1. Simorgh ………………………………. ..1

2. Taking Care of our Environment—5

3. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle …………….. ..10

4. Services …………………………….14

5. Art and Activist ………………………… ..19

6. Elections………………………………. .23.

7. Human Beings and Machines ……26


8. Longitude arid Latitude 30

9. Eclipses………………….. ..34

10.Looking at The Land————–39

11. Rocks and Minerals————- 43

Sources of Energy….. ..49

Trade and Industries————-55

Climate of Pakistan————- 60


15. Changes: Cities ……………………….. 63

16. Cyrus The Great …………………….. ..68

17. Bibi, Marium and Hazrat Issa. (a.s.)71

18. The Great Mughals ………….. .74

19. Poet of the East. ……………………..79

20. Pakistan After Independence. ————-82




Question 1: How many valleys did the birds pass through? Name them.


The birds passed through 7 valleys;

  1. Yearning
  2. Love
  3. Knowledge of Mysteries
  4. Detachment
  5. Unity
  6. Wonderment
  7. Faqr-o- fana

Question 2: How many birds were there left at the end?


There were 30 birds left at the end.

Question 3: What was the name of the king of the birds?


The name of the king of the birds was simorgh.

Question 4: Why were the birds surprised once they entered the palace?


The birds were surprised when they entered the palace because they saw mirror in front of them.

Question 5: What does the word Simorgh mean?


The word Simorgh means 30 birds.

Question 6: Who wrote the story of Simorgh and what is the name of the story?


Sheikh Fariduddin Attar wrote the story of Simorgh. The name of the story is Mantiqu Tayr.









  1. Pollution
  2. Polluted air
  3. Pollutants
  4. Plants
  5. World 

Question 1: 1. What does environment mean?


Environment is the world around us.

2. Explain briefly the three kinds of pollutions.


1- air pollution

2- water pollution

3- land pollution

3. What can people do about the environment?


People can;

  1. Keep air clean
  2. Use buses
  3. Use cleaner technologies

4. How does pollution affect our health?


We become ill when we use polluted water and breathe in polluted air.

5. What would happen if we do not take care ofour environment?


If we do not take care of our environment gradually it will polluted and people will feel difficulty to live on the earth.

6. Find out the names of five organizations that are working to protect our environment.


  1. WWF
  4. UNEP



PAGE: 12-13



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)


Question 1:

How is the land being polluted?


The land is being polluted by the wastes which we make daily.

Question 2:

What do you understand by the word 3 rs?


The 3 Rs mean;

  1. Reduce
  2.  Reuse
  3. Recycle

Question 3:

What is recycling and how is it beneficial for us ?



  it means making new materials or products from waste materials. It is beneficial because it saves our energy resources.

Question 4:

Which materials can be recycled? Give some examples?


The following materials can be recycled;

  1. Glass
  2. Metal
  3. Plastic
  4. Paper

Question 5: Look at the chart below. How can these materials be reused?



UNIT# 4. SERVICES …………………………….14

PAGE: 16





Question 1: What do people in the service organizations do?


Question: 2. Why is a municipal organization necessary for a city?


Question:3. Who are doctors and nurses? Where do they work and what do they provide us?


Question: 4. In case of a fire which organization is called and what do they do?


Question: 5. Do you think schools are service organizations? What do schools do?





UNIT# 5. ART AND ACTIVIST ………………………… ..19

PAGE: 22




Question 1:What is art?


Question 2: How have we come to know about  ancient art?


Question 3: What do you know about the art heritage of your country?


Question 4: Write the names of some famous artists of Pakistan.


Question 5: Write about the various forms of art.


UNIT# 6. ELECTIONS………………………………. .23

PAGE: 25




Question 1: What does the word ‘democracy ‘mean?


Question 2: What are elections and why are they held in a country?


Question 3: At what age is a person allowed to vote in our country?


Question 4: What do you know about the National and Provincial Assemblies?


Question 5: Who heads the federal government?


Question 6: Do you think elections are good for a country? Why?



PAGE: 28-29




Question 1: Which invention is considered to be the first invention of human beings?

ANSWER: Wheel is considered to be the first invention of human beings.

Question 2: Why were most of the inventions made in the last four hundred years?

ANSWER: Most of the inventions made in the last four hundred years because people began to challenge old theories.

Question 3: What do you know about the “Industrial Revolution?


Industrial Revolution means that the world was changed with industries.

Question 4:

Who was Thomas Edison?


Thomas Edison was a famous inventor.

Question 5:

What do you understand by the phrase a “Machines can be our friends, but they can be our enemies too”. Explain briefly?


 It mean that machines are not important their usage is important.



PAGE: 32-33



ANSWERS: (1-C)(2-B)(3-B)(4-A)(5-B)(6-A)


Question 1: What are lines of longitude?


Question 2: What are lines of latitude?


Question 3: How do lines of longitude and latitude help us?


Question 4: Where is Greenwich?


Question 5: What is the difference between the prime meridian and the equator?




UNIT# 9. ECLIPSES ………………….. ..34

PAGE: 37-38



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)


Question 1: What causes day and night?


Question 2: How much time does the moon take to complete an orbit?


Question 3: What is an eclipse?


Question 4: Describe the difference between a solar and a lunar eclipse.


Question 5: How did Columbus succeed in getting food supplies from native Americans with the help of a lunar eclipse?





PAGE: 42



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)


Question 1: Describe any three types of land forms


Question 2: What is a coast?


Question 3: How are valleys formed?


Question 4: Where does the cactus plant grow?


Question 5: What is a plateau?




PAGE: 46-47



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(8-)


Question 1: What are rocks and why are they important for us?


Question 2: Where can we find minerals?


Question 3: What are metals and non-metals? Give some examples.


Question 4: Write the names of some metallic and non-metallic minerals found in Pakistan.


Question 5: In which areas of our country are precious stones found?


Question 6: Make a list of the areas of Pakistan which have rich deposits of minerals.




PAGE: 52



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)(8-)


Question 1: Why do we need energy?


Question 2: What are fossil fuels? Write about each of them.


Question 3: How can energy be produced by sun or wind?


Question 4: What are nuclear reactors and how do they produce energy?


Question 5: What are the major sources of energy in our country?


Question 6: What is the difference between hydroelectricity and thermal electricity?




PAGE: 58



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)(8-)


Question 1: What do you understand by the word ‘manufacturing‘?


Question 2: What is the difference between a ‘developed‘ and ‘developing’ country?


Question 3: Can you make a list of the things which you think come from industries?


Question 4: Why are most of the industries of Pakistan agro-based industries?


Question 5: What do you know about some of the heavy industries of Pakistan?


Question 6: What are the major export and import items of our country?





PAGE: 62



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)


Question 1: What is the difference between weather and climate?


Question 2: How can we measure weather conditions?


Question 3: What are the main factors which affect the climate?


Question 4: Where is Pakistan located on the world map?


Question 5: What do you know about the climate of Pakistan?




UNIT# 15. CHANGES: CITIES ……………………….. 63

PAGE: 66



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)


Question 1: What did ancient people do for their living?


Question 2: Why did the people in old times move from place to place?


Question 3: Why did people settle permanently beside the river?


Question 4: How did a village change into a town?


Question 5: What do you know about the ‘Industrial Revolution‘ and how did it help in the growth of cities?




UNIT# 16. CYRUS THE GREAT …………………….. ..68

PAGE: 70



Question 1: Who do the scholars of the Quran think


Question 2: What part of the world did Cyrus the Great rule over?


Question 3: Which other lands did he conquer?


Question 4: Which custom did Cyrus put an end to?


Question 5: What was Cyrus famous for?


Question 6: What is written on Cyrus’s tomb?



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)(8-)


17. BIBI MARIAM AND HAZRAT ISA (علیہم السلام) 71

PAGE: 73



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)


Question 1: Who was Bibi Marium?


Question 2: What did Angel Jibra’eel told Bibi Marium?


Question 3: What did the young infant say when the visitors came to see Bibi Marium?


Question 4: What miraculous powers were given to Hazrat Issa (A.S) by God?


Question 5: What did Hazrat Issa (A.S) ask Bani Israel?



UNIT# 18. THE GREAT MUGHALS ………….. .74

PAGE: 77



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)


Question 1: Who were the ancestors of the Mughals?


Question 2: How was the Mughal Empire founded and by whom?


Question 3: Who was Sher Shah Suri?


Question 4: What do you know about the battles of Pani Pat?


Question 5: Why did the Mughal Empire break apart?



UNIT# 19. POET OF THE EAST. ……………………..79

PAGE: 81



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)


Question 1: Who was Shams-ul- Ulama Moulvi Syed Mir Hasan?


Question 2: From where did Iqbal complete his graduation?


Question 3: Why did Allama Iqbal go to England in 1905?


Question 4: Write the names of some books written by Allama Iqbal


Question 5: What did Allama Iqbal say at the annual session of the Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930?


Question 6: When did Allama Iqbal died and where is he buried?




PAGE: 85



ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)


Question 1: Why do we celebrate 14th August?


Question 2: Why did some people think that Pakistan could not survive?


Question 3: What problems did the newly born country face?


Question 4: What great loss did Pakistan face in 1971?


Question 5: What do you know about the Kashmir isuue? Explain briefly.


Question 6: What are the failures and successes of Pakistan during the last fifty years?







1. a. Abacus b. Microprocessors c. Difference engine d. EDSAC e. Expert system

2. a. T b. F c. F d. T e. T

3. a. Charles Babbage is called the father of modern computers.

b. The second generation computers used transistors.



ANSWER: a. The fifth-generation computers are referred to as supercomputers as they have very high storage capacities, high speeds, and the ability to carry out highly sophisticated operations.


ANSWER: b. The third-generation computers used Integrated Circuits (ICs) for the first time. An example of third generation computer is the IBM 360 series.


ANSWER: c. Two limitations of the first generation computers were: i. their operating speed was quite slow. ii. their power consumption was very high.


ANSWER: d. Diligence means the ability of a computer system to work with the same accuracy till power is supplied to it, without any boredom.


1. a. Input devices b. Stylus c. ATM d. Output device e. Bit

2. a. T b. F c. T d. T e. F


a. The devices that are used to get the output from a computer are called output devices.

b. The storage capacity of a computer is called its memory.

c. Two examples of secondary storage devices are: floppy disk and hard disk.

d. Secondary memory is used to store the programs and data for future referencing.



ANSWER: a. The kind of memory that loses its contents when the power is turned off is known as volatile memory; whereas the kind of memory that retains its contents even when the power is turned off is known as nonvolatile memory.


ANSWER: b. The two main types of printers are: impact printers, for example, the dot matrix printer; and non-impact printers, for example, the inkjet printer.


ANSWER: c. A touch screen is a computer display screen in which a user interacts with the computer by touching words or pictures on the screen. Touch screens are used in Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), in tablet PCs, in railway and airport terminals, in hospitals, etc.



1. a. WordArt styles b. Text c. Cropping d. Position e. Format

2. a. T b. F c. F d. T e. F

a. The Wrap Text feature starts a new line when a word in a sentence reaches a border.

b. The WordArt Styles group on the FORMAT tab has the button for changing the shape of the text.

c. The Bing Image search option can be used to search the Internet for images.

d. The Corrections command in the Adjust group can be used to sharpen or soften an image.

e. The green horizontal and vertical lines that appear when an image is moved, are called Alignment guides.



ANSWER: a. Start Word 2013 and create a new document. Type the text “Welcome to the Party”.


ANSWER: b. Change the text into WordArt by doing the following:

i. Select the text “Welcome to the Party”.

ii. Click the INSERT tab, and in the Text group, click WordArt and select the WordArt style you want to use.


ANSWER: c. To change the shape of the text, select the text and do the following:

i. Click the FORMAT tab.

ii. In the WordArt Styles group, click the Text Effects option. Select Transform and choose any effect that you want.


ANSWER: d. To change the fill color, click the drop-down menu arrow of the Text Fill option in the WordArt Styles group and select the desired color.


ANSWER: e. To apply visual effects, click the Text Effects option in the WordArt Styles group and select the desired effect.


1. a. Footer b. Insert c. Watermark d. Design e. Footnote

2. a. F b. T c. F d. F e. T


a. You can see the headers and footers in the Print Layout view.

b. The DESIGN tab has the option to apply border to a page.

c. A footnote consists of two linked parts: a note reference mark and the corresponding note text.

d. The check box for Different First Page option is to be checked to select a different header or footer for the first page.

e. The keyboard shortcut for inserting an endnote is Ctrl + Alt +D.



ANSWER: a. Start Word 2013 and create a new document. Type the text as given.


ANSWER: b. To add “Fruits” as the header:

i. Click the INSERT tab.

ii. In the Header & Footer group, click Header.

iii. The Header gallery with various header designs is displayed. Click on Blank or scroll through the gallery and choose the style you want. iv. The DESIGN tab under HEADER & FOOTER TOOLS will now be displayed. Type the word “Fruits” in the header area.

v. Press ESC.


ANSWER: c. To insert the first footnote:

i. Position the cursor after the word “Kasur”.

ii. Click the REFERENCES tab.

iii. Click Insert Footnote in the Footnotes group.

iv. Type the text “Kasur is a district in the province of Punjab in Pakistan” for the footnote in the footnote area.


ANSWER: d. To insert the second footnote:

i. Position the cursor after the word “Larkana”.

ii. Click the REFERENCES tab.

iii. Click Insert Footnote in the Footnotes group.

iv. Type the text “Larkana is located in the province of Sindh” for the footnote in the footnote area.


1. a. Instructions b. Comments c. exit d. learn e. step

2. a. F b. T c. F d. T e. T


a. The values “True” and “False” are called Boolean values. b. A loop is the set of statements that continue to execute, till a condition is true.

c. The for loop is also called counting loop.

d. The Break command is used to stop the current loop and transfer control to the statement following the loop.

e. In case of for loop, the number is increased by 1 after every loop. 4.


ANSWER: KTurtle program to create a square by using the learn and repeat commands: reset learn square $s { repeat 4 {fw $s tr 90 }} penwidth 10 square 150


1. a. Objects b. Slide c. Transitions d. Screenshot e. Reset

2. a. T b. F c. T d. F e. T


a. The special sound or visual effects on a slide are called animations.

b. The set of graphics that helps you create different kinds of lists, process diagrams, or a hierarchy is called SmartArt graphics.

 c. The two additional tabs that appear on the ribbon when a SmartArt is added to a presentation are: DESIGN and FORMAT.

d. The Media group on the INSERT tab has options to add video to a presentation.

e. The Slide Sorter view is used to see all slides of the presentation in miniature form on the screen.



ANSWER: a. Click FILE New Blank Presentation.


ANSWER: b. In slide 1, type the title of the presentation. Insert slide 2 to 6. Select the required layouts for inserting text and pictures if needed.


ANSWER: c. Download text, pictures, a sound file, and a movie file from the Internet or any other source for the presentation.


ANSWER: d. To insert pictures in your slides, click on Pictures in the Images group and insert required pictures.


ANSWER: e. Click on Audio in the Media group on the INSERT tab and insert your sound or audio file in the desired slide or slides.


ANSWER: f. Select the sound icon, and click the PLAYBACK tab under AUDIO TOOLS.


ANSWER: g. In the Audio Options group, click the drop-down menu arrow of the Start box and select Automatically.


ANSWER: h. Add animations to all the slides as follows: i. Select the text or picture. ii. Click the ANIMATIONS tab. In the Animation group, click the Appear option.

i. To add a transition effect between slides:

i. Select any slide.

ii. Click the TRANSITIONS tab. Under Transition to This Slide group, click the Push transition scheme.

iii. In the Timing group, do the following:

• Set the Duration.

• Select On Mouse Click under Advance Slide.

• Click Apply To All.


ANSWER: j. Save the presentation as “History of Olympics”.


1. a. XFD b. Cell c. contiguous d. Name Box e. Worksheet

2. a. F b. F c. T d. T e. F


a. In Excel 2013, a workbook is a collection of worksheets.

b. Rows are numbered from top to bottom along the left edge as 1, 2 and so on.

c. The three types of data that can be entered in an Excel worksheet are: Numbers, Text, and Formulae.

d. Cell Pointer is a highlighted cell boundary that specifies which cell is active at that moment.

e. The address of the cell formed by the combination of row 6 and column F will be F6.



ANSWER: a. Select Start All Programs Microsoft Office 2013 Excel 2013.


ANSWER: b. First type the headings. Type “Country” in A1, “Capital” in B1, “Currency” in C1.


ANSWER: c. Now, select 10 countries in Asia and type the data in appropriate cells. The worksheet will appear as shown here. If the cell content is too long, manually change the width of the column. Position the mouse pointer on the right boundary of a column heading until it turns to a double-sided arrow. Drag it to your right until the column is of the width you want.


ANSWER: d. Click FILE tab and select Save option in the screen that appears.


ANSWER: e. Select Computer and click on Browse button.


ANSWER: f. The Save As dialog box appears. Type the file name as “Geography Exercise” in the File name box and click Save.


1. a. Cells b. Format c. Clear Contents d. Clipboard e. Cut

2. a. T b. F c. F d. T e. F


a. Row Headings are the sequentially numbered light-blue boxes along the left side of the worksheet. They help to select and identify rows.

b. The two ways in which cell contents can be edited are:

(a) overwriting and,

(b) partial modification.

c. When the Shift cells right option is chosen from the Insert dialog box, blank cells are filled in the selected range and existing cells are shifted right.

d. In order to undo several actions at once, the user must click the menu arrow next to the Undo button, and from the list, select the actions that he/she wants to undo, and then click the list. Excel reverses all the actions selected.

e. In order to move data by the drag-and-drop method, the user should position the cursor on the boundary of the selected range so that the cursor changes into a cross shape. While holding the left mouse button down, he/she should drag the data to the desired location. The data is moved when the mouse button is released.



ANSWER: a. “Amaan, Anwar” needs to be inserted before “Asad Ahmed”. So, to insert a new row, first select the row 11. Click the HOME tab. In the Cells group, click the drop-down menu arrow of the Insert button. Select Insert Sheet Rows.


ANSWER: b. Enter the “Student Code” as “S011”, “Student Name” as “Amaar Anwar” and “Date of Joining” as 27 Jan 2014.


ANSWER: c. “Rabab Khawar” needs to be inserted before “Rabia Hasan”. So, to insert a new row, first select the row 8. Click the HOME tab. In the Cells group, click the drop-down “Rabia Hasan” menu arrow of the Insert button. Select Insert Sheet Rows.


ANSWER: d. Enter the “Student Code” as “S012”, “Student Name” as “Rabab Khawar” and “Date of Joining” as 27 Jan 2014.


ANSWER: e. Similarly, “Abrar Noor” needs to be inserted before “Asad Ahmed”.


ANSWER: f. The updated list looks as given below: A B C

1. Student Code Student Name Date of Joining

2. 5001 Dawood Imam 2 Jan 2014

3. 5006 Ghazala Javed 5 Jan 2014

4. 5003 Jawad Khan 5 Jan 2014

5. 5004 Kiran Ahmed 10 Jan 2014

6. 5009 Palwarsha Ali 12 Jan 2014

7. 5002 Anam Ansari 2 Jan 2014

8. 5005 Rabia Hasan 5 Jan 2014

9. 5007 Rahail Shahid 2 Jan 2014

10. 5008 Sumair Ali 10 Jan 2014

11. 5010 Asad Ahmed 12 Jan 2014


1. a. Netiquette b. Hyperlink c. Wireless d. Net Surfing e. Email

2. a. F b. F c. T d. T e. F


a. The two types of Internet access connections are: Dial-up and Broadband.

b. The speed of a modem is measured in bps(bits per second).

c. A dongle is a small USB device that allows a user to access the Internet through a mobile broadband connection. It is also referred to as a USB modem, an Internet stick, etc.

d. The home page is the opening page or the main page of a website, which is displayed when the address of a website is typed.

e. A website is a collection of one or more related Web pages linked together through a system of hyperlinks.

f. The “s” in “https://” stands for secure.



ANSWER: a. A modem is a device that allows a computer to connect and communicate with other computers. Modem stands for modulator demodulator. There are three types of modems: cable, telephone and wireless modem.


ANSWER: b. A Web browser is a program used to locate and display Web pages. It also helps the user to interact with text, images, videos, music, and other information located on Web pages. Examples of Web browsers are: Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.

===========ALLAH IS THE GREATEST========

اردو 2021 جماعت دوم پنجاب کریکولم و ٹیکسٹ بک بورڈ لاہور پاکستان

اردو    2021 جماعت دوم  پنجاب کریکولم و ٹیکسٹ بک  بورڈ لاہور پاکستان  

صفحہ:    22

لفظ بنائیں

نیچے دیے ہوئے لفظ پڑھیں۔ ان سےملتی جلتی آوازوں والے الفاظ بنائیں۔

بال = حال گال سال تال
بول = تول گول جھول مول
ناک = تاک خاک ڈاک لاک
تان = بان پان جان مان
کاج = تاج راج لاج آج
جانا = آنا کھانا تانا گانا
سوتا = بوتا روتا بوتا پوتا
تولو = بولو رولو کھولو سولو
روٹی = بوٹی چھوٹی کھوٹی موٹی
آئے = جائے گائے سائے لائے
توڑا = موڑا چھوڑا جوڑا گھوڑا

صفحہ: 23

لفظ بنائیں

کیا آپ بھی آمنہ کی طرح حروف ملا سکتے ہیں؟

پ+ ہ+ ا+  ڑ = پ+ہاڑ = پہاڑ
گ +ی+ ل+ ا = گ+یلا = گیلا
پ +ی+ چھ+ ے = پ+یچھے = پیچھے
ب +ا+ ج+ ی = ب+اجی = باجی
م +ح +ن+ ت = م+حنت = محنت

صفحہ: 24

لفظ بنائیں

نیچے دی ہوئ مثال کی طرح لفظ بنائیں۔

کا +ٹو = کا ٹو
مو +تی = مو تی
طو +طے = طو طے
رو +ٹی = رو ٹی
پا +نی = پا نی
گھو +ڑا = گھو ڑا
دھو +بی = دھو بی
کے +سے = کیسے
بھا +ئی = بھا ئی
سب+ زی = سبزی
مچھ +لی = مچھلی
تص +ویر = تصویر
چھت +ری = چھتری
لک +ڑی = لکڑی
رش +تہ = رشتہ
تح +فہ = تحفہ
بج +لی = بجلی
کش +مش = کشمش


لفظ بنائیں

مثال کی طرح لفظ کے آخر میں ا ، و ، ی ، ے لگا کر نئے لفظ بنائیں۔

چل چلا چلو چلی چلے
ہنس ہنسا ہنسو ہنسی ہنسے
بھاگ بھاگا بھاگو بھاگی بھاگے
لکھ لکھا لکھو لکھی لکھے
روک روکا روکو روکی روکے
بیٹھ بیٹھا بیٹھو بیٹھی بیٹھے
پڑھ پڑھا پڑھو پڑھی پڑھے
کھول کھولا کھولو کھولی کھولے

 صفحہ: 26

احمد بازار آیا

احمد بازار آیا ہے۔ لفظ مکمل کریں اور بتائیں کی بازار میں کیا ہے؟

یہ —–ہے۔ س- ے- ب = سیب
یہ —–ہیں۔ ا –ن- گ- و- ر = انگور
یہ —–ہے۔ آ -ل –و = آلو
یہ —–ہے۔ ٹ –م- ا- ٹ- ر = ٹماٹر
یہ —–ہیں۔ ک -ے -ل -ے = کیلا
یہ —–ہے۔ گ –و- بھ- ی = گوبھی
یہ —–ہے۔ گ -ا -ج -ر = گاجر

صفحہ: 27

آمنہ کا بستہ

آمنہ کے بستے میں کیا ہے؟

بستہ ب س ت ہ کھا نا کھ ا  ن ا
کتا ب ک ت ا ب کا پی ک ا پ  ی
بو تل ب و ت ل ر و ما ل ر و م ا ل
ٹا فی ٹ ا ف  ی پنسل پ ن س  ل
قلم ق  ل م تختی ت خ ت ی
گھڑ ی=گھ+ڑ+ی

آپ کے بستے میں کیا ہے؟

کتاب کھانا پنسل بوتل

صفحہ: 29

حرا کا دن

نیچے دیے ہوئے الفاظ دیکھیں۔ بتائیں کہ حرا روز کیا کرتی ہے؟

1 کتاب- ہے – پڑھتی – حرا –
  حرا کتاب پڑھتی ہے۔
2 صاف – کرتی – دانت – ہے – حرا –
  حرا دانت صاف کرتی ہے۔
3 سکول – حرا – جاتی – ہے –
  حرا سکول جاتی ہے۔
4 سوتی – ہے – رات – حرا – کو –
  حرا     رات  کو سوتی ہے۔
5 کھانا – ہے – کھاتی- حرا –
  حرا کھانا کھاتی ہے۔

صفحہ: 30

جملے بنائیں

ان الفاظ کی ترتیب درست کرکے جملے بنائیں۔

1 پیتی – لڑکی – پانی – ہے۔
  لڑکی پانی پیتی ہے۔
2 سارہ – جاتی – ہے – سکول –
  سارہ سکول جاتی ہے۔
3 پھول – ہے – مالی – لایا –
  مالی پھول لایا۔
4 قلم – نیلا – ہے – یہ
  یہ قلم نیلا ہے۔
5 میں – سیب – باغ – درخت – کا – ہے –
  سیب کا درخت باغ میں ہے۔

صفحہ: 31

بہادر قطرہ

  • بادل چھا گئے
  • سب قطرے ڈر رہے تھے
  • ایک قطرہ بولا “چلو نیچے چلو”
  • قطرہ کُودا
  • پھر سب قطرے کُودے
  • سب خوش ہوگئے

صفحہ: 32

درخت اور پودا

جنگل میں درخت تھا۔درخت  بہت بڑا تھا۔ جنگل میں پودا بھی تھا۔ درخت بولا ” میں بہت بڑا ہوں۔ مجھے کوئی نہیں ہلا سکتا “۔

تیز ہوا چلی ۔ پودا جھک گیا۔ وہ ہوا سے بچ گیا۔

درخت اُکھڑ گیا۔

صفحہ:   33

پڑھیں اور لکھیں

میرا نام احمد ہے۔میں دوسری جماعت میں پڑھتا ہوں۔ میں ملتان میں رہتا ہوں۔مجھے کرکٹ کھیلنا  پسند ہے۔

میرا نام آمنہ ہے۔میں دوسری جماعت میں پڑھتی ہوں۔ میں اٹک میں رہتی ہوں۔مجھے کتابیں پڑھنا   پسند ہے۔


میرا نام ———————-ہے۔ ( آمنہ)

میں دوسری جماعت میں ————-ہوں۔ (پڑھتی)

مجھے —————— پسند ہے۔                                                                                                                        (کتابیں پڑھنا)

صفحہ: 34


  1. پڑھیں اور لکھیں:
ز  َبر دَ س —دَس ہٹو–ہَٹو
چَل —چَل رَب—رَب
چبَا—چبَا نَل—نَل
ز ِیر مل — مل اتنی –اتنی
جن –جن سلا –سلا
ہٹو–ہٹو چھل—چھل

صفحہ: 35

پیش اُ ن —اُن مُجھے — مجھے
رُوپ –رُوپ بُرا —بُرا
اُسے— اُسے بُت—بُت
  • دئے گئے پیراگراف میں جن الفاظ کے گرد دائرہ ہے ان پر مناسب اعراب لگائیے:

میرا نا سارہ ہے۔ میں دوسری جماعت میں پڑھتی ہوں۔ میرے پاس ایک گڑیا ہے۔ اس کے بال کالے اور آنکھیں نیلی ہیں۔ میرے گھر میں ایک طوطا بھی ہے۔ جس کے پروں کا رنگ ہرا ہے۔ وہ خوب باتیں کرتا ہے۔

حل:  دُوسری – پَڑھتی – گُڑیا- اُس- نِیلی- گَھر – جِس – پَروں – ہَرا – خُوب

صفحہ: 36 علامات

ّ (تشدید )                   ء (ہمزہ)  ۤ (مد)

یاد رکھیے جس حرف پر تشدید ہو ، اُسے دو مرتبہ پڑھتے ہیں جیسے اچھا ، ا+چھ+چھ+ا

  1. الگ کیجیے:
بلّی = ب + ل + ل + ی
امّی = ا + م + م + ی
ابّا = ا + ب + ب + ا
ڈِبّا = ڈ + ب + ب + ا
  • پڑھیے: ء (ہمزہ)

آئے – گائے – کوئی – لائے

  • پڑھیے:   ۤ(مد)

آم – آج – آپ – آگ

  • پڑھیے اور لکھیے:

ابّا آج آم لائے۔ ——————–

یہ ڈِبّا آپ کا ہے۔——————–

صفحہ: 37 مشق

الفاظ بنائیں اور تشدید لگائیں۔

ب +چ+ چ+ ے = بچّے
ا +م +م +ی = امّی
ا +چھ+ چھ+ ا = اچھّا
پ +تھ +تھ +ر = پتّھر
م +ک +ک+ ہ = مکّہ
س +چ +چ +ا = سچّا
ب +ل +ل+ ی = بلّی
م +چھ +چھ +ر = مچّھر
ا +ب+ ب+ و = ابّو
ع +ز +ز +ت = عزّت

سبق نمبر:۱    میرا خدا                      صفحہ:38-39


۱۔زبانی  جواب دیں:

1۔ دنیا کس نے بنائی ہے؟
جواب: دنیا اللہ نے بنائی ہے۔
2۔ اپنے ارد گرد دیکھیں۔ اللہ کی بنائی ہوئی پانچ چیزوں کےنام بتائیں۔
3۔    دی ہوئی تصویر میں رنگ بھری اور خالی جگہ میں چیزوں کے نام لکھیں۔
جواب: سورج پھول درخت تتلی

سبق نمبر: ۲      نعت                                                           صفحہ:40-43


  • نیچے دیے ہوئے الفاظ سے ملتی جلتی آوازوں والے الفاظ نعت میں ڈھونڈیں۔
I پیارے ہمارے
Ii میں ہیں
Iii کام نام
Iv تر پر
V کہے رہے
  • آپ اپنے استاد /گھر والوں سے نیچے دیے ہوئے سوال پوچھیں ۔ سب بچے جماعت میں اپنے جواب بتائیں:
ہمارے پیارے نبی ﷺ کا کیا نام ہے؟
جواب: ہمارے پیارے نبی ﷺ کا نام حضرت محمدﷺ ہے۔
ہمارے پیارے نبی ﷺکہاں پیدا ہوئے؟
جواب: ہمارے پیارے نبی ﷺ مکہ میں پیدا ہوئے
ہمارے پیارے نبی ﷺ کی کوئی پیاری عادات بتائیں؟

الف بائی ترتیب

الف بائی ترتیب کامطلب ہے کہ لفظوں کو حروف تہجی کی ترتیب سے لکھنا یعنی سب سے پہلے “ا”پھر “ب” پھر “س ” پھر  “گ”

پانی – گاجر – بلی – سیب – انار
اناربلیپانیسیب گاجر

نیچے  لکھے ہوئے بچوں کے ناموں کو الف بائی ترتیب سے لکھیں۔

علی – آمنہ – مریم – احمد – سارہ

نیچے لکھی ہوئی سبزیوں کے نام الف بائی ترتیب سے لکھیں۔

ٹماٹر – شلجم –  اروی –پالک – توری

سبق  : 4  اچھا سلوک صفحہ: 44-46


  • زبانی جواب دیں:
بوڑھی عورت کہاں رہتی تھی؟
جواب: بوڑھی عورت مکہ میں  رہتی تھی۔
ہمارے نبی ﷺ بوڑھی عورت کے گھر کیوں گئے؟
جواب: ہمارے نبی ﷺ بوڑھی عورت کی تیمارداری کےلیے اس کے گھر گئے۔
آپ کو اس واقعے سے کیا سبق ملا؟
جواب:اپنے  دشمنوں سے بھی اچھا سلوک کرنا چاہیے۔
  • حروف الگ کریں۔ ہمارے= ہ +م +ا +ر +ے
الفاظ الگ کریں
عورت ع – و  -ر –ت
اسلام ا-س -ل -ا-م
کانٹے ک –ا-ن-ٹ-ے
راستے ر-ا-س-ت-ے
بیمار ب-ی –م-ا-ر
سلوک س-ل-و-ک
  • درست جملے کے سامنے () اور غلط کے سامنے (X) کا نشان لگائیں۔

(    (I بوڑھی عورت مدینہ میں رہتی تھی۔ X

(II) ہمیں لوگوں سے اچھا سلوک کرنا چاہیے۔P

سبق 5 : زم زم کی کہانی صفحہ: 47-49


  • زبانی جواب دیں۔
(i) حضرت اسماعیل علیہ السلام  کس کے بیٹے تھے؟
جواب: حضرت اسماعیل علیہ السلام   حضرت ابراہیم علیہ السلام کے بیٹے تھے۔
(ii) حضرت اسماعیل علیہ السلام  کس کے ساتھ سفر پر گئے؟
جواب: حضرت اسماعیل علیہ السلام  والد بی بی ہاجرہ   اور والد کے ساتھ سفر پر گئے۔
(iii) اللہ نے حضرت اسماعیل علیہ السلام  کی مدد کیسے کی؟
جواب: اللہ نے حضرت اسماعیل علیہ السلام  کے پاؤں کے نیچے سے پانی  کا ایک چشمہ نکالا۔
  • ارکان جوڑ کر الفاظ بنائیں۔
I بے+ٹے = بیٹے
ii پا+نی = پانی
iii رے+ ت = ریت
iv مے +ری = میری
V نی +چے = نیچے

(3)  “وں” لگا کر جمع بنائیں جیسے بنائیں جیسے بیٹا سے بیٹوں۔

واحد جمع
نبی نبیوں
پہاڑ پہاڑوں
نام ناموں

سبق6: جب بھی کھانا کھاؤ صفحہ:50 -51


  • الفاظ کی ترتیب درست کریں۔
I بسم اللہ پڑھ لو پہلے تم پہلے تم  بسم اللہ پڑھ لو
Ii تھوڑی سی باقی بھوک رہے بھوک رہے تھوڑی سی باقی
Iii کھانا کھاؤ سادہ سادہ کھانا کھاؤ
Iv راز یہی ہے صحت کا بس صحت کا بس راز یہی ہے
  • کا ، کی،کے، کو،کا استعمال کریں۔
I احمد ——————–ہاتھ گندے ہیں۔
Ii بسم اللہ پڑھنا سارہ ————-عادت ہے۔
Iii اچھی صحت —————- راز یہی ہے کہ سادہ کھانا کھایا جائے۔
Iv خوراک————- خوب چبا چبا کر کھاؤ۔

جوابات: (i-کے)(ii-کی )(iii-کا)(iv-کو)

سبق : 7 قائد اعظم صفحہ: 52-54


(1)  زبانی جواب دیں۔

(i) قائداعظم کا اصل نام کیا تھا؟
جواب: قائداعظم کا اصل نام محمد علی تھا ۔
(ii) پاکستان کب قائم ہوا؟
جواب: پاکستان 14 اگست 1947ء کو  قائم ہوا ۔
(iii) قائداعظم کہاں پیدا ہوئے؟
جواب: قائداعظم کراچی میں پیدا ہوئے ۔

(2)”وں” لگا کر جمع بنائیں جیسے نام سے ناموں

واحد جمع
مسلمان مسلمانوں
کام کاموں
قربانی قربانیوں
انگریز انگریزوں
  • جملے بنائیں۔
محنت محنت میں عظمت ہے۔
ذہین علی بہت ذہین ہے۔
طاقتور میں بہت طاقتور ہوں۔

سبق :8 پیپل کے ننھے دوست صفحہ:55- 60


  • مختصر جواب دیں:
(i) پیپل کا درخت کسے یاد کررہا تھا؟
جواب: پیپل کا درخت اپنے دوستوں کو  یاد کررہا تھا ۔
(ii) بچوں نے جنگل میں کیا کیا؟
جواب:  بچوں نے جنگل میں ننھے پودے لگائے ۔
(iii) آپ کے خیال میں درختوں کے کیا فائدے ہیں؟ (زباندانی)
جواب:  درخت ہمیں  اکسیجن دیتے ہیں۔
  • الفاظ کو متضاد سے ملائیں:
الفاظ متضاد
اداس جانا
دن بھول
یاد برباد
آباد خوش
آنا رات

جوابات: (1- اداس-خوش)(2-دن- رات)(3- یاد – بھول)(4- آباد- برباد)(5- آنا- جانا)

مثال کے مطابق واحد کو جمع سےملائیں۔

واحد جمع

واحد جمع
کمرہ لڑکا طوطا کپڑا پرندہ طوطے پرندے کپڑے کمرے لڑکے

جوابات :   (کمرہ- کمرے )—(لڑکا- لڑکے)—(طوطا- طوطے)—(کپڑا- کپڑے)—(پرندہ- پرندے)

(1) خالی جگہ پرکریں۔

مثال:  یہ گھوڑا ہے۔   یہ گھوڑے ہیں۔
  واحد جمع
  یہ لڑکا ہے۔ یہ پرندہ ہے۔ یہ بستہ ہے۔ یہ جھولا ہے۔ یہ ——–ہیں۔ یہ ——–ہیں۔ یہ ——–ہیں۔ یہ ——–ہیں۔

سبق 9: بادل صفحہ: 61-66


(1) مختصر جواب دیں:

1- مینہ برسنے کا کیا مطلب ہے؟

جواب: مینہ برسنے کا مطلب ہے بارش برسنا۔

2- کالے بادل آنے سے کیا ہوتا ہے؟

جواب: کالے بادل آنے سے بارش ہوتی ہے۔

3- کوئل کے راگ سنانے سے کیا مراد ہے؟

جواب: کوئل کے راگ سنانے سے مراد ہے خوشی منانا۔

(2)  ہرلفظ کے سامنے اس کا ہم آواز لفظ لکھیں۔

الفاظ ہم آوازا لفاظ
گانا سنائے ٹرائیں جانا سائے گائیں

(3) ترتیب درست کریں۔

I نہائیں گے۔ مینہ میں لوگ
  مینہ میں لوگ نہائیں گے۔
Ii گائیں گے۔ ہم ناچیں گے
  ہم ناچیں گے گائیں گے۔
Iii سنائے گی۔ کوئل راگ
  کوئل راگ سنائے گی۔
Iv ٹرائیں گے۔ مینڈک بھی
  مینڈک بھی ٹرائیں گے۔

(4) کیا آپ کو بارش پسند ہے؟اور جب بارش ہوتی ہے تو آپ کیا کرتے ہیں؟



  • فعل کسی کام کو کہتے ہیں۔

مثلاََ :کتاب پڑھی۔  اس میں” پڑھی “فعل ہے۔

جملے فعل
کبوتر اڑا لڑکی روئی پانی گرا بلی بھاگی اڑا روئی گرا بھاگی

(2) ان جملوں میں فعل تلاش کریں اور خالی جگہ میں لکھیں۔

  جملے فعل
I پانی بھرا۔ بھرا
II گیند پکڑی۔ پکڑی
III بچہ ہنسنا ۔ ہنسنا
IV طوطا بولا۔ بولا
V جوتا ٹوٹا۔ ٹوٹا


(1)  فاعل کام کرنے والے کو کہتے ہیں۔

مثلاََ :احمد کتاب پڑھتا ہے۔  اس میں” احمد “فاعل ہے۔

جملے فاعل
طوطا اڑا لڑکی ہنسی بچہ سویا بلی بولی طوطا لڑکی بچہ بلی

(2) نیچے دیے ہوئے جملوں میں فعل ڈھونڈیں

I بلی بھاگی بلی
II لڑکا دوڑا لڑکا
III بچہ ہنسا بچہ
IV طوطابولا طوطا

صفحہ: 75

1۔خالی جگہ پر کریں۔

1۔ اللہ کے نزدیک تمھاری صورت کی نہیں بلکہ تمھاری ———–اور ——– کی اہمیت ہے۔

2۔ ———— جنت کی کنجی ہے۔

3۔ ———-کا کام ———- پر نہ ڈالو۔

جوابات: 1- سیرت –اعمال 2- نیکی 3- آج – کل

2-  الفاظ کے معنی لکھیں اور جملے بنائیں۔

الفاظ معنی جملے
شمع موم بتی شمع کے پاس نہ جاؤ۔
گلہ شکایت کسی کا گلہ نہ کرو۔
بہتر اچھا کسی کے کام آنا ہمارے لیے بہتر ہے۔

3۔ اپنی پسند کا کوئی بھی قول تین بار لکھیں۔




اسم کا مطلب ہوتا ہے نام۔

کسی بھی انسان جانور پرندے جگہ یا چیز کے نام کو اسم کہتے ہیں۔


کتاب اچھی ہے۔ اس جملے میں کتاب اسم ہے۔

نیچےدی ہوئی تصویردیکھیں اور پانچ اسم لکھیں۔


صفحہ 77 حروف جار

حروف جار وہ حروف ہیں جو اکیلے کوئی معنی نہیں رکھتے لیکن اسم و فعل سے مل کر مطلب پیدا کرتے ہیں۔ یہ حروف اسم اور فعل کو ملاتے ہیں۔

حروف جار: سے، میں، پر، تک، کووغیرہ

مثلا : سارہ سکول سے آئی

اس جملےمیں سے حروف جار ہے۔

جملے حروف جار
عمر سے کتاب لے لو۔ نانا کو دوا دو۔ احسن سکول میں پڑھتا ہے۔ سیب میز پررکھا ہے۔ شام تک کام ختم کرلو۔ سے کو میں پر تک

صفحہ: 78

  1. نیچے دیے ہوئے جملوں میں سے حروف جار الگ کریں۔
  2. احمد سکول میں ہے۔—————————-
  3. تم کب تک گھر آؤ گے؟————————-
  4. ساجد درخت پر چڑھا ۔————————-
  5. ماریہ سے آم لو۔—————————–
  6. یہ کتاب سارہ کو دو۔—————————

جوابات:  (1-میں)(2- تک)(3-پر)(4-سے)(5-کو)

  • نیچے دیئے ہوئے جملوں میں درست حروف جار لکھیں۔
  • احمد—————گیا۔ ( تک-کو)
  • چھت—————جا کر کپڑے لاؤ ۔ (میں- کو )
  • ساجد—————کتاب دو۔ (کو-سے )
  • اس ڈبے—————گڑیا ہے۔ (میں- تک )
  • کسی—————جھوٹ مت بولو۔ (پر- سے )

جوابات:  (1-کو)(2- پر)(3-کو)(4-میں)(5-سے)

صفحہ: 79

وطن کی محبت


  1. مختصر جواب دیں۔
سوال: 1 ۔ یہ واقعہ کب پیش آیا؟
جواب:یہ واقعہ پاکستان کے قیام کے چند دن بعد کا ہے۔
سوال:2 بڑھیا کے ٹکٹ کے پیسے کس نے دیے؟
جواب: بڑھیا کے ٹکٹ کے پیسے ٹکٹ چیکر  نے دیے۔
سوال:3 آپ نے اس واقعے سے کیا سبق سیکھا؟
جواب: ہم اپنے وطن کی کسی طرح بھی نقصان نہ پہنچایں
ارکان ملائیں   ارکان بنائیں  
مش +کل مشکل چیکر چ+ی+ک+ر
ڈب +بے ڈبے مظلوم م+ظ+ل+و+م
پاک+ ستان پاکستان نقصان ن+ق+ص+ا+ن
  • الفاظ کو متضاد سے ملائیں۔
الفاظ متضاد
بوڑھی جواب
دن آسان
مشکل جوان
سوال رات

جوابات: جوابات: (1-بوڑھی- جوان)(2-دن- رات)(3-مشکل – آسان)(4-سوال- جواب)

  • جملے بنائیں۔
رحم چھوٹوں پر رحم کریں۔
التجا ہم اللہ سے التجاکرتے ہیں۔
نقصان پاکستان کا نقصان نہ کریں۔
  • درست جواب پر  Pکا  اور غلط x  پر  کا نشان لگائیں۔

بڑھیا بس میں سفر کررہی تھی۔ x

بڑھیا کے پاس پیسے نہیں تھے۔P

چیکر نے رقم اپنی جیب سے دی۔P


الف اور زبر کا فرق

یہ الفاظ پڑھیں۔

جگ، جاگ

غور سے سنیں

دونوں الفاظ کی آواز میں کیا فرق ہے؟

آپ بھی نئے الفاظ بنائیں۔

زبر الف زبر الف
کٹ کاٹ تر تار
نگ ناگ نم نام
تک تاک جم جام
جل جال دم دام
گھٹ گھاٹ کم کام
چل چال رکھ راکھ
مت مات چر چار

صفحہ: 84

زیر اور ی کا فرق

یہ الفاظ پڑھیں۔

دن، دین

غور سے سنیں

دونوں الفاظ کی آواز میں کیا فرق ہے؟

آپ بھی نئے الفاظ بنائیں۔

زیر ی زیر ی
بِن بِین سِل سِیل
دِن دِین چِھل چِھیل
چِھن چِھین مِل مِیل
بِھڑ بِھیڑ پِس پِیس

صفحہ: 85

پیش اور و کا فرق

یہ الفاظ پڑھیں۔

رک، روک

غور سے سنیں

دونوں الفاظ کی آواز میں کیا فرق ہے؟

آپ بھی نئے الفاظ بنائیں۔

پیش و پیش و
رک روک گل گول
تل تول بلا بولا
کھل کھول سکھ سوکھ
گھل گھول سنا سونا
مڑ موڑ لٹ لوٹ

صفحہ:  86



  1. جواب لکھیں۔
سوال: 1 ۔ بچوں نے کیا لگایا؟
جواب: بچوں نے ایک باغ  لگایا۔
سوال:2 بچے کیسے کام کرتے ہیں؟
جواب: بچے محنت سے  کام کرتے ہیں۔
سوال:3 کن بچوں کا  وقت مزے سے گزرتا ہے؟
جواب:  جو بچے  بھی محنت کرتے ہیں ان کا وقت مزے سے گزرتا ہے۔
  • جملے بنائیں۔
الفاظ جملے
رنگ برنگا بچوں نے رنگ برنگی جھنڈیاں لگائیں۔
خبر لینا بچوں نے پودوں کی خبر لی۔
سجانا ہم نے باغ کو خوب سجایا۔

صفحہ:88 گنتی 1 تا 9




1 مندرجہ ذیل سوالوں کے مختصر جواب تحریر کریں۔

سوال: 1 ۔حضرت ابوطلحہ رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ کون تھے؟
جواب: حضرت ابوطلحہ رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ ہمارے پیارے نبی ﷺ کے ساتھ تھے۔
سوال:2 حضرت ابوطلحہ رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ  کے گھر کتنا کھانا موجود تھا؟
جواب: حضرت ابوطلحہ رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ  کے گھر ایک آدمی کا  کھانا موجود تھا۔
سوال:3؟دونوں  میاں بیوی نے کیا کیا؟
جواب:  دونوں  میاں بیوی نے کھانا نہیں کھایا ۔

2-ارکان ملائیں۔

لُق +مہ لُقمہ
کھا +نا کھا نا
بی +وی بیوی
بھو +کے بھو کے
ای+ ثار ایثار
  • مندرجہ ذیل واحد الفاظ کی جمع بنائیں۔
واحد جمع
چراغ چراغوں
ساتھی ساتھیوں
مہمان مہمانوں
  • کالم میں دیے گئے الفاظ کےمتضاد چن کر لکھیں۔

اجالا- بجھا – نا پسند

الفاظ متضاد
جلا بجھا
پسند نا پسند
اندھیرا اجالا
  • مندرجہ ذیل جملوں میں سے فعل فاعل اور مفعول الگ کیجیے۔
جملے فاعل مفعول فعل
امی نے پھل کاٹے۔ امی پھل کاٹے
مالی نے پودا لگایا۔ مالی پودا لگایا
ساجد نے کتاب پڑھی۔ ساجد کتاب پڑھی
پرندے نے گھونسلا بنایا۔ پرندہ گھونسلا بنایا
سارہ جھولے پر بیٹھی۔ سارہ جھولا بیٹھی


پاکستان کا تحفہ


  1. جملے بنائیں۔
الفاظ جملے
حیران آپ کیوں حیران ہیں؟
تحفہ آپ کے لیے یہ گھڑی تحفہ ہے۔
تقریب یہ میرے بھائی کی شادی کی تقریب ہے۔
  • جواب دیں۔
سوال: 1 ۔ڈاکیا چچا  کیا کررہا تھا؟
جواب:  ڈاکیا چچا  ڈاک خانے پر قمقمکے سجارہا تھا۔
سوال:2 پاکستان کس تاریخ کو قائم ہوا؟
جواب: پاکستان 14 اگست کو قائم ہوا۔
سوال:3 دونوں بھائی پاکستان کو کیا تحفہ دینا چاہتے تھے؟
جواب:  دونوں بھائی پاکستان کوصفائی کا  تحفہ دینا چاہتے تھے۔
  • سبق میں سے درج ذیل  واحد الفاظ کے جمع ڈھونڈ کر لکھیں۔
واحد جمع
نغمہ نغمے
جھنڈا جھنڈے
قمقمہ قمقمے
پکوڑا پکوڑے
  • زاہد اور شاہد کی طرح آپ بھی پاکستان کو دو تحفے دیں:
میرا پہلا تحفہ  
میرا دوسرا  تحفہ  


ایک وقت میں ایک کام


  1. مختصر جوا ب دیں۔
سوال: 1 ۔کس وقت کھیل کانام نہیں لینا چاہیے؟
جواب:  پڑھائی کے وقت کھیل کانام نہیں لینا چاہیے۔
سوال:2 خوش رہنے کا اچھا طریقہ کیاہے؟
جواب:  کام کے وقت کام  اور کھیل کے وقت کھیلنا چاہیے۔
  • جملے بنائیں۔
وقت پڑھائی کے وقت پڑھنا چاہیے۔
کھیل کھیل کے وقت کھیلنا چاہیے۔
بے کار بے کار کام مت کریں۔
ادھورا کام کوادھورا نہ چھوڑو۔

4۔ جن الفاظ کے نیچے لائن ہے ان کے آخری حرف کو ے سے بدل کر جملے درست کریں۔

پرندہ کا پنجرہ صاف کرو۔ پرندے کا پنجرہ صاف کرو۔
صحیح طریقہ سے کام کرو۔ صحیح طریقے سے کام کرو۔
سارہ سلیقہ سے کام کرتی ہے۔ سارہ سلیقے سے کام کرتی ہے۔
لڑکا کو کتاب دو۔ لڑکے کو کتاب دو۔
طوطا کو چوری دو۔ طوطےکو چوری دو۔

صفحہ: 101



  1. زبانی جواب دیں۔
سوال: 1 ۔بچے کیا کررہے تھے؟
جواب:   بچے دوڑ رہے تھے۔
سوال:2 کھیل کہاں ہورتھے؟
جواب:  کھیل میدان میں  ہورتھے۔
سوال:3 عامر کو احمد پر غصہ کیوں آرہا تھا ؟
جواب:   عامر دوسرے نمبر پر آیا تھا۔
سوال:4 مقابلے میں سب سے اہم بات کیاہوتی ہے؟
جواب:  سب سے اہم بات مقابلے میں حصہ لینا ہوتا ہے۔
  • وں لگا کرجمع بنائیں جیسا کہ کتاب سےکتابوں
واحد جمع
بچہ بچوں
میدان میدانوں
زبان زبانوں

واحد کو جمع سے ملائیں۔

واحد جمع
مرغی الماریاں
کیاری سردیاں
الماری کرسیاں
سردی مرغیاں
کرسی کیاریاں

جو ابات:   (مرغی-مرغیاں) (کیاری-کیاریاں)(الماری-الماریاں)(سردی- سردیاں)(کرسی-کرسیاں)

  • جمع کوجملوں  میں استعمال کر یں ۔
واحد جمع
یہ تتلی ہے۔ یہ تتلیاں ہیں۔
یہ روٹی ہے۔ یہ روٹیاں ہیں ۔
یہ سواری ہے۔ یہ سواریاں ہیں ۔
یہ بلی ہے۔ یہ بلیاں ہیں ۔




  1. مختصر جواب لکھیں۔
سوال: 1 ۔محسن کس کی دکان کے سامنے رک جاتا تھا۔
جواب:   محسن چچا اسلم  کی دکان کے سامنے رک جاتا تھا۔
سوال:2  محسن کو عیدی کے پیسوں سے کیا چیز خریدنی تھی؟
جواب:  محسن کو عیدی کے پیسوں سے جہاز  خریدنا تھا۔
سوال:3 محسن نے اپنی عیدی سے کیا کیا؟
جواب:   محسن نے اپنی عیدی سے خالہ  سکینہ  کی مدد کی۔
  • صوتیات
  • نیچے کچھ لفظ دیے گئے ہیں۔ان کو بلند آواز سے پڑھیں۔ جس لفظ میں ی آتی ہے۔ اس کے گرد دائرہ لگائیں۔

عید- ایک- نیلے- خرید- قیمت- پریشان- بغیر- سکینہ- سیب- میری

  • جملے بنائیے:

خوش- شکریہ- پریشان- عیدی- ترس

خوش آج آپ بہت خوش ہیں۔
شکریہ آپ کےآنے   کا  بہت شکریہ۔
پریشان عالیہ آج بہت پریشان ہے۔
عیدی بابا نےمجھے 10 ریال عیدی دی۔
ترس مسکین پر ترس کریں۔

صفحہ: 110

فعل فاعل اور مفعول


  1. نیچے دیے گئے جملوں میں سے فعل فاعل اور مفعول کو الگ الگ خانوں میں لکھیے۔
جملے فاعل مفعول فعل
عمر نظم پڑھتا ہے۔ عمر نظم پڑھتا
آمنہ گڑیا سے کھیلتی ہے۔ آمنہ گڑیا کھیلتی
عدنان چائے پیتا ہے۔ عدنان چائے پیتا
استاد سبق پڑھاتے ہیں۔ استاد سبق پڑھاتے
خرگوش گاجر کھاتا ہے۔ خرگوش گاجر کھاتا


علامہ اقبال ہمارے


  1. مختصر جواب لکھیں:
سوال: 1 ۔علامہ اقبال کون تھے؟
جواب:   علامہ اقبال ادیب اور شاعر تھے۔
سوال:2  ادیب کے کیا معنی ہیں؟
جواب: ادیب کے معنی ہیں لکھنے والا۔
سوال:3 مفکر کے کیا معنی ہیں؟
جواب:   مفکر کے معنی ہیں سوچ بچار کرنے والا

2-خالی جگہ میں درست لفظ لکھیے۔

  1. امی———– پوچھا کہاں جارہے ہو؟ (پر،نے)
  2. آج سب ——————–چھٹی ہے۔ (کی، کو)
  3. میدان ——————-کرکٹ کھیلو۔ (سے، میں)
  4. سکول ————— بعد ہمارا میچ ہے۔ (کا،کے)


صفحہ:  114

مذکر مونث

نیچے دیے ہوئے مذکر کے مونث لکھیں۔

مذکر مونث
دادا دادی
نانا نانی
ابو امی
بھائی بہن
والد والدہ
خالو خالہ
چچا چچی
پھوپھا پھوپھی
تایا تایی
بیٹا بیٹی
ماموں ممانی
  1. نیچے دیے ہوئے الفاظ کے مذکر لکھیں۔
مونث مذکر
مورنی مور
شیرنی شیر
بلی بلا
گھوڑی گھوڑا
مرغی مرغا
چڑیا چڑا
  • قوسین () میں دیے ہوئے الفاظ کےمذکر مونث کو خالی جگہ میں لکھیں۔
  • 1-              (نانا)اور ————– چائے پی رہے ہیں۔ نانی
  • 2-              (مرغی) ڈربے میں تھی لیکن ———- دانہ چگ رہا تھا۔ مرغا
  • احمد نے چڑیا گھر میں (شیر) اور ———- کو دیکھا۔ شیرنی

3-مثال کے مطابق واحد کو جمع سے ملائیں۔

واحد جمع جوابات
سال کرسیوں سالوں
درخت میزوں درختوں
میز درختوں میزوں
ہاتھ سالوں ہاتھوں
کرسی ہاتھوں کرسیوں
  • جمع کو جملوں میں استعمال کریں۔
واحد جمع
بوتل میں کیا ہے؟ بوتلوں میں کیا ہے؟
درخت نہ کاٹو۔ درختوں کو نہ کاٹو۔
تتلی پھول پر بیٹھی ہے۔ تتلی پھولوں پر بیٹھی ہے۔
مہمان کی عزت کرو۔ مہمانوں کی عزت کرو۔

صفحہ:  117

مرغا اور بچہ


  1. مختصر جواب لکھیں۔
سوال: 1 ۔بچہ کس کے شور کرنے سے پریشان تھا؟
جواب:   بچہ مرغے کے شور کرنے سے پریشان تھا۔
سوال:2  مرغا کس وقت شور کرتا تھا؟
جواب: مرغا صبح کے وقت شور کرتا تھا۔
سوال:3 مرغے کے شور کرنے کی کیا وجہ تھی؟
جواب:   مرغا  اللہ کو یاد کرتا ہے۔
  • جملے بنائیں۔
الفاظ جملے
معلوم کیا آپ کو  اس سوال کا جواب معلوم ہے؟
عبادت اللہ کی عبادت کرو۔
پیارے آپ بہت پیارے لگ رہے ہیں۔
ناراض کیا آپ مجھ سے ناراض ہیں؟
غافل آخرت سے کبھی غافل نہ ہو۔
  • مندرجہ ذیل الفاظ کو ان کو متضاد (الٹ) سے ملائیں۔
الفاظ متضاد (الٹ)
شور خاموشی
جاگنا سونا
اطاعت نافرمانی
رات دن

صفحہ:  120

ریلوے اسٹیشن


  1. مختصر جواب لکھیں۔
سوال: 1 عمر ابو کے ساتھ کہاں گیا تھا؟
جواب:   عمر ابو کے ساتھ جاوید صاحب کے گھر گیا تھا۔
سوال:2   جاوید صاحب کہاں ملازم تھے؟
جواب: جاوید صاحب ریلوے میں  ملازم تھے۔
سوال:3  عمر کیا دیکھنے کے لیے بے چین ہوگیا تھا؟
جواب:   عمر ریل گاڑی  دیکھنے کے لیے بے چین ہوگیا تھا۔
سوال:4  عمرگرمیوں کی چھٹیوں میں کہاں جائے گا؟
جواب:   عمرگرمیوں کی چھٹیوں میں ملتان جائے گا۔
  • الفاظ کو متضاد سے ملائیں۔
الفاظ متضاد جواب
آرام دہ جاگنا تکلیف دہ
آسان دور مشکل
سونا آئیں جاگنا
جائیں مشکل آئیں
قریب تکلیف دہ دور
  • درست جملے کے سامنےP اور غلط جملے کے سامنے  xکانشان لگائیں۔
  • عمر ابو کے ساتھ دادا جان کےگھر گیا۔x
  • ریلوے اسٹیشن پر ریل گاڑی کھڑی تھی۔x
  • عمرریل گاڑی دیکھنے کے لیے بے چین تھا۔P
  • ابو نے کہا کہ موسم گرما کی چھٹیوں میں ہم پشاور گھومنے جائیں گے۔x

واحد جمع

  1. مثال کےمطابق واحد کو جمع سے ملائیں۔
واحد جمع جوابات
تصویر چیزیں تصویریں
آنکھ کرنیں آنکھیں
چیز سڑکیں چیزیں
کرن تصویریں کرنیں
سڑک آنکھیں سڑکیں
  • جمع کو جملوں میں استعمال کریں۔
واحد جمع
یہ چیز ہے۔ یہ چیز یں ہیں۔
یہ میز ہے۔ یہ میز یں ہیں۔
یہ مسجد ہے۔ یہ مسجد یں ہیں۔

صفحہ:  125



  1. مختصر جواب لکھیں۔
سوال: 1 بلبل کہاں بیٹھا تھا ؟
جواب:    بلبل درخت کی شاخ پر بیٹھا تھا۔
سوال:2   بلبل کیوں اداس تھا؟
جواب: بلبل اداس تھا کہ گھر کس طرح پہنچوں گا۔
سوال:3  بلبل کی آہ زاری کس نے سنی؟
جواب:   بلبل کی آہ زاری جگنو نے سنی۔
  • الفاظ کو متضاد سےملائیں۔
الفاظ متضاد جوابات
اداس اجالا خوش
اندھیرا دن اجالا
حاضر خوش غیر حاضر
رات غیر حاضر دن

صفحہ:  127

آمنہ کا نیا سکول


  1. مختصر جواب لکھیں۔
سوال: 1 آمنہ کے گاؤں کا کیا نام تھا؟
جواب:   آمنہ کے گاؤں کا نام تھا فتح پور۔
سوال:2   گاؤں کے زیادہ تر لوگ کیا کرتے تھے؟
جواب: گاؤں کے زیادہ تر لوگ کھیتی باڑی کرتے تھے۔
سوال:3  گاؤں والے آمنہ کے دادا کو اپنی کمائی کا کچھ حصہ کیوں دیتے تھے؟
جواب:   گاؤں والے آمنہ کے دادا کو اپنی کمائی کا کچھ حصہ سکول بنانے کے لیے دیتے تھے ۔
  • ان الفاظ کے جملے بنائیے۔
الفاظ جملے
دعا ہمیشہ دوسروں کے لیے دعا کریں۔
میدان یہ ہمارے کھیل کا  میدان ہے۔
مصروف ہم پڑھنے میں مصروف ہیں۔
علاج ڈاکٹر بیمار کا علاج کرتے ہیں۔
رقم آپ کے پاس کتنی رقم ہے؟
  • ارکان ملائیے:
  • ک +سان  =کسان
  • ہم +مت=ہمت
  • پے +شے=پیشے
  • بی+ مار=بیمار

4-قوسین میں دیے ہوئے الفاظ کی ضد کو خالی جگہ میں لکھ کر جملے مکمل کریں۔

  1. میں آج بہت——– ہوں۔  (اداس)
  2. اس سال بہت———– پڑی ہے۔۔  (سردی)
  3. دادی اماں ———— ہوتے ہی مرغیوں کا دڑبا کھول دیتی ہیں۔ ۔  (شام)

5- خالی جگہ پر ان افراد کے پیشوں کے نام لکھ کر جملےمکمل کریں۔

  1. ———— لکڑی سے سامان بناتا ہے۔ ۔  (ترکھان)
  2. 2-              ———— کپڑے سیتا ہے۔۔  (درزی)
  3. 3-              ———— بیماریوں کا علاج کرتا ہے۔۔  (ڈاکٹر)

6- سبق میں دیے پیشوں کے نام لکھیں۔

صفحہ:  132

فعل امر ،نہی


  1. امر جملوں کو نہی جملوں میں تبدیل کریں۔
امر نہی
گیند سے کھیلو۔ گیند سے نہ کھیلو۔
پھل کاٹیں۔ پھل نہ کاٹیں۔
امی سبزی پکائیں۔ امی سبزی نہ پکائیں۔
سکول کا کام کرو۔ سکول کا کام نہ کرو۔

صفحہ:  134

کلمہ اور مہمل


  1. کلمہ اور مہمل کو ملایں۔
کلمہ مہمل جوابات
جانا وازار وانا
بازار وڑیا وازار
گھر ول ور
گڑیا وانا وڑیا
پھل ور ول

صفحہ:  136

سمندر کی سیر


1-مختصر جواب لکھیں۔

سوال: 1 سارہ اور سلمان کس کی شادی کی دعوت پر کراچی آئے تھے؟
جواب:   سارہ اور سلمان  اپنی خالہ  کی شادی کی دعوت پر کراچی آئے تھے۔
سوال:2  نانی کے گھر سےسمندر کا فاصلہ کتنی دیر تک کا تھا؟
جواب: نانی کے گھر سےسمندر کا  ایک گھنٹے کا فاصلہ تھا۔
سوال:3 ان دونوں نے وہاں کس جانور کی سواری کی؟
جواب:   دونوں نے وہاں اونٹ کی سواری کی۔
  • ترتیب سے جملےلکھیں۔
  • بہت  ڈرلگا پہلے تو انھیں۔ پہلے تو انھیں بہت ڈر لگا۔
  • بنائے ریت کےگھر بچوں نے ۔بچوں نے ریت کے گھر بنائے۔
  • کرناشتا کیا سب نےمل۔سب نے مل کر ناشتا کیا۔

صفحہ:  140

میں چھوٹا سا اک لڑکا ہوں


1-مختصر جواب لکھیں۔

سوال:1 چھوٹا لڑکا کن کو نیک بنائے گا  ؟
جواب:   چھوٹا لڑکا تمام لڑاکا لڑکوں  کو نیک بنائے گا  ۔
سوال:2   کون آپس   میں مل جائیں گے؟
جواب: جو لڑتے رہتے وہ آپس   میں مل جائیں گے۔
سوال:3  ہم جولی سے کیا مراد ہے؟
جواب:   ہم جولی سے مراد ہے دوست۔

2- مندرجہ ذیل الفاظ کےسامنے ان کےہم آواز الفاظ چن کر لکھیں۔

نام- ایک-لڑے- بن- بناؤں

الفاظ ہم آواز الفاظ
بڑے لڑے
پھیلاؤں بناؤں
کام نام
من بن

3- نظم کے مطابق مناسب لفظ کی مدد سے خالی جگہ پر کریں۔

  1. میں———— سا اک لڑکاہوں۔ (بڑا/چھوٹا)
  2. 2-              ————–گزاروں عمر بھلا۔ (بےکار/کارآمد)
  3. سب آپس میں———— جائیں گے۔۔ (الگ/مل)

4۔ مذکر کے مونث بنائیں۔

مذکر مونث
لڑکا لڑکی
ابو امی
دادا دادی
خالو خالہ
پھوپھا پھوپھی

صفحہ:  143

روشنی اور حرارت


1-مختصر جواب لکھیں۔

سوال: 1 حرارت اور روشنی کا سب سے بڑا ذریعہ کون سا ہے؟
جواب:   سورج حرارت اور روشنی کا سب سے بڑا ذریعہ  ہے۔
سوال:2 حرارت اور روشنی حاصل کرنے کے دوسرے ذرائع کون کون سے ہیں؟ 
جواب:  1- آگ 2-گیس 3-بجلی
سوال:3آپ اپنے گھر میں روشنی کے کون کون سے ذرائع استعمال کرتے ہیں؟ دو نام لکھیں۔
جواب:   1-گیس 2-بجلی
سوال:4 سورج کے دو فائدے بتائیں۔
جواب: حرارتروشنی  

مندرجہ ذیل  الفاظ کو اپنے جملوں میں استعمال کیجیے۔

الفاظ جملے
روشنی سورج روشنی   دیتا ہے۔
حرارت سریوں میں حرارت اچھی لگتی ہے۔
سورج سورج اللہ کی ایک نعمت ہے۔
گرمی آج بہت گرمی ہے۔
آگ ہم آگ پر کھانا پکاتے ہیں۔
  • ارکان جوڑ کر لفظ بنائیے۔
ان +دھے +را اندھیرا
بج +لی بجلی
روش+ نی روشنی
گے+ س گیس

صفحہ:  148

آؤ مل جل کر رہیں


  1. ہر سوال کے چار جوابات دیے گئے ہیں۔

جوابات: (1-د)(2-د)(3-ا)(4-د)(5-ب)(6-د)(7-ا)

  • درست جملے کے سامنےP اور غلط کے سامنے  xکا نشان لگائیں۔

جوابات: (1-P)(2-P)(3-P)(4-x)(5-P)(6-P)(7-P)(8-P)

  • مناسب الفاظ کی مدد سے خالی جگہ پر کریں۔

جوابات: (1-خیال)(2-محبت)(3-زبان)(4-قرآن مجید)(5-برا)

  • سبق کے متن کو سامنے رکھ کر درج ذیل سوالات کے مختصر جواب دیں۔
سوال: 1  حیدر آباد ریلوے اسٹیشن پر آصف نے کیا خریدا؟
جواب:   حیدر آباد ریلوے اسٹیشن پر آصف نے ٹوپیاں  اور اجرک خریدی۔
سوال:2  صائمہ نے جوزف کےلائے ہوئے حلوے کو کھانے سے انکار کی تو ناصر نے اسے کیا کہا؟
جواب: ناصر نے کہا کہ رنگ جیسا بھی ہو انسان کو اندر سے اچھا ہونا چاہیے۔
سوال:3 مینا بازار میں کن کن بچوں اور بچیوں نے سٹال لگائے ہوئے تھے؟
جواب: عیسائیسکھپارسی
سوال:4  جب بچے/بچیاں اور اساتذہ مل کر فوٹو بنوانے کے لیے اکٹھے ہورہے تھے تو صائمہ کیا سوچ رہی تھی۔
جواب: صائمہ نےسوچا   “اگرچہ ان لوگوں کا تعلق مختلف مذاہب سے ہے لیکن یہ سب ایک خاندان کی طرح لگتے ہیں۔”
سوال:5 کیا ہمیں دوسروں کے مذہب زبان اور رنگ سے متعلق رواداری کا مظاہرہ کرنا چاہیے؟َ
جواب:  جی ہاں۔ ہمیں دوسروں کے مذہب زبان اور رنگ سے متعلق رواداری کا مظاہرہ کرنا چاہیے۔

——————-ختم شد——————–





1. a. ii. Form

b. ii. ID

c. iii. Yes/No

d. ii. Student. Name

e. iv. all of these

f. ii. Long Text


QUESTION: a. What is a DBMS? What are its advantages?

ANSWER: a. A DBMS is a software that performs the functions of creating, modifying, deleting, and adding data in a database.

The advantages of a DBMS are:

• It reduces data redundancy.

• It controls data inconsistency.

• It facilitates sharing of data.

QUESTION:  b. What are the six database objects?

ANSWER: b. Table, Form, Query, Report, Macro, and Module are the six database objects.

QUESTION:  c. What are the two ways of creating a database?

ANSWER: c. The two ways of creating a database are:

• Using a Template.

• Using a Blank desktop database.

QUESTION:  d. What are the rules for naming a field?

ANSWER: d. Rules for naming a field are:

• A field name can be 1 to 64 characters long.

• A field name can include letters, numbers, and some special characters like underscore.

• A field name cannot have a period, an exclamation mark, brackets or grave accent.

• A field name cannot start with a blank space.

• A field name can be in upper, lower, or mixed case.

QUESTION:  e. List the various data types available in Access 2013.

ANSWER: e. The various data types available in Access 2013 are:

Short Text, Long Text, Number, Date/Time, Currency, AutoNumber, Yes/No, OLE Object, Hyperlink, Attachment, and Calculated.

QUESTION:  f. What is the difference between hiding and freezing a field?

ANSWER: f. Hiding a field makes the field completely invisible (hidden) in the Datasheet view. Freezing one or more fields fixes them to the left of the datasheet and makes it/them visible at all times no matter where you scroll in the datasheet.

QUESTION:  g. List the steps to show the Total row in an Access 2013 table.

ANSWER: g. To show the Total row in an Access table:

i. Double-click the table for which you want the Total field. It opens in the Datasheet view.

ii. Click Totals in the Records group of the HOME tab.

iii. This shows the Totals row at the bottom of the datasheet.

QUESTION:  h. Ali’s teacher wants to organise all the personal data (name, age, etc.) and academic data (extracurricular interests, achievements, etc.) of the students in his class. Ali suggests he uses a DBMS (Database Management System) for this purpose. Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of using a DBMS for this task.

ANSWER: h. The advantages and disadvantages of DBMS are as follows:

The user can choose from a number of predefined styles. The user will have to define each field.
It is quicker to set up a database. It can be time consuming if there are a large number of fields.
There are less chances of errors in defining fields.  

QUESTION:i. You have been asked to create a database for the school’s cricket team using Access 2013. You realise that you can either use a template or develop it yourself. Compare both ways of creating the database and state your preference.


QUESTION:j. Your task is to create a database to track the progress of 5 different teams that all played in a recent Football World Cup. Create a database using MS Access for any five teams of your choice

You must include the following fields in your table:

  • matches played
  • winning team
  • losing team
  • goals for
  • goals against


CHAPTER 2 ACCESS 2013: PAGE: 24-50

Design View, Queries, Forms and Reports OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS


a. i. 255 characters

b. ii. Required

c. iv. Datasheet View

d. ii. Long Text

e. ii. >=1 AND <=500


QUESTION:a. Describe the four parts of the Field Definition Grid.

ANSWER: a. The Field Definition Grid consists of Field Selector, Field Name, Data Type and Description.

i. Field Selector:

 Field selector allows selection of a field. One can then insert a row above the selected field, delete a row, or drag a row up or down to reposition the field in the table. The field selector box also identifies the primary key field of the table by displaying the Primary Key icon (a small picture of a key with a right-pointing arrow).

ii. Field Name:

 This part of the grid lists the field names for the table being created.

iii. Data Type: The type of data of the fields is specified in this part. When a new field is added in Design View, it is by default assigned the Short Text data type. One can change a field’s data type by clicking on the arrow next to the entries in the Data Type column and selecting a new data type from the list that appears.

iv. Description: It contains an optional description of the field.

QUESTION:b. What are the different ways of setting a field as a primary key?

ANSWER: b. To set a field as a primary key:

i. Select the field to be set as primary key.

ii. Click Primary Key in the Tools group of the DESIGN tab.


i. Right-click the field selector of the column that will be the primary key.

ii. Select Primary Key from the context menu.

QUESTION: c. Why is a form preferred over the Datasheet View for entering data?

ANSWER: c. A Form is preferred over a Datasheet View in data entry because it provides an easy way to enter, edit, delete and view data in a table. Moreover, a form can enforce data validation on the data being entered. This provides greater control on the data entry.

QUESTION: d. How will you switch from Datasheet View to Design View and vice versa?

ANSWER: d. To switch from the Datasheet View to the Design View, click the View drop-down menu arrow in the Views group on the DESIGN tab. Select Design View. To go back again to the Datasheet View, click the View drop-down menu arrow in the Views group on the DESIGN tab. Select Datasheet View.

QUESTION: e. What do you understand by the AutoNumber field in Access? Can you change the data type of any field to AutoNumber?

ANSWER: e. AutoNumber field stores an integer that increments automatically as records are added. It is the default data type for the ID field. Yes, the data type of any field can be assigned as an AutoNumber. However, Access allows only one field to be AutoNumber data type in a table.

QUESTION: f. Give a validation rule such that a user can enter only the values 1, 2, or 3?

ANSWER: f. The validation rule =1 or =2 or =3 will allow the user to enter only 1, 2 or 3 as input in that field.

QUESTION: g. Compare the two methods of creating a table in MS Access (Datasheet View and Design View). Which one would you prefer to use to record the advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet?

ANSWER: g. Below is a comparison between the two methods of creating a table in MS Access: Datasheet View Design View It shows data in the database and allows the user to enter and edit data. It can create or change the table, form as well as configure fields. The format of database cannot be changed. It can set keys to restrict values that are entered. It cannot change the data.

QUESTION: h Access 2013 allows you to define field properties such as size, format, input mask, and validation rule. Analyse the importance of each field property for a database with hundreds of entries.

ANSWER: h. Both design view and datasheet view are important and need to be used interchangeably when using MS Access. Students should be able to demonstrate the skills they’ve learned in this chapter. They should understand how databases are used to store large amounts of data in an organised manner, and the importance of appropriately labelling all data fields. Some students might list each field property and write only its definition which does not come up to the entire requirement of the question.

QUESTION: i. Using the information you collated for Question 3 of Chapter 1, create a form to enter the information about the teams that played in the World Cup. You may use any of the three methods (see page 43 of your Keyboard 8 book if you get stuck) to design the form. Make sure to list the steps you will take to create the form and give reasons for your choices.

ANSWER: i. Answers will vary but the correct use of the method chosen will guide the final assessment. The fields they select as part of their database are also of importance.





a. ii. Unordered

b. iv. all of these

c. i. list-style-image

d. iv. Any one of these

e. i. Error! Filename not specified.

f. i. src

g. ii. medium

h. i.


QUESTION: a. Differentiate between an ordered and an unordered list.

ANSWER: a. A list in which the order of items is neither fixed nor important is called an unordered list. Each item in an unordered list is marked by a small symbol or image called bullet. Therefore, it is also known as bulleted list. On the other hand, a list in which the order of items is fixed and important is called an ordered list. The individual items in an ordered list is marked by a number. Hence it is also called as numbered list.

QUESTION: b. Mention the values that can be assigned to the list-style-type property of an Ordered

ANSWER: b. The values that can be assigned to the list-style-type property of an ordered list are decimal, lower-roman, upper-roman, lower alpha, and upper-alpha.

QUESTION: c. Name the tags used for creating ordered and unordered lists.

ANSWER: c. The tags used for creating an ordered list are:

tag and tag; while those used for creating an unordered list are: tag and tag.

QUESTION: d. What is the purpose of the <dd> tag?

ANSWER: d. The tag (definition list description) is a description list tag and is used to build a list of definitions.

QUESTION: e. What are the tags required to create a description list

ANSWER: e. The tags required to create a description list are , and

QUESTION: f. Which tag is used for inserting an image to bedisplayed in an HTML document? Mention any ? two attributes of this tag.

ANSWER: f. The Error! Filename not specified. tag is used to insert an image in an HTML document. It is an empty element. Two attributes of this tag are:

• src: This specifies the URL of the image to be inserted.

• alt: This is used to specify an alternate text for an image.

QUESTION: g. What are the various ordering styles that can be given to the items of an ordered list?

ANSWER: g. The various ordering styles that can be given to the items of an ordered list are: decimal (default), lower-roman, upper-roman, lower-alpha, or upper-alpha.

QUESTION: h. What do GIF and PNG stand for?

ANSWER: h. GIF: Graphics Interchange Format PNG: Portable Network Graphics.

QUESTION: i. Your teacher has asked you to write a program in HTML which lists some difficult scientific words and their definitions. Identify three of the HTML methods used to create lists. Which ‘method would you prefer to use and why?

ANSWER: i. Students should identify ‘ordered’, ‘unordered’, and ‘description’ as the three types of lists. There is no real right answer as to why a student would pick one over the other, it is a matter of preference. The reasons that they give for using a particular method will be indicative of their learning.

QUESTION: j. HTML is used to create web pages which usually contain many visuals. Web pages need to be attractive so that visitors to any particular web page will find it enjoyable to go through the information. It also gives the website an overall style of presentation.


QUESTION: k. This question will require the students to practise coding in the computer lab. They will need to write their code and test it. As well as assessing students on the type of code that they’ve written (this depends on how the web page looks), marks can also be awarded for creativity.






1. a. F. An image can be set as a hyperlink.

b. F. A caption can also be placed at the bottom of a table.

c. F. The padding property specifies the space between the border and the content of a cell.

d. T

e. F. The tag is a container element

2. a. iii. both i. and ii.

b. i. controls

c. iv. all of these

d. iv. any of these

e. ii. Error! Filename not specified.

f. i. active

g. i. href

h. i. Pixels


QUESTION: a. What is the purpose of the src and control attributes of the <audio> tag?

ANSWER: a. The src attribute of the tag is used to specify the URL of the audio file. The control attribute is used to display the audio controls on the web page.

QUESTION: b. What is the difference between the <td> and <tr> tags?

ANSWER: b. The tag is the table data tag. It is used to specify an individual block or cell in a table row. The tag is the table row tag. It is used to define a horizontal row of cells.

QUESTION: c. What is the use of the vertical-align property? What values can be assigned to this property?

ANSWER:  c. The vertical-align property is used to set the vertical alignment of text in a table. The acceptable values for this property are: top, bottom, and middle.

QUESTION: d. Describe the different kinds of links that can be created on a web page.

ANSWER: d. Three kinds of links can be created on a web page:

• Internal: A link to a point on the current page.

• Local: A link to another page on the same website.

• Global: A link to a page on a different website.

QUESTION: e. Name the tag used to create a link. Name one attribute used with this tag.

ANSWER: e. The anchor tag is used to create a link. One attribute of this tag is HREF, which specifies the destination page or the file where the link will take the user to when clicked.

QUESTION: f. The answers here will vary. Make sure that students give you the URL for the web page which they are analysing. Their answers should show that they know what tables are used for and how they are created in HTML.

ANSWER: f. Open the home page of your favourite website. Analyse the page carefully, and state why you think that the page has been designed using tables.

QUESTION: g. HTML allows you to assign different colours to hyperlinks depending on the action taken by the user on that particular hyperlink. Evaluate its usefulness for programmers.

ANSWER: g. For programmers this feature is extremely useful as they can organise their codes in a better way, especially when writing a complicated or long code. They can develop a key and keep track of all the different actions that the page requires the user to make. From an aesthetic point of view, it also adds to the presentation of the page.

QUESTION: h. Write a programme in which you create two frames on a webpage. One of the frames should have an audio of your favourite song embedded in it, while the other should have a link to its video. Give your webpage an interesting heading and background colour.

ANSWER: h. This lesson will require students to have access to the lab for at least two lessons. Two properly created frames with the audio and video embedded so that they are functional are required. Also, the heading and background colour should be appropriate to the subject matter used for both the audio and the video. As well as marking the technical aspect of the question, marks can also be allocated for creativity.





1. a. iv. all of these

b. i. Spacebar

c. ii. Ctrl+D

d. i. Effect

e. i. Ctrl+A

f. ii. .aup

g. i. Import

h. ii. Ctrl+V


QUESTION: a. How can you create a copy of the selected audio on the same track?

ANSWER: a. To create a copy of the selected portion of an audio on the same track:

i. Select the portion of audio track you want to copy.

ii. Select the Copy option from the Edit menu.

iii. Click at the position on the track where you want to insert the copied audio.

iv. Select the Paste option from the Edit menu.

QUESTION: b. List the steps to export an audio file so that it can be opened in a program like c. Windows Media Player.

ANSWER: b. To export an audio file to a program like Windows Media Player, follow the steps below:

i. Select File Export.

ii. In the Export File dialog box that appears, enter the desired file name and select a format in the Save as type: menu.

iii. Click on Save.

QUESTION: c. What are the default values for the Default Sample Rate and the Default Sample Format?

ANSWER: c. The Default Sample Rate is 44100Hz and the Default Sample Format is 32-bit float.

QUESTION: d. List the different audio file formats that can be opened in Audacity.

ANSWER: d. WAV, AIF, and MP3 are some of the common audio file formats that can be opened in Audacity.

QUESTION: e. How can the duration of an audio be measured?

ANSWER: e. The duration of an audio can be measured in minutes and seconds using the ruler (the Timeline) above the waveform.

QUESTION: f. Mention two ways in which you can play an audio.

ANSWER: f. To play an audio, click the Play button on the Transport toolbar or press the Spacebar.

QUESTION: g. Can you change the name of a track? How?

ANSWER: g. Yes. To change the name of a track:

i. Click the drop-down menu arrow of the Audio Track option and select Name…

ii. The Track Name dialog box appears. Type a track name of your choice and click OK.

QUESTION: h. How can you import a music file as a background?

ANSWER: h. To import a music file as a background:

i. Select File Import Audio. The Select one or more audio files… dialog box appears.

ii. Select a file of your choice and click Open.

iii. The selected music file is added as a background.

QUESTION: i. Asad has downloaded Audacity on to his computer to listen to music. Unfortunately, he is unaware of the file formats that are supported by this software programme. List the different formats that can be played on Audacity and give their properties. Do you think it is important for there to be restrictions on how this software can be used? Why is it important for ‘free, open source’ software to be available to use? Do you think it is actually free?

ANSWER: i. The properties of the different formats that can be played on Audacity are as follows: 

 WAV AIFF MP3 used for raw and uncompressed data Microsoft Windows, Macintosh, and Linux operating systems developed by Moving Pictures compatible with Microsoft Windows, Macintosh, and Linux operating systems better sound quality than WAV good sound quality large files, so not usually shared over Internet popular because uses file compression which means files are of smaller size The question about the restrictions on how to use the software is a subjective one and students will answer differently, so there is no right or wrong answer here. As for the importance of why there should be an open software, students might give reasons such as:

• more people can access the software

• it is cheaper

• it is possible to experiment with different software Nothing is actually free. It is important that students realise that there is a cost associated with developing any software. ‘Free’ software packages are often basic versions of the complete software and therefore have limited functionalities so if the user want to use all its features then the full software package will need to be purchased.

QUESTION: j. Saleem is working on a documentary about different kinds of birds and their sounds. How will the following options in Audacity help with this fascinating and informative documentary? What other properties could be used? Why?

  • mixing narration with background music
  • having multiple tracks in one project
  • adding effects such as ’Fade in’ and the silence generator

ANSWER: j. • This will make the documentary more pleasing to watch and listen to because carefully chosen music can add to the mood of the narration.

• Multiple tracks allow different parts of the documentary to have different types of movie moods. For example, if the documentary is about lions hunting, more thrilling, and lively music can be used to illustrate this part of the documentary whereas lions at rest could be illustrated by gentler music.

• These effects help in smoothing out the sound in general. ‘Fade in’ helps avoid abrupt transitions, whilst the silence generator is more important when the user wants to cut out unwanted words or language.


ANSWER: k. The quality of the recording will determine how well the students have mastered the skills of using audacity. The music teacher may be able to assist with making the ‘musical judgement.’




1. a. F. The Edit Viewer has a red border.

b. T

c. T

d. F. The selection appears white.

e. F. The Replace and Insert functions are used to get pictures and sound into the edit.

2. a. iv. all of these

b. iv. both i. and ii.

c. iv. both i. and ii.

d. iv. all of these

e. iv. all of the above


QUESTION: a. What are the two ways of importing files?

ANSWER: a. To import a file or a group of files into your project:

i. Click the Import icon on the toolbar. The Select Files to Import dialog box appears.

ii. Click on Places at the top-left corner of the dialog box. From the menu that opens, navigate to the directory containing the files you wish to import.

iii. Select the files you wish to import into your project in the Select files to import dialog box that opens. The Name, Format, Rate, Size, and Date of each clip is displayed here. Make sure that the frame rate of the file is compatible with the project frame rate.

iv. Click Import. A panel reporting the progress of the import process is displayed.

Or Another way of importing files is Batch Import. Right-click the Import icon and select Batch Import…. The Batch Import dialog box opens. Click Add Files. The Select files to import dialog box appears. Choose your files, click Start and click Import.

QUESTION: b, Name all the extension of a video file which you can use in Lightworks.

ANSWER: b. Video files with the extensions AVI, MOV, MXF, MPG, and MPEG can be imported into Lightworks for processing.

QUESTION: C, How will you create a new bin, add a video and an audio clip, and make it permanent?

ANSWER: c. To create a new bin:

i. Click the Bin icon on the toolbar. This opens the bin.

ii. Drag the tiles in the Imports dialog box to the bin to add them to the bin folder. To make the added files permanent:

i. Click the cogs icon on the bin and select the Permanence as Permanent.

QUESTION: d. Explain the mark and park procedure of marking a clip.

ANSWER: d. For many editing operations, one needs to select a length of the source clip. This can be done by marking the In point and the Out point on the clip. This process is called mark and park in Lightworks. To mark and park do the following:

i. Position the frame marker where you want the clip to begin.

ii. Press the ‘In’ mark button on the console. A blue marker comes up below the current frame red marker.

iii. Now move the current frame red marker to where you want the clip to end.

iv. The portion between the blue marker and the current red frame marker is now selected and appears in white (i.e., marked).

QUESTION: e. How will you export the edited file to your desktop?

ANSWER: e. To export the file:

i. Drag the Export icon on the toolbar onto the edit, clip, tile or bin. Or Right-click on the edit, clip, tile or bin, and from the menu that opens, select Export.

ii. The Export window opens.

iii. Select the destination drive for the exported media.

iv. Type the name of the exported file.

v. Click Start.

vi. A Status window opens, displaying the progress of the export.

vii. After completion, a report displays in a Tasks Log window.

QUESTION: f. Ahmed is having trouble organising his video and audio clips in Lightworks. Share your analysis of using rooms, racks, and bins to organise a project.

ANSWER: f. Bins allow the user to keep all the audio and video clips that are going to be used in one place, while racks allow the user to store and keep track of all the bins. These two features are important because a movie can consist of a large number of video and audio clips and the user may save them haphazardly thereby losing track of where all the material is. Rooms are important because they store the material for one project. This allows for further organisation of projects. So, racks and bins ensure that individual projects remain organised and rooms allow the user to maintain organised data for different projects.

QUESTION: g, Evaluate the usefulness of ‘slip a shot’, and ’slide a shot’ functions in making videos.

ANSWER: g. Videos are made of many frames and a good software will allow the user to manipulate those frames to make the best possible video. The ‘slip a shot’ feature allows the user to increase or decrease the length of the beginning clip without affecting the middle clip. The ‘slide a shot’ feature is also important because it lets the user increase or decrease the first clip at its end while at the same time increasing or decreasing the third clip at its beginning, while leaving the middle clip intact. Both are important because a good video depends on how a videographer manipulates frames.

QUESTION: h. Create a video about the hobbies of different family members and friends. To do this, first shoot small clips about each individual, making sure they are happy for you to film them. Then use Lightworks to edit and create a single video from the short clips. You can add a soundtrack to your video if you like.

ANSWER: h. It is best to define the time limit for the videos when this work is assigned to students. A 2 to 3 minute short video should be enough, both in terms of duration and the level of work that will be required. When watching the final product ask students questions about which features they used and how they used them. Mark the video for visual and audio quality, as well as creativity.





1. a. iv. all of these

b. ii. Status bar

c. i. Lasso Tool

d. iv. any one of these

e. iii. Elliptical Marquee Tool

f. i. Custom Shape

g. iii. Magnetic Lasso Tool

h. ii. Shift + Ctrl +S


QUESTION: a. Name the various Marquee Tools. 

ANSWER: a. Rectangular Marquee tool, Elliptical Marquee tool, Single Row Marquee tool, and Single Column Marquee tool.

QUESTION: b. What is the default foreground and background Coiour?

ANSWER: b. The default foreground and background colours are black and white respectively.

QUESTION: c. How can you create a new file in Photoshop CS3?

ANSWER: c. To create new file:

i. Select File New. The New dialog box appears.

ii. In the New dialog box, specify the following:

• Name: Assign a name to the file. By default, Photoshop names the files Untitled-1, Untitled-2, etc.

• Width and Height: Enter the width and height of the new file. You can choose the required unit (pixels, inches, centimetres, points, or picas). The default unit is pixels.

• Resolution: Enter the desired resolution.

• Color Mode: Choose from the given options (bitmap, grayscale, RGB color, CMYK color).

• Background Contents: Choose from white, background color, and transparent. iii. Click OK. A new blank file opens on the screen.

QUESTION: d. What is the use of the Gradient Tool?

ANSWER: d. The Gradient Tool is used to fill a selected portion or an entire layer with a gradient (a fill consisting of two or more colors blending together).

QUESTION: e. List the steps to change the foreground Colour.

ANSWER: e. To change the foreground color:

i. Click the Foreground colour selection box in the tools panel. The Color Picker dialog box appears.

ii. Drag the color slider. iii. Click in the Color Field and choose a colour.

iv. Click OK.

QUESTION: f. What is the use of the Circular Marquee Tool?

ANSWER: f. The Circular (or Elliptical) Marquee tool is used to select an elliptical or a circular area of an image.

QUESTION: g. Differentiate between the Marquee and the Lasso tools.

ANSWER: g. The Marquee tools are used to select rectangular, square, elliptical, or circular areas of an image while the Lasso tools are used to make free-hand selections of an image.

QUESTION:H h. What do you understand by the term ‘resolution’?

ANSWER: h. Resolution is the number of pixels per inch that make up an image. At a higher resolution, an image is sharper but its file size is also bigger.

QUESTION:I i. Alizeh is working on a picture of her pet dog and wants to show the image in different perspectives. Explain the different ways in which an image can be transformed in Photoshop. What are the potential benefits of doing this?

ANSWER: i. The different ways that an image can be transformed include: skewing, rotating, scaling, flipping horizontally or vertically, applying a perspective, and distorting. The benefits of having so many options are that it allows the user to present images in a variety of different ways according to the need of the webpage and the message that is being conveyed. It offers the user flexibility in manipulating images.

QUESTION:J j. Bilal has been given the following pictures and has to make the required changes in ’them- How would he do this? ls it an easy task? Justify your response.

– a picture of playground where he needs to focus on the two children in the foreground

– an image where he needs to blend two background colours together

– A picture where he needs to turn the people in the picture to the opposite Side

ANSWER: j. • Using the crop tool, the area that is focussed on can be selected. When the Enter key is pressed only the selected area will remain.

 • The gradient tool will allow the user to blend two colours together.

• The transform tool can be used to do this. In all three cases, the requirements of the task are made easy by the use of specific tools designed for that purpose.

QUESTION:K k. Open the picture of your favourite super hero in Photoshop. Make the following changes to it and note down the steps you take for each of them. Why do you think is it important to follow the steps in order?

-Change the background/foreground colour of the picture.

– Crop away any details you do not like.

– Copy the image within the same file.

– Add a gradient and transform the picture.

ANSWER: k. This is a lab-based question and it is recommended that students be given at least one lesson to complete this. Advise the students to save only one image with all the tasks performed on it rather than four separate ones. Students can be assessed on their selection of the correct tool as detailed below:

• Colour tool to change foreground and background colours

• Crop tool for cropping away unwanted details

• Use one of the selection tools such as the lasso tool to choose the part of the image the user wants to move, then click on the Move tool. Finally, using the ALT key, drag the cut portion where ever the user wants to place it on the screen.

• The gradient tool to add the gradient and the transform tool for the transforming the picture.





1. a. ii. Background Eraser Tool

b. i. Background

c. iv. all of these

d. ii. Layers palette

e. i. Type Layer

f. iii. Options bar

g. i. Filters

h. iv. all of these


QUESTION: a. Can you select multiple layers in Photoshop? If yes, how?

ANSWER: a. Yes, we can select multiple layers in Photoshop. For this, click the first layer and then press Shift key and click on the last layer.

QUESTION: b. What is the use of the Spot Healing Brush Tool?

ANSWER: b. The Spot Healing Brush Tool is used to remove blemishes, scars, spots, and other imperfections in a photograph. One can simply click and drag the mouse pointer across the affected area and the flaw disappears.

QUESTION: c. How can you flatten all visible layers? What is the use of flattening the layers?

ANSWER: c. To flatten all visible layers, we have to make sure that all the layers are visible, and then select Layer Flatten Image command located in Layers menu. Flattening reduces the file size by merging all visible layers into the background.

QUESTION: d. What is the currently selected layer in Photoshop called?

ANSWER: d. The currently selected layer in Photoshop is called the active layer.

QUESTION: e. What are the steps to rename a layer?

ANSWER: e. To rename a layer:

QUESTION: f. Analyse the importance of working with layers in Photoshop.

ANSWER: f. The use of layers is an important aspect of working in Photoshop. Layers allow a lot of flexibility for the user. If something should go wrong, that particular layer can be fixed without touching other layers, thus saving on effort and time.

QUESTION: g. Hamza is having trouble working out how a number of tools work in Photoshop. Explain the workings of each of the following tools: blur, clone, smudge, dodge, burn. These are great tool names, but why are they so called?

ANSWER: g. Most tools derive their names from the type of functions that they perform. Blur can soften or blur a particular area of an image Clone duplicates selected areas of an image Smudge creates the effect of wet paint being smudged by a finger Dodge can make darker areas lighter Burn darkens the pixels in an image

QUESTION: h. Using the image of your superhero which you designed for Question 3 in Chapter 7, add more layers to it and give it a more detailed look. At each step document what you did and why you did it.

ANSWER: h. This is a lab-based lesson and students should be given ample time to complete their work, preferably 2 lessons. Students can be assessed on the finished project as well as on their documentation of it to clarify the correct use of tools.

i. Double-click the layer in the Layers palette.

ii. Type a new name for the layer.





1. a. F. An image can be resized by mentioning its height and width in the Property Inspector.

b. F. By default, the Property Inspector is located at the lower edge of the workspace.

c. T

d. F. Show Code and Design views allows you to see both the code and the web page for the same document in a single window.

e. T f. T

2. a. iv. self

b. iii. *

c. iii. Page Properties

d. ii. Status bar

e. ii. Link


QUESTION: a. Differentiate between the local root folder and the remote folder.

ANSWER: a. A local root folder is a folder on one’s local computer which stores the files one is currently working on, whereas a remote folder is a folder on the computer where the web server is running.

QUESTION: b. What are the different ways to start a new website?

ANSWER: b. To create a new Website:

i. In the opening page, under Create New, click Dreamweaver Site. Or ii. Click Site New Site to open a new website. The Site Definition dialog box appears. It has two tabs – Basic and Advanced. The Basic tab is selected by default. Here we enter information for the website in a series of screens that appear as we keep clicking the Next button.

iii. We can now see our website folder listed in the Files panel.

QUESTION: c. How will you add a web page to a website folder?

ANSWER: c. To add a web page to a website folder follow these steps:

i. Select File New.

ii. The New Document dialog box appears. By default, the following options are selected: the new document is a Blank Page, the Page Type is HTML, and the layout is None. Click Create.

iii. The Document window appears. Type the text as needed.

iv. Click File Save to save the HTML file. The Save As dialog box appears. Type a name for the file and click Save.

QUESTION: d. How will you set a text or an image as a hyperlink using the Point to file icon?

ANSWER: d. For this, select the text or image and drag the Point to File icon next to the Link text box in the Property Inspector to the target document in the Files panel. Then select the option in the Target text box.

QUESTION: e. What is a Flash button? How will you add a Flash button to a web page?

ANSWER: e. Flash buttons are images that can be hyperlinked. To add a Flash button to a web page do the following:

i. Place the cursor where you want to insert the Flash button.

ii. On the Common tab of the Insert bar, select Media and choose the Flash Button option from the menu. Or Select Insert Media Flash Button. The Insert Flash Button dialog box appears. Select the Style for the button. Type the Button text. Select the Font and font Size. Browse to the file linked to this button. Select the Target window. You can change the background color of the button. After applying all the desired changes, click Apply. The button will appear on the web page. If you like the button, click OK. Otherwise, change your selections and click Apply again to see how it looks. Finally, click OK.

QUESTION: f. Bilal’s Science teacher has asked him to create a web page for his Science project. Bilal is confused whether to use HTML or Dreamweaver to make this page. Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of both software. Which one would you prefer?

ANSWER: f. There is no right or wrong to a person’s preference, so students could prefer either but they should be able to justify their answer. Advantages of using Dreamweaver:

• efficiency and ease of use

• can use templates to make webpages

• can make consistent looking websites and webpages

• managing and updating websites is quicker Advantages of using HTML:

• easy to understand

• supported by all browsers

• free software

• search engine friendly

• most development tools support HTML

QUESTION: g. Dreamweaver provides a number of options when it comes to dealing with hyperlinks, such as where to put the hyperlink, defining anchor links, and giving different colours to links. Evaluate the usefulness of all three features in relation to browsing on the internet.

ANSWER: g. A named anchor link allows the user to link to a particular part of a long document. Providing different colours to links; dependent on the action performed; makes it easier for the user to know which links have been utilised, for example, rollover link, active, visited. Hyperlink placement is important because it adds to the user-friendliness of the webpage.

QUESTION: h. Create a web page for yourself entitled ’This is ME!’ Use as many of the features as possible that are mentioned in this chapter. Your page should include some personal information, some pictures (linked and not linked), and any other information that is important to you. Make sure to save your work as this will be needed in the next chapter.

ANSWER: h. This is a lab-based exercise and students could be given at least two lessons to complete this work. Students may be required to document which tools and commands they used and could be asked to justify their choices.





1. a. F. One can add any number of images to a web page.

b. T

c. T

d. T

e. T

2. a. ii. Width and Height

b. ii. ALT

c. ii. Hotspot

d. ii. Frameset

e. ii. ALT


QUESTION: a. What are the three formats of the image supported by web browsers?

ANSWER: a. Graphic Interchange Format (GIF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), and Portable Network Group (PNG) are the formats supported by most web browsers.

QUESTION: b. What are the two ways of inserting a Rollover image?

ANSWER: b. Two ways of inserting rollover images are:

• Click Images drop-down menu on the Insert bar of the Common tab and select Rollover Image. Or

• Select Insert Image Objects Rollover Image.

QUESTION: c. What are the three shapes that can be used to define the image map area?

ANSWER: c. Rectangle, circle, and polygon are the three shapes that can be used to define an Image Map area.

QUESTION: d.How will you add an Excel file to a web page?

d. To add an Excel file to a web page:

i. Open the page that will have the link to the Excel document.

ii. Drag the Excel file from its current location to anywhere on the Dreamweaver page. The Insert Document dialog box appears.

iii. Select Create a link and click OK. If the document you are linking to is not in your site’s root folder, Dreamweaver prompts you to copy it to the site root folder. This ensures that the document will be available when you publish the Website

iv. Press F12 or click Preview/Debug in Browser.

v. The web page will show a link to the Excel file. The file is downloaded when you click to open the file.

QUESTION: e. What is the advantage of adding a frameset to a web page?

ANSWER: e. The most common use of frames or framesets is for navigation. A set of frames often includes one frame containing a navigation bar and another frame to display the main content pages. Using frames in this way has the following advantages:

• A visitor’s browser doesn’t need to reload the navigation-related graphics for every page.

• Each frame has its own scroll bar (if the content is too large to fit in a window), so that a visitor can scroll the frames independently. For example, a visitor who scrolls to the bottom of a long page of content in a frame doesn’t need to scroll back up to the top to use the navigation bar if the navigation bar is in a different frame.

QUESTION: f. Tariq has been asked to compare the following framesets in Dreamweaver them on a chart and writing an explanation of what they do in terms of wet –Fixed bottom, nested right

ANSWER: f. Tariq should open a new document and go to the ‘Page from Sample’ option and choose ‘Frameset’. A list will drop down where all these choices will be mentioned. He can pick each in turn and see how it looks. He could include each choice on chart paper.


ANSWER: g. For someone who is beginning to make webpages, tables provide an easy and structured way to maintain data, and create a webpage. Each space is predefined and guides the developer in a step by step manner.


ANSWER: h. Students will probably only require one lesson to apply these features to their existing page. Assessment will be on the correct use of each of the items and how they fit into the overall scheme of the webpage.

============THE END==========



Alphabetical List of GREEK/LATIN roots, stems, & prefixes commonly used in English

1 ab:-, a:-, abs:-   LATIN abnormal, abrasion, absent, abstain, abstract, aversion  
2 ac:- sharp / pointed LATIN Acupuncture  
3 acerb:- sharp, bitter, sour -LATIN acerbic, exacerbate  
4 acid:- sour or acid -LATIN acidosis  
5 acr:- height, summit, tip -GREEK acrobatics, acromegaly, acronym, acrophobia  
6 acr:- bitter, pungent, sharp, sour LATIN acer, acris acrid, acrimony  
7 acu:- sharp LATIN acupuncture, acute, acutifoliate  
8 ad:-, a:-, ac:-, af:-, ag:-, al:-, ap:-, ar:-, as:-, atmovement to or toward; in addition to LATIN accept, adapt, affect, approximate, ascend  
9 adip:- fat LATIN adipose  
10 aer:- air, atmosphere GREEK aeronautics, aerosol  
11 aesthet:- feeling, sensation GREEK aesthetics, anaesthetic  
12 agr:- field GREEK agronomy  
13 agri:-, egri:- field LATIN agriculture, peregrine  
14 alb:- dull white LATIN albedo, albino, albumen  
15 am:-, amat:-, amor:- love, loved LATIN amateur, amorous  
16 ambi:- both, on both sides LATIN ambidexterity, ambivalent  
17 amic:-, :-imic:- friend LATIN amicable, inimical  
18 amph:-, amphi:- around, about, both,  on both sides of, both kinds GREEK amphibian, amphibolic, amphoterism  
19 ampl:- ample, abundant, bountiful LATIN amplification  
20 an:-, a:- not, without GREEK anhydrous, atypical  
21 ana:-, an:- again, against, back, up GREEK anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anion, anode  
22 andr:- male, masculine GREEK androgen, android  
23 anem:- wind GREEK anemometer  
24 anim:- breath LATIN animal, animation  
25 ann:-, :-enn:- year, yearly LATIN anniversary, annual, biannual, millennium  
26 ant:-, anti:- against, opposed to, preventive GREEK antagonist, antibiotic, antipodes  
27 ante:-, anti:- before, in front of, prior to LATIN antebellum, antediluvian, anticipate, antiquarian  
28 anth:- flower GREEK anther, anthology  
29 anthrop:- human GREEK anthropology, anthropomorphic  
30 ap:-, apo:- away from, separate, at the farthest point GREEK apocrine, apogee, apostasy  
31 aqu:- water LATIN aquamarine, aquarium, aqueduct, aquifer  
32 ar:- plow, till LATIN arable  
33 ar:- be dry LATIN arid  
34 arche:-, archi:- ruler GREEK archangel, archetype  
35 archae:-, arche:- ancient GREEK archaeology or archeology, archaic  
36 arct:- relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to cold; used as the scientific name of some bear species, e.g. Ursus arctos horribilis GREEK Arctic Ocean  
37 argent:- silver LATIN argent, Argentina  
38 arist:- excellence GREEK aristocracy  
39 arthr:- joint GREEK arthropod  
40 astr:- star, star:-shaped GREEK asterisk, astrology, astronomy, disaster  
41 athl:- prize GREEK athlete, pentathlon  
42 audi:- hearing, listening, sound LATIN audible, auditorium, auditory  
43 aug:-, auct:- grow, increase LATIN augend, augmentation  
44 aur:- relating to gold, or gold:-colored LATIN aureate, aureole  
45 auri:- relating to the ear LATIN auricle  
46 aut:-, auto:- self; directed from within GREEK autograph, automobile, autonomy  
47 avi:- bird LATIN aviary, aviation  
48 axi:- axis LATIN axisymmetry  
49 axio:- merit GREEK axiology  
50 bac:- rod:-shaped LATIN bacilla, bacteria  
51 bar:- weight, pressure GREEK barograph, barometer  
52 basi:- at the bottom GREEK basic, basis  
53 bathy:-, batho:- deep, depth GREEK batholith, bathyscaphe  
54 be:-, beat:- bless LATIN beatification  
55 bell:- war LATIN antebellum, bellicose, belligerent  
56 ben:- good, well LATIN benefit, benignity  
57 bi:- two LATIN binary, binoculars, bigamy, biscotti  
58 bib:- drink LATIN imbibe  
59 bibl:- book GREEK bible, bibliography  
60 bio:- life GREEK biography, biology, biologist, biosphere, bioluminescent  
61 blenn:- slime GREEK blennophobia, blennosperma  
62 blast:- germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleus GREEK blastula, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast  
63 bon:- good LATIN– (bonus) bonify, bonitary  
64 bor:- north GREEK– / –LATIN borealis  
65 botan:- plant GREEK botany  
66 bov:- cow, ox LATIN bovine  
67 brachi:- arm GREEK brachial artery, brachiosaurus  
68 brachy:- short GREEK brachydactyly  
69 brady:- slow GREEK bradycardia  
70 branchi:- gill GREEK branchiopod, nudibranch  
71 brev(i):- brief, short (time) LATIN abbreviation, brevity  
72 briz:- nod, slumber GREEK    
73 brom:- oats GREEK Bromus ramosus  
74 brom:- stench GREEK bromide  
75 bronch:- windpipe GREEK bronchitis, bronchus, bronchiole  
76 bront:- thunder GREEK Brontosaurus  
77 bucc:- cheek, mouth, cavity LATIN buccinator muscle  
78 bulb- bulbous LATIN bulbous, bulbule  
79 bull- bubble, flask LATIN ebullient, ebullism  
80 burs:- pouch, purse LATIN bursar, bursary, disburse  
81 cac:- bad GREEK cacophony  
82 cad:-, :-cid:-, cas:- fall LATIN accident, cadence, case  
83 caed:-, :-cid:-, caes:-, :-cis cut LATIN caedere, caesus caesura, incisor  
84 calc:- stone LATIN– &-GREEK calcite, calcium, calculus  
85 call:-, calli:- beautiful GREEK calligraphy  
86 calor:- heat LATIN Calorie  
87 calyp:- cover GREEK Apocalypse  
88 camer:- vault LATIN bicameral, camera  
89 camp:- field LATIN champion, campaign  
90 can:- dog LATIN– canis canine, Canis Major  
91 can:-, :-cin:-, cant:- sing LATIN Cantata, cantor, canto  
92 cap:-, :-cip:-, capt:-, :- cept take ,hold, LATIN capture, captive, conception, recipient  
93 capit:-, cipit:- head LATIN capital, decapitation, precipitation  
94 capr:- goat LATIN caper, capri Capricorn, caprine  
95 caps:- box, case LATIN capsule  
96 carbo:- coal LATIN carbonis carbon  
97 carcer:- jail LATIN incarceration  
98 carcin:- cancer (disease) LATIN– –GREEK carcinoma  
99 cardi:- relating to the heart GREEK cardiograph, cardiology  
100 cardin:- hinge LATIN cardo, cardinis cardinal  
  1. carn:- flesh –LATIN– caro, carnis carnal, carnival, carnivore
  2. carp:- relating to fruit –GREEK– καρπός (karpos) fruit carpology
  3. carp:- relating to the wrist –GREEK– καρπός (karpos) wrist carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
  4. cast:- pure –LATIN– from –LATIN– castus chaste caste, castigate, castrate
  5. cata:-, cat:- down –GREEK– from –GREEK– κατά (katá) down catabolic, catalyst, catastrophe, catatonia, cathode, cation
  6. caten:- chain –LATIN– catena catenary, concatenation
  7. cathar:- pure –GREEK– καθαρός (katharos) catharsis
  8. caud:- tail –LATIN– cauda caudal
  9. caus:-, :-cus:- cause or motive –LATIN– causa causative
  10. cav:- hollow –LATIN– cavus hollow cave, cavity, excavation
  11. ced:-, cess:- go –LATIN– cedere, cessus procession, recede, secede
  12. celer:- quick –LATIN– celer, celerare acceleration, celerity
  13. cen:- new –GREEK– καινός (kainos) Cenozoic
  14. cen:- empty –GREEK– κενός (kenos) cenotaph
  15. cens:-LATIN– censere to estimate census
  16. cent:- hundred –LATIN– centum cent, centennial, centurion
  17. centen:- hundred each –LATIN– centeni centenary
  18. centesim:- hundredth –LATIN– centesimus centesimal, centesimation
  19. centr:- center –GREEK– κέντρον (kéntron) needle, spur eccentric
  20. cephal:- head –GREEK– κεφαλή (kephale) cephalic, cephalopod, encephalogram
  21. ceram:- clay –GREEK– κέραμος (keramos) ceramic
  22. cerat:- horn –GREEK– κέρας, κέρατος (keras, keratos) horn keratin
  23. cern:- sift –LATIN– cernere discern, secern
  24. cervic:- relating to the neck, relating to the cervix –LATIN– cervix, cervicis neck cervix, cervical
  25. ceter:- other –LATIN– ceterus et cetera
  26. chir:- of the hand or hands –GREEK– χείρ (kheir) hand chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera
  27. chelon:- relating to a turtle –GREEK– χελώνη (khelōne) tortoise chelonia
  28. chlor:- green –GREEK– χλωρός (khlōros) green chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
  29. chore:- relating to dance –GREEK– χορεία khoreia dancing in unison from χορός khoros chorus choreography
  30. chord:- cord –LATIN– and –GREEK– chorda rope from χορδή (chordē) chordata chrom:- color –GREEK– χρῶμα (chrōma) color chromium, chromosome, monochrome
  31. chron:- time –GREEK– χρόνος (chronos) chronic, chronology, chronometer
  32. chrys:- gold –GREEK– χρυσός (khrusos) gold chrysolite
  33. cili:- eyelash –LATIN– cilium cilia, supercilious
  34. cine:- motion –GREEK– κινέω (kineō) cinema
  35. ciner:- ash –LATIN– cinis, cineris incineration
  36. cing:-, cinct:- gird –LATIN– cingere, cinctus succinct
  37. circ:- circle –LATIN– circus circus
  38. circum:- around –LATIN– circum circumcise, circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate
  39. cirr:- orange –GREEK– κιρρός (kirros) cirrhosis
  40. cirr:- curl, tentacle –LATIN– cirrus cirrus
  41. civ:- citizen –LATIN– civis civility
  42. clad:- branch –GREEK– κλάδος (klados) clade
  43. clar:- clear –LATIN– clarus, clarare clarity, declaration
  44. clast:- broken –GREEK– κλαστός (klastos) iconoclast, osteoclast
  45. claud:-, :-clud:-, claus:-, :-clusclose –LATIN– claudere, clausus clause, exclusion, include
  46. clav:- key –GREEK– from –GREEK– κλείς kleis key from κλείειν, (kleiein) to close clavichord, clavicle, conclave
  47. cl(e)ist:- closed –GREEK– κλειστός (kleistos)
  48. cleithr:- bar, key –GREEK– cleithrum
  49. clement:- mild –LATIN– clemens, clementis clemency, inclement
  50. clin:- bed, lean, recline –LATIN:-clinare declination, inclined
  51. cochl:- shell –GREEK– κόχλος (kochlos) cochlea
  52. coel:- hollow –GREEK– κοῖλος (koilos) blastocoel, coelom, spongocoel
  53. cogn:- know –LATIN– cognoscere cognitive, cognizant, recognize
  54. col:- strain –LATIN– colare, colum colander
  55. coll:- hill –LATIN– collis coll:- neck –LATIN– collum collar
  56. color:- color –LATIN– color coloration, coloratura, tricolor
  57. con:-, co:-, col:-, com:-, cor with, together –LATIN– cum coagulate, collide, compress, connect, contain, corrode
  58. con:- cone –GREEK– κῶνος (kōnos) conic, conical, conoid
  59. condi:- season –LATIN– condire condiment
  60. contra:- against –LATIN– contra contradiction, contrast
  61. copr:- dung –GREEK– κόπρος (kopros) coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
  62. corac:- raven –GREEK– κόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos) coracoid
  63. cord:- heart –LATIN– cor, cordis accord, cordial
  64. corn:- horn –LATIN– cornu cornea, cornucopia, unicorn
  65. coron:- crown –LATIN– corona, coronare corona, coronation
  66. corpor:- body –LATIN– corpus, corporis corporation, corpse, corpuscle
  67. cortic:- bark –LATIN– cortex, corticis corticosteriod
  68. cosm:- universe –GREEK– κόσμος (kosmos) cosmic, cosmonaut
  69. cosmet:-GREEK– κοσμητ:- (kosmet:-) cosmetics, cosmetology
  70. cost:- rib –LATIN– costa costal
  71. cotyl:- cup –GREEK– κοτύλη (kotulē) cotyledon
  72. :-cracy, :-crat government, rule, authority –GREEK– κράτος (kratos) democracy
  73. crani:- skull –GREEK– κρανίον (kranion) cranium
  74. crass:- thick –LATIN– crassus crassitude
  75. cre:- make –LATIN– creare, creatus creation, creature
  76. cred:- believe, trust –LATIN– credere, creditus credentials, credibility, creditor, incredible
  77. crep:- boot, shoe –GREEK– κρηπίς, κρηπίδος (krēpis, krēpidos)
  78. cribr:- sieve –LATIN– cribrum, cribrare cribble, cribrate ring –GREEK– κρίκος (krikos)
  79. cris:-, crit:- judge –GREEK– κρίσις (crisis) crisis, critic
  80. crisp:- curled –LATIN– crispus crispate
  81. crist:- crest –LATIN– crista cristate
  82. cross:- fringe, tassel –GREEK– κροσσός (krossos)
  83. cruc:- cross –LATIN– crux, crucis crucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
  84. crur:- leg, shank –LATIN– crus, cruris crural
  85. crypt:- hidden –GREEK– κρυπτός (kruptos) cryptic, cryptography
  86. cten:- comb –GREEK– κτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos) ctenophore
  87. cub:- cube –GREEK– κύβος (kubos) cubic, cuboid
  88. cub:- lie –LATIN– cubare incubation, succuba
  89. culin:- kitchen –LATIN– culina culinary
  90. culp:- blame, fault –LATIN– culpa culpable, exculpate
  91. cune:- wedge –LATIN– cuneus cuneiform
  92. curr:-, curs:- run –LATIN– currere, cursus concurrent, current, cursive, recursion
  93. curv:- bent –LATIN– curvus curvature
  94. cuspid:- lance, point –LATIN– cuspis, cuspidis bicuspid
  95. cut:- skin –LATIN– cutis cuticle
  96. cyan:- blue –GREEK– κυανός (kuanos) cyanide
  97. cycl:- circular –GREEK– κύκλος (kuklos) bicycle, cycle, cyclone
  98. cylind:- roll –GREEK– κύλινδρος (kulindros) cylinder
  99. cyn:- dog –GREEK– κύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos) cynosure
  100. cyst:- capsule –GREEK– κύστις (kustis) cystic
  101. cyt:- cell –GREEK– κύτος (kutos) cytoplasm, cnidocyte


  • dactyl:- finger, toe, digit –GREEK– δάκτυλος (daktulos) dactylology, pterodactyl
  • damn:-, :-demn:- to inflict loss upon –LATIN– damnāre condemn, damnation
  • de:- from, away from, removing, down –LATIN– dē deletion, dementia, descend
  • deb:- owe –LATIN– debere, debitus debit
  • deca:-, dec:-, deka:-, dekten –GREEK– δέκα deka, ten decagram, decahedron
  • decim:- tenth part –LATIN– decimus, tenth; from decem, ten decimal, decimate
  • delt:-GREEK– δέλτα (delta) deltoid
  • dem:- people –GREEK– δῆμος (dēmos) demagogue, democracy
  • den:- ten each –LATIN– deni denarius, denary
  • dendr:- resembling a tree –GREEK– δένδρον (dendron): akin to δρύς, drys, tree dendrite, dendrochronology
  • dens:- thick –LATIN– densus condense, density
  • dent:- tooth –LATIN– dens, dentis dental, dentifrice, dentures
  • derm:- skin –GREEK– δέρμα (derma) dermis, epidermis, hypodermic
  • deuter:- second –GREEK– δεύτερος (deuteros) Deuteronomy, deuterostome
  • dexter:- right –LATIN– dexter dexterity, dextrose
  • dexi:- right –GREEK– δεξιός, right Dexiarchia
  • di:- two –GREEK– δι:- dicot, diode, dipole
  • dia:- apart, through –GREEK– διά (dia) dialysis, diameter, diagram
  • dict:- say, speak –LATIN– dicere, dictus contradict, dictate, dictation, dictionary, edict, predict
  • digit:- finger –LATIN– digitus digital
  • dino:- terrible, fearfully great –GREEK– δεινός (deinos) dinosaur
  • dipl:- double; twofold –GREEK– διπλός (diplos) diploid, diplosis doc:-,
  • doct:- teach –LATIN– docere, doctus docile, doctor, indoctrinate
  • dodec:- twelve –GREEK– δώδεκα (dodeka) dodecasyllabic dogmat:-,
  • dox:- opinion, tenet –GREEK– δόξα dogmatic, orthodox
  • dom:- house –LATIN– domus dome
  • don:- give –LATIN– donare condone, donation
  • dorm:- sleep –LATIN– dormire dormant, dormitory
  • dors:- back –LATIN– dorsum dorsal
  • du:- two –LATIN– duo dual
  • dub:- doubtful –LATIN– dubius dubious
  • duc:-, duct:- lead –LATIN– dux, ducis abduction, conductor, introduction, production, reduction, deduction
  • dulc:- sweet –LATIN– dulcis dulcet
  • dur:- hard –LATIN– durus durable, duration, duress, endure, obdurate
  • dy:- two –GREEK– δυο (duo) dyad
  • dynam:- power –GREEK– δύναμη (dunamē) dynamism, dynasty, dynamite
  • dys:- badly, ill –GREEK– δυσ:- dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy


  •  ec:- out –GREEK– ἐκ (ek) eccentric
  • eco:- house –GREEK– οἶκος (oikos) ecology, economics, ecumenism
  • ecto:- outside –GREEK– ἐκτός (ektos) ectoderm
  • ed:-, es:- eat –LATIN– edere, esus edible
  • ego:- self, I (first person) –LATIN-, –GREEK– ego, ἐγώ egocentric
  • ego:-, eg:- goat –GREEK– αἴξ (aix) egophony
  • em:-, empt:- buy –LATIN– emere, emptus exemption, preempt, redeem
  • eme:- vomit –GREEK– ἔμετος (emetos) emetic
  • emul:- striving to equal, rivaling –LATIN– aemulus, aemulare emulator
  • en:-, em:- in –GREEK– ἐν (en) emphasis
  • endo:- inside –GREEK– ἔνδον (endon) endocrine, endocytosis
  • engy:- narrow –GREEK– ἐγγύς (engys)
  • ennea:- nine –GREEK– ἐννέα (ennea) ennead, enneagon
  • ens:- sword –LATIN– ensis
  • eo:-, eos:-, eoso:- dawn, east –GREEK– Ἠώς/Ἕως Eocene
  • ep:-, epi:- upon –GREEK– ἐπί (epi) epicenter, epitaph, epoch
  • epistem:- knowledge or science –GREEK– ἐπιστήμη (epistēmē) epistemic
  • equ:-, :-iqu:- even, level –LATIN– aequus equal, equivalence
  • equ:- horse –LATIN– equus equestrian
  • erg:- work –GREEK– έργον (ergon) ergonomics
  • err:- stray –LATIN– errare aberration, errant
  • erythr:- red –GREEK– ἐρυθρός (eruthros) erythrocyte
  • eso:- within –GREEK– ἔσω (esō) esoteric
  • etho:-, eth:-, ethi:- custom, habit –GREEK– ἦθος (ēthos) ethology
  • ethm:- sieve –GREEK– ἠθμός (hethmos); ἤθειν (hethein) ethmoid
  • ethn:- people, race, tribe, nation –GREEK– ἔθνος (ethnos) ethnarch, ethnic
  • etym:- true –GREEK– ἔτυμος (etumos) etymology
  • eu:- well, good –GREEK– εὖ (eu) euphoria, euthanasia
  • eur:- wide –GREEK– εὐρύς (eurus) Europe
  • ex:-, e:-, ef:- from, out –LATIN– ex exclude, extend, extrude
  • exo:- outside –GREEK– ἔξω (eksō) exoskeleton, exothermic
  • exter:-, extra:- outer –LATIN– externus exterior
  • extrem:- outermost, utmost –LATIN– extremus extremity, extremophile


  • f:-, fat:- say, speak –LATIN– fari, fatus fate, infant, preface
  • fab:- bean –LATIN– faba faba bean
  • fac:-, :-fic:-, fact, :-fect:- make –LATIN– facere, factus defect, factory, manufacture
  • falc:- sickle –LATIN– falx, falcis falciform
  • fall:-, :-fell:-, fals:- deceive –LATIN– fallere, falsus falsity, infallibility
  • fallac:- false –LATIN– fallax, fallacis fallacy
  • famili:- a close attendant –LATIN– famulus familiarity
  • fant:- to show –GREEK– φαντάζω fantasy
  • fasc:- bundle –LATIN– fascis fasciculation, fascism
  • fatu:- foolish, useless –LATIN– fatuus fatuous, infatuation
  • feder:- treaty, agreement, contract, league, pact –LATIN– foedus, foederis confederation, federal
  • fel:- cat –LATIN– feles, felis Felinae, feline
  • felic:- happy, merry –LATIN– felix, felicis felicity
  • fell:- suck –LATIN– fellare fellation
  • femin:- women, female –LATIN– femina femininity
  • femor:- thigh –LATIN– femur, femoris femoral
  • fend:-, fens:- strike –LATIN– fendere,
  • :-fensus defend, offense fenestr
  • :- window –LATIN– fenestra defenestration
  • fer:- carry –LATIN– ferre reference, transfer
  • feroc:- fierce –LATIN– ferox, ferocis ferocity
  • ferr:- iron –LATIN– ferrum ferrous
  • fet:- stink –LATIN– fetere fetid, fetor
  • fic:- fig –LATIN– ficus Ficus
  • fid:-, fis:- faith, trust –LATIN– fides, fidere, fisus confidence, fidelity
  • fil:- thread –LATIN– filum filament
  • fili:- son –LATIN– filius affiliation
  • fin:- end –LATIN– finis finish, final
  • find:-, fiss:- split –LATIN– findere, fissus fission, fissures
  • firm:- fix, settle –LATIN– firmus, firmare confirmation, firmament
  • fistul:- hollow, tube –LATIN– fistula
  • fl:- blow –LATIN– flare, flatus flatulence, inflation, insufflation
  • flacc:- flabby –LATIN– flaccus, flaccere flaccid
  • flav:- yellow –LATIN– flavus flavonoid
  • flect:-, flex:- bend –LATIN– flectere, flexus flexible, flexile, flexor, inflection
  • flig:-, flict:- strike –LATIN– fligere, flictus conflict, inflict
  • flor:- flower –LATIN– flos, floris floral, florid
  • flu:-, flux:- flow –LATIN– fluere, fluxus effluent, fluency, influx
  • foc:- hearth –LATIN– focus focal
  • fod:-, foss:- dig –LATIN– fodere, fossus fossil
  • foen:- hay –LATIN– fenuculum
  • foli:- leaf –LATIN– folium defoliant
  • font:- spring –LATIN– fons, fontis font, fontal, fontanelle
  • for:- bore, drill –LATIN– forare, foratus foralite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
  • form:- shape –LATIN– forma conformity, deformity, formation, reformatory
  • fornic:- vault –LATIN– fornix, fornicis fornication
  • fort:- strong –LATIN– fortis fortification
  • fove:- shallow round depression –LATIN– fovea fovea
  • frang:-, :-fring:-, fract:-, fragbreak –LATIN– frangere, fractus fracture, fragment, frangible, infringe
  • frater:-, fratr:- brother –LATIN– frater fraternity
  • fric:-, frict:- rub –LATIN– fricare, frictus dentifrice, friction
  • frig:- cold –LATIN– frigere frigid, frigorific
  • front:- forehead –LATIN– frons, frontis confront, frontage, frontal
  • fruct:-, frug:- fruit –LATIN– frux, fructis fructose
  • fug:-, fugit:- flee –LATIN– fugere centrifuge, fugitive, refuge
  • fum:- smoke –LATIN– fumus fume, fumigation
  • fund:- bottom –LATIN– fundus, fundare fundamentalism, profundity
  • fund:-, fus:- pour –LATIN– fundere, fusus diffusion, effusion, fusion, profuse, profusion, transfusion, effusive
  • fung:-, funct:- do –LATIN– fungi, functus function, fungibility
  • fur:-, furt:- steal –LATIN– fur, furare furtive
  • furc:- fork –LATIN– furca bifurcation
  • fusc:- dark –LATIN– fuscus obfuscation


  • galact:- milk –GREEK– γάλα, γαλακτός (gala, galaktos) galactic
  • gastr:- stomach –GREEK– γαστήρ (gaster) gastric, gastroenterology
  • geo:- earth –GREEK– γῆ (gē), γεω:- (geō:-) geography, geology, geometry
  • gel:- icy cold –LATIN– gelum ge-LATIN-, gelid
  • gen:- race, kind,birth –GREEK– γένος (genos) eugenics, genocide
  • ger:-, gest:- bear, carry –LATIN– gerere, gestus digest, gestation
  • germin:- sprout –LATIN– germen, germinis germination
  • glabr:- hairless –LATIN– glaber glabrous
  • glaci:- ice –LATIN– glacies glacier
  • gladi:- sword –LATIN– gladius gladiator
  • glia:- glue –GREEK– γλία (glia) glial
  • glob:- sphere –LATIN– globus global, globule
  • glori:- glory –LATIN– gloria glorify
  • glutin:- glue –LATIN– gluten, glutinis agglutination
  • grad:-, :-gred:-, gress:- walk, step, go –LATIN– gradus, gradere, gressus grade, regress
  • gram:- writing –GREEK– γράμμα (gramma) grammar, grammatic
  • gran:- grain –LATIN– granum granary, granite, granola, granule
  • grand:- grand –LATIN– grandis grandiloquous, grandiosity
  • graph:- draw, write –GREEK– γραφή (graphē) grapheme, graphic, graphology
  • grat:- thank, please –LATIN– gratus gratitude, ingrate
  • grav:- heavy –LATIN– gravis aggravation, grave, gravity
  • greg:- flock –LATIN– grex, gregis egregious, gregarious, segregation
  • gubern:- govern, pilot –LATIN– gubernare gubernatorial
  • gust:- taste –LATIN– gustus disgust, gusto
  • gutt:- drop –LATIN– gutta gutta, guttifer, guttiform
  • guttur:- throat –LATIN– guttur guttural
  • gymn:- nude –GREEK– γυμνός (gymnos) gymnasium, gymnastics, gymnosperm
  • gyn:- woman –GREEK– γυνή gynecology


  • hab:-, :-hib:-, habit:-, :-hibithave –LATIN– habere, habitus habit, prohibition
  • haem:-, hem:- blood –GREEK– αἷμα (haima) haemophilia, hemoglobin
  • hal:- salt –GREEK– ἅλς, ἁλός (hals, halos) halogen
  • hal:-, :-hel:- breathe –LATIN– halare, halatus anhelation, inhale
  • hapl:- simple, single –GREEK– ἁπλοῦς (haplous) haploid, haplotype
  • haur:-, haust:- draw –LATIN– haurire, haustus exhaustion
  • heli:- sun –GREEK– ἥλιος (hēlios) heliocentric, heliotrope, helium
  • hemi:- half –GREEK– ἥμισυς (hēmisus) hemicycle, hemisphere
  • hen:- one –GREEK– ἕν (hen) henad, hyphen
  • hendec:- eleven –GREEK– ἕνδεκα (hendeka) hendecagon
  • hept:- seven –GREEK– ἑπτά (hepta) heptagon, heptathlon, heptode
  • her:-, hes:- cling –LATIN– haerere, haesus adhesive, coherent
  • herb:- grass –LATIN– herba herbal, herbicide
  • hered:- heir –LATIN– heres, heredis heredity
  • herp:- creep –GREEK– ἕρπω, ἕρπειν (herpō, herpein) herpes, herpetology
  • heter:- different, other –GREEK– ἕτερος (heteros) heterodoxy
  • heur:- find –GREEK– εὑρίσκω (heuriskō) heuristic
  • hex:- six –GREEK– ἕξ (hex) hexagon, hexahedron, hexode
  • hibern:- wintry –LATIN– hibernus hibernation
  • hiem:- winter –LATIN– hiems hiemal
  • hipp:- horse –GREEK– ἵππος (hippos) hippodrome
  • hirsut:- hairy –LATIN– hirtus, hirsutus hirsute
  • hispid:- bristly –LATIN– hispidus hispidity, hispidulous
  • histri:- actor –LATIN– histrio, histrionis histrionic
  • hod:- way –GREEK– ὁδός (hodos) cathode, herpolhode, hodometer
  • hol:- whole –GREEK– ὅλος (holos) holistic
  • hom:- same –GREEK– ὁμός (homos) homophone, homosexual
  • home:- like –GREEK– ὅμοιος (homoios) homeostasis
  • homin:- human –LATIN– homo, hominis hominid
  • homal:- even, flat –GREEK– ὁμαλός (homalos) anomalous
  • honor:- esteem –LATIN– honos, honoris honorable, honorarium
  • hor:- boundary –GREEK– ὅρος (horos) aphorism, horizon
  • hor:- hour –GREEK– ὥρα (hōra) horoscope
  • horm:- that which excites –GREEK– ὁρμή (hormē) hormone
  • hort:- garden –LATIN– hortus, horti horticulture
  • hospit:- host –LATIN– hospes, hospitis hospital, hospitality, inhospitable
  • host:- enemy –LATIN– hostis hostile
  • hum:- ground –LATIN– humus, humare exhumation, inhume
  • hyal:- glass –GREEK– ὕαλος (hualos) hyaline, hyaloid
  • hydr:- water –GREEK– ὕδωρ (hudōr) hydraulics, hydrology, hydrolysis, hydrophily, hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydrous
  • hygr:- wet –GREEK– ὑγρός (hugros) hygrometer
  • hyo:- U:-shaped –GREEK– ὑοειδής (huoeidēs) hyoid
  • hyp:- under –GREEK– ὑπό (hupo) hypothermia
  • hyper:- above, over –GREEK– ὑπέρ (huper) hyperbole, hypertonic
  • hypn:- sleep –GREEK– ὕπνος (hupnos) hypnosis
  • hyster:- later –GREEK– ὕστερος (husteros) hysteresis


  • ichthy:- fish –GREEK– ἰχθύς (ichthus) ichthyology
  • icos:- twenty –GREEK– εἴκοσι (eikosi) icosagon, icosahedron
  • id:- shape –GREEK– εἶδος (eidos) idol
  • ide:- idea; thought –GREEK– ιδέα (idea) ideogram, ideology
  • idi:- personal –GREEK– ἴδιος (idios) idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
  • ign:- fire –LATIN– ignis igneous, ignition
  • in:- (1), im:- in, on –LATIN– in import, incur, intend, invite
  • in:- (2), il:-, im:-, ir:- not, un:- (negation) –LATIN
  • in:- illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
  • infra:- below, under –LATIN– infra infrastructure
  • insul:- island –LATIN– insula insular, insulation
  • inter:- among, between –LATIN– inter (preposition) intercollegiate, intermission, intersection
  • intra:- within –LATIN– intra intramural
  • irasc:-, irat:- be angry –LATIN– irasci irascible, irate
  • is:-, iso:- equal, the same –GREEK– ἴσος (isos) isometric, isomorphic, isotropic
  • iter:- again –LATIN– iterum, iterare iteration
  • itiner:- route, way –LATIN– iter, itineris – march, journey itinerary


  • jac:- lie –LATIN– jacēre to be thrown adjacent
  • jac:- (originally IAC),
  • :-ject:- cast, throw –LATIN– iacio, iacere, ieci, iectus – to throw (and cognates thereof) eject, interject, ejaculate, trajectory
  • janu:- door –LATIN– janua janitor
  • joc:- joke –LATIN– jocus jocularity
  • jug:- yoke –LATIN– jugare, jugum conjugal, subjugate
  • jung:-, junct:- join –LATIN– jungere, junctus conjunction, juncture
  • junior:- younger –LATIN– junior juniority
  • jus:-, jur:-, judic:- (originally IVS) law, justice –LATIN– ius,
  • iuris; iudex, iudicis judge, jury, justice
  • juv:-, jut:- help –LATIN– juvare, jutus adjutant
  • juven:- young, youth –LATIN– juvenis juvenile, rejuvenate
  • juxta:- beside, near –LATIN– juxta juxtaposition


  • kil(o):- thousand –GREEK– χίλιοι (chilioi) kilobyte, kilogram, kilometer
  • kine:- movement, motion –GREEK– κινέω (kineo) telekinesis, kinetic energy, kinesthetic
  • klept:- steal –GREEK– κλέπτης (kleptēs) kleptomania
  • kudo:- glory –GREEK– κῦδος (kudos) kudos


  • lab:-, laps:- slide, slip –LATIN– labi, lapsus elapse, relapse
  • labi:- lip –LATIN– labia, labiae bilabial, labial
  • labor:- toil –LATIN– labor collaboration, elaboration
  • lacer:- tear –LATIN– lacer laceration
  • lacrim:- cry, tears –LATIN– lacrima tear lacrimal, lacrimous
  • lact:- milk –LATIN– lac, lactis, lactare lactate, lactation, lactose
  • lamin:- layer, slice –LATIN– lamina laminate, lamination
  • lamp:- shine –GREEK– λαμπάς lampas torch lamp
  • lapid:- stone –LATIN– lapis, lapidis lapidary
  • larg:- large –LATIN– largus enlargement
  • larv:- ghost, mask –LATIN– larva larva, larvae, larval
  • lat:- broad, wide –LATIN– latus latitude
  • later:- side –LATIN– latus, lateris bilateral
  • laud:-, laus:- praise –LATIN– laudere laud
  • lav:- wash –LATIN– lavare lavatory
  • lax:- not tense –LATIN– laxus, laxare laxative, relaxation
  • led:-, les:- hurt –LATIN– laedere, laesus lesion
  • leg:- law –LATIN– lex, legis, legare legal, legislative
  • leg:- send –LATIN– legare relegate
  • lei:- smooth –GREEK– λείος leios leiomyoma
  • lekan:- dish, pot –GREEK– λεκάνη lekane lekane
  • leni:- gentle –LATIN– lenis, lenire leniency
  • leon:- lion –LATIN– leo, leonis Leo, leonine, Leopold
  • lep:- flake, scale –GREEK– λέπις lepis Lepidoptera
  • leps:- grasp, seize –GREEK– λήψης lepsis epilepsy
  • leuc(o):-, leuk(o):- white –GREEK– λευκός leukos leucocyte
  • lev:- lift, light –LATIN– levis light (in weight), levare elevator, levitation
  • liber:- free –LATIN– liber, liberare liberation, liberty
  • libr:- book –LATIN– liber, libri librarian, library
  • lig:- bind –LATIN– ligare, ligatus ligament, ligature
  • limac:- slug –LATIN– limax, limacis limacoid, limacon
  • lin:- line –LATIN– linea line, linearity
  • lingu:- language, tongue –LATIN– lingua bilingual, linguistic
  • linqu:-, lict:- leave –LATIN– linquere, lictus relict, relinquish
  • lip:- fat –GREEK– λίπος lipos lipolysis
  • liter:- letter –LATIN– littera alliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, obliterate
  • lith:- stone –GREEK– λίθος (lithos) lithosphere, megalith, monolith, Neolithic Era
  • loc:- place –LATIN– locus local, location
  • log:- thought, word, speech –GREEK– λόγος (logos) word logic, monologue, morphological
  • long:- long –LATIN– longus elongate, longitude
  • loqu:-, locut:- speak –LATIN– loqui allocution, eloquence
  • luc:- bright, light –LATIN– lux, lucis light Lucifer (bearer of light)
  • lud:-, lus:- play –LATIN– ludere, lusus allude, illusion
  • lumin:- light –LATIN– lumen, luminis illumination, luminous
  • lun:- moon –LATIN– luna lunar, lunatic
  • lysis dissolving –GREEK– λύσις (lusis) analysis, cytolysis, hydrolysis


  • macro:- long –GREEK– μακρός (makros) macron
  • magn:- great, large –LATIN– magnus magnanimous, magnificent, magnitude
  • maj:- greater –LATIN– major, majus majesty, majority, majuscule
  • mal:- bad, wretched, –LATIN– malus malfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malodorous
  • mamm:- breast –LATIN– mamma mammal, mammary gland
  • man:- flow –LATIN– mānāre, manatus emanate, emanationism, immanant, immanation
  • man:- stay –LATIN– manēre, mansus immanence, immanent, manse, permanence, permanent, remanence, remanent
  • mand:- hand –LATIN– mandāre, mandatus mandate, remand
  • mania mental illness –GREEK– μανία (manίā) kleptomania, maniac
  • manu:- hand –LATIN– manus manual, manuscript
  • mar:- sea –LATIN– mare, maris marine, maritime
  • mater:-, matrmother –LATIN– mater, matris maternity, matriarch, matrix
  • maxim:- greatest –LATIN– maximus maximum
  • medi:-, :-midimiddle –LATIN– medius, mediare median, medieval
  • meg:- great, large –GREEK– μέγας (megas) megaphone
  • mei:- less –GREEK– μεῖον (meiōn) meiosis
  • melan:- black, dark –GREEK– μέλας (melas) Melanesia, melanoma
  • melior:- better –LATIN– melior amelioration
  • mell:- honey –LATIN– mel, mellis mellifluous
  • memor:- remember –LATIN– memor memorial mening
  • :- membrane –GREEK– μήνιγξ (meninx) meningitis
  • men:- month –GREEK– μήν (mēn) menopause
  • menstru:- monthly –LATIN– menstruus menstruation, menstrual
  • mensur:- measure –LATIN– mensura commensurate
  • ment:- mind –LATIN– mens, mentis demented, mentality
  • mer:- part –GREEK– μέρος (meros) polymer
  • merc:- reward, wages, hire –LATIN– merx, mercis mercantile, merchant
  • merg:-, mersdip, plunge –LATIN– mergere emerge, immersion
  • mes:- middle –GREEK– μέσος (mesos) mesolithic, mesozoic
  • meter:-, metrmeasure –GREEK– μέτρον (metron) metric, thermometer
  • meta:- above, among, beyond –GREEK– μετά (meta) metaphor, metaphysics
  • mic:- grain –LATIN– mica micelle
  • micr:- small –GREEK– μικρός (mikros) microphone, microscope
  • migr:- wander –LATIN– migrare emigrant, migrate
  • milit:- soldier –LATIN– miles, militis military, militia
  • mill:- thousand –LATIN– mille millennium, million
  • millen:- thousand each –LATIN– milleni millenary
  • mim:- repeat –GREEK– μίμος (mimos) mime, mimic
  • min:- jut –LATIN– minere prominent
  • min:- less, smaller –LATIN– minor, minus minority, minuscule
  • mir:- wonder, amazement –LATIN– miror, mirari, miratus sum admire, miracle, mirror
  • mis:- hate –GREEK– μῖσος (misos) misandry, misogyny
  • misce:-, mixtmix –LATIN– miscere, mixtus miscellaneous, mixture
  • mit:- thread –GREEK– μίτος (mitos) mitochondrion
  • mitt:-, miss:- send –LATIN– mittere, missus intermittent, missionary, transmission
  • mne:- memory –GREEK– μνήμη (mnēmē) mnemonic
  • mol:- grind –LATIN– mola, molere, molitus molar
  • moll:- soft –LATIN– mollis emollient, mollify
  • mon:- one –GREEK– μόνος (monos) monism, monolith, monotone
  • monil:- string of beads –LATIN– monile Moniliformida
  • mont:- mountain –LATIN– mons, montis Montana
  • mord:- bite –LATIN– mordere, morsus mordacious, morsel, remorse
  • morph:- form, shape –GREEK– μορφή (morphē) anthropomorphism, morpheme, morphology
  • mort:- death –LATIN– mors, mortis immortal, mortality, mortuary
  • mov:-, mot:- move, motion –LATIN– movere, motus mobile, momentum, motor, move
  • mulg:-, muls:- milk –LATIN– mulgere emulsion
  • mult:- many, much –LATIN– multus multiple, multiplex, multitude
  • mur:- wall –LATIN– murus, muri immured, mural
  • mus:- thief –LATIN– mus, muris mouse
  • musc:- fly –LATIN– musca, muscae Muscicapidae, Muscidae
  • mut:- change –LATIN– mutare mutation
  • my:- mouse –GREEK– μῦς (mus) musophobia
  • myri:- countless, ten thousand –GREEK– μυρίος (murios) myriad, myriapod
  • myrmec:- ant –GREEK– μύρμηξ (murmēx) myrmecoid, Myrmidons
  • myth:- story –GREEK– μῦθος (muthos) mythic, mythology
  • myx:- slime –GREEK– μύξα (muxa) Myxini
  • myz:- suck –GREEK– μυζάω (muzaō) Myzopoda


  • nar:- nostril –LATIN– naris
  • narc:- numb –GREEK– νάρκη (narkē) narcosis, narcotic
  • narr:- tell –LATIN– narrare narrative
  • nas:- nose –LATIN– nasus nasal
  • nasc:-, nat:- born –LATIN– nascere, natus nascent, native
  • naut:- ship –GREEK– ναύτης (nautes) Argonaut, astronaut
  • nav:- ship –LATIN– navis naval
  • ne:- new –GREEK– νέος (neos) neologism
  • necr:- dead –GREEK– νεκρός (nekros) necrophobia
  • nect:- swimming –GREEK– νηκτός (nēktos) nectopod
  • nect:-, nex:- join, tie –LATIN– nectere, nexus connect, connexion
  • neg:- say no –LATIN– negare negative
  • nema:- hair –GREEK– νῆμα (nēma) nematode
  • nemor:- grove, woods –LATIN– nemus, nemoris nemoral
  • nephr:- kidney –GREEK– νεφρός (nephros) nephritis
  • nes:- island –GREEK– νῆσος (nēsos) Polynesia
  • neur:- nerve –GREEK– νευρών (neurōn) neurology, neurosurgeon
  • nict:- wink –LATIN– nictari nictation
  • nigr:- black –LATIN– niger denigrate
  • nihil:- nothing –LATIN– nihilum annihilation
  • noct:- night –LATIN– nox, noctis noctambulist, nocturnal
  • nod:- knot –LATIN– nodus node, nodule
  • nom:- arrangement, law –GREEK– νόμος (nomos) autonomous, taxonomy
  • nomad:- those who let pasture herds –GREEK– νομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados) nomadic
  • nomin:- name –LATIN– nomen, nominis nomination
  • non:- not –LATIN– non none non:- ninth –LATIN– nonus nonary
  • nonagen:- ninety each –LATIN– nonageni nonagenary
  • nonagesim:- ninetieth –LATIN– nonagesimus nonagesimal
  • not:- letter, note, paper –LATIN– notare annotation, notable
  • noth:- spurious –GREEK– νόθος (nothos) nothogenus
  • noto:- back, south –GREEK– νότος (notos) notochord
  • nov:- nine –LATIN– novem November, novennial
  • nov:- new –LATIN– novus innovation, nova
  • noven:- nine each –LATIN– noveni novenary
  • novendec:- nineteen –LATIN– novendecim
  • nox:-, noc:- harmful –LATIN– noxa noxious
  • nu:- nod –LATIN– nuere innuendo
  • nub:- to marry, to wed –LATIN– nubes, nubis, nubere connubial, nubile
  • nuc:- nut –LATIN– nux, nucis nucleus
  • nuch:- back of neck –LATIN– nucha nuchal cord
  • nud:- naked –LATIN– nudus denude, nudity
  • null:- none –LATIN– nullus nullify
  • numer:- number –LATIN– numerus numeral
  • nunci:- announce –LATIN– nuntius pronunciation
  • nupti:-LATIN– nuptial
  • nutri:- nourish –LATIN– nutrire nutrient


  • ob:-, o:-, oc:-, of:-, og:-, op:-, osagainst –LATIN– ob obstinate, obstreperous, occur, offend, omit, oppose, ostentatious
  • oct:- eight –GREEK– ὀκτώ (oktō) octagon, octahedron, octode
  • oct:- eight –LATIN– octō octangular, octennial, octovir
  • octav:- eighth –LATIN– octāvus octaval
  • octogen:- eighty each –LATIN– octogeni octogenary
  • octogesim:- eightieth –LATIN– octogesimus octogesimal
  • octon:- eight each –LATIN– octoni octonary
  • ocul:- eye –LATIN– oculus, oculare ocular, oculus, ullage
  • od:- path, way –GREEK– ὁδός (hodos) anode, diode, odometer, pentode, tetrode, triode
  • od:- hate –LATIN– odium odious
  • odont:- tooth –GREEK– ὀδούς, ὀδόντος (odous, odontos) odontology
  • odor:- fragrant –LATIN– odor odorous
  • oeco:- house –GREEK– οἶκος (oikos) ecology
  • oed:- swollen –GREEK– οἴδημα (oidēma) oedema
  • oen:- wine –GREEK– οἶνος (oinos) oenology
  • oesophag:- gullet –GREEK– οἰσοφάγος (oisophagos) oesophagus
  • ogdo:- eighth –GREEK– ὄγδοος (ogdoos)
  • ogdoad :-oid like –GREEK
  • :-οειδής (:-oeidēs) asteroid, mucoid, organoid
  • ole:- oil –LATIN– oleum oleosity
  • olecran:- skull of elbow –LATIN– from –GREEK– ὠλέκρανον (ōlekranon) olecranon
  • olig:- few –GREEK– ὀλίγος (oligos) oligarchy
  • oliv:- olive –LATIN– oliva olivaceous, olivary,
  • olivette :-oma cancer –GREEK:-ωμα melanoma
  • omas:- paunch –LATIN– omasum omasum
  • oment:- fat skin –LATIN– omentum omental
  • omin:- creepy –LATIN– omen, ominis abominable, ominous
  • omm:- eye –GREEK– ὄμμα (omma) ommatidium
  • omni:- all –LATIN– omnis omnipotence, omnivore
  • omo:- shoulder –LATIN
  • omphal:- navel –GREEK– ὀμφαλός (omphalos) omphalectomy
  • oner:- burden –LATIN– onus, oneris exonerate, onerous
  • onom:- name –GREEK– όνομα (onoma) onomatopoeia
  • ont:- existing –GREEK– ὄντος (ontos) ontogeny, ontology
  • :-onym name –GREEK– ὄνυμα (onuma) antonym, pseudonym, synonym
  • oo:- egg –GREEK– (oion) oocyte
  • opac:- shady –LATIN– opacus opacity
  • oper:- work –LATIN– opus, operis inoperable, opera
  • opercul:- little cover –LATIN– operculum
  • ophi:- snake –GREEK– ὄφις (ophis) ophiophagy
  • ophthalm:- eye –GREEK– ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos) ophthalmology
  • opisth:- behind –GREEK– ὄπισθεν (opisthen) opisthosoma, opsimath
  • opoter:- either –GREEK– ὁπότερος (hopoteros)
  • opt:- eye –GREEK– ὀπτός (optos) optical
  • opt:- choose –LATIN– optare adopt, optional
  • optim:- best –LATIN– optimus optimum
  • or:- mouth –LATIN– os, oris oral, orator
  • orb:- circle –LATIN– orbis orbit
  • orch:- testicle –GREEK– ὄρχις (orchis) orchid
  • ordin:- order –LATIN– ōrdō, ordinis ordinal, ordinary
  • organ:- organ, instrument, tool –GREEK– ὄργανον (organon) organism
  • ori:-, ort:- eastern –LATIN– oriri, ortus orient
  • orn:- decorate –LATIN– ōrnāre adorn, ornament, ornate
  • ornith:- bird –GREEK– ὄρνις (ornis, ornithos) ornithology
  • orth:- straight –GREEK– ὀρθός (orthos) orthodontist, orthodoxy, orthosis
  • oscill:- swing –LATIN– oscillum oscillation
  • oss:- bone –LATIN– os, ossis ossification
  • osteo:- bone –GREEK– ὀστοῦν (ostoun) osteoporosis
  • osti:- entrance –LATIN– ostium ostiole
  • ostrac:- shell –GREEK– ὄστρακον (ostrakon) ostracism
  • ot:- ear –GREEK– οὖς, ωτός (ous, ōtos) otology
  • ov:- egg –LATIN– ovum oval, ovary, ovule
  • ovi:- sheep –LATIN– ovis ovine
  • oxy:- sharp, pointed –GREEK– ὀξύς (oxus) oxygen, oxymoron


  • pac:- peace –LATIN– pax, pacis pacifism
  • pach:- thick –GREEK– παχύς (pachus) pachydermata, Pachypodium
  • paed:- child –GREEK– παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos) paediatric
  • pagin:- page –LATIN– pagina pagination
  • pal:- stake –LATIN– palus impalement, pale
  • palae:-, pale:- ancient, old –GREEK– παλαιός (palaios) paleontology
  • palin:- back –GREEK– πάλιν (palin) palindrome
  • pall:- be pale –LATIN– pallere pallid, pallor
  • palli:- mantle –LATIN– pallium pallium
  • palm:- palm –LATIN– palma palmate
  • palustr:- in marshes –LATIN– paluster palustral
  • pan:-, pam:- all –GREEK– πᾶς, παντός (pas, pantos) pandemic
  • pand:-, pans:- spread –LATIN– pandere, pansus expand, expansion
  • par(a):- beside, near –GREEK– παρά (para) parallel, parameter
  • pariet:- wall –LATIN– paries, parietis parietal
  • part:- part –LATIN– pars, partis bipartite, partition
  • parthen:- maiden –GREEK– παρθένος (parthenos) parthenogenesis
  • parv:- little –LATIN– parvus parvovirus pasc:-,
  • past:- feed –LATIN– pascere, pastus pasture, repast
  • pass:- pace, step –LATIN– passus
  • passer:- sparrow –LATIN– passer passeriform, passerine
  • pat:- be open –LATIN– patere patent
  • path:- feel, hurt –GREEK– πάθος (pathos) pathetic, pathology
  • pati:-, pass:- suffer, feel, endure, permit –LATIN– pati, passus passive, patience
  • patr:- father –GREEK– πατήρ, πατριά (patēr, patria) patriarch
  • patr:- father –LATIN– pater, patris patrilocal
  • pauc:- few –LATIN– paucus paucal, pauciloquent, paucity
  • pav:-LATIN– pavire pavement
  • pecc:- sin –LATIN– peccare impeccable
  • pect:- fixed –GREEK– πηκτός (pēktos) pectic, pectin
  • pector:- chest –LATIN– pectus, pectoris pectoral
  • pecun:- money –LATIN– pecunia pecuniary
  • ped:- child –GREEK– παῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos) pedagogy
  • ped:- foot –LATIN– pes, pedis pedal, quadruped
  • pejor:- worse –LATIN– pejor pejorative
  • pell:-, puls:- drive –LATIN– pellere, pulsus propellent, propulsor, repellent
  • pen:- almost –LATIN– paene peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
  • pend:-, pens:- hang –LATIN– pendere suspend
  • penn:-, pinn:- feather –LATIN– penna pennate, pinnate
  • pent:- five –GREEK– πέντε (pente) pentagon, pentode, pentagrid
  • pentecost:- fiftieth –GREEK– πεντηκοστός (pentēkostos) pentecostalism
  • pept:- to digest –GREEK– πέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos) peptic, peptide
  • per:- thoroughly, through –LATIN– per perfection, permeate, persistence, pervade
  • peran:- across, beyond –GREEK– πέραν (peran)
  • peri:- around –GREEK– περί (peri) perimeter, peripheral, periscope
  • persic:- peach –GREEK– περσικός (persikos)
  • pessim:- worst –LATIN– pessimus pessimal
  • pet:- strive towards –LATIN– petere appetite, competition
  • petr:- rock –GREEK– πέτρα (petra) petroglyph
  • phae:- dark –GREEK– φαιός (phaios) phaeomelanin
  • phag:- eat –GREEK– φαγεῖν (phagein) sarcophagus
  • phalang:- close formation of troops, finger bones –GREEK– φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos) phalanges
  • phalar:- having a patch of white –GREEK– φάλαρος (phalāros) [1] phalarope
  • pharmac:- drug, medicine –GREEK– φάρμακον (pharmakon) pharmacy
  • phaner:- visible –GREEK– φανερός (phaneros) phanerozoic
  • pher:- bear, carry –GREEK– φέρω (pherō) pheromone
  • phil:-, :-phile love, friendship –GREEK– φιλέω (phileō, philia) hydrophile, philosophy
  • phleg:- heat –GREEK– φλέγω (phlegō) phlegm, phlegmatics
  • phloe:- tree bark –GREEK– φλοιός (phloios) phlobaphene, phloem
  • phob:- fear –GREEK– φόβος (phobos) hydrophobia
  • phon:- sound –GREEK– φωνή (phōnē) homophone, microphone, phonograph
  • phor:- carry, bear –GREEK– φόρος (phoros) metaphor
  • phos:-, phot:- light –GREEK– φῶς, φωτός (phōs, phōtos) phosphor, photograph
  • phragm:- fence –GREEK– φράγμα (phragma) diaphragm
  • phren:- diaphragm, mind –GREEK– φρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos) phrenetic, schizophrenia
  • phryn:- toad, toad:-like –GREEK– φρύνη (phrunē) Phrynobatrachus
  • phyl:- tribe –GREEK– φύλον (phulon) phylogenetics, phylum
  • phyll:- leaf –GREEK– φύλλον (phullon) chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
  • phys:- nature –GREEK– φύσις (phusis) physics
  • physalid:- bladder –GREEK– φυσαλ(λ)ίς (phusal(l)is) physalis
  • phyt:- plant –GREEK– φυτόν (phuton) neophyte, phytoplankton
  • pic:- pitch –LATIN– pix, picis
  • pil:- hair –LATIN– pilus depilatory, epilator
  • pin:- drink –GREEK– πίνειν (pinein) pinocytosis
  • pin:- pine –LATIN– pinus pineal gland
  • ping:-, pict:- paint –LATIN– pingere, pictus depiction, picture
  • pingu:- fat –LATIN– pinguis Pinguicula
  • pir:- pear –LATIN– pirus piriformis muscle
  • pisc:- fish –LATIN– piscis Pisces, piscivore
  • pis:- pea –GREEK– πίσος (pisos)
  • plac:- plate, tablet –GREEK– πλάξ, πλακός (plax, plakos)
  • plac:- calm –LATIN– placare, placatus placate
  • plac:-, :-plic:- please –LATIN– placēre, placitus placebo, placid
  • plagi:- oblique –GREEK– πλάγιος (plagios) plagioclase
  • plan:- flat –LATIN– planus explanation, planar, plane
  • plang:-, planct:-LATIN– plangere, planctus plangent
  • plas:- mould –GREEK– πλάθω (plathō) plasma, plastic
  • platy:- flat, broad –GREEK– πλατύς (platus) platypus
  • plaud:-, :-plod:-, plaus:-, :-plosapprove, clap –LATIN– plaudere, plausus applaud, applause, explosion, implode, plaudits, plausible
  • ple:-, plet:- fill –LATIN– plere complement, suppletion
  • pleb:- people –LATIN– plebs, plebis plebian, plebs
  • plec:- interwoven –GREEK– πλέκω (plekō) plectics, symplectomorphism
  • plect:-, plex:- plait –LATIN– plectere, plexus perplex
  • plen:- full –LATIN– plenus plenary
  • plesi:- near –GREEK– πλησίος (plēsios)
  • pleth:- full –GREEK– πλῆθος (plēthos) plethora
  • pleur:- side –GREEK– πλευρά (pleura)
  • plic:- fold –LATIN– plicare, plicatus duplication, replicate
  • plinth:- brick –GREEK– πλίνθος (plinthos)
  • plor:-LATIN– plorare implore
  • plu:- rain –LATIN– pluere
  • plum:- feather –LATIN– pluma plumage, plumate
  • plumb:- lead –LATIN– plumbum plumber
  • plur:- more –LATIN– pluris plural
  • plurim:- most –LATIN– plurimus
  • plus:- more –LATIN– plus surplus
  • plut:- wealth –GREEK– πλοῦτος (ploutos) plutocracy
  • pluvi:- rain –LATIN– pluvia pluvial
  • pneu:- air, lung –GREEK– πνεῦμα (pneuma) pneumatic
  • pod:- foot –GREEK– πούς, ποδός (pous, podos) podiatry, tripod
  • pogon:- beard –GREEK– πώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos) pogonotrophy
  • poie:- make –GREEK– ποιέω (poieō) poiesis
  • pol:- pole –GREEK– πόλος (polos) dipole, polar
  • pole:-, poli:- city –GREEK– πόλις (polis) metropolis, politics
  • polem:- war –GREEK– πόλεμος (polemos) polemic
  • poli:- grey –GREEK– πολιός (polios)
  • pollic:- thumb –LATIN– pollex, pollicis
  • pollin:-LATIN– pollen, pollinis pollination
  • poly:- many –GREEK– πολύς (polus) polygon
  • pon:-, posit:- put –LATIN– ponere, positus component, position, postpone
  • ponder:- weight –LATIN– pondus, ponderis preponderance
  • pont:- bridge –LATIN– pons, pontis pontoon
  • popul:- people –LATIN– populus, populare population
  • por:- passage –GREEK– πόρος (poros) pore
  • porc:- pig –LATIN– porcus porcine, pork
  • porphyr:- purple –GREEK– πορφύρα (porphura) porphyrin
  • port:- gate –LATIN– porta portal
  • port:- carry –LATIN– portare, portatus export, transportation
  • post:- after, behind –LATIN– post posterior, postscript
  • pot:- drink –LATIN– potus, potare potable
  • potam:- river –GREEK– ποταμός (potamos) hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
  • prasin:- leek:-green –GREEK– πράσινος (prasinos) prasinous
  • prat:- meadow –LATIN– pratum
  • prav:- crooked –LATIN– pravus depravity
  • pre:- before –LATIN– prae previous
  • prec:- pray –LATIN– prex, precis, precāri deprecation
  • pred:-LATIN– praeda, praedari predator
  • prehend:-, prend:-, prehensgrasp –LATIN– prehendere, prehensus comprehend
  • prem:-, :-prim:-, press:- press –LATIN– premere, pressus pressure
  • presby:- old –GREEK– πρέσβυς (presbus) Presbyterianism
  • preter:- past –LATIN– praeter preterite, pretermission
  • preti:- price –LATIN– pretium, pretiare
  • prim:- first –LATIN– primus primary, primeval, primitive
  • prior:- former –LATIN– prior priority
  • priv(i):- separate –LATIN– privus, privare, privatus deprivation, privilege
  • pro:- before, in front of –GREEK– πρό (pro)
  • pro:- for, forward –LATIN– pro propulsion
  • prob:- try –LATIN– probus, probare probation
  • proct:- anus –GREEK– πρωκτός (prōktos) proctology
  • propri:- one’s own, ownership –LATIN– proprietas appropriate, property, propriety
  • pros:- forward –GREEK– πρός (pros)
  • prot:- first –GREEK– πρῶτος (prōtos) protoplasm
  • proxim:- nearest –LATIN– proximus, proximare approximate, proximity
  • prun:- plum –LATIN– prunus prune
  • psamma:- sand –GREEK– ψάμμος (psammos)
  • pseud:- false –GREEK– ψευδής (pseudēs) pseudonym
  • psil:- bare –GREEK– ψιλός (psilos) epsilon
  • psych:- mind –GREEK– ψυχή (psuchē) psycho
  • psychr:- cold –GREEK– ψυχρός (psuchros)
  • pter:- wing, fern –GREEK– πτερόν (pteron) helicopter
  • pto:- fall –GREEK– πτῶσις (ptōsis) ptosis
  • ptyal:- saliva –GREEK– πτύον (ptuon)
  • ptych:- fold, layer –GREEK– πτύξ, πτυχή (ptuchē) triptych
  • pub:- sexually mature –LATIN– pubes pubescent, pubic
  • public:-LATIN– publicus publication
  • pude:-LATIN– pudere impudent
  • pugn:- fight –LATIN– pugna, pugnare pugnacious, repugnant
  • pulchr:- beautiful –LATIN– pulcher, pulchri pulchritude
  • pulmon:- lung –LATIN– pulmo, pulmonis pulmonary
  • pulver:- dust –LATIN– pulvis, pulveris pulverize
  • pung:-, punct:- prick –LATIN– pungere, punctus puncture, pungent
  • puni:- punish –LATIN– punire, punitus impunity, punitive
  • pup:- doll –LATIN– pupa pupa, puppet
  • pur:- pure –LATIN– purus impurity, purify
  • purg:- cleanse –LATIN– purgare expurgate, purgatory, purge
  • purpur:- purple –LATIN– purpura
  • put:- prune, reckon –LATIN– putāre compute, putative
  • pyg:- rump –GREEK– πυγή (pugē) pygostyle, callipygian
  • pyl:- gate –GREEK– πυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn) pylon
  • pyr:- heat, fire –GREEK– πῦρ, πυρός (pur, puros) pyrolysis Q


  • quadr:- four –LATIN– quattuor quadrangle, quadrillion
  • quadragen:- forty each –LATIN– quadrageni quadragenary
  • quadragesim:- fortieth –LATIN– quadragesimus quadragesimal
  • quart:- fourth –LATIN– quartus quartary, quartile
  • quasi:- as if –LATIN– quasi quasar
  • quatern:- four each –LATIN– quaterni quaternary, quaternion
  • quati:-, quass:- shake –LATIN– quatere
  • quer:-, :-quir:-, quesit:-, :-quisit:- search, seek –LATIN– quaerere Inquisition, query
  • qui:- rest –LATIN– quies quiet, requiem
  • quin:- five each –LATIN– quini quinary
  • quindecim:- fifteenth –LATIN– quindecimus quindecimal
  • quinden:- fifteen each –LATIN– quindeni quindenary
  • quinque:- five –LATIN– quinque quinquennium
  • quint:- fifth –LATIN– quintus quintary, quintile
  • quot:- how many, how great –LATIN– quota, quotient


  • rad:-, ras:- scrape, shave –LATIN– radere, rasus abrade, abrasion, erasure
  • radi:- beam, spoke –LATIN– radius, radiare radiance, radiation
  • radic:- root –LATIN– rādix, rādīcis eradicate, radical
  • ram:- branch –LATIN– rāmus ramification, ramose
  • ran:- frog –LATIN– rana Rana
  • ranc:- rancidness, grudge, bitterness –LATIN– rancere rancid, rancor
  • rap:- turnip –LATIN– rapum rapeseed
  • raph:- seam –GREEK– ῤαφή (rhaphē)
  • rar:-LATIN– rarus rarity
  • rauc:- harsh, hoarse –LATIN– raucus raucous re:-,
  • red:- again, back –LATIN– re:- recede, redact
  • reg:-, :-rig:-, rect:- straight –LATIN– regere, rectus dirigible, erect, erection, rectum
  • rem:- oar –LATIN– remus bireme, trireme
  • ren:- kidney –LATIN– renes renal
  • rep:-, rept:- crawl, creep –LATIN– repere, reptus reptile
  • ret:- net –LATIN– rete reticle, retina
  • retro:- backward, behind –LATIN– retro retrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
  • rhabd:- rod –GREEK– ῥάβδος (rhabdos) rhabdoid, rhabdom
  • rhach:-, rach:- spine –GREEK– ῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis) rhachiodont
  • rhag:- tear, rent –GREEK– ῥαγίζω rhagades
  • rhe:- flow –GREEK– ῥεῖν (rhein) rheostat
  • rhig:- chill –GREEK– ῥῖγος (rhigos) rhigosaurus
  • rhin:- nose, snout –GREEK– ῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos) rhinoplasty
  • rhiz:- root –GREEK– ῥίζα (rhiza) rhizome
  • rhod:- rose –GREEK– ῥόδον (rhodon) rhododendron
  • rhomb:- spinning top –GREEK– ῥόμβος (rhombos) rhombus
  • rhynch:- snout –GREEK– ῥύγχος Rhynchobatus
  • rid:-, ris:- laugh –LATIN– ridere, risus derision, ridicule
  • robor:- oak, strength –LATIN– robur, roboris corroboration
  • rod:-, ros:- gnaw –LATIN– rodere, rosus corrode, erosion, rodent
  • rog:- ask –LATIN– rogare derogatory, interrogation
  • rostr:- beak, prow –LATIN– rostrum rostral, rostriform, rostrum
  • rot:- wheel –LATIN– rota, rotare rotation
  • ruber:-, rubr:- red –LATIN– ruber rubric, ruby
  • rug:- wrinkle –LATIN– ruga, rugare corrugation
  • rumin:- throat –LATIN– rumen, ruminis rumination
  • rump:-, rupt:- break –LATIN– rumpere, ruptus eruption, rupture, interrupt
  • rur:- country –LATIN– rus, ruris rural


  • sacchar:- sugar –GREEK– σάκχαρον (sakcharon) saccharin
  • sacr:-, secr:- sacred –LATIN– sacer, sacrare consecrate, sacrament
  • sagac:- wise –LATIN– sagax, sagacis sagacity
  • sagitt:- arrow –LATIN– sagitta sagittal plane, Sagittaria
  • sal:- salt –LATIN– sal, salis, salere salinity
  • sali:-, :-sili:-, salt:- jump –LATIN– salire, saltus resilient, salient, saltus
  • salic:- willow –LATIN– salix, salicis salicin
  • salv:- save –LATIN– salvus, salvare salvation
  • san:- healthy –LATIN– sanus insane, sanity
  • sanc:- holy –LATIN– sancire, sanctus sanctify, sanctuary
  • sanguin:- blood –LATIN– sanguis, sanguinis consanguinity, sanguine
  • sapi:-, :-sipi:- taste, wise –LATIN– sapere insipience, sapient
  • sapon:- soap –LATIN– sapo, saponis saponification
  • sarc:- flesh –GREEK– σάρξ, σαρκός (sarx, sarkos) sarcophagus
  • saur:- lizard, reptile –GREEK– σαῦρος (sauros) dinosaur
  • sax:- rock –LATIN– saxum scab:- scratch –LATIN– scabere scabies
  • scal:- ladder, stairs –LATIN– scala scalar, scale
  • scalen:- uneven –GREEK– σκαληνός (skalēnos) scalene muscles, scalene triangle
  • scand:-, :-scend:-, scans:-, :-scensclimb –LATIN– scandere ascend, transcendent, descend
  • scaph:- anything hollow, bowl, ship –GREEK– σκάφη, σκάφος scaphoid bone
  • scel:- leg, thigh –GREEK– σκέλος, σκέλεος (skelos) isosceles
  • schem:- plan –GREEK– σχῆμα (schēma) schematic
  • schis:- split –GREEK– σχίζω, σχίσμα (schisma) schism
  • sci:- know –LATIN– scire prescient, science
  • scind:-, sciss:- split –LATIN– scindere rescind, scissors
  • scler:- hard –GREEK– σκληρός (sklēros) scleroderma, sclerosis
  • scoli:- crooked –GREEK– σκολιός (skolios) scoliosis
  • scop:-, scept:- look at, examine, view, observe –GREEK– σκέπτομαι, σκοπός (skopos) horoscope, kaleidoscope, stethoscope
  • scrib:-, script:- write –LATIN– scribere, scriptus inscribe, scripture
  • sculp:- carve –LATIN– sculpere, sculptus sculpture
  • scut:- shield –LATIN– scutum scute
  • scyph:- cup –GREEK– χούφτα (chouphta) Scyphozoa
  • se:-, sed:- apart –LATIN– se secede, sedition
  • seb:- tallow –LATIN– sebum sebaceous, sebum
  • sec:-, sect:-, seg:- cut –LATIN– secare secant, section, segment
  • sed:- settle, calm –LATIN– sedare, sedatus sedative
  • sed:-, :-sid:-, sess:- sit –LATIN– sedere, sessus reside, sediment, session, supersede
  • sedec:- sixteen –LATIN– sedecim sedecimal
  • seget:- in cornfields –LATIN– segetum
  • sei:- shake –GREEK– σείω, σεισμός (seismos) seismograph
  • selen:- moon –GREEK– σελήνη (selēnē) Selene, selenium
  • sell:- saddle, seat –LATIN– sella sella turcica
  • sema:- sign –GREEK– σῆμα (sēma) semantics, semaphore
  • semi:- half –LATIN– semis semifinal
  • semin:- seed –LATIN– semen, seminis insemination
  • sen:- old man –LATIN– senex, senis senator, senility
  • sen:- six each –LATIN– seni senary
  • senti:-, sens:- feel –LATIN– sentire, sensus consensus, sentient
  • sept:- fence, partition, enclosure –LATIN– saeptum transept
  • sept:- seven –LATIN– septem septennial
  • septen:- seven each –LATIN– septeni septenary
  • septim:- seventh –LATIN– septimus septimal, septime
  • septuagen:- seventy each –LATIN– septuageni septuagenary
  • septuagesim:- seventieth –LATIN– septuagesimus septuagesima, septuagesimal
  • septuagint:- seventy –LATIN– septuaginta Septuagint
  • sequ:-, secut:- follow –LATIN– sequere, secutus consecutive, sequence
  • ser:-, sat:- cultivate –LATIN– serere, satus sative
  • ser:- body fluid –LATIN– serum serous
  • ser:- late –LATIN– serus serein, serotine
  • serp:- crawl, creep –LATIN– serpere, serptus serpent
  • serr:- saw, saw:-toothed –LATIN– serra, serrare serration
  • serv:- save, protect, serve –LATIN– servare conservation
  • sesqui:- one and a half –LATIN– sesqui sesquicentennial
  • set:- bristle, hair –LATIN– saeta seta, setose
  • sever:- stern, strict, serious –LATIN– severus severity
  • sex:-, se:- six –LATIN– sex semester, sexangle, sexennium
  • sexagen:- sixty each –LATIN– sexageni sexagenary
  • sexagesim:- sixtieth –LATIN– sexagesimus sexagesimal
  • sext:- sixth –LATIN– sextus sextant
  • sibil:- hiss –LATIN– sibilus, sibilare sibilance
  • sicc:- dry –LATIN– siccus desiccation
  • sider:- star –LATIN– sidus, sideris sidereal
  • sign:- sign –LATIN– signum design, designate, signal
  • sil:- quiet or still –LATIN– silere silence
  • silv(i):- forest –LATIN– silva silviculture
  • simi:- ape, monkey –LATIN– simia simian
  • simil:- likeness, trust, group –LATIN– similis assimilate, similarity
  • simul:- imitating, feigning –LATIN– simulare simulation
  • singul:- one each –LATIN– singulus singular
  • sinistr:- left –LATIN– sinister, sinistri sinistral
  • sinu:- (to draw) a line –LATIN– sinuare insinuate
  • sinus:- hollow, bay –LATIN– sinus
  • siph(o):- tube –GREEK– σίφων (siphōn) siphon
  • sist:- cause to stand –LATIN– sistere consist, persistence
  • sit:- food, grain, wheat –GREEK– σῖτος (sitos) sitology
  • soci:- group –LATIN– socius, sociare associate, social
  • sol:- sun –LATIN– sol, solis solar
  • sol:- comfort, soothe –LATIN– solari consolation, solace
  • sol:- alone, only –LATIN– solus desolate, sole, solo, solipsism
  • solen:- pipe, channel –GREEK– σωλήν (sōlēn) solenoid
  • solv:-, solut:- loosen, set free –LATIN– solvere, solutus dissolve, solution
  • soma:- body –GREEK– σῶμα, σώματος (sōma, sōmatos) somatic
  • somn:- sleep –LATIN– somnus insomnia
  • somni:- dream –LATIN– somnium
  • son:- sound –LATIN– sonus resonance
  • soph:- wise –GREEK– σοφός (sophos) sophist
  • sorb:-, sorpt:- suck –LATIN– sorbere absorb, absorption
  • sord:- dirt –LATIN– sordes, sordere sordid
  • soror:- sister –LATIN– soror sorority
  • spati:- space –LATIN– spatium spatial
  • spec:-, :-spic:-, spect:- look –LATIN– specere conspicuous, inspection, specimen
  • spect:- watch, look at –LATIN– spectare spectator
  • specul:- observe –LATIN– speculari speculation
  • sper:- hope –LATIN– spes, sperare desperation, esperance
  • sperm:- seed –GREEK– σπέρμα (sperma) angiosperm
  • sphen:- wedge –GREEK– σφήν (sphēn)
  • spher:- ball –GREEK– σφαῖρα (sphaira) sphere, spheroid
  • sphinct:- closing –GREEK– σφίγγα sphincter
  • spic:- spike –LATIN– spica spicule
  • spin:- thorn –LATIN– spina spine
  • spir:- breathe –LATIN– spirare respiration
  • spond:-, spons:- a surety, guarantee; give assurance, promise solemnly –LATIN– spondere, sponsus respond
  • spondyl:- vertebra
  • spu:-, sput:- spew, spit –LATIN– spuere sputum
  • squal:- scaly, dirty, filthy –LATIN– squalere squalid, squalor
  • squam:- scale –LATIN– squama squamous
  • squarros:- spreading at tips –LATIN
  • st:- stand –LATIN– stare, status stable, station, statistic, statue, status
  • stagn:- pool of standing water –LATIN– stagnare stagnant
  • stalact:-GREEK– σταλακτίτης (stalaktitēs) stalactite
  • stalagm:-GREEK– σταλαγμός (stalagmos) stalagmite
  • stann:- tin –LATIN– stannum stannous
  • statu:-, :-stitu:- stand –LATIN– statuere institution, statute
  • stea:- fat, tallow –GREEK– στέαρ, στέατος (stear, steatos)
  • stearic acid steg:- covering –GREEK– steganography
  • stell:- star –LATIN– stella constellation, stellar
  • sten:- narrow –GREEK– στενός (stenos) stenography
  • stere:- solid –GREEK– στερεός (stereos)
  • stern:-, strat:- spread, strew –LATIN– sternere, stratus stratify
  • stern:- breastbone –GREEK– στέρνον (sternon) sternum
  • stich:- line, row –GREEK– στίχος (stichos)
  • stig:-GREEK– στίγμα (stigma) stigma
  • still:- drip –LATIN– stilla, stillare distillation
  • stimul:- goad, rouse, excite –LATIN– stimulus stimulate
  • stingu:-, stinct:- apart –LATIN– stinguere distinction, distinguish
  • stoch:- aim –GREEK– στόχος stochastic
  • stom:- mouth –GREEK– στόμα (stoma) stomatoplasty
  • strept:- twisted –GREEK– στρεπτός (streptos)
  • strig:- compress –LATIN– strix, strigis strigogyps
  • strigos:- having stiff bristles –LATIN
  • string:-, strict:- upright, stiff –LATIN– stringere, strictus stringent
  • stroph:- turning –GREEK– στροφή (strophē) apostrophe
  • stru:-, struct:- to make up, build –LATIN– struere, structus construction, construe
  • stud:- dedication –LATIN– studere student
  • stup:- wonder –LATIN– stupere stupor
  • styl:- column, pillar –GREEK– στῦλος (stulos) stylus
  • su:-, sut:- sew –LATIN– suere, sutus suture
  • sui:- self –LATIN– sui sui generis, suicide
  • suad:-, suas:- urge –LATIN– suadere, suasus persuasion
  • suav:- sweet –LATIN– suavis suave
  • sub:-, su:-, suf:-, sug:-, susbelow –LATIN– sub submerge, suffix, suggest
  • subter:- under –LATIN– subter subterfuge
  • sucr:- sugar –LATIN– sucrose
  • sud:- sweat –LATIN– sudare sudoriferous
  • sulc:- furrow –LATIN– sulcus sulcus
  • sum:-, sumpt:- take –LATIN– sumere, sumptus assumption, consume
  • super:- above, over –LATIN– super supersede
  • supin:- lying back –LATIN– supinus supination
  • supra:- above, over –LATIN– supra supranationalism
  • surd:- deaf –LATIN– surdus absurdity
  • surg:- rise –LATIN– surgere resurgent
  • syn:-, sy:-, syl:-, sym:- with –GREEK– σύν (sun) symbol, symmetry, sympathy, synchronous, synonym, system
  • syring:- pipe –GREEK– σύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringos) syringe


  1. tac:-, :-tic:- be silent –LATIN– tacere, tacitus reticent, tacit
  2. tach:- swift –GREEK– ταχύς (tachus) tachometer, tachycardia
  3. taeni:- ribbon –GREEK– ταινία (tainia) taenidium, taeniodont, Taeniolabis
  4. tal:- ankle –LATIN– talus talus bone
  5. tang:-, :-ting:-, tact:-, tag:- touch –LATIN– tangere, tactus contact, tactile, tangent
  6. tapet:- carpet –LATIN– tapete, tapetis tapestry, tapetum, tapis
  7. tard:- slow –LATIN– tardus retard, tardigrade, tardy
  8. tars:- ankle –GREEK– ταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket) tarsal
  9. taur:- bull –GREEK– ταῦρος (tauros) Minotaur
  10. taur:- bull –LATIN– taurus Taurus
  11. tax:- arrangement, order –GREEK– τάξις (taxis) taxonomy
  12. techn:- art, skill –GREEK– τέχνη (technē) technology
  13. teg:-, tect:- cover –LATIN– tegere, tectus integument, protection
  14. tele:- far, end –GREEK– τῆλε (tēle) telegram, telephone, telescope
  15. tele:- complete –GREEK– τέλος (telos) teleology
  16. temn:- cut –GREEK– τέμνω (temnō) Temnospondyli
  17. tempor:- time –LATIN– tempus, temporis contemporary, temporal, temporary
  18. ten:-, :-tin:-, tent:- hold –LATIN– tenere, tentus continent, detention, tenacious, tenor
  19. tend:-, tens:- stretch, strain –LATIN– tendere, tensus extend, extension
  20. tenu:- slender, thin –LATIN– tenuis attenuate, tenuous
  21. tep:- be warm –LATIN– tepere tepid, tepor
  22. ter:-, trit:- rub –LATIN– terere, tritus attrition, contrite, detritus, trite
  23. teret:- rounded –LATIN– teres, teretis subterete, teretial
  24. terg:-, ters:- wipe –LATIN– tergere, tersus detergent, terse
  25. termin:- boundary, limit, end –LATIN– terminus determine, terminal, termination
  26. tern:- three each –LATIN– terni ternary, ternion
  27. terr:- dry land –LATIN– terra subterranean, terrace, terracotta, terrain
  28. terti:- third –LATIN– tertius tertian, tertiary
  29. test:- witness –LATIN– testis testament, testimony
  30. tetr:- four –GREEK– τέσσαρες (tessares) tetrahedron, tetrode
  31. tex:-, text:- weave –LATIN– texere, textus context, texture, textile
  32. thalam:- chamber, bed –GREEK– θάλαμος (thalamos)
  33. thalass:- sea –GREEK– θάλασσα (thalassa) Panthalassa
  34. than:- death –GREEK– θάνατος (thanatos) euthanasia
  35. the:-, thus:- god –GREEK– θεός (theos) enthusiasm, theology
  36. the:- put –GREEK– τίθημι (tithēmi), θήκη (thēkē) Bibliotheca, theca, theme, thesis
  37. thel:-GREEK– θηλή (thēlē)
  38. theori:- speculation –GREEK– θεωρία (theōria) theorem, theory
  39. ther:- beast, animal –GREEK– θήρ, θηρός (thēr) theroid, theropod
  40. therm:- heat, warm –GREEK– θερμός (thermos) endotherm, thermometer
  41. thym:- mood –GREEK– θυμός (thumos) dysthymia
  42. thyr:- door –GREEK– θύρα (thura) thyratron
  43. thyre:- large shield –GREEK– θυρεός (thureos) Thyreophora, thyroid, thyrotropin, thyroxine
  44. tim:- be afraid –LATIN– timere timid, timorous
  45. ting:-, tinct:- moisten –LATIN– tingere, tinctus tincture
  46. tom:- cut –GREEK– τομή (tome), τόμος (tomos) ectomy, atom, tome
  47. ton:- stretch –GREEK– τόνος (tonos) isotonic, monotone, tone
  48. top:- place –GREEK– τόπος (topos) topic, topography
  49. torn:- cut –LATIN– from –GREEK– tornare < τόρνος (tornos)
  50. torpe:- numb –LATIN– torpere torpent, torpid, torpor
  51. torqu:-, tort:- twist –LATIN– torquere, tortus extortion, torque, torture
  52. tot:- all, whole –LATIN– totus subtotal, total, totality
  53. tox:- arrow, bow –GREEK– τόξον (toxon)
  54. trab:- beam –LATIN– trabs, trabis trabeculae
  55. trachy:- rough –GREEK– τραχύς (trachus) trachea
  56. trag:- goat –GREEK– τράγος (tragos) tragus
  57. trah:-, tract:- draw, pull –LATIN– trahere, tractus subtrahend, tractor
  58. trans:-, tra:-, tran:- across –LATIN– trans tradition, transcend, transportation
  59. trapez:- four:-sided, table –GREEK– τράπεζα (trapeza) trapezius, trapezoid
  60. traum:- wound –GREEK– τραῦμα (trauma) trauma, traumatic
  61. trecent:- three hundred –LATIN– trecenti trecentennial, trecentillion
  62. tredec:- thirteen –LATIN– tredecim tredecimal
  63. treiskaidek:- thirteen –GREEK– τρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaideka) triskaidekaphobia
  64. trem:- tremble –LATIN– tremere tremor
  65. trema:- hole –GREEK– τρῆμα (trēma) trematode
  66. tri:- three –GREEK– τρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria) triad, trigon, triode, tripod
  67. tri:- three –LATIN– trēs triangle, triumvirate, trivia
  68. tricen:- thirty each –LATIN– triceni tricenary
  69. tricesim:-, trigesim:- thirtieth –LATIN– tricesimus trigesimal
  70. trich:- hair –GREEK– θρίξ, τριχός (thrix, trichos) peritrichous, trichopathophobia, Trichoptera
  71. trin:- three each –LATIN– trini trinary, trine, trinity
  72. trit:- third –GREEK– τρίτος (tritos) tritagonist
  73. troch:- wheel –GREEK– τροχός (trochos) trochlea
  74. trop:- turning –GREEK– τρόπος (tropos) heliotropism, psychotropic, tropic
  75. troph:- feed, grow –GREEK– τροφή, τροφός (trophos) dystrophy, pogonotrophy, trophic
  76. trud:-, trus:- thrust –LATIN– trudere, trusus extrusion, intrude
  77. tuss:- cough –LATIN– tussis, tussire pertussis
  78. tympan:- drum –GREEK– τύμπανον (tumpanon) tympani
  79. typ:- stamp, model –GREEK– τύπος (tupos) archetype, phenotype, typography


  1. uber:- fruitful –LATIN– uber, uberare exuberant
  2. uligin:- in marshes –LATIN– uligo, uliginis uliginous
  3. ulo:- wooly –GREEK
  4. ultim:- farthest –LATIN– ultimus ultimatum, ultimate
  5. ultra:- beyond –LATIN– ultra ultrasonic
  6. umbilic:- navel –LATIN– umbilicus umbilical
  7. umbr:- shade, shadow –LATIN– umbra penumbra, umbrella
  8. un:- one –LATIN– unus, unius unary, unicorn, union
  9. unc:- hooked –LATIN– uncus uncinate
  10. unci:- ounce, twelfth –LATIN– uncia uncial
  11. und:- wave –LATIN– unda abundant, undulate
  12. undecim:- eleventh –LATIN– undecimus undecimal
  13. unden:- eleven each –LATIN– undeni undenary
  14. ungui:- claw, nail –LATIN– unguis
  15. ungul:- claw, hoof –LATIN– ungula ungulate
  16. ur:-, uro:- tail –GREEK– οὐρά (oura) uroid, uroborus
  17. ur:-, uro:- urine –GREEK– οὖρον (ouron) urology
  18. urb:- city –LATIN– urbs, urbis urban, urbanize, suburbanite, urbanism
  19. urg:- work –LATIN– urgere urgent
  20. urs:- bear –LATIN– ursus Ursa Major, ursine
  21. ut:-, us:- use –LATIN– uti, usus usual, utility
  22. uv:- grape –LATIN– uva uvea
  23. uxor:- wife –LATIN– uxor uxoricide V


  1. vac:- empty –LATIN– vacare vacancy, vacation, vacuum
  2. vad:-, vas:- go –LATIN– vadere evade, pervasive
  3. vag:- wander –LATIN– vagus, vagare vagabond, vague
  4. van:- empty, vain, idle –LATIN– vanus vanity
  5. vap:- lack (of) –LATIN– vapor evaporation, vapid, vaporize
  6. veh:-, vect:- carry –LATIN– vehere, vectus vehicle, vector
  7. vel:- veil –LATIN– velum revelation, velate
  8. vell:-, vuls:- pull –LATIN– vellere, vulsus convulsion
  9. veloc:- quick –LATIN– velox, velocis velocity
  10. ven:- vein –LATIN– vena venosity
  11. ven:- hunt –LATIN– venari venison
  12. ven:-, vent:- come –LATIN– venire advent, convention
  13. vend:- sell –LATIN– vendere vendor, vending
  14. vener:- respectful –LATIN– venus veneration, venereal
  15. vent:- wind –LATIN– ventus ventilation
  16. ventr:- belly –LATIN– venter ventral
  17. ver:- true –LATIN– verus aver, veracious, verify, verisimilitude, verity
  18. verb:- word –LATIN– verbum verbal, verbatim, verbosity
  19. verber:- whip –LATIN– verber reverberation
  20. verm:- worm –LATIN– vermis vermiform
  21. vern:- spring –LATIN– ver, vernus vernal
  22. vert:-, vers:- turn –LATIN– vertere, versus convert, inversion, invert, vertical
  23. vesic:- bladder –LATIN– vesica vesical
  24. vesper:- evening, western –LATIN– vespera vesperal
  25. vest:- clothe, garment –LATIN– vestis divest, vest
  26. vestig:- track –LATIN– vestigium investigate
  27. vet:- forbid –LATIN– vetare veto
  28. veter:- old –LATIN– vetus, veteris inveterate, veteran
  29. vi:- way –LATIN– via deviate, obvious, via
  30. vic:- change –LATIN– vicis vice versa, vicissitude
  31. vicen:-, vigen:- twenty –LATIN– viceni vicenary
  32. vicesim:-, vigesim:- twentieth –LATIN– vicesimus vicesimary, vicesimation, vigesimal
  33. vid:-, vis:- see –LATIN– videre, visus video, vision
  34. vil:- cheap –LATIN– vilis vile, vilify
  35. vill:- shaggy hair, velvet –LATIN– villus villiform
  36. vin:- wine –LATIN– vinum vinous
  37. vinc:-, vict:- conquer –LATIN– vincere, victus invincible, victory
  38. vir:- man –LATIN– vir virility
  39. vir:- green –LATIN– virere virid, viridian
  40. visc:- thick –LATIN– viscum viscosity
  41. viscer:- organs of the body cavity –LATIN– viscus, visceris eviscerate, visceral
  42. vit:- life –LATIN– vita vital, vitamin
  43. vitell:- yolk –LATIN– vitellus vitellogenesis
  44. viti:- fault –LATIN– vitium vice, vitiate
  45. vitr:- glass –LATIN– vitrum vitreous
  46. viv:- live –LATIN– vivere revive, survive, vivid
  47. voc:- voice –LATIN– vox, vocis provocative, vocal, vocation
  48. vol:- fly –LATIN– volare volatility vol:- wish –LATIN– velle volition
  49. volv:-, volut:- roll –LATIN– volvere, volutus convolution, revolve
  50. vom:- discharge –LATIN– vomere vomit
  51. vor:-, vorac:- swallow –LATIN– vorare, vorax devour, voracious
  52. vov:-, vot:- vow –LATIN– vovere, votus votive
  53. vulg:- common, crowd –LATIN– vulgus divulge, vulgarity, vulgate
  54. vulner:- wound –LATIN– vulnus, vulneris vulnerable
  55. vulp:- fox –LATIN– vulpes, vulpis vulpine


  1. xanth:- yellow –GREEK– ξάνθος (xanthos) xanthogenic
  2. xen:- foreign –GREEK– ξένος (xenos) xenophobia
  3. xer:- dry –GREEK– ξηρός (xēros) xerography, xerophyte
  4. xiph:- sword –GREEK– ξίφος (xiphos) xiphoid
  5. xyl:- wood –GREEK– ξύλον (xulon) xylem, xylophone


  1. zo:- animal, living being –GREEK– protozoa, zoo, zoology
  2. zon:- belt, girdle –GREEK– zone
  3. zyg:- yoke –GREEK– – heterozygous, zygote
  4. zym:- ferment —GREEK– – enzyme, lysozyme