? The effort
QUESTION: ii. What is the point where a lever moves called?
ANSWER: ii. What is the point where a lever moves called? Fulcrum or pivot
QUESTION: iii. How is a simple machine different from a compound machine?
ANSWER: iii. How is a simple machine different from a compound machine? A simple machine has few or no moving parts. A compound machine is one in which two or more simple machines are put together.
QUESTION: iv. Draw a lever and label all three parts of it.
ANSWER: iv. Draw a lever and label all three parts in it.
QUESTION: v. Where do you see the use of pulleys? Give at least three examples from your daily life.
ANSWER: v. Where do you see the use of pulleys? Give at least three examples from your daily life. Some suggestions: flagpole, curtains, window blinds, clothes lines, cranes.
QUESTION: vi. How do wheels and axles make easier?
ANSWER: vi. How do wheels and axles make work easier? Wheels and axels make work easier by allowing heavy loads to be moved easily. They allow loads to be rolled along and to travel for greater distances.
QUESTION: vii. How can you say that inclined planes are machines? Give at least three examples from your daily life to support your answer.
ANSWER: vii. How can you say that inclined planes are machines? Give at least three examples from your daily life to support your answer. Inclined planes are machines because they make work easier. We use inclined planes regularly to move loads over raised obstacles. Some suggestions: chopping knife, spade, access ramps, stairs/escalators, dropped curbs.
QUESTION: viii. Read the following situations carefully and decide which simple machines should be used to solve these problems.
ANSWER: viii.Read the following situations carefully and decide which simple machines should be used to solve these problems. Students will think of solutions. Some suggestions: SITUATION 1:  Ali lives on the fourth floor of an apartment which does not have a lift. He is supposed to carry a bucket full of water to his apartment. Suggest which simple machine is best to help in this situation. Explain how that machine would be used. Ali could use a pulley mounted above a window in his apartment to raise the bucket up the side of the building.   SITUATION 2: A person needs to load a heavy bag of rice onto a truck. Suggest which simple machine is best to help in this situation. Explain how this machine would be used. An inclined plane would allow the person to roll the bag up and onto the truck.   SITUATION 3: A man needs to move a large, heavy stone from the road to avoid all accidents. Suggest which simple machine would help best in this situation. Explain how this machine would be used. A lever would allow the man to move the heavy stone. He would need to find a pivot to rest the lever on and apply effort to the other end in order to lift the load. He could also use a wedge and insert it under the stone to push it over.

UNIT 10 CIRCUIT AND SWITCHES PAGE 51

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. The materials which allow electricity to pass through them are called b. conductors.

ii. The materials which do not allow electricity to pass through them are called a. insulators.

iii. Which of the following is an example of an insulator? a. rubber

iv. Which of the following is an example of a conductor? b. copper

v. Which kind of circuit has two or more paths for the current to flow along? b. parallel circuit

vi. Which of the following describes the flow of current in a series circuit? c. the current only has one path to flow along

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

 i. Electricity which flows through a material is called current.

ii. A complete path for electricity to flow is called a circuit.

iii. If there is a gap or break in the circuit, it is called an incomplete circuit.

iv. If there is no gap or break in the circuit, it is called a closed (or complete) circuit.

v. The device which is used to turn on or off an electrical appliance is called a switch.

vi. In a series circuit, the appliances are connected in a line, one after the other.

vii. In a parallel circuit, the current flows through different branches or paths.

viii.A substance which allows electricity to pass through is called a conductor.

ix. A substance which does not allow electricity to pass through is called an insulator.

3. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B AND WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN THE SPACES GIVEN BELOW.

Column A————————————————————————- Column B

i. the complete path along which electricity flows c. circuit

ii. a device or connection used to turn on or off an electrical appliance d. switch

iii. a material which allows electricity to pass through it a. conductor

iv. a material which does not allow electricity to pass through it b. insulator

I. DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS.

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Define the following terms. a. conductor b. insulator c. electric current d. circuit
ANSWER: a. A conductor is a material which allows electricity to pass through it. b. An insulator is a material which does not allow electricity to pass through it. c. An electric current is electricity which flows through a material. d. A circuit is the complete path along which electricity flows.
QUESTION: ii. What is a switch used for?
ANSWER: ii. What is a switch used for? A switch is used to turn on or off an electrical appliance.
QUESTION: iii. Compare series and parallel circuits.
ANSWER: iii. Compare series and parallel circuits.
QUESTION: iv. Draw and label the following circuits with a battery, wire, and two light bulbs in each. a. series circuit b. parallel circuit
ANSWER:
QUESTION: v. Make a list of electrical appliances in your home. Classify them into mains-powered and battery-powered.
ANSWER:

UNIT 11 MAGNETISM PAGE 57

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which pair listed below would attract each other? b. north pole and south pole

ii. Which of the following is magnetic? d. iron nail

iii. Materials which a magnet can attract are called b. magnetic

 iv. A freely suspended magnet always points in which direction? d. north-south

v. How can a magnet become demagnetised? d. all of these

2. FILL IN EACH BLANK WITH THE CORRECT WORD FROM THE BRACKET.

i. All magnets have two poles.

ii. An iron nail is not attracted to a magnet if it is far from the magnet’s magnetic field.

 iii. Some materials are attracted to magnets.

iv. A magnet’s power is strongest at the poles.

3. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. What is a magnetic field?
ANSWER: i. What is a magnetic field? The magnetic field is the area of invisible force around a magnet.
QUESTION: ii. Where are the poles of a magnet situated?
ANSWER: ii. Where are the poles of a magnet situated? The poles of a magnet are situated at the ends of it.
QUESTION: iii. Where is the magnetic force of a magnet the strongest?
ANSWER: iii. Where is the magnetic force of a magnet the strongest? At the poles.
QUESTION: iv. How can we make temporary magnets?
ANSWER: iv. How can we make temporary magnets? Metals like iron or nickel can be made into temporary magnets by stroking them across magnets or by passing on electric current through them.
QUESTION: v. How should magnets be stared? Why?
ANSWER: v. How should magnets be stored? Why? Magnets should be stored in pairs with unlike poles opposite and with keepers across the ends. Magnets can become demagnetised if they are heated, dropped or hammered, or not stored correctly.

QUESTION: 4. Use the table below ta write at list at different objects. Are they magnetic or not? Guess first then test them.

OBJECT MAGNETIC? (GUESS) MAGNETIC? (TESTED)
nails Yes Yes

UNIT 12 SOUND PAGE 61

EXERCISES:

1. Choose the correct answer.

i. More vibrations per second produce b. high sounds.

ii. Which of the following frequencies cannot be heard by the human ear? a. 5 Hz

 iii. The frequency of a sound wave is the a. number of vibrations per second.

iv. An echo is produced when b. sound waves bounce off a surface.

 v. If an object vibrates 500 times in a second, its frequency will be b. 500 Hz.

2. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B AND WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN THE SPACES GIVEN BELOW.

Column A ————————————————————-Column B

i. repeated motion of an object c. vibration

ii. the unit of measuring frequency d. hertz

iii. the bouncing back of a sound wave from one surface to another a. echo

iv. vibration passing from particle to particle b. sound wave

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Sound waves cannot travel in a vacuum.

ii. The number of vibrations per second is called frequency.

iii. The number of vibrations is measured in units called hertz.

iv. A recurring disturbance, or movement that transfers energy through matter is called a vibration.

v. Most humans can hear sounds ranging between 20 and 16,000 hertz.

vi. Sound needs a medium to travel through.

vii. Sound travels fastest through a solid medium.

viii. Sound travels most slowly through a gaseous medium.

ix. Bats use a property of sound called echoes to tell where they are going.

x. A mouse can hear a sound up to 102,000 Hz.

4. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Define the following terms. a. sound  b. vibration c. echo d. frequency
ANSWER: a. sound is a form of energy. It is produced by vibrations and travels in waves. b. A vibration is a recurring disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter. c. An echo is the bouncing back of a sound wave from one surface to another. d. frequency is the number of vibrations per second.
QUESTION: ii. Explain in your own words how sounds are made and how they travel through the air.
ANSWER: ii. Explain in your own words how sounds are made and how they travel through the air. Students will use their own words.
QUESTION: iii. In what conditions do sounds echo?
ANSWER: iii. In what conditions do sounds echo? A sound made in a large, empty room or space produces an echo.
QUESTION: iv. In terms of their waves, how are noise and musical notes different from each other?
ANSWER: iv. In terms of their waves, how are noise and musical notes different from each other? Irregular, repetitive sound waves create noise, while regular, repetitive waves produce musical notes.
QUESTION: v. Can sound travel in a vacuum? Explain your answer.
ANSWER: v. Can sound travel in a vacuum? Explain your answer. No, sound cannot travel in a vacuum because sound needs a medium to travel through.

5. UNSCRAMBLE THE FOLLOWING WORDS.

i. itvrinoba

ii. saewv

m. tzrhe

iv. rqueetoyn

v. hoce

vi. odsun

vii. yeerng

answers:

i. itvrinoba vibration

ii. saewv waves

iii. tzrhe hertz

iv. rqueefcyn frequency

v. hoce echo

vi. odsun sound

vii. yeerng energy

PART 5 THE EARTH AND SPACE

UNIT 13 THE MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH PAGE

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

 i. How many days does the Earth take to complete one orbit around the Sun? c. 365

ii. How many hours does the Earth take to complete one turn on its axis? a. 24 hours

iii. Which of the following is correct? Seasons are caused due to the c. revolution and tilted axis of the Earth.

 iv. The fixed path of the Earth on which it moves around the Sun is called its b. orbit.

v. The time the Earth takes to rotate once on its axis is called a d. day.

2. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B

Column A ———————————————-Column B

i. the spinning of a body on its axis d. rotation

ii. the orbiting of one object around another c. revolution

 iii. to lean, incline, slope, or slant e. tilt iv. the path in space of one body as it goes around another body b. orbit

v. the time the Earth takes to complete one rotation on its axis a. a day

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. The imaginary line on which the Earth rotates is called the axis.

ii. The movement of the Earth, causing day and night, is called rotation.

iii. The Earth moves around the Sun and this movement is called revolution.

iv. The Earth takes one day to spin once on its axis.

v. The Earth takes 365 days to complete one orbit around the Sun.

vi. The path in space of one body as it goes around another body is called an orbit.

vii. Changing seasons on the Earth are caused by the Earth’s tilt on its axis.

viii. The area of the Earth which leans towards the Sun has the summer/warmer season.

ix. The area of the Earth which leans away from the Sun has the winter/cooler season.

x. The time the Earth takes to rotate once on its axis is called a day.

4. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Why is summer hotter than winter?
ANSWER: i. The Earth is tilted on its axis as it orbits the Sun, which causes different parts of the Earth to receive different amounts of heat and light. This tilt of the Earth’s axis creates the seasons. When the North Pole is tilted towards the Sun, the northern half, or hemisphere, is hot and has summer, while the southern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun.
QUESTION: ii. How many seasons are there? Name them
ANSWER: ii. There are four main seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter.

5. MARK THESE SENTENCES WITH aOR X  .

i. The Earth takes 364 days to revolve around the Sun. x

 ii. The Earth spins on its axis. a

 iii. The rotation and revolution of the Earth is what causes seasons. x

iv. The equator is an imaginary line running between the north and south poles. x

v. The Earth is divided by its axis into two hemispheres. x

vi. The Earth rotates from east to west.a

CORRECT THE SENTENCES THAT ARE WRONG AND WRITE THEM ALL IN YOUR NOTEBOOK.

 i. The Earth takes 365 days to revolve around the Sun.

iii. The tilt and revolution of the Earth is what causes seasons.

iv. The axis is an imaginary line running between the north and south poles.

v. The Earth is divided by its equator into two hemispheres.

=========THE END===========

NOTES/solved Exercises: COMPUTER EDUCATION (AQUILINE) PCTB PAKISTAN 2020

NOTES COMPUTER EDUCATION (AQUILINE) PCTB PAKISTAN 2020

CONTENTS

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS PAGE: 1-28

1.1 WHAT IS A COMPUTER?

1.2 COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER

1. 3 HOW A COMPUTER WORKS?

UNIT 2:  INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS PAGE: 29-58

2.1 STEPPING INTO WINDOWS

2.2 WORKING WITH WINDOWS

2.3 MANAGING FILES AND FOLDERS

UNIT 3: COMMONLY USED SOFTWARE PAGE: 59-114

3.1 WORKING WITH PAINT

3.2 USING A TYPING TUTOR

3.3 WORKING WITH WORD

3.4 USING MEDIA PLAYER

UNIT 4: THE LNTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB PAGE: 115-135

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET

4.2 THE WORLD WIDE WEB

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS PAGE: 1-28

EXERCISE

Q1 TICK THE RIGHT CHOICE

ANSWERS:

i. (a) data iv. (c) Microsoft windows vii. (a) system unit x. (d) printer xiii (b) output ii. (b) information v. (c) qwerty viii.(c) digital camera xi. (b) central processing unit xiv. (d) printer iii. (b) physical vi (b)input ix (a) microphone xii (b) permanent xv.(c) four

Q2 FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS:

i. instructions iv. single vii. hoppy x. processing ii. facts and figures v. input viii. versatile iii. software vi. system mainboard ix. output

Q.3 DEFINE THE FOLLOWING.

I) COMPUTER
ANSWER:computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. 
II) MEMORY
ANSWER: Any device that holds computer data.
III) SOFTWARE
ANSWER: SOFTWARE the programs and other operating information used by a computer.
IV) HARD DISK
ANSWER: A device (usually within the computer case) that reads and writes information, including the operating system, program files, and data files
V) MOTHERBOARD
ANSWER: motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in general-purpose computers and other expandable systems.
VI) PROCESSING OPERATION/ process manufacturing / process production
ANSWER: PROCESSING OPERATION is the mass production method of producing products in a continuous flow.

Q4 DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING.

I) DATA AND INFORMATION
ANSWER: Information is a processed, organised data presented in a given context and is useful to humans.  Data is an individual unit that contains raw material which does not carry any specific meaning.  Information is a group of data that collectively carry a logical meaning.
II) SINGLE CLICK AND DOUBLE CLICK
ANSWER:single click initiates a user interface (UI) action and a doubleclick extends the action. For example, one click usually selects an item, and a doubleclick edits the selected item. … One solution is to handle the doubleclick event and roll back the actions in the handling of the click event.
III) HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
ANSWER: Computer hardware is any physical device used in or with your machine, whereas software is a collection of programming code installed on your computer’s hard drive. In other words, hardware is something you can hold in your hand, whereas software cannot be held in your hand.
IV) CD AND DVD
ANSWER: CD, short for Compact Disc, is an optical medium that can store digital data. … A standard DVD can hold 4.7 GB of data. So DVD is widely used to store large files like video and movies. The capacity is the biggest difference between CD and DVD.
V) INPUT DEVICES AND OUTPUT DEVICES
ANSWER: An input device sends information to a computer system for processing, and an output device reproduces or displays the results of that processing. Input devices only allow for input of data to a computer and output devices only receive the output of data from another device.
VI) INPUT OPERATION AND OUTPUT OPERATION
ANSWER: The stream flowing from an input device like a keyboard to the main memory, it is called the Input Operation. On the other hand, streams that flow from the main memory to an output device like a screen is called an Output Operation.

Q.5 GIVE BRIEF ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION NO. I) WRITE FIVE ADVANTAGES OF USING COMPUTERS.
ANSWER: ADVANTAGES OF USING COMPUTERS Increase your productivity. … Connects you to the Internet. … Can store vast amounts of information and reduce waste. … Helps sort, organize, and search through information. … Get a better understanding of data.
QUESTION NO. II) WHAT IS HARDWARE? WRITE THE NAMES OF FIVE HARDWARE DEVICES.
ANSWER: HARDWARE Hardware is the physical computer equipment. Hardware Monitor. Motherboard. CPU(Microprocessor. Main memory(RAM) Power supply unit.
QUESTION NO. III) WRITE FUNCTIONS OF THE FOLLOWING KEYBOARD KEYS. A) TAB B) ESC C) ENTER D) SHIFT  E) CAPS LOCK
ANSWER: a) The tab key Tab ↹ (tabulator key or tabular key) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop. B) ESC An electronic speed control or ESC is an electronic circuit that controls and regulates the speed of an electric motor. C) ENTER (Return key), on a keyboard, the Enter key sends the cursor to the next line or executes a command or operation. D) SHIFT  Shift functions horizontally and vertically, and practice the relationship between the graphical and the algebraic representations of those shifts. E) CAPS LOCK The Caps Lock key (toggle key) allows you to switch the letters on your keyboard from lowercase to uppercase. 
QUESTION NO. IV) WHAT DOES A PROCESSOR DO?
ANSWER: Central Processing Unit, (The CPU/processor) is the main chip in a computer responsible for carrying out all tasks. It’s responsible for telling all the other components in a computer what to do, according to the instructions it is given by the programs (software) running on that computer.
QUESTION NO. V) WHAT IS MEMORY? IS IT A TEMPORARY STORAGE DEVICE?
ANSWER: Memory refers to the processes that are used to acquire, store, retain, and later retrieve information. There are three major processes involved in memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MEMORY  RAM(random access memory) is volatile memory that temporarily stores the files you are working on.  ROM(read-only memory) is non-volatile memory that permanently stores instructions for your computer.
QUESTION NO. VI) WRITE A SHORT NOTE ON HARD DISK
ANSWER:hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile computer storage device containing magnetic disks or platters rotating at high speeds. It is a secondary storage device used to store data permanently, random access memory (RAM) being the primary memory device.
QUESTION NO. VII) WRITE ADVANTAGES OF USB HASH MEMORY.
ANSWER: Advantages of Flash Memory Increased Durability. Maximum Portability.Plenty of Storage Capacity. Fast Transfer Speeds.Compatibility with Many Devices.
QUESTION NO. VIII) EXPLAIN DIFFERENT TYPES OF MONITORS.
ANSWER: TYPES OF MONITORS CRT (CATHODE RAY TUBE) MONITORS These monitors employ CRT technology, which was used most commonly in the manufacturing of television screens. With these monitors, a stream of intense high energy electrons is used to form images on a fluorescent screen. A cathode ray tube is basically a vacuum tube containing an electron gun at one end and a fluorescent screen at another end. While CRT monitors can still be found in some organizations, many offices have stopped using them largely because they are heavy, bulky, and costly to replace should they break. While they are still in use, it would be a good idea to phase these monitors out for cheaper, lighter, and more reliable monitors.  LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY) MONITORS                  The LCD monitor incorporates one of the most advanced technologies available today. Typically, it consists of a layer of color or monochrome pixels arranged schematically between a couple of transparent electrodes and two polarizing filters.                  Optical effect is made possible by polarizing the light in varied amounts and making it pass through the liquid crystal layer. The two types of LCD technology available are the active matrix of TFT and a passive matrix technology. TFT generates better picture quality and is more secure and reliable. Passive matrix, on the other hand, has a slow response time and is slowly becoming outdated.                 The advantages of LCD monitors include their compact size which makes them lightweight. They also don’t consume much electricity as CRT monitors, and can be run off of batteries which makes them ideal for laptops.             Images transmitted by these monitors don’t get geometrically distorted and have little flicker. However, this type of monitor does have disadvantages, such as its relatively high price, an image quality which is not constant when viewed from different angles, and a monitor resolution that is not always constant, meaning any alterations can result in reduced performance.   LED (LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES) MONITORS             LED monitors are the latest types of monitors on the market today. These are flat panel, or slightly curved displays which make use of light-emitting diodes for back-lighting, instead of cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL) back-lighting used in LCDs. LED monitors are said to use much lesser power than CRT and LCD and are considered far more environmentally friendly.
QUESTION NO. IX) WHAT IS A MODEM? EXPLAIN ITS DIFFERENT TYPES.
ANSWER: MODEM             Modem is short for “Modulator-Demodulator.” It is a hardware component that allows a computer or another device. Types of Modems • Modems can be of several types and they can be categorized in a number of ways. • Categorization is usually based on the following basic modem features: 1. Directional capacity: half duplex modem and full duplex modem. 2. Connection to the line: 2-wire modem and 4-wire modem. 3. Transmission mode: asynchronous modem and synchronous modem.
QUESTION NO. X) EXPLAIN THE OUTPUT OPERATION OF A COMPUTER.
ANSWER:  Output (Data generated by a computer).  This includes data produced at a software level, such as the result of a calculation, or at a physical level, such as a printed document. A basic example of software output is a calculator program that produces the result of a mathematical operation.

Q.6 MATCH COLUMN A WITH COLUMN B AND WRITE THE NUMBERS OF MATCHING PAIRS IN COLUMN C.

ANSWERS:

(I-F)(II-A)(III-B)(IV-J)(V-K)(VI-H)(VII-C)(VIII-I)(IX-E)(X-D)

Q.7 LABEL THE FOLLOWING KEYBOARD.

UNIT 2:  INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS PAGE: 29-58

EXERCISE

Q1 TICK THE RIGHT CHOICE

Answers:

i. (a) Microsoft windows iv. (d) bottom vii. (d) my computer x (a) status xiii (a) copy ii. (c) desktop v. (c) recycle bin viii (b) window xi. (c) file xiv. (b)shift iii. (c) start menu vi. (c) notification area ix (c) title xii. (a) envelopes xv. (c) drive

Q2 FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS:

i. icons iv. restore vii. taskbar x folders ii. internet explorer v. scroll viii. three iii. menu vi. maximize ix. extension

Q3 DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING.

I) DESKTOP AND START MENU.
ANSWER: desktop               A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location. Start menu               The Microsoft Windows Start menu is the primary location in Windows to locate your installed programs and find any files or folders.
II) MY DOCUMENTS ICON AND MY COMPUTER ICON.
ANSWER: My Documents                My Documents is the commonly recognized name of a special folder in Microsoft Windows .  My Computer                The My Computer folder’s primary purpose is to provide a shortcut to Windows Explorer. The system-level window displays all the hard drives, external drives and storage cards.
III) MAXIMIZE BUTTON AND MINIMIZE BUTTON.
ANSWER: Minimize button                  The Minimize button shrinks the window and places it on the taskbar while leaving the program running. Maximize button                The Maximize button is used to enlarge a window to cover the entire desktop. After a window is maximized, the Maximize button changes to the Restore button.
IV) FILE AND FOLDER.
ANSWER:             file                A file is the common storage unit in a computer, and all programs and data are “written” into a file and “read” from a file.  folder            A folder holds one or more files, and a folder can be empty until it is filled. … In fact, files that contain text are often called documents.
V) COPY A FILE/FOLDER AND CUT A file/FOLDER
ANSWER:  COPY A FILE/FOLDER                  In digital file management, file FOLDER copying/ cutting is the creation of a new file FOLDER which has the same content as an existing file.

Q.4 DEFINE THE FOLLOWING.

I) DESKTOP
ANSWER:  desktop              A desktop is a term commonly used to describe a desktop computer or system unit.
II) FOLDER
ANSWER: FOLDER a folding cover or holder, typically made of stiff paper or card, for storing loose papers.
III) START MENU
ANSWER: START MENU             The Start menu is a graphical user interface element used in Microsoft Windows and in some other operating systems. It provides a central launching point for computer programs and performing other tasks.
IV) A WINDOW
ANSWER: WINDOW             A window is a separate viewing area on a computer display screen in a system that allows multiple viewing areas as part of a graphical user interface ( GUI ).
V) TASK BAR
ANSWER: TASK BAR a bar at the edge of the display of a graphical user interface that allows quick access to current or favourite applications.

Q.5 GIVE BRIEF ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION NO. I) DESCRIBE THE STEPS OF THE STARTUP PROCEDURE OF THE WINDOWS.
ANSWER: The normal startup sequence for Windows  is: Power-on self test (POST) phase.Initial startup phase.Windows Boot Manager phase.Windows Boot Loader phase.Kernel loading phase.Logon phase.
QUESTION NO. II) WHAT IS START MENU?
ANSWER:                    Start menu is the primary location in Windows to locate your installed programs and find any files or folders.
QUESTION NO. III) DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF THE NOTIFICATION AREA.
ANSWER:              The notification area is a portion of the taskbar that provides a temporary source for notifications and status. It can also be used to display icons for system and program features that have no presence on the desktop.
QUESTION NO. IV) HOW MANY WAYS ARE THERE TO OPEN A WINDOW/PROGRAM IN WINDOWS?
ANSWER: TASKBAR KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS                On Windows 7, you can press the Windows key along with a number to quickly launch the corresponding application on your taskbar. START MENU SEARCH                You can use the Start menu’s search feature to launch a program with just a few key presses. For this, press the Windows key on your keyboard. CUSTOM SHORTCUT KEY             If you launch an application frequently, you can assign a custom keyboard shortcut to it. RUN DIALOG           You can also use the Run dialog to quickly launch applications. Open it by pressing WinKey+R.
QUESTION NO. V) WHAT IS A DRIVE?
ANSWER: DRIVE       A drive is a computer component used to store data. It may be a static storage device or may use removable media.
QUESTION NO. VI) WHAT IS A FILE? WRITE THE PARTS OF A FILE WITH AN EXAMPLE.
ANSWER: FILE        A file is an object on a computer that stores data, information, settings, or commands used with a computer program. Files consist of three parts…  1. The file name (allaboutme.ppt) – The file name is what you save or call the file…”allaboutme” in this example. 2. The dot (allaboutme.ppt) – The “dot” separates the file name from the file extension. 3. The file extension (allaboutme.ppt) – The file extension tells the computer what software.
QUESTION NO. VII) HOW CAN A USER CREATE A FOLDER USING RIGHT CLICK MENU?
ANSWER: To create a folderrightclick, then select New>FolderRightclick in File Explorer, then select New>Folder           In Windows 7, there is a New folder button near the top of the window.  In Windows 10, you can also click the Home tab, then the New Folder button.
QUESTION NO. VIII) WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF FOLDERS? EXPLAIN BRIEFLY WITH AN EXAMPLE.
ANSWER:               Folders help you keep your files organized and separate. If you had no folders on your computer, your documents, programs, and operating system files would all be located in the same place.  Folders also allow you to have more than one file with the same file name.                     EXAMPLES:            You might store your digital photos in a “Pictures” folder, your audio files in a “Music” folder, and your word processing documents in a “Documents” folder.
QUESTION NO. IX) WRITE THE NAMES OF FIVE DIFFERENT PARTS OF A WINDOW.
ANSWER: PARTS OF A WINDOWS IN COMPUTER              The Title Bar. At the top of every window is the title bar. …Minimize, Maximize, Close Buttons. In the upper right-hand corner of the window are the three buttons used to minimize, maximize, and close the window. The Scroll Bar. The Menu Bar.
QUESTION NO. X) WHAT ARE ICONS? WRITE NAMES OF THE DESKTOP ICONS.
ANSWER: ICONS                 An icon is a small graphical representation of a program or file. Common desktop icons;  Computer, your personal folder, Network, the Recycle Bin, Internet Explorer, and Control Panel.

Q.6 MATCH COLUMNS.

Answers: (i-j)(ii-e)(iii-f)(iv-i)(v-c)(vii-g)(viii-d)(ix-b)(x-h)

UNIT 3: COMMONLY USED SOFTWARE PAGE: 59-114

EXERCISE

Q1 TICK THE RIGHT CHOICE

ANSWERS:

i (a) graphics iv. (a) spray ii.(a) asdf and jkl; x (a) ms word xiii.(b) right ii. (b) shift v. (d) fill with color viii (d)typing speed xi. (a) Microsoft office button xiv. (a) media player iii. (b) tex! vi. (b) magnifier ix (a) asdf xii.(a) ribbons xv. (c) tum off

Q2 FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS:

i.  freehand iv. thumb vii. text editing x. stop ii. spray v. word viii. ctl+b iii. asdf and jkl vi. groups ix grammatical

Q3 DEFINE THE FOLLOWINGS.

I) TEXT EDITING
ANSWER:                 TEXT EDITING The ability to change text by adding, deleting and rearranging letters, words, sentences and paragraphs. Text editing is the main operation users perform in word processors, which typically also handle graphics and other multimedia files. 
II) RIBBON
ANSWER:                  A ribbon is a graphical control element in the form of a set of toolbars placed on several tabs. The typical structure of a ribbon includes large, tabbed toolbars, filled with graphical buttons and other graphical control elements, grouped by functionality.
III) TOOL BOX 
ANSWER:              A toolbox is a window or pane that contains icons and buttons that are tools in the program. 
IV) PLAYBACK CONTROLS
ANSWER:               PBC, playback control is a way top control disc play on VCDs. Playback control allows users to interact with the disc through menus.
V) TEXT ALIGNMENT
ANSWER:         Text alignment is a word processing software feature that allows users to horizontally align text on a page/document. It enables the composition of a text document using different text positioning on the whole or selected part of a page.

Q.4 DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING.

I) BRUSH TOOL AND PENCIL TOOL
ANSWER:            BRUSH TOOL In graphics and image-editing programs, the brush tool is an element of the painting tool that allows you to select a brush shape (square, circle, oval and so on) PENCIL TOOL The Pencil tool is used to draw free hand lines with a hard edge. The pencil and paintbrush are similar tools. 
II) DELETE KEY AND BACKSPACE KEY
ANSWER:              DELETE KEY (DEL)                      Delete key is used to remove characters and other objects.                  BACKSPACE KEY              ← Backspace is the keyboard key that originally pushed the typewriter carriage one position backwards and in modern computer systems moves the display cursor one position backwards, deletes the character at that position, and shifts back the text after that position by one position.
III) FOREGROUND AND BACKGROUND COLOR BOXES
ANSWER:                FOREGROUND                   The foreground contains the applications the user is working on, and the background contains the applications that are behind the scenes, such as certain operating system functions, printing a document or accessing the network. BACKGROUND COLOR BOXES                They help bring more color and highlight sections of information on a page.
IV) PAUSE BUTTON AND STOP BUTTON
ANSWER: PAUSE BUTTONPause Break” key.                 The primary function was to pause a game or pause a scrolling output, to interrupt a modem connection and so on. STOP BUTTON                 It is used to stop a computer game.
V) CUT TEXT AND COPY TEXT
ANSWER: CUT TEXT             The act of transferring text from one part of a document  to a different location within same computer. COPY TEXT            The act of transferring text from one part of a document  to a different location within same computer.

Q.5 GIVE BRIEF ANSWERS NO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION NO. I) WHAT ARE THE USES OF PAINT?
ANSWER:                  Microsoft Paint (MS Paint) is a basic graphics/painting utility that is included in all the Microsoft Windows versions.               MS Paint can be used to draw, colour and edit pictures, including imported pictures from a digital camera for example.
QUESTION NO. II) HOW CAN A USER DRAW A FREEHAND DRAWING A PAINT?
ANSWER:                 Microsoft Paint is an application software that allows us to do freehand drawing in computer. The images can be saved in JPEG, TIFF, PNG, and GIF and in Bitmap. It has several options such as “Fill tool”, “Pick Colour”, “Pencil and Brush”, “Airbrush” and “Text”(to write on images)
QUESTION NO. III) EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF HOME KEYS IN TYPING.
ANSWER:              Why should fingers be placed on home row keys? Placing your fingers on the home row keys helps increase your typing speed because it allows easy access to all other keys surrounding those fingers.
QUESTION NO. IV) WRITE THE STEPS TO CREATE NEW WORD DOCUMENT.
ANSWER: To create a new blank document: Click the Microsoft Office button.Select New. The New Document dialog box appears.Select Blank document under the Blank and recent section. It will be highlighted by default.Click Create. A new blank document appears in the Word window.
QUESTION NO. V) WRITE THE NAMES OF DIFFERENT CASE OPTIONS IN WORD 2002?
ANSWER:               These are the choices in the dialog box: Sentence Case. This option capitalizes the first letter of each sentence in the selection. Lowercase. This option makes all the selected text lowercase. Uppercase. This option capitalizes each letter in the selection. Title Case. Toggle Case.
QUESTION NO. VI) DEFINE THE FONT AND WRITE THE NAMES OF THREE FAMOUS FONTS.
ANSWER: FONT            A font is a collection of characters with a similar design. These characters include lowercase and uppercase letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and symbols. THREE FAMOUS FONTS ARIALCALIBRITIMES NEW ROMANS
QUESTION NO. VII) EXPLAIN TEXT ALIGNMENT AND ITS DIFFERENT TYPES.
ANSWER: TEXT ALIGNMENT             Text alignment primarily places the cursor or aligns the text with the different margins of the document. TYPES           There are four different types of text alignment features, including: Right alignment: This starts each new line of the document on the right-most margin of the page. Left alignment: As the default alignment in most word processing software, it starts each line on the left-most margin. Center alignment: This positions and starts each new line/text block in the center/middle margin on the page. Justified alignment: This aligns text with right and left margins and tries to fill as much empty space as possible. It enables a straight margin on both of the page’s horizontal edges.
QUESTION NO. VIII) WRITE DOWN THE STEPS TO ACCESS MEDIA PLAYER IN THE WINDOWS?
ANSWER: How to Use Windows Media Player in Windows  Click Windows Media Player’s Organize button and choose Manage Libraries from the drop-down menu to reveal a pop-out menu. …From the pop-out menu, choose the name of the type of files you’re missing.Click the Add button, select the folder or drive containing your files, click the Include Folder button, and click OK.
QUESTION NO. IX) WRITE NAME OF THE TOOL USED TO DRAW CURVES.
ANSWER:                The curved line drawing tool is used to create curved or straight lines. The curve tools include: the Freehand tool, the 2-Point Line tool, the Bezier tool, the Artistic Media tool, the Pen tool, the B-Spline tool, the Polyline tool, and the 3-Point Curve tool
QUESTION NO. X) HOW CAN WE DRAW A CIRCLE IN PAINT?
ANSWER:                You can force the MS Paint ellipse tool to draw a circle by holding ⇧ Shift while you click and drag the mouse. You can also snap an ellipse into a circle by holding ⇧ Shift after the ellipse is drawn, but before releasing the mouse button.

Q6 MATCH COLUMN A WITH COLUMN B AND WRITE THE NUMBER OF MATCHING PAIRS IN COLUMN C

ANSWERS:

(i-d)(ii-c)(iii-f)(iv-g)(v-e)(vi-a)(vii-h)(viii-b)

Q7:

ANSWERS:

(i-j)(ii-g)(iii-f)(iv-h)(v-)(vi-c)(vii-a)(viii-e) (ix-i)(x-d)

UNIT 4: THE LNTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB PAGE: 115-135

EXERCISE

Q1 TICK THE RIGHT CHOICE

ANSWERS:

i. (a) internet iv. (a) digital subscriber line vii (b) web browser x (a) web page xiii. (a) url ii. (c) instant messaging v. (a) two viii.(d) world wide web xi (a) website xiv. (b) msn iii(b) internet service provider vi. (d) ptcl ix (b) the web xii. (b) cable tv xv. (d) search engine

Q2 FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS:

i Network iv. System Unit vii. internet Explorer x. Google ii. E-mail v. ISP viii. Address bar iii. Online vi. Telephone ix. Home

Q.3 DEFINE THE FOLLOWING.

I) INTERNET
ANSWER:              The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet.
II) WORLD WIDE WEB
ANSWER:               The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, such as https://example.com/ ), which may be interlinked by hypertext, and are accessible over the Internet.
III) DSL
ANSWER:              A digital subscriber line (DSL) modem is a device used to connect a computer or router to a telephone line which provides the digital subscriber line service for connection to the Internet, which is often called DSL broadband.
IV) WEB BROWSER
ANSWER:               A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. When a user requests a web page from a particular websitethe web browser retrieves the necessary content from a web server and then displays the page on the user’s device.
V) WEB SITE
ANSWER:                A website is a presence on the World Wide Web. … Rendered with various spellings (“Web site,” “web site” and “Website“), a website is a collection of Web pages (files) coded in HTML that are linked to each other and to pages on other sites.
VI) URL
ANSWER:             A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), although many people use the two terms interchangeably.

Q4 GIVE BRIEF ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION NO. I) USE FIVE USES OF THE INTERNET.
ANSWER: USES OF THE INTERNET Electronic mail. Research.Downloading files.Education Electronic newspapers and magazines.
QUESTION NO. II) WRITE STEPS TO CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET
ANSWER: Connect a PC to your wireless network                   Select the Network or icon in the notification area.In the list of networks, choose the network that you want to connect to, and then select Connect.Type the security key (often called the password).Follow additional instructions if there are any.
QUESTION NO. III) DEFINE MODEM AND ITS TYPES
ANSWER:             A modem or broadband modem is a hardware device that connects a computer or router to a broadband network. MODEM TYPES a cable modem  DSL modem
QUESTION NO. IV) WRITE NAMES OF SOME POPULAR WEB BROWSERS.
ANSWER: TOP WEB BROWSERS Google Chrome. Firefox. Safari. Internet Explorer. Opera.
QUESTION NO. V) WHAT ARE THE MAJOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIAL-UP AND DSL CONNECTIONS?
ANSWER: Differences between dialup and DSL Dialup DSL Occupy a phone line Phone line is used for either voice service or internet connection Phone line is not affected by internet connection Simultaneous transmission of data (DSL) and voice or fax services Connection speed: < 56 Kbps 256 Kbps to 20 Mbps Have to dial an access number to connect to the internet Always on Connected using a computer modem Connected through a DSL modem Unique IP address for each connection Static IP address (higher security risk) Low monthly fee Higher monthly fee Easy setup, no setup fee Self installation is usually free.  A setup fee is needed if installed by a technician. Available to everyone with a phone line Not every phone line is equipped for DSL service.  May not be available in some remote / rural areas.
QUESTION NO. VI) HOW CAN WE ACCESS WEBSITES IN MICROSOFT WIND0WS?
ANSWER:               Swipe in from the right edge of the screen (OR press the Windows + C keys), and then tap or click Search. Enter Internet options in the search box, and then tap or click Settings. In the search results, tap or click Internet Options.
QUESTION NO. VII) DESCRIBE CABLE MODEM INTERNET CONNECTION.
ANSWER:              A cable modem is a hardware device that allows your computer to communicate with an Internet service provider over a landline connection. It converts an analog signal to a digital signal for the purpose of granting access to broadband Internet. … Network routers share your Internet connection between multiple computers.
QUESTION NO. VIII) DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF REFRESH, STOP, NED, BACK AND STOP BUTTONS IN INTERNET EXPLORER.
ANSWER:              REFRESH:                 Clicking the Refresh button (the curly arrow to the right of the Address field) reloads the contents of the current web page, which allows the web server to update the page with any new information.  STOP :             This option is wonderfully self-explanatory. If a page is loading, the Refresh button turns into a Stop button (which looks like an X), and you can click it to cancel a page from loading. NEXT         If you click Back, you need a way to return, right? Click the Forward button to go to the next page (or pages) where you originally were, in forward order. From the keyboard, you can press Alt+→ to move forward. BACK          With a click or tap of the Back button, Internet Explorer returns to the last page you visited, and each subsequent use of the Back button takes you one more page back. You can also press Alt+<– on your keyboard to move backward.
QUESTION NO. IX) HOW CAN WE SEARCH A WEB PAGE USING SEARCH ENGINE?
ANSWER:            To perform a search, you’ll need to navigate to a search engine in your web browser, type one or more keywords—also known as search terms—then press Enter on your keyboard. In this example, we’ll search for recipes. After you run a search, you’ll see a list of relevant websites that match your search terms.
QUESTION NO. X) WRITE NAMES AND URLS OF SOME POPULAR SEARCH ENGINES.
ANSWER: List of POPULAR Search Engines Google. Bing. Yahoo. Baidu. AOL. Ask.com. Excite. DuckDuckGo.

Q.5 DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING.

I) INTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB
ANSWER:             The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the World Wide Web is a global collection of documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URIs.
II) CHATTING AND INSTANT MESSAGING
ANSWER:  Chat and instant messaging         (IM) are short messages sent and read in real time, allowing you to converse more quickly and easily than email.  Chat and IM are generally used when both (or all) people are online, so your message can be read immediately.
III) WEB PAGE AND WEBSITE
ANSWER: WEB PAGE.             A document which can be displayed in a web browser such as Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Edge, or Apple’s Safari.               A collection of web pages which are grouped together and usually connected together in various ways. Often called a “web site” or simply a “site.”
IV) TELEPHONE MODEMS AND CABLE MODEMS
ANSWER: TELEPHONE MODEMS              A dial-up modem transmits computer data over an ordinary switched telephone line that has not been designed for data use. CABLE MODEMS             A cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC), radio frequency over glass (RFoG) and coaxial cable infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadband Internet access in the form of cable Internet, taking advantage of the high bandwidth of a HFC and RFoG network.
V) WEB BROWSER AND SEARCH ENGINE
ANSWER: Difference between Search Engine and Web Browser: SEARCH ENGINE WEB BROWSERsearch engine is used to find the information in the World Wide Web and displays the results at one place. Web Browser uses the search engine to retrieve and view the information from web pages present on the web servers.

Q.6 LABEL THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM

ANSWERS:

(i-)(ii-)(iii-)(iv-)(v-)(vi-)(vii-)(viii-)(ix-)(x-)

Q.7 LABEL THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM

ANSWERS:

(i-)(ii-)(iii-)(iv-)(v-)(vi-)(vii-)(viii-)(ix-)(x-)

Q.8 MATCH COLUMN A WITH COLUMN 8 AND WRITE THE NUMBCRS OF MATCHING PAIRS IN COLUMN C.

ANSWERS:

(i-k)(ii-l)(iii-a)(iv-f)(v-e)(vi-c)(vii-g)(viii-j)(ix-b)(x-h)

=======ALHAMDOLILAH=======

NOTES/SOLVED EXERCISES ENGLISH FOR GRADE 6 (VI) (PCTB) BY M. GHULAM MUHAMMAD BAIG

NOTES/SOLVED EXERCISES ENGLISH FOR GRADE 6 (VI) (PCTB) BY M. GHULAM MUHAMMAD BAIG

LESSON NO. 1 FAIR DEALING OF HADRAT MUHAMMADPAGE: 1-5

VOCABULARY

MATCH THE WORDS WITH MEANING IN CONTEXT.

   
business:famous:friends:incidents:trustworthy. occupation, trade, industryprominent, well-known, renownedcompanions, helpers, groupshappenings, events, circumstancesloyal, responsible, reliable

READING FOR COMPREHENSION

A:

B:

C. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION: 1 What made the Rasool ﷺ  famous even before his nabuwat?
ANSWER: His honesty and fair dealing with people made the Rasool ﷺ  famous before his NABUWAT.
QUESTION: 2 Why did Hazrat Khadijah رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنھا decide to marry Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ?
ANSWER: Hazrat Khadijah رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنھا decided to marry Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ because of his honesty and fair dealing with people.
QUESTION: 3 Why did the Rasool ﷺ instruct his companions to be fair in business dealing?
ANSWER: Rasool ﷺ instructed his companions to be fair in business dealing because honesty and trustworthy marchant is associated with the prophets, uprights and martyrs.
QUESTION: 4 What is the impact of avoiding doubtful things in business dealing?
ANSWER: Who avoids doubtful things in business dealing keeps his religion and honour blameless.
QUESTION: 5 How can we be honest and fair in our dealing?
ANSWER: We be honest and fair in our dealing by following the teachings of Hadrat Muhammadﷺ.

D. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH APPROPRIATE WORDS.

1- In his young age, he became a ————————–(TRADER).

2- The people of Makkah were much impressed by his trading——————————(SKILLS AND FAIR DEALING).

3- The truthful and trustworthy merchant is ———————-(ASSOCIATED)with the Anbiya, the Uprights and the Martyrs.

4- He who guards against —————–(DOUBTFUL)things keeps his religion and

his honour blameless.

5- Allah shows———————–(MERCY) to the mcm who is kind when he sells, when he buys and when he makes a claim.

DICTIONARY SKILLS

E:

F:

G: FIND THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY.

WORDS MEANINGS
ENTERPRISE  
REGRET  
EXCHANGE  
PROTEST  
REWARD  
SACRIFICE  
BRIDLE  

GRAMMAR

A: FILL IN THE BLANKS USING THE COMMON NOUNS GIVEN BELOW.

(beggar, actor, liar, lawyer, sailor)

  1. A person who sails on the water is called a —————————-
  2. A person who acts in a play is called an —————————-
  3. A person who tells lies is called a —————————-
  4. A person who begs is called a —————————-
  5. A person who has studied law is called a ———————-

Answers: (1- sailor)(2- actor)(3- liar)(4- beggar)(5- lawyer)

WRITING SKILLS

B. PICK OUT FIVE PROPER NOUNS FROM THE LESSON.

C. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH PROPER NOUNS.

My name is ————————————————————

I live in ————————————————————

My birthday is in ————————————————————

My favourite day of the week is —————————————————

The name of my school is ————————————————————

D: USE AN APOSTROPHE TO MAKE POSSESSIVE NOUNS.

Maria’s computer —————————————-

Sana’s sister —————————————-

The teachers’ papers —————————————-

Lata’s pencil —————————————-

My parents’ house —————————————-

E. NOW USE THESE PHRASES IN SENTENCES IN YOUR OWN.

F: READ THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES TAKEN FROM THE LESSON AND UNDERLINE SIMPLE PAST VERBS.

  1. In his young age, he became  a trader.
  2. He traded  with other people’s money with great care.
  3. The Rasool ﷺ advised  his companions to avoid doubtful things in business dealing.
  4. The Rasool ﷺ gave  great importance to fair business dealing.

G: USE SIMPLE PAST VERBS TO COMPLETE THESE SENTENCES.

I —————saw————– a snake last night. (see)

She———–came—————— late yesterday. (come)

They ————went—————–for a walk on Sunday. (go)

We ———————played——– football lust week. (play)

She —————-wrote————-a long story in the test. (write)

H:

I: GIVE THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS AS GIVEN IN YOUR DICTIONARY.

   
age profit honesty famous advised  

WRITING SKILLS

A: CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE.

Examples:  He bought a new pen.

He did not buy a new pen; (negative)

Did he buy a new pen? (interrogative)

1 . Birds flew in the air.

Birds did not flow in the air.(negative)

Did birds flow in the air?(interrogative)

2. They worked hard in exams.

They did not work hard in exams.(negative)

Did they work hard in exams?(interrogative)

3. We looked at the map.

We did not look at the map.(negative)

Did we look at the map?(interrogative)

4. The man killed a snake.

The man did not kill a snake.(negative)

Did the man kill a snake?(interrogative)

5. I wrote a letter.

I did not write a letter.(negative)

Did I write a letter?(interrogative)

B:

C:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS

GROUP ACTIVITY

PROOF READING ACTIVITY

LESSON NO. 2 SURROUNDED BY TRASH  PAGE:

A: READING FOR COMPREHENSION

VOCABULARY

FIND THE MEANING OF THESE WORDS IN YOUR DICTIONARY. USE THESE WORDS IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

deposit, rotten, cigarette butts, guilty consequences

B:

C. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION: 1 What is littering?
ANSWER: Littering is the increasingly prevalent bad habit of thoughtlessly throwing away or leaving rubbish lying around in public places instead of using the rubbish bins or wastepaper baskets provided.
QUESTION: 2 What excuse do people give about littering public places?
ANSWER:
QUESTION:3 What diseases can spread due to littering?
ANSWER:
QUESTION:4 How do our good and bad habits affect our environment?
ANSWER:

GRAMMAR

A. PICK OUT AND WRITE UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS FROM THE LESSON.

B. COMPLETE THE PUZZLES WITH THE HELP OF GIVEN CLUES.

   
Bees collect it. We use it to make bread. This fruit keeps the doctor away. We drink tea in them. We drink it when we are thirsty. We use them to write with. We use it to make sweets. We read them. Children play with it on the beach It tells us the time. H F A C W P S B S C

C:

D. FILL IN THE BLANKS USING “A” OR “AN” WHERE NECESSARY.

  1. 1.    ———a——— student is in the classroom
  2. ———–a——-  food is in the cupboard.
  3. ————-a—–  paper is in my bug.
  4. —————an—  ink-pot is on the table.
  5. —————–a-  boy is in the car.
  6. —————–an-  apple is in the plate.

E. TICK THE RIGHT BALL AFTER EACH STATEMENT.

   
I keep a plastic bag with me to avoid littering.I switch lights off when I leave a room.I tum my TV or computer off when I don’t need it.I clean my teeth by putting water into cx glass.At school I switch off lights when the room is empty. Always Always Always Always Always

E: UNDERLINE SIMPLE PRESENT FORM OF VERBS FROM THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

  1. Lots of people come  here for fun, for work and for enjoyment, and when they go back home, they leave  behind a mountain of smelly trash and dirty rubbish.
  2. Many people think  that it is all right to litter as it is the duty of sweepers to keep the area clean.
  3. Wherever we go, we create a mess.
  4. Rotten fruits and decaying food stuffs emit  poisonous gases and bad smell which are extremely harmful for our health.

G. TICK THE RIGHT OPTION.

They never —————————–to see us. (come, comes)

I always ——————————my teeth twice a day. (clean, cleans)

This train often——————————-late. (arrive, arrives)

Our team never——————————(lose, loses)

Salma never———————————-the library. (visit, visits)

H. CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO NEGATIVE & INTERROGCLTIVE.

Example:

She comes early.

She does not come early (negative)

Does she come early? (interrogative)

  1. I read the book.

I do not read the book. (negative)

I read the book? (interrogative)

  • The baby plays with toys.

The baby does not play with toys. (negative)

Do I read the book? (interrogative)

  • We buy fruit.

I do not read the book. (negative)

Do I read the book? (interrogative)

  • You drink milk everyday

You do not drink milk everyday. (negative)

Do you drink milk everyday? (interrogative)

  • He speaks the truth.

He does not speak the truth. (negative)

Does he speak the truth? (interrogative)

I: REWRITE THE SENTENCES GIVEN BELOW USING COMMAS WHERE NEEDED:

  1. India, Pakistan, China and Singapore are Asian countries.
  2. Here are roses, orchids, sunflowers and lilies in the basket.
  3. Mrs. Khan buys apples, oranges, peaches and water-melons.
  4. There are many cars, buses and trucks on the road.
  5. There are chairs, a table, a cupboard and a television in this room.

I. WITH THE HELP OF YOUR DICTIONARY BREAK THE FOLLOWING WORDS IN SYLLABLES.

   
People garbage scattered extremely planet  

WRITING SKILLS

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS

GROUP ACTIVITY

LESSON NO.3 CHITRAL VALLEY PAGE:

VOCABULARY

SOME MEANINGS ARE GIVEN BELOW IN COLUMN A. READ THE LESSON AND FIND OUT WORDS WHICH HAVE THE SAME MEANINGS. WRITE THEM IN COLUMN ‘B’ .

   
low areas between hills, with stream or river having a liking forquick and noisy movements or activitiespersons travelling for pleasuresmall round piece of glass, stone, etc. pierced for threading with others  

READING FOR COMPREHENSION:

A: ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

QUESTION: 1 Where is Chitral Valley situated?
ANSWER: Chitral Valley situated in the North of Pakistan.
QUESTION: 2 What is the head-dress of the Kalash women?
ANSWER: The head-dress of the Kalash women is a dress which is decorated with different buttons, shells and beads.
QUESTION:3 What is the main attraction for tourists in Chitral Valley?
ANSWER: The culture and tradition of the Kalash people is the main attraction for tourists in Chitral Valley.
QUESTION: 4 Why do we call the people of Chitral Valley “Kalash”?
ANSWER: We call the people of Chitral Valley “Kalash” because they wear black dresses.
QUESTION:5 What do you like the most about Kalash people?
ANSWER: I like the most about Kalash people their culture and tradition.

B: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE MOST APPROPRIATE CHOICE GIVEN AFTER EACH SENTENCE.

1- The natural beauty of Chitral attracts the ———————

(a)people (b) tourists (c) children (d) workers

2- The Kalash women wear ———————————dress.

(a) red (b) white (c) black (d) yellow

3- The Kalash people perform their special————————–at different festivals.

(a) feats (b) tricks (c) dances (d) performance

4- The Kalarsh people live in simple houses made of——————— and mud.

(a) bricks (b) stones (c) cement (d) wood

GRAMMAR:

A: FILL IN THE BLANKS USING ‘A’, ‘AN’. OR ‘THE’ AS NEEDED.

  1. We see ———–a———- moon at night.
  2. Miss Saima puts——–an————-  ice-cube into her lemonade.
  3. This is —————a—— peacock. ——The————— peacock has colourful feathers.
  4. Give me———an————  envelope. I will put my letter in————the———  envelope.
  5. Zubair bought——–a——–  new motorcycle. ——–the—– motorcycle is red in colour.

B:

C:

WRITING SKILLS:

A:

B:

C:

D:

E:

F:

G:

ORAL COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY

LESSON NO.4 NIGHT (POEM) PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

Look up the meaning of these words in the dictionary. Use these words in sentences of your own.

descending, seek, bower, delight, nest

READING FOR COMPREHENSION:

A. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION: 1 What is this poem about?
ANSWER: This poem is about the darkness and calmness of night.
QUESTION: 2 When do the stars shine?
ANSWER: The stars shine when the Sun is setting.
QUESTION:3 What does the night bring for us?
ANSWER: The night brings for us the moon, the stars, darkness and quietness.
QUESTION: 4 What makes the moon happy?
ANSWER: The heaven’s high bower makes the moon happy.
QUESTION:5 Why are the birds silent in their nests?
ANSWER: The birds silent in their nests because the night brings time for their rest in them.

B:

C:

(I) MAKE YOUR OWN SIMILES. HOW COULD I SOY THAT SOMEBODY:

runs fast ———————————————————————

is pretty———————————————————————

jumps well———————————————————————

is strong———————————————————————

(II) HOW COULD I SAY THAT SOMETHING:

feels soft ———————————————————————

is sweet———————————————————————

is heavy———————————————————————

sounds noisy———————————————————————

D: COMPLETE THE SUMMARY OF THE POEM USING THE FOLLOWING WORDS.

go, shine, enjoys, rest, set, like

The sun has ———- rest ——- and the evening stars—— shine ———- in the sky. Birds take—— rest —— in their nests and people also——– go ———- to their homes. The moon looks—– like —– a flower and it also—— enjoys —— the night time.

GRAMMAR:

A:

B: COMPLETE THESE SENTENCES USING A SUITABLE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN

1. He is carrying his new bag. it is ——————-his—————–

2. She is wearing her beautiful dress. It is————-hers———————–

3. I am buying an expensive watch. It is ———————mines—————.

4. They are ironing their shirts. These are ————————–their———-.

5. You are holding a story book. It is ———————-yours————–.

C:

D: COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH THE SUITABLE PREPOSITIONS.

1. Majid is coming back ————on—————–Monday

2. She plays——————————–in—- the afternoon.

3.Their plane will arrive —————-at—3 o’ clock.

4. He takes lessons————————–on— Sunday.

5. You can see me——————–at———- half past seven————–in———- the evening.

E:  USE THE CORRECT FORM OF VERB GIVEN IN BRACKETS TO MAKE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE.

1 . I can’t come. I (learn) my lesson.                              I can’t come. I am learning my lesson.

2. What (you/ do) ? Mom is waiting for you.              What are you doing ? Mom is waiting for you.

3. Look! My cat (play).                                                     Look! My cat is playing.

4. He (do) his homework.                                                He is doing  his homework.

5. Listen! That girl (cry).                                                   Listen! That girl is crying.

F: MAKE QUESTIONS IN PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE.

She is having a party.

Is she having a party?

1. We are waiting for the bus.

Are we waiting for the bus ?

2. She is going to work.

Is she going to work?

3. He is riding a bike.

Is he riding a bike?

4. We are travelling by train.

Are we travelling by train?

5. She is cooking mutton for supper.

Is she cooking mutton for supper?

6. They are playing football.

Are they playing football?

G:

H: CHOOSE THE CORRECT WORD.

  1. I could not get a —————- in the bus. (seat, sit)
  2. A mosquito—————-  me last night. (beat, bit)
  3. My mother is cooking rice for—————- . (super, supper)
  4. My grandmother —————- us stories. (tells, tales)
  5. Saad —————- the ball and scored the goal. (hit, heat)
  6. A —————- sails over water. (sheep, ship)

WRITING SKILLS:

A:

B:

C:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

REVIEW 1

A: FILL IN THE BLANK WITH A/ AN / THE.

1. I will be there after ……..an….. .. hour.

2. This is …….the….. .. tallest building in ——the—— town.

She is ……an…… .. honest girl.

4———An————active child is …..a….. ..healthy child.

5———–An——ostrich is born in the zoo. Many children Want to go to the zoo to see ……the….. .. baby.

B: COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INSERTING THE PLURAL FORM OF THE NOUNS IN BRACKETS.

1. The (girl) are playing with their (friend).

2.These (tree) shed their (leaf) in autumn.

3. The (man) gather (strawberry) to make jam.

4. The (sheep) graze in the (field).

5. Keep (knife) away from the reach of (child).

ANSWERS:

1. The (girls) are playing with their (friend).

2. These (trees) shed their (leaves) in autumn.

3. The (man) gather (strawberries) to make jam.

4. The (sheep) graze in the (fields).

5. Keep (knives) away from the reach of (children).

C: REWRITE THESE PHRASES USING APOSTROPHE.

1. The shop of my father ——————————————-

2. The cries of the monkeys——————————————-

3. The tail of the cat——————————————-

4. The wings of the birds ——————————————-

5. The clothes of the children ————————————–

ANSWERS:

  1. My father’s shop
  2. Monkeys’ cries
  3. The cat’s tail
  4. The birds’ wings
  5. The children’s clothes

D: IDENTIFY DECLARATIVE, NEGATIVE, INTERROGATIVE IMPERATIVE  & EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES.

1 . An aero plane flew above clouds. —–d————————————–

2. The baby does not play with toys. —–n————————————–

3. ‘Wow! What a beautiful watch. ——–e———————————–

4. Shut the window. please. —————im—————————-

5. Are you going to the market? ———in———————————-

E: FILL IN THE BLANKS IN SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE. USING THE VERB IN BRACKETS.

1. She usually …….takes…… .. (take) a bus to school.

2. The teachers ….. encourage…… .. (encourage) the students to study hard

3.The students  .. read.. .. (read) a storybook every Saturday

4. He ………is… .. (be) a good student in school.

5. You ……. paint….. .. (paint) the picture.

F: FILL IN THE BLANKS IN SIMPLE PAST TENSE USING THE CORRECT VERB GIVEN IN BRACKETS.

1. l …….felt….. .. (feel) very tired alter the long walk.

2.They  …. visit. .. (visit) the zoo on last weekend.

3. She ..took…  (take) many photographs of the animals.

4. Everyone ……. hear…… .. .(hear) the good news.

5. He ……brought…… .. (bring) his parrot to school.

G: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH CORRECT PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE FORM OF THE VERB GIVEN IN BRACKETS.

1. A bird ……….is flying……………. .. (fly) in the sky.

2.The children ….are playing……. (play) the playground.

3. They ………..are making……. .. . …. .. (make) a lot of noise.

4. The mother …….is cooking…………. .. (cook) lunch.

5. It ………..is raining……… .. (rain) heavily.

H: READ THE PARAGRAPH GIVEN BELOW. IDENTITY ERRORS OF REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS.

Childrens love to play in the park. Mans and womans also visit parks. Mans like jogging and reading newspaper. Womans like talking to each other. All peoples enjoy very much

ANSWERS:

Children love to play in the park. Men and women also visit parks. Mans like jogging and reading newspaper. Women like talking to each other. All people enjoy very much.

I: WRITE A LETTER TO YOUR FRIEND TELLING HER / HIM ABOUT YOUR EID MILAN PARTY AT SCHOOL.

J: WRITE PARAGRAPHS OF 50-70 WORDS ON THE FOLLOWING TOPICS.

I. MY BEST TEACHER  II. MY SCHOOL

K:

L:

LESSON NO.5 TRAVELLING ETIQUETTES PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

A: MATCH THE FOLLOWING WORDS WITH ILLUSTRATIONS

( get off. get on. standup. sit down)

B: USE THESE WORDS IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

get off ———————————————————————–

get on———————————————————————–

stand up———————————————————————–

sit down———————————————————————–

READING FOR COMPREHENSIONS:

A. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 What are travelling etiquettes?
ANSWER: TRAVELLING ETIQUETTES Consult timetable of desired transport.Stand away from road. Take care of your luggage.
QUESTION:2 What things you should do while waiting for the bus or the van?
ANSWER: During waiting for the bus or the van we should Stand away from road.Take care of your luggage.
QUESTION: 3 How do you behave with driver, conductor and other passengers in a van or a bus?
ANSWER: During travel we treat well with driver, conductor and other passengers in a van or a bus.
QUESTION:4 What do you do to keep yourself safe in the bus?
ANSWER: Stand away from road.Take care of your luggage.Don’t take any eating things from others
QUESTION:5 What might happen if you don’t show patience while getting of the bus?
ANSWER: If we don’t show patience while getting of the bus; we might push someonewe may fall and get injured

B:

GRAMMAR:

A: CHOOSE THE CORRECT REFLEXIVE PROXZOUNS FROM THE LIST GIVEN BELOW TO FILL IN THE BLANKS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

1. Raheel made this T-shirt . himself

2. Lubna did the homework . herself

3. We helped to some dessert at the party. ourselves

4. Eman, did you take the photo all by . ? yourself

5. I wrote this poem . myself

6. The lion can defend . itself

7. Tina and Umer, if you went more milk, help . yourselves

8. Ali and Danial collected the stickers . themselves

B. UNDERLINE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

1. I saw somebody  there.

2. Did you see anybody  there?

3. Would you like something better?

4. Everybody is present in the hall.

5. Nobody came to the meeting.

6. Is there anything  in that drawer?

C. CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION.

1- I didn’t see Akram at the gym. In fact, I didn’t see .

a. anybody b. nobody c. somebody

2- Please tell the salesman at the door that we don’t want to buy

a. anything b. nothing c. something

3- Check in that bag. I bought you .

a. anything b. something c. everything

4- If the phone call is for me, I’m not here. I’m not talking to this weekend.

a. nobody b. anybody c. somebody

5- At that restaurant, you can’t buy for less than Rs. 100/-.

a. something b. everything c. anything

6- You should take for that cough.

a. anything b. everything c. something

answers: (1-a)(2-a)(3-b)(4-b)(5-c)(6-c)

D: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH CORRECT PREPOSITION

  1. The picture hangs ———-above———– i my head.
  2. The sun is ————behind——— the clouds.
  3. The dog ran ———after———— the cat.
  4. I distributed candies ———among———— children.
  5. The cat is———under————  the tree.
  6. Our house is ———in front of———— a big tree.
  7. They went ———–up———- the mountain.
  8. The field is ———–opposite ———- the houses.
  9. Sara is ———-between———– her cousins.

E: LOOK AT THE MAP AND LOCATE THE DIRECTIONS

1- The library is ————————–the departmental store.

(a) opposite (b) one block away from (c) at the back of (d) between the super market and

2- The railway station is the post office.

(a) behind (b) on the side of (c) in front of (cl) next to

3- The Cafe is the Faiz street from the post office.

(a) up (b) down (c) opposite (d) next to

4- The bakery is on the one side of the book store, while the departmental store is on it.

(a)on the other side (b ) behind (c) at the back of (d ) opposite

5. The grocery store is the bakery

 (a) down the Ravi street from (b) one block away from (c) two blocks away from (d) opposite

answers: (1-c)(2-c)(3-b)(4-a)(5-b)

F. ENCIRCLE THE ADVERBS THAT DO NOT BELONG TO THE GROUP. GIVE THE REASON TOO.

  1. too, very enough, bravely  degree
  2. here, there, Sunday  inside
  3. always, often, very sometimes
  4. Yesterday outside, tomorrow, night
  5. cleverly, always, beautifully angrily

G. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH APPROPRIATE ADVERBS FROM THE LIST.

soon very never beautifully here

1. Tea is———- very ———- hot.

2. She sings———– beautifully —— .

3. They will play a game———–soon——-

4. Farida——-never——— comes lute

5. He is not———-here———- .

H:

WRITING SKILLS:

A:

B:

C:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

LESSON NO.6 TESTS AND EXAMS PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

A: WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY:

a morning lurk ———————————————————————–

a night owl —————————————————————————-

B: FIND THE SYNONYMS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS IN THESAURUS.

formal, nervous. stress, leisure, distract, ramble

READING FOR COMPREHENSION:

A: CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTIONS.

1. The main idea of paragraph 1 is:

a. exams b. stress c tests

2. The main idea of paragraph 2 is:

a. stress b. tests c. exams

3. Paragraph 3 shows supporting details in the form of:

a definition b. example c. evidence

Answers:  (1-c)(2-c)(3-a)

B:

C. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 What is the difference between tests and exams?
ANSWER: Tests help us to know where we are in the process of studies. While exams make us enable to move to other level of study.
QUESTION:2 What is the importance of tests and exams?
ANSWER: TESTS & EXAMS keep us active in studies. We do not waste time and Succeed in final exams.
QUESTION:3 Do you feel nervous about tests and exams?
ANSWER: No, because I do my homework daily so I never feel nervous about tests and exams.
QUESTION:4 What kind of tests and exams do you prefer to have? Why?
ANSWER: I prefer those tests which check our information and thinking power not only textbooks.
QUESTION:5 When can you study the best, in the day or at night? Why?
ANSWER: I can study day and night but I like more to study at night because there is no disturbance.

D: ARE YOU A GOOD PLANNER? MARK (a ) OR (X) IN THE BOX.

1 . I have made a timetable for my study, games and TV.a

2. I have a tidy study area at home where I don’t keep things that distract me. a

3. I work on the hard stuff first and prepare the subjects I enjoy afterwards. a

4. I read all instructions and questions carefully.a

5. I check my work when I have finished, making sure that I have attempted it rightly. a

GRAMMAR:

A: USE ONE OF THE MODAL VERBS GIVEN IN BRACKETS 10 IN EACH GAP.

  1. They (can / might) ————— be away for the weekend but I’m not sure.
  2. You (may / might)————————-  leave now if you wish.
  3. (Could/ May)————————-  you open the window a bit, please?
  4. (May/ Can)————————-  you swim?
  5. Listen, please. You (may not / might not) ——————  speak during this exam.

B:

C: CHANGE THE DOCTOR’S COMMAND TO A PATIENT INTO SENTENCES WITH YOU MUST OR YOU MUSTN’T. ONE HAS BEEN DONE FOR YOU.

1- Stay in bed for at least a week.

You must stay in bed for at least a week.

2- Take these pills after each meal.

You must  take these pills after each meal.

3- Quit smoking.

You must  quit smoking.

4- Get more exercise.

You must  get more exercise.

5- Don’t have any visitor until Tuesday.

You must  not have any visitor until Tuesday.

D:

E:

WRITING SKILLS:

A: CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE.

  1. You may sit here.
  2. She can help him.
  3. You must say hello now.
  4. They should check everything.
  5. You might find the book in the cupboard
  6. I can borrow your book.

NEGATIVE:

  1. You may not sit here.
  2. She cannot help him.
  3. You must not say hello now.
  4. They should not check everything.
  5. You might not find the book in the cupboard.
  6. I cannot borrow your book.

INTERROGATIVE:

  1. May you sit here.
  2. Can she help him.
  3. Must you must say hello now.
  4. Should They check everything.
  5. Might You find the book in the cupboard
  6. Can I borrow your book.

B:

C:

ORAL COMMUNICATIONS SIKLLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

LESSON NO.7 SPORTS AND SPORTSMANSHIP PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

READING FOR COMPREHENSION:

A:

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 What is meant by ‘sportsmanship’?
ANSWER: Sportsmanship is a fair and good treatment to others, especially in a sporting contest.
QUESTION:2 Why should we not cheat in a game?
ANSWER: We should not cheat in a game because we play game and try our best to win. Cheating mean you are not good player.
QUESTION:3 Why is it important to control your emotions when you lose?
ANSWER: It is important to control our emotions when you lose because we play game. Because it is against spirit of game to lose temper.
QUESTION:4 Games also teach us team work. How?
ANSWER: It is true that games teach us team work. We work together united to win the game and learn teamwork.
QUESTION:5 Which games do you like the most? Why?
ANSWER: I like football game the most because it Gives us chance to do hard work.Is cheaper than others.Has no need a big play ground.

C:

GRAMMAR:

A: REPLACE THE UNDERLINED WORDS WITH MULTIPLE COLLECTIVE NOUNS.

  1. A lot of peoplegathered on the beach.
  2. The man took his wife and children to the zoo.
  3. The group of cows grazed on the hill.
  4. The captain led his group of players to the ground.
  5. The children gave the chief guest a collection of flowers

Answers: (1-crowd)(2-family)(3-herd)(4-team)(5-bunch)

B:

C: JOIN ANTECEDENT WITH ITS REFERENT IN EACH SENTENCE. CORRECT THE WRONG PRONOUN – ANTECEDENT RELATIONSHIP.

  1. The  CAT will sleep ITS  basket.
  2. Samra is looking for his watch.
  3. Ali and Saad have completed his work.
  4. I am sorry: I lost your pen. I will bring me a new one tomorrow.
  5. Where is my bag? I can not find her.

Answers:

  • The  CAT will sleep its  basket.
  • Samra is looking for her watch.
  • Ali and Saad have completed their work.
  • I am sorry: I lost your pen. I will bring you a new one tomorrow.
  • Where is my bag? I can not find it.

D:

E:

WRITING SKILLS:

A: CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO NEGATIVE & INTERROGATIVE.

  1. I will go to the market today.
  2. You will play hockey.
  3. She will complete her work.
  4. They will reach Lahore tomorrow.
  5. The wet shirt will dry in the sun.

Answers:

NEGATIVE:

  1. I will not go to the market today.
  2. You will not play hockey.
  3. She will not complete her work.
  4. They will not reach Lahore tomorrow.
  5. The wet shirt will not dry in the sun.

INTERROGATIVE:

  1. Will I go to the market today?
  2. Will you play hockey?
  3. Will she complete her work?
  4. Will they reach Lahore tomorrow?
  5. Will the wet shirt dry in the sun?

B:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY

LESSON NO.8 THE RAINBOW (POEM) PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

READING FOR COMPREHENSION:

A. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 What is the main idea of the poem?
ANSWER: The main idea of the poem is comparison among man-made and God-made things.
QUESTION:2 Where do the boats and ships sail?
ANSWER: The boats and ships sail in the rivers and seas.
QUESTION:3 What sails across the sky?
ANSWER: Clouds sail across the sky.
QUESTION:4 Why are bridges made on rivers?
ANSWER: Bridges made on rivers so that people can cross the rivers.

B:

C:

D:

E: FILL IN THE BLANKS TO COMPLETE THE GAPED SUMMARY OF RAINBOW.

road -over -rainbow -beautiful- more -sail

It looks——— beautiful ———– when boats and ships——— sail ——— on rivers and seas. But clouds that sail———— over ———- the sky look

———— more ———beautiful. There are also bridges on the rivers that add to the beauty but a———— rainbow ————– that builds ———— road ———— from earth to the sky is far prettier than anything else.

GRMMAR:

A:

B:

C:

D: COMBINE THE PAIR OF SENTENCES BELOW INTO ONE SENTENCE‘. USING APPROPRIATE TRANSITIONAL DEVICES.

because therefore so but and

1 . Fatima got home late. She missed her TV programme

2. God made the country. Man made the town.

3. Hamad missed the bus. He woke up lute.

4. I went there. He was absent.

5. The weather was warm. Jamshaid turned on the air conditioner.

ANSWERS:

1 . Fatima got home late and she missed her TV programme

2. God made the country but man made the town.

3. Hamad missed the bus because he woke up late.

4. I went there therefore he was absent.

5. The weather was warm so Jamshaid turned on the air conditioner.

WRITING SKILLS:

A:                              

B:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

LESSON NO.9 SEASONS OF THE YEAR PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

A:

B:

C:

READING FOR COMPREHENSION:

A:

B: CHOOSE THE RIGHT OPTION.

1. The lesson is about:

a. rain b. spring  c. seasons

2. Each paragraph in the lesson supports the main idea through

a.  definition b. example c. evidence

ANSWERS: (1- C)(2-C)

D: EACH SENTENCE BELOW IS THE TOPIC SENTENCE OI A PARAGRAPH TN THE TEXT. WRITE THE NUMBER OF THE PARAGRAPH NEXT TO ITS TOPIC SENTENCE.

After autumn comes winter. (Paragraph—————————)

Then comes the summer season.(Paragraph—————————)

Spring is the queen of seasons and the loveliest of them all.(Paragraph—————————)

Autumn comes between the summer and winter season.(Paragraph—————————)

D. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 Which is the longest season in Pakistan?
ANSWER: Summer is the longest season in Pakistan.
QUESTION:2 What do you like in the autumn season?
ANSWER: I like fruit in the autumn season.
QUESTION:3 What do you dislike in the summer season?
ANSWER: I dislike hotness in the summer season.
QUESTION:4 Which season do you like the most?
ANSWER: I like spring season the most.
QUESTION:5 What do you like most about your favourite season?
ANSWER: I like most about your favourite season is that there is no hot no cold.

E: CORRECT THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS AND RE-WRITE THEM

1. The summer months are cold.

The winter months are cold.

2. Summer comes between autumn and winter.

Summer comes between spring and autumn.

3. Winter is the king of all seasons.

spring is the queen of all seasons.

4. January is the hottest month of the year.

May June and July are the hottest months of the year .

5. Spring comes between summer and winter.

Spring comes between winter and summer .

GRAMMAR:

A: FIND OUT FROM COLUMN R’ THE CORRECT ADJECTIVE TO SUIT THE NOUN IN COLUMN ‘B’ AND WRITE IL IN COLUMN ‘C’:

A B C
Soft woolen heavy rain hottest Months rains water clothes wind Wind clothes rains water Months

B. SOME ADJECTIVES FROM THE LESSON ARE GIVEN BELOW.

1 . What degree do these adjectives have?

loveliest ——— — (paragraph 2)

beautiful ———– (paragraph 2)

hottest ——— — (paragraph 3)

coldest ——— — (paragraph 5)

2.Write other degree of these adjectives.

3. Which ones are regular adjectives?

4. Which ones are irregular adjectives?

5. Pick out more adjectives from the lesson and change their degree.

C. ENCIRCLE THE ADJECTIVES THAT DO NOT BELONG TO THE GROUP. GIVE THE REASON TOO.

Example: beautiful , ugly intelligent

‘Some’ is not cm adjective of quality

  1. Pakistani, British, Japanese, round
  2. green, third, eight, second
  3. big, long, sour, four
  4. white, medium, pink, brown
  5. long, tall, white, high

D: USE CORRECT DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES

1. Karachi is the (biggest) city of Pakistan.

2. Spring is the (most beautiful) of all the seasons.

3. This road is (longer) than that road.

4. Saima is the (most intelligent) student in the class

5.June is the (hottest) month of the year.

E: USE THE FOLLOWING ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES IN SENTENCES

unique, round. perfect, empty dead

F:

WRITING SKILLS:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

REVIEW 2

A: UNDERLINE COUNTABLE, UNCOUNTABLE & COLLECTIVE NOUNS.

1. I like honey very much.

2. The team was happy to win the match.

3. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

4. She drinks cold water.

5. There was a large crowd gathered in the street.

B: CHANGE THE GENDER & RE-WRITE THESE SENTENCES.

1. He is not as happy as his brother.

2. My mother likes tea but my father likes coffee.

3. Her grandmother tells her many stories.

4. We have many cocks and oxen in our farm.

5. Your brother is two years younger than your sister.

ANSWERS:

1. She is not as happy as her brother.

2. My father likes tea but my mother likes coffee.

3. His grandfather tells him many stories.

4. We have many hens and cows in our farm.

5. Your sister is two years younger than your brother.

C: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH APPROPRIATE PRONOUNS.

1 . ……..He.. goes to the market.

2. Sana says that this bag is ….hers….. ..

3. I heard a sound in the room but there was …….no one .. inside.

4. I wrote this story …….myself ..

5. This book is mine not ……yours… ..

D: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE CORRECT PREPOSITION FROM THE BRACKETS.

1. We learnt to cook ………. .. our mother. (by at, from)

2. He is interested ………. .. stamp-collecting. (in, by at)

3. He has not written to me ………. .. many weeks. (from, for, with)

4. Turn right ………. .. the junction to go to the bank. (at, on, in)

5. She walked ………. .. the hospital. (Of, by, to)

E: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH CAN, MAY, SHOULD OR MUST.

1 . ……May.. I have a look at your paragraph?

2. The new captain ……can.. .. run very fast.

3. You …..must.. .. finish your homework on time.

4. You …….should…… .. knock before you enter the room.

5. Fakhir ….can….. .. swim better than his friend.

F: COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH ADJECTIVES GIVEN IN BRACKETS IN FORM OF COMPARISON.

1 . My father is four years …..older.. .. (old) than my mother.

2. Zara is the …….taller……..(tall) girl in the class.

3. Salman is a …..hardworking .. (hardworking) student.

4. Fatima is the …..youngest.. .. (young) of the six children.

5. This is the ……most interesting……. .. (interesting) story I have ever read

G: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH CORRECT ADVERBS.

1. She went ………early….. .. (adverb of time)

2. He lives …….here…… .. (adverb of place)

3. They walk …….slowly……. .. (adverb of manner)

4. Sana ……….often… .. gets good marks in tests. (adverb of frequency)

5. The story is …..very…….. ..interesting. (adverb of degree)

H: JOIN THE TWO SENTENCES IN EACH PAIR USING THE CONJUNCTION GIVEN IN BRACKETS.

1 . You will succeed. You work hard. (if)

2. She was invited. She did not come. (but)

3. He will succeed. He has worked hard. (because)

4. I was busy. I did not telephone him. (so)

5. It was raining. I took an umbrella with me. (therefore)

Answers:

1 . You will succeed if you work hard.

2. She was invited but she did not come.

3. He will succeed because he has worked hard.

4. I was busy so I did not telephone him.

5. It was raining therefore I took an umbrella with me.

I. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE OF THE VERB GIVEN IN THE BRACKETS.

1. Ali  …will take part…(take part) in race.

2. She …..will  be… .. (be) more regular in class after the warning.

3. I ……shall read…. (read) many storybooks during summer vacation.

4. They …..will hold… .. (hold) Fun Fair next week.

5. He ….will visit.. .. .(visit) us soon.

J: WRITE PARAGRAPHS OF 50-70 WORDS ON THE FOLLOWING TOPICS.

i. How to Polish Shoes?

ii. The Season I like the Most

K. READING AND THINKING SKILLS:

An unseen reading passage may be exploited for vocabulary text patterns, comprehension questions and summary skills.

L: ORAL COMMUNICATION:

Form pairs or groups (as required) and give students different situations. Ask them to prepare a dialogue for each situation and present it in the class.

LESSON NO.10 MODERN INVENTIONS PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

READING FOR COMPREHENSION:

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 Why is present age called the modern age?
ANSWER: Present age is called the modern age because it is age of science.
QUESTION:2 What are the main contributions of science?
ANSWER: The main contributions of science are; televisioncomputer
QUESTION:3 What are modem inventions in the field of information and entertainment?
ANSWER: MODEM INVENTIONS IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION & ENTERTAINMENT televisionradiointernettelephone
QUESTION:4 What was the size of first earlier computers?
ANSWER: The size of first earlier computers was in tons. Some computers were like double decker buses.
QUESTION:5 How have these inventions changed our life?
ANSWER: Now-a-days, every field of life depends on the science.  Like we can travel faster than past days etc.

GRAMMAR:

A: USE THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB GIVEN IN BRACKETS TO MAKE ‘PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE.

1. When I saw him, he was going (go) to school.

2. The light went out when I was taking (take) tea.

3. When you were writing a letter, I was reading (read) a book.

4. While Saeeda was plucking (pluck) flowers, the gardener came.

5. I was taking (take) rest when the bell rang.

B: MAKE QUESTIONS IN PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE.

Example:

They were working all day

What were they doing yesterday?

1. She’s going to the market. [WHERE]

Where was she going?

2. You were giving her flowers because it was her birthday [WHY]

Why were you giving her flowers?

3. We were waiting because the train was late. [WHY]

Why were we waiting?

4. We were travelling by aeroplane. [HOW]

How were we travelling?

She was cooking rice for dinner. [WHAT]

What was she cooking?

C:

D: HEAD THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. ENCIRCLE THE DIRECT OBJECT & UNDERLINE THE INDIRECT OBJECT.

1. She gave the beggar MONEY.

2. I owed her a lot of MONEY.

3. He gave his friend a PRESENT.

4. The teacher told the girls A STORY.

5. The guide showed the boys A MAP.

E:

WRITING SKILLS

A:                              

B:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

LESSON NO.11 ZOO HOSPITAL PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

READING FOR COMMUNICATION:

 ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 What is the main difference between human patients and animal patients?
ANSWER: HUMAN PATIENTS   ANIMAL PATIENTS
They can tell their problem to the doctors. They cannot tell their problem to the doctors.
QUESTION:2 How do doctors make animals swallow medicine’?
ANSWER: Doctors hide medicine in the favourite food of the animals to swallow.
QUESTION:3 How was the castor oil given to the spoonbill?
ANSWER: Castor oil was given to the spoonbill by fish filled by oil.
QUESTION:4 How was the giraffe given the medicine?
ANSWER: The giraffe was given medicine by loaf of sugar because he like to eat it.

B:Tick (a)THE RIGHT CHOICE TO FILLIN THE BLANKS INB EACH STATEMENT.

1- The animals like to live in their natural .

(a) surroundings (b) houses (c) bushes (d) places

2- The expert doctors look after ———————in a zoo hospital.

(a) human patients (b) children patients (c) animal patients (d) the employees of the zoo

3- The doctor—————- the ways how the animal should be made to take medicine.

 (a) tries (b)finds (c) thinks (d) narrator

4- The——————————has a great liking for potatoes.

(a) giraffe (b) monkey (c) spoonbill (d) elephant

5- Giraffe has liking for—————————–

(a) potatoes (b) sweet (c) loaf of sugar (d )castor oil

6- Spoonbill mostly lives on

(a) meat (b) grain (c) warms (d) fish

GRAMMAR:

A. COMPLETE THESE SENTENCES WITH OBJECTS

1. I sold  my old car.

2. I took some hot tea.

3. I bought a pair of new shoes.

4. I understood the problem.

5. I wrote a letter.

Examples: The bird cried.

The elephant coughed.

B: USE THE FOLLOWING INTRANSITIVE VERBS IN SENTENCES.

slept: —————————————————————————————-

cried: —————————————————————————————-

fell: —————————————————————————————-

run: ——————————————————————————————

rose: ————————————————————————————-

C: MAKE SENTENCES OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS. FIND OUT WHETHER THE VERBS ARE TRANSITIVE / INTRANSITIVE.

WORDS SENTENCES TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE
laugh follow buy weep clean      

ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE

A:  

B: READ THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. IDENTIFY ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE

  1. I like mangoes. ACTIVE  VOICE
  2. Mangoes are liked by me.  PASSIVE VOICE
  3. Rice are eaten by us.  PASSIVE VOICE
  4. We eat rice. ACTIVE  VOICE
  5. She caught a bird. ACTIVE VOICE
  6. A bird was caught by her. PASSIVE VOICE
  7. He will be punished by the teacher. PASSIVE VOICE
  8. The teacher will punish him. ACTIVE  VOICE
  9. I am writing a story. ACTIVE  VOICE
  10. The story is being written by me. PASSIVE VOICE

WRITING SKILLS:

A:                              

B:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

LESSON NO.12 DRUGS ARE DANGEROUS PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

READING FOR COMMUNICATION:

A:

B:

C. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 Why do the people use drugs?
ANSWER: The people use drugs to intoxicate their minds.
QUESTION:2 What is the effect of drugs on the mind of people?
ANSWER: People lose the control on their minds by the effects of medicines.
QUESTION:3 How are the drivers who use drugs are danger for all of us?
ANSWER: The drivers who use drugs are danger for all of us because they cant drive safely and may cause some accident.
QUESTION:4 What advice do you want to give to the addicts?
ANSWER: I want to give to the addicts that they must consult doctor to get rid of the drugs.

D: CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION.

1 . The drugs are quite

a) easily available b) cheap c) costly d) useful

2- Addicts drain away

a) water b) enjoyment c) money d) nothing

3- Drugs change the way the brain

a) works b) understands c) covers d) maintains

4- The addicts drive their vehicles

a) actively b) safely c) carefully d) dangerously

5- Addicts make our world

a) healthy b) unhealthy c) pleasant d) secure

GRAMMAR:

A: READ TWO SENTENCES GIVEN BELOW AND NOTICE THE DIFFERENCE.

It you go to Murree, you will have a wonderful Remember. You will have a wonderful time if you go to Murree.

  1. Which clause comes first in this sentence? (Any one)
  2. Can you switch these clauses? (yes)
  3. Is there any difference in meaning? ( No)
  4. What’s different about punctuation? What happens to the comma?
  5. When the main clause comes first, there is no need to put a comma.

B: COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING FIRST CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.

1- If you do not study hard, you ———————–the test.

a) do not pass b) will not pass c) pass

2- Huma will be sad if her mother ————————.

a) will leave b) will not leave c) leaves

3- If it’s sunny we——————————- to the park.

a) do not go b) will go c) go

4- You won’t enjoy your time, if you ———————to that party.

a) will go b) do not go c) will not go

5-If you cook the dinner. I ————————the dishes.

a) will wash b) do not wash c) wash

C:

D:

WRITING SKILLS:

A:                              

B:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

LESSON NO.13 A HAPPY PRINCE PAGE:

VOCABULARY:

READING FOR COMMUNICATION:

C. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

QUESTION:1 What do you know about the statue of the Happy Prince?
ANSWER: The happy prince was decorated. It was covered with thin leaves of gold all over his body. His eyes were made up of sapphires. There was a red ruby on the top of his sword.
QUESTION:2 How did the statue help the poor and the needy?
ANSWER: The swallow carried red ruby from his sword to the poor seamstress who could not afford oranges for her sick son.The swallow plucked an expensive sapphire from one of his eyes and carried it to the struggling playwright to help him financially.The swallow plucked his second sapphire eye and took it to the match girl to help her get some money. 
QUESTION:3 What is the role of the swallow in this story?
ANSWER: The little swallow acts as the agent of charity. He carries gold leaves and precious stones to the poor people.
QUESTION:4 What lesson do you learn from this story?
ANSWER: The  bad sides of society can be overcome by love and charity.
QUESTION:5 Do you like the character of the Happy Prince?
ANSWER: Yes, I like the character of the Happy Prince very much.

GRAMMAR:

A:

 What things which are always plural can be used to

  1. weigh something? ————————–scales——————————————————
  2. cut paper /cloth? ——————scissors——————
  3. hold your trousers up? —————braces———————
  4. keep a prisoner’s hands together? ————-handcuffs————-
  5. wear on eyes?————–glasses————–

C:

D:

E:

F.

G. READ THE FOLLOWING DIRECT STATEMENTS. THEN COMPLETE THE INDIRECT STATEMENTS.

   
1.”I am very tired? 2.”You play the piano well!‘ 3.”We are leaving the town‘! 4.”I will go to find a new job” 5.1 am looking for my pen!‘ She says that ——she—— is very tired.Jamil tells me that —-he—— play the piano well.He says that ——they—- are leaving the town.He says that ——he—– will go to find a new job.She says that —–she—- is looking for her pen.

WRITING SKILLS:

A:                              

B:

ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS:

GROUP ACTIVITY:

<<<<<<<ALHAMDOLILLAH>>>>>>>

DIALOGUE BETWEEN TAILOR(درذی) AND A CUSTOMER (گاھک)

DIALOGUE BETWEEN TAILOR AND A CUSTOMER

Tailor: Good morning, sir. What can I do for you?

Customer: I want to look at some cloth for a suit.

T: Certainly, sir. Any particular colour?

C: Yes, I want a dark brown.

T: It is for your suit, sir?

C: Yes, like I am wearing now.

T: Here is a very nice cloth, sir, which were well.

C: What is the price?

T: SAR10 per meter.

C: How much should I require for a suit?

T: Four meter.

C: And what do you charge for making?

T: SAR. 100, sir.

C: I see; SAR. 140 altogether. I think I will take it.

T: Very good, sir, I will take you measurements

C: Let me see.

T: Very good, sir. It will be ready for you on Tuesday. Is there anything else I can do for you? Shirts? Ties? Vests? Stockings?

C: No. I think not; thank you. Bye!

T: Good Bye, sir and thank you.

DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO FRIENDS REGARDING PRAYERS

 A DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO FRIENDS REGARDING PRAYERS

Saim: Good morning Waseem.

Waseem: Good morning Saim. Where are you going?

S: I’m going to mosque to offer my prayers. It is morning prayer time. What about you?

W: I am going to garden for a morning walk.

S: I always prefer prayer. I offer my prayers five times a day.

W: That is a good thing. I will also try.

S: one  should stop his business and offer his prayers.

W: You are right.

S: When man offers his prayers, his life improves. he lives neat and clean life. Everybody respect him.

W: From today, I will also offer my prayers five times a day.

S: That’s very good. Let’s go and offer our prayer first.

W: Let’s go.