NOTES: NEW OXFORD MODERN ENGLISH LEVEL 8 NICHOLAS HORSBURGH & CLAIRE HORSBURGH (3rd Ed) 2020

NOTES: NEW OXFORD MODERN ENGLISH LEVEL 8 NICHOLAS HORSBURGH & CLAIRE HORSBURGH  (3rd Ed)

CONTENTS

WHEN I HEARD THE LEARN’D ASTRONOMER

1- A SHOT IN THE DARK

THE NEWCOMER

2- THE SILVER LINING

THE SOLITARY REAPER

3- THE ADVENTURE OF THE DYING DETECTIVE

4- EXTREME WEATHER

CHILDREN UNDERSTAND HIM

5- DREAMING OF THE DAWN WALL

LAST LESSON OF THE AFTERNOON

6- THE ANT-LION

ON THE GRASSHOPPER AND CRICKET

7- A BOY’S BEST FRIEND 96 GOING FOR WATER

8- B. WORDSWORTH

SKIMBLESHANKS: THE RAILWAY CAT

9- DIARY OF A NOBODY

IF

10- A HELPLESS SITUATION

THE INCHCAPE ROCK

11- TWELFTH NIGHT (OR WHAT YOU WILL)

WHEN I HEARD THE LEARN’D ASTRONOMER page:

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. In the first half of the poem, the poet is in a lecture-room.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. He is with an audience, listening to a learned astronomer talk.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. ‘learn’d’ and ‘with much applause’
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The scientific tools and methods that the astronomer uses are proofs and figures arranged in charts and diagrams, used to add, divide, and measure.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. In the second half of the poem, the poet is outside.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. He is on his own and he is looking at the night sky.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The words and images in the first half of the poem that contrast to ‘the perfect silence’ in the final line are: ‘heard the learn’d astronomer’ and ‘lectured with much applause’. Both describe the sound of the lecture and the word heard is repeated, clearly suggesting noise.            The second phrase brings in the noise of the audience. The list of proof, figure, columns, charts, diagrams, etc. implies that the lecture is a continuous noise.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The poet is suggesting that science cannot show us the mystical wonder of nature, we must experience it for ourselves.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER:

B WORKING WITH WORDS

CONTRACTIONS

1. ‘Learn’d’, ‘wander’d’ and ‘Look’d’ –

pupils should understand that Whitman is contrasting the highly educated astronomer with the plain-speaking individual. They will see that only one of the contracted words changes the number of syllables. The other two seem to have been used to keep up this ‘common-man’ identity. Maybe Whitman wanted to convey that everyone can appreciate the wonder of the stars.

2 and 3.

Pupils should use a dictionary. Learned: well educated (see ‘Words to know’), two syllables. Wandered Looked: directed one’s gaze in a specific direction, one syllable.

4. Pupils can discuss this. ‘lectured’ and ‘ranged’ are two possibilities Grouping words

5. Whitman has used lots of pairs in the poem: the proofs, the figures; the charts and diagrams; tired and sick; rising and gliding; time to time.

6. to add, divide, and measure

7. Pupils have lots to choose from. Encourage them to talk about the effect: ‘diagrams, to add, and divide’; ‘lectured with much applause in the lecture-room’; ‘soon…sick’; ‘mystical moist’; ‘time to time’; ‘silence…stars’.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. ADJECTIVE PHRASES. THESE BEGIN WITH A PREPOSITION (OF, WITH, IN, ETC.). UNDERLINE EACH PHRASE.

Recall that an adjective phrase does the same work as an adjective; it describes a noun. A phrase does not contain a finite verb.

a. The balloon with the yellow stripes burst loudly.

b. The dog under the table was growling at the cat on the chair.

c. Those hills in the distance form the border between the two countries.

d. We went to visit the man with the large garden.

e. She spoke to the woman in the green dress, yesterday.

f. The love between mother and child is very strong.

g. The artist’s painting of the sea and the hills was sold for a vast sum. Note that in all the examples above the sentences can be read out without the underlined words. The underlined words (the adjective phrases) only help to further elaborate on the main idea in the sentence.

2. CAN YOU FIND THREE EXAMPLES OF ADJECTIVE PHRASES IN THE POEM?

Here are a few: before me; in the lecture-room; at the stars.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT 1  A SHOT IN THE DARK PAGE:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Philip Sletherby hopes to become the member of parliament for the county of Chalkshire.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Philip Sletherby is on his way to visit Mrs Saltpen-Jago because if she approves of him, she will support his ambition to become the MP for Chalkshire.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Bertie knows that Philip Sletherby is going to visit Bertie’s mother because he hears Sletherby’s club acquaintance saying that through the train window.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Bertie is going from London to the countryside to go fishing for the weekend.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The six items Bertie has in his pockets are: a sixpenny coin, a cigarette-case, a matchbox, a key, a silver pencil case, and a railway ticket
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Bertie has forgotten his coin-purse/money. He wants Philip Sletherby to lend him some money.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Philip Sletherby does not help Bertie because the crest he describes is different to the one Sletherby saw on the letter he received and because he says that his mother has dark hair.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The other man travelling to Brill Manor is Claude People. We learn that: he is an important lawyer; he has travelled on the same train; he is noisy/talks a lot; he is not the sort of man to notice an absorbed silence; he likes and knows about cars, and he knows Mrs Saltpen-Jago well. Pupils can pick out three things. Share their responses so that they can add further examples, if time permits.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. The part of the story that show us that Philip Sletherby thinks highly of himself is the paragraph at the top of page 9 in which Sletherby imagines impressing others with his story. Pupils might also comment on other passages in which Sletherby appears to be smug or self-satisfied.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. The language used shows us that the story was written a while ago. Pupils might pick out references to the coin purse or to sending letters or to old-fashioned phrasing. They might also look at the description of the car (and the horse-drawn carriages of their grandfathers).

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. Philip Sletherby settled himself down in an almost empty railway carriage, with the pleasant feeling of starting off on an agreeable and profitable trip.

i. smug

 ii. shocked/unwell/irritated

 iii. He hopes to secure the nomination of Mrs Saltpen-Jago so that he can become the MP for Chalkshire.

b. There was a tinge of coldness in his voice.

i. Cold is used as a synonym for hostility/unfriendliness here.

 ii. Sletherby

iii. Sletherby believes that Bertie lied to him and he is unable to disguise his feelings when he hears Bertie’s description of his family crest.

c. The train moved on, leaving the so-called son of the Saltpen-Jago family cursing furiously on the platform.

 i. Philip Sletherby’s

ii. Sletherby does not believe that he is Mrs Saltpen-Jago’s son.

iii. He thought he would be able to borrow money to fund his weekend trip but now he has been left stranded.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND THE ADVERBS IN THE PASSAGE. WHICH VERBS DO THEY DESCRIBE?

 The adverbs are followed by the verbs in brackets. The pupils may be asked to use the adverbs with different verbs, orally, before they begin to write their own sentences.

a. sedately (was greeted)

b. noisily (was greeted)

c. furiously (cursing/was searching)

d. promptly (responded)

e. carelessly (asked)

f. scarcely (was…worthwhile/had… glanced)

 g. ruefully (stared)

h. ineffectively (was searching)

i. hastily (glance)

j. rightly (remember)

k. presently (exclaimed)

l. severely (said)

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

3. MAKE UP INTERESTING SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN USING THE FOLLOWING.

a. You ought to feel ashamed of yourself for calling him names.

b. You ought to go now; it is getting late and your parents may start worrying.

 c. She ought to write to her father; she hasn’t written for ages and he is very ill.

d. They ought to have been punished, but they were let off.

e. We oughtn’t to hear what they are saying to each other; their conversation is private.

f. Ought he to be allowed to do that? (Ought he to do that?) I thought his teacher said he was not allowed to.

g. We ought to know the answer; we only learnt about it yesterday.

h. You oughtn’t to play near the windows; you might break the panes.

i. Ought they to return after the cinema, or might they be allowed to go to their friend’s house?

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

THE NEWCOMER page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. None of the animals is happy about the newcomer; they are all suspicious about it and want to warn the other animals as soon as possible. The main emotions or feelings in the poem are those of fear, suspicion, anticipation, awe, and surprise.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The repetition of the word ‘no’ helps to paint a dark or negative picture. It brings out or reiterates the great difference between the unwelcome visitor and the other animals living in the wild.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Pupils should give their own interpretations. Does it mean that humans have never had wings? Some creatures have wings but cannot fly while others seem to fly but do not have wings (flying squirrel, bats, etc.) but humans do not have any feathers or wing-like parts.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. In the river, the humans ‘ignore the impassable dam: In the warren, they dig deeper than the animals ‘dare’ go. This suggests that they have abilities beyond those of the other animals.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Once again, pupils will give their own ideas, with reasons. Some might not agree that all humans behave like this; some might feel that humans also do a lot for the welfare and protection of animals.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The world would be over-populated if we did not kill animals (for food); others might think this would not happen, and that they would die out naturally, not multiply quickly

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

‘There’s something new in the whiteness,’

a. The snow-white polar bear says this to the other animals (the fish, thrush, rabbit).

b. The polar bear says that he saw the newcomer’s shadow on a glacier, but it left no paw marks there. c. The ‘something new’ was a human.

d. The whole of the animal kingdom heard this news

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. IN THE POEM YOU WILL FIND A METAPHOR; CAN YOU SAY WHAT IT IS?

the ghost of a wing

2. Silent Letters

Note the words that contain silent letters, e.g. high. (gh is silent)

ghost, whiteness, bright, through

It’s not too important if some of the words are not found; the important thing is that the pupils should look for the words and go through the poem carefully.

3. NOTE THE SILENT LETTERS IN THE FOLLOWING.

ca(l)m hym(n) su(b)tle rei(g)n

4. PUT THE WORDS INTO FOUR COLUMNS, ACCORDING TO THE SILENT LETTER.

l         n                      b              g

alms   autumn         subtle           feign

 yolk   damned        dumb resign

should          hymn            debt    foreign

palm   column                   plumber almond

 condemn     numb salmon         doubt

5. FIND WORDS WHICH HAVE A SIMILAR MEANING TO THE FOLLOWING:

a. obliterate/kill

b. impenetrable/impassable

c. airing/spreading

d. trace/shadow

e. make bold/dare

f. swollen/bloated

g. disregards/ignores

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

CLAUSES

1. CAN YOU DIVIDE THE SENTENCES ABOVE INTO SUBJECT AND PREDICATE?

 Subject Predicate That boy is my brother the ship silently left the harbour She can read a book

2. Underline the main clauses in the following. Main clauses:

a. The children went (to the park)

b. Maham went (to the library)

c. We stopped (at the town)

d. the boys went out (to play football)

e. the actors met the children

f. He came

g. The man went

h. The trees died

 i. We shall all go (to the park)

j. The policeman arrested the men

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

2 THE SILVER LINING page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The author believes it is difficult to assess the range and quality of human emotions because it is usually not possible to tell what griefs people have by merely looking at their appearance.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The Ahads’ Guest House was a suitable place to stay because it was near the bus stand, market, and post office, yet far enough away to be peaceful. The views were pleasant, the cooking was good, and the hostess was charming.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The Ahads were very kind to their guests and looked after them well. Mrs Ahad took the narrator in hand the moment he arrived. She saw to his luggage, gave instructions about his room, and gave him a cup of coffee. She put him at his ease. Mr Ahad too treats his guests with courtesy. Maheen was shy and reserved, due to her deafness, but endeared herself to all the visitors. The narrator was won over by the entire family.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The author asked Maheen what her name was, smiled at her and beckoned to her. (i) Maheen reacted by blushing and running out of the room with tears in her eyes. (ii) Her parents frowned with pained looks on their faces. Mrs Ahad then apologetically explained to the author why the girl had behaved like this.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. ‘with pained looks on their faces’ and/or ‘The queries were answered by the parents haltingly and with obvious anguish.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Mr Ahad was sorry because Maheen had not gone to Mr Nadeem. Pupils should discuss this. Does he feel sorry for the awkwardness created? Is he apologizing for himself, for his daughter, or about the awkwardness created by the lack of communication?
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. They must have been worried about whether the plan would work and concerned that, if it did not work, it might cause Maheen further anguish.

2. COMMENT ON THE ITALICISED WORDS IN THE FOLLOWING:

a. Mrs Ahad, the landlady, looked after me the moment I arrived.

b. I couldn’t stop myself from smiling/ contain my joy.

c. And, at the very first meeting, or soon afterwards, they would come across (meet) the child…

d. ‘He shouldn’t have ignored our request like this,’ the landlord interrupted (added to the conversation), more mildly.

e. It took us time to understand (take in) the news / let the news sink in.

f. And then both parents started abruptly (speaking/making) incoherent statements of profuse apologies…

g. She almost became very emotional with gratitude…

3. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. I vaguely felt I had wronged her and her parents.

i. The speaker, Mr Nadeem, felt only slightly that he had wronged the family because he had not really known what he was doing. He had not done anything on purpose. He felt he had wronged the girl and her parents because he had tried to make friends with her by speaking to her, but had not realised she was deaf and dumb.

ii. To make the situation better, and to save the child from repeated humiliation, he suggested that the Ahads provide new guests with a note containing information about Maheen.

b. At this time he discovered the sealed envelope containing the typed chit lying on the table, addressed to him by name.

 i. Mr David

ii. Mr David was greeted by Mr Ahad, and made entries about himself in the guesthouse register.

iii. In the envelope was the information the Ahads had provided about Maheen and the fact that she was deaf and dumb.

iv. Immediately after this Mr David looked around astonished, saw Maheen sitting outside in the garden, looked at the Ahads and Mr Nadeem with a smile, and darted out towards Maheen.

c. She looked the happiest woman in the world.

 i. Mrs Ahad

ii. Mrs Ahad was happy because Mr David had outlined to her and her husband some plans for the education and betterment of Maheen. He had told her there were schools for such people and that he himself intended starting one and that Maheen could be his first pupil.

iii. Mrs Ahad laughed like a carefree girl. She gave the guests an extra helping of jam and butter and honey.

WORKING WITH WORDS

1. LOOK UP THE WORDS AND USE THEM IN SENTENCES.

Only the meaning of the word as used in the passage is given below, but if pupils look up these words in a dictionary they may find other meanings. Discuss the appropriateness of the words as used in the context within the passage.

a. hailing—coming from; originating from

b. forwardness—eagerness, presumptuousness

c. sympathetic—full of sympathy (shared feelings)

d. confirmation—act of confirming, corroboration

e. inferred—deduced, hinted at

f. apologetically—regretfully acknowledging

g. hospitality—friendly or liberal reception of guests or strangers

h. intimate—close in acquaintance, familiar

i. disconcerted—upset, disturbed

j. apprehensive—nervous about what is to happen

2. USE YOUR DICTIONARY TO CHANGE THE FOLLOWING NOUNS TO ADJECTIVES.

painful                    desirous        lawful           careful                    doughy/doughlike

 clayey                   scandalous   boyish                     girlish            fanciful

 spacious      famous        hopeful         childish         dirty

 sleepy                    meaningful   youthful       poisonous     springy

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

PLACEMENT OF ADJECTIVE PHRASES

1. WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES?

a. Did the man have three bedrooms? The statement implies that he did! Wanted by a man, a cheap house with three bedrooms.

b. The statement implies that the houses are in the sky. The aeroplane in the sky flew over the houses.

c. There is water in the bottle and the lemonade tasted like it. The correct sentence is: The lemonade in the bottle tasted like water.

d. The stranger is wearing the collar! The dog with a collar barked at the stranger.

e. The mother has a green border. She wanted a dress with a green border for her mother.

2. TENSES

Make a similar table for the verbs talk and drink. Then make a table for the verb sing using the third person singular he instead of the first person singular I

  Present  Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future Simple I talk. I talked. I shall talk. I drink. I drank. I shall drink. He sings. He sang. He will sing Continuous I am talking. I was talking. I shall be talking. I am drinking. I was drinking. I shall be drinking. He is singing. He was singing. He will be singing. Perfect I have talked. I had talked. I shall have talked. I have drunk. I had drunk. I shall have drunk. He has sung. He had sung. He will have sung Perfect Continuous I have been talking. I had been talking. I shall have been talking. I have been drinking. I had been drinking. I shall have been drinking. He has been singing. He had been singing. He will have been singing.

3. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

FILL IN THE BLANKS

a. I had eaten the biscuits by the time the children arrived.

b. By the time she went to the hospital her uncle had died.

c. When we reached the hall the film had started and we missed the beginning.

d. I wish they had put in their applications earlier.

e. They had not been there two minutes when the display began.

f. The dog was hungry; it had not eaten anything for two days.

g. I was still weak as I had had a cold the previous week.

h. The students understood the lesson after the teacher had explained it.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

ACCENT/STRESS

a. hailing

b. forwardness

c. sympathetic

d. confirmation

e. inferred

f. apologetically

g. hospitality

h. intimate

i. disconcerted

j. apprehensive

THE SOLITARY REAPER

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Single in the fields, solitary, by herself, alone, melancholy
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The poet is addressing someone (anybody, possibly someone passing that way) by the field in which the reaper is at work.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The poet doesn’t know what the reaper is singing. He imagines it to be about old, unhappy far-off things or a battle, or a song of everyday affairs. He appeals to a listener, ‘Will no one tell me what she sings?’
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The nightingale’s note is welcome as it tells travellers of rest and shade ahead. The cuckoo’s song usually tells us that winter is over and that spring is ahead.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. We know that the reaper’s song is not a happy one from the words: melancholy, plaintive, old, unhappy, far-off things, battles long ago, natural sorrow, loss or pain.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Long after the poet has passed out of earshot of the singer, he can still hear the music in his heart. 
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Play some classical music while the pupils write about how it makes them feel and/or what it makes them think about. Discuss the question; pupils will give their own views.

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain;

 i. The poet is possibly addressing anyone passing by at the time.

ii. She is a reaper in a field, cutting and binding grain.

iii. her singing deeply affects the poet; her song is remembered for a very long time.

iv. Sad song’; later, the phrase ‘plaintive numbers’ is used.

b. A voice so thrilling ne’er was heard

In spring-time from the Cuckoo-bird,

i. The nightingale

ii. The Cuckoo-bird’s song may be heard ‘among the farthest Hebrides’.

iii. There, this thrilling voice will break ‘the silence of the seas’.

 3. UNDERSTANDING POETRY

a. Write the rhyming scheme of the poem

The rhyming scheme of the poem is a b a b c c d d.

Note the unrhymed words in line 3 of verses 1 and 4. (field, herself; sang, work)

B. COUNT THE NUMBER OF SYLLABLES IN EACH LINE OF THE FIRST AND SECOND VERSES.

Are they uniform? Are any lines shorter than the others?

All the lines have eight beats (four feet) except the fourth line in each verse, which contains only six beats (three feet). There is one line in the last verse with nine syllables! (The last foot has an extra syllable.)

c. Scan the following stanza of poetry.

Hŏw dōth/thˇe līt/tlĕ crōc/ŏ dīle (8)

 Ĭmprōve/hĭs shīn/ĭng tāil, (6)

 Ănd pōur/thĕ wāt/ĕrs ōf/thĕ Nīle (8)

 Ŏn ēv/eřy gōld/ĕn scāle! (6)

Show where the natural speech accents fall on these words. Into which foot would each most conveniently fit—the iambic foot or the trochaic foot?

Iambic Trochaic

First syllable Second syllable

 hūndrĕd bĕlōng

fōrwărd again

 fāshˇion băllōon

wēstwărds ĕxcēpt

ēmpty pĕrhāps

happy

 mērry

canter

 fōllŏw

brother

 blossom

WORKING WITH WORDS

1. LOOK UP THE MEANINGS OF THESE OLD ENGLISH WORDS.

Then write out the words (and the meanings) in alphabetical order.

art (see be) – are, doth – does, nay – no, nigh – near, prithee – I entreat you (please), quoth he – said he, thine – your, thou – you, thy – your, ye – you, yea – even, yon – that one there, yonder – that one there

2. Use the following in sentences of your own.

 These should not be paraphrases of the sentences in the poem.

3. CHOOSE THE CORRECT PREFIX, MIS- OR DIS-, AND COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING.

a. misbehave

b. disinfect

c. disloyal

d. disappear

 e. misspend

 f. misspelling

g. discourtesy

h. disbelieve

i. misgovern

 j. disapprove

k. mismanage

l. mistrust/distrust

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. BETWEEN AND AMONG

a. The headmaster was having trouble choosing from among the three students who put forward their names for school captain. (Correct)

b. The argument was to be settled between the judge, the magistrate, the Commissioner, and the Deputy Commissioner. (Incorrect)

c. We divided the cost of the holiday between the Ahads, the Azims, the Ahmeds and us. (Incorrect)

d. My brother and I argued among ourselves for two years. (Incorrect)

e. The panel had great difficulty choosing between the three contestants they saw perform. (Incorrect)

2. ALWAYS BETWEEN YOU AND ME

CORRECT THE FOLLOWING:

a. Between you and me, I think the team will lose the match.

b. During the past week there has been a difference of opinion between him and me.

c. The debate between the teacher and me went on for an hour.

d. There is really not much difference between them and us.

e. The sweets should be shared equally between you and him.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

3 THE ADVENTURE OF THE DYING DETECTIVE

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Sherlock Holmes’ landlady
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Holmes pretended to be ill by acting but also by fasting for three days and disguising himself. He did that by putting vaseline on his forehead (to look feverish), rouge on his cheeks (to look flushed) and crusts of beeswax around his lips. i. he looked terrible, his face was gaunt, there was a hectic flush on his cheeks, he had dark crusts on his lips ii. he twitched his hands incessantly, his voice was croaking and spasmodic, he lay listlessly
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Sumatra
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The box had come by anonymous post but it was from Mr Culverton Smith. It had a spring inside that was designed to draw blood and infect anyone who opened it.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Mr Culverton Smith wanted to kill Holmes because Holmes had guessed that Mr Culverton Smith had murdered his nephew, Victor Savage.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Inspector Morton was waiting outside Holmes’ house. He was waiting for the lights to be turned on.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Watson hid behind the head of the bed. Holmes needed him there so that he could witness Culverton Smith’s confession.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Pupils can pick out any of a number of details that create the impression that Culverton Smith is an unpleasant person. Some suggestions: his ‘dearest hobby’ is investigating a deadly disease (for malicious reasons); there is no good feeling between him and Holmes (our hero) because he has a grudge against Holmes; he is unwelcoming to Watson; he appears to smile maliciously at the news that Holmes is ill and then pretend to be concerned; he seems to enjoy Holmes’ distress and only gives him water so that he can tell him how he has made him ill/killed him before he dies; he has a nasty voice; and, when he has been caught, he says that he will lie in court.
 
i. He shows a gleam of recognition when Watson arrives; he leaps out of bed to stop Watson from leaving to fetch Dr Ainstree; he shouts to Watson to leave the box on the mantelpiece alone; he is very clear in the orders he gives Watson; Inspector Morton seems to smile when Watson tells him Holmes is very ill; he speaks in his normal voice as soon as he has had some water and heard Mr Culverton Smith’s confession.
 
j. Holmes makes sure that Watson does not guess that he is pretending by making him stand back and by keeping the lights low. He needs Watson to believe he is very ill so that Watson can convince Mr Culverton Smith and bring him to Holmes.

2. COMMENT ON THE ITALICIZED WORDS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

a. I could stand no more of it—to not be able to stand something means to be unable to tolerate something due to a strong dislike/disgust. The landlady hated to see Mr Holmes suffering and could no longer tolerate inaction – she insisted on getting a doctor.

b. The sight of me brought a gleam of recognition to his eyes—when Holmes sees Watson, his friend, he looks at him. Gleam is often used to indicate an expression in the eyes that shows that someone is amused or has a secret. Perhaps Holmes, who is known for such behaviour, is amused by his friend’s reaction to his fake illness. Watson interprets this as a sign that Holmes is still just well enough to recognise him.

c. You are not yourself. A sick man is but a child—to be yourself is to act naturally according to your character and instincts but Watson insists that Holmes’ illness is making him act like someone who does not fully know themselves. He says that Holmes is like a child because children do not always know themselves well.

d. You will soften him, Watson—to soften someone is to weaken their resistance to someone or something. Holmes wants Watson to get the expert on his illness to come to him despite the grudge he holds against Holmes.

e. It was with a sinking heart that I … heart sinks means to feel uneasy, apprehensive, disappointed or discouraged. When Watson re-enters Holmes’ bedroom he is uneasy because he is worried that his health will have deteriorated further.

f. And don’t budge, whatever happens—don’t budge means don’t move. Holmes wants Watson to stay hidden.

3. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. ‘It was certainly, as you said, very surprising that he should have contracted an Asiatic disease in the heart of London—a disease, too, of which I had made such a very special study.’

 i. Mr Culverton Smith is talking to Sherlock Holmes

ii. Mr Culverton Smith’s nephew, Victor Savage. He was murdered by Mr Culverton Smith (who infected him with a deadly disease).

iii. Sumatra, Asia

b. ‘The best way of successfully acting a part is to be it,’

 i. Sherlock Holmes

 ii. He has been acting the part of a very ill man, who is close to death.

 iii. Holmes did not eat or drink for three days to make himself seem gaunt and weak.

iv. He wants to eat ‘something nutritious’ at a place called Simpson’s.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

The apostrophe

2. INSERT APOSTROPHES WHERE NECESSARY.

a. We spoke to his father who is in his nineties.

b. In the ’forties Pakistan gained independence.

c. In ’92 he scored five 50s.

d. The MPAs who attended the meeting in ’86 stayed in the five DIGs’ houses.

e. All the PM’s speeches at the conference were recorded and filmed.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH

1. READ THE FOLLOWING. DISCUSS THE TEXT.

Practise changing direct speech into indirect (reported) speech in the examples, orally

2. CHANGE THE FOLLOWING INTO REPORTED SPEECH.

a. She hoped he didn’t mind.

b. He asked her where she had been.

c. Shad asked the boy how he could know what a thing was like if he never tried it.

d. When they returned home, Javed told his wife he hadn’t found out whether they had seen the film.

e. In a hushed voice John asked his father if he had any idea what was going on.

f. The father told John that he didn’t know what was happening but they were finding out.

g. The boy exclaimed to the old woman that she had paid for the house with all that gold and all those diamonds.

h. Saima protested that it would disappear in a flash.

3. TURN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO DIRECT SPEECH.

a. ‘What does the president say about this?’ asked the people.

b. ‘Why should I join the travellers?’ the foreigner asked in his own tongue.

c. ‘Why should I let the stranger in?’ the householder asked.

d. ‘You (the people) must leave the area immediately!’ blared forth the loud-speakers.

 e. ‘The machine is most definitely not made of plastic,’ the scientists declared unanimously.

 4. SAY IT IN A DIFFERENT WAY! CHANGE THE ITALICIZED PHRASES BY COMPLETING THE SENTENCE WITH THE CUE WORD. DO NOT CHANGE THE MEANING OF THE SENTENCES.

Pupils will write their own sentences.

Examples:

a. The people wanted to know what the visitor’s response was.

b. This is where his life is headed (this is what has been pre-determined for him).

c. The guide said that good things lay ahead (that the future looked bright).

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

REPORTING DIRECT SPEECH

4 EXTREME WEATHER

A COMPREHENSION       

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Encourage to find answer in the chapter.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Encourage to find answer in the chapter.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Some parts of the world are ‘hostile’ to humans because they have extreme temperatures or weather conditions that make it difficult or impossible to live there. Pupils may also provide examples of specific places mentioned in the article.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Weather stations are places where equipment is set up to measure temperature, rainfall, and other weather conditions. This data helps scientists to analyse, understand, and attempt to predict the weather.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Some ways in which we can find relief from very hot weather: taking cool baths (but water warms up quickly and is usually scarce when temperatures are this high), drinking iced drinks, staying in air-conditioned buildings, or resting in the shade.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. In 2005, in the Dasht-e-Lut desert in Iran, scientists measured the highest surface temperature ever of 70.7°C (159.3°F)!
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. It is hard to live a normal life if the temperature gets extremely hot because people are at risk from heat exhaustion, dehydration, and death.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The average daily temperature in Oymyakon, in January, is -46°C.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. The driest place on Earth are the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. It is so dry because it is a desert, with low humidity, where powerful winds rush down sheer mountain walls. These winds heat and evaporate all water so there is no precipitation at all.
QUESTION:
ANSWER: j. The weather in the UK is unusual because it is unpredictable and it is completely normal to have a range of weather in any one day. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:
ANSWER: k. A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area. The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems and cast a ‘shadow’ of dryness behind them. Pupils should try to paraphrase this explanation, once they have found it. It would also be useful to discuss it first and, perhaps, do some further research if they are struggling to understand the term.
QUESTION:
ANSWER: l. Atacama in Chile – rainfall on the mountains to the east of the Atacama Desert creates a rain shadow on the desert so that no rain falls on the desert plateau. Mawsynram in Meghalaya – warm winds carry rain-filled clouds over from the Bay of Bengal.          The clouds, trapped over the mountains, over the summer, bring rainfall in massive and often continuous monsoon deluges. Again, pupils should discuss these two places and try to paraphrase the explanations. They might also pick out the Dry valleys of Antarctica.

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

The landscape is so arid that scientists are very interested in studying it—because it is the place on Earth that is most similar to the conditions on the planet Mars.

a. Dry, with little or no rain; too dry or barren to support vegetation.

b. The Dry Valleys of Antarctica

c. People think of Antarctica as full of snow and ice (frozen water).

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. READ THE SENTENCES BELOW AND THEN MATCH THE IDIOMS IN BOLD WITH THE CORRECT MEANING.

a. under the weather 2. not feeling well

b. as right as rain 6. to feel fine and healthy

c. head in the clouds 4. to be out of touch of reality; to have ideas that may not be sensible or practical

d. stole my thunder 10. when someone takes attention away from someone else

e. snowed under 7. to have so much to do that you are having trouble doing it all

f. broke the ice 9. to say or do something to make someone feel relaxed or at ease in a social setting

g. was a breeze 5. to be very easy to do

h. take a rain check 1. decline something now but offer to do it at a later date

i. the calm before the storm. 3. the quiet, peaceful period before a moment of great activity or mayhem j. put on ice 8. to postpone for another day

2. ADD SUITABLE ADJECTIVES TO THE FOLLOWING NOUNS.

Pupils will add their own suitable adjectives. Encourage them to make interesting choices.

Some suggestions:

a. artificial/frozen/giant/pretty

b. dry/arid/vast/sandy

c. sheer/towering/white

 d. painful/severe

e. deep/dark/damp/huge

f. high/plummeting/soaring

g. never-ending/smooth/bleak

h. melting/extensive/barren

i. undulating/bumpy

 j. harsh/hostile/welcoming

k. lush/fertile/great

l. crazy/intrepid/unwelcome

3. ABBREVIATE THE FOLLOWING; INSERT APOSTROPHES IN THE RIGHT PLACES.

a. the VIPs’ chairs

b. the DIG’s office      

c. the RTOs’ pens

d. the MNA’s supporters

e. the MNAs’ supporters

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ONLY

1. WHAT DO SENTENCES II, III, IV, AND V MEAN? DON’T USE THE WORD ‘ONLY’ IN YOUR EXPLANATIONS.

ii. Yesterday, Atif only said he liked rice. Sentence ii means that yesterday Atif stated one thing and that was that he liked rice.

iii. Yesterday, Atif said only he liked rice. Sentence iii means that yesterday Atif stated that nobody but him liked rice.

iv. Yesterday, Atif said he only liked rice. Sentence iv means that yesterday Atif stated that the one thing he liked was rice.

v. Yesterday, Atif said he liked only rice. Sentence v means that yesterday Atif stated that he did not like anything except rice.

 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

2. IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES, PICK OUT THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AND SAY WHAT NOUNS THEY DESCRIBE.

a. It’s raining cats and dogs is a common idiom that means it’s raining very heavily. describes the idiom given.

b. It’s no wonder that the weather has had an impact on the English language, which is full of weather-related idioms. describes the English language

c. It may come as a surprise that Antarctica, which is seen as a land of snow and ice, contains the driest place on Earth. describes Antarctica In contrast, the wettest place on Earth is drenched with downpours, which fill the streams and rivers to bursting point and sometimes beyond. describes the downpours

d. Take in the spectacular sights and marvel at the beauty of the lush and tranquil features that fill this awe-inspiring valley.

describes the features

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 MAKING A SHORT PRESENTATION

CHILDREN UNDERSTAND HIM page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The old man is compared to a ‘dry stream-bed’. The poet is telling us that the man has led his life, its ‘course’ has been run, like that of a stream or river, and it is now dry. There is little life left and little to offer (according to some).
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The old man would probably bore visitors with stories of his life, and may also put visitors off by showing some of his infirmities.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The old man probably goes from one child’s house to the next. We are told that he has ‘sons and daughters’. Putting up with him is a hard task for them, so they probably take it in turns to have him to stay and to look after him.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The children give the old man ‘friendly punches to the chest’. The old man gives his grandchildren the ‘damp kisses’ on their scrubbed cheeks. The children’s cheeks are scrubbed by their parents, when they are dirty.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Yes, the recipients of the punches and kisses like these things because they understand the old man and go to him as a sailing boat goes to a harbour. They feel safe on his knees, and they find his company ‘friendly’.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Pupils may discuss this and also mention the attitude of various people to the elderly in their own families.  
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. ‘living on memories’ refers to the thoughts and recollections of the old man; he lives in the past, relates stories of his life of long ago, and probably wishes for that life again, rather than the current situation in which he finds himself.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Pupils will give their own opinion and reasons for it. Listen to as many as possible.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER:

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. And only this has kept intact His pride and self-respect.

i. ‘intact’ means kept in one piece; kept as originally intended. In other words, the old man still has some pride and self-respect left, even though he is treated with some disregard by his own sons and daughters.

ii. His association with his grandchildren has kept his pride and self-respect intact. They still value him. iii. Without this he might have been a ‘dry stream-bed’.

b. They sail to the harbour of his knees.

 i. The grandchildren

 ii. They sail to his knees when they play with him (upstairs, away from the guests, while their parents entertain).

iii. sail (move towards); harbour (safe place/knees)

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND OUT WHAT IS MEANT BY EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PHRASES.

 Note that the order of each of the adverbs is fixed. e.g. by and large cannot be written large and by. Use the phrases in oral sentences and ask the pupils to practise.

a. again and again — repeatedly

b. on and on — continued

c. far and wide — covering a large area

d. round and round — moving in circles

e. in and out — inside and outside f. to and fro — to and from; moving forward and backward

g. by and by — in time, soon h. far and away — absolutely

i. over and over — continually

 j. here and there — in this place and that

k. off and on — stopping and starting

 l. now and again — sometimes

m. by and large — mostly

n. out and out — complete

o. first and foremost — at the beginning

p. through and through —completely

q. more or less — nearly

r. up and about — out of bed and walking

Pupils will make up their own sentences.

Here is another phrase: now and then — occasionally

2. DICTIONARY WORK

1. hypocrite

2. herbalist

3. optimist

4. widow

5. widower

6. donor

7. bachelor

8. pilgrim

9. genius

10. pessimist

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

MAY/MIGHT

1. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH ‘MAY’ OR ‘MIGHT’.

a. If we watch TV too long, we may get into trouble. (possibility)

b. If she saves enough, she might just make it to college. (weak possibility)

c. May you live a long life and have many children. (wishes)

 d. Might I have some sugar in my tea, if you have any in the house? (a polite question)

e. They asked if they might borrow our car. (asking for permission)

f. Rashid may not come to the play this evening as he is busy. (probably not)

g. May you have a long and prosperous life! (wishes)

Combining sentences

2. RECONSTRUCT THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF SENTENCES.

a. The children who came to the school were like tiny dolls.

b. The guests brought presents which made us very happy.

c. My friend, who was bitten by a mouse, jumped up and down shouting.

d. My father, who was a doctor and surgeon, worked in the poorest areas of the city.

e. I watched the moon which was rising high into the sky, bathing the earth with its light.

f. The children sat around the teacher whose bag was full of colourful pens.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

FAMILY TREES

mother, father, uncle, aunt, brother, sister, grandfather…

1. CAN YOU THINK OF ANY OTHERS?

Make a list. …grandmother, grand(children), great grandparents, nephew, niece, cousin, -in-laws, step-brother/ sister/….,

5 DREAMING OF THE DAWN WALL page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Yosemite is a popular place for tourists because it is a UN World Heritage site containing walking trails, waterfalls, forests, valleys, awe inspiring rock formations. It is a beautiful, unspoilt place.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Tommy Caldwell and Kevin Jorgeson.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Tommy Caldwell was 36 years old when he achieved his dream of climbing the Dawn Wall.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. A monolith is single massive rock or stone.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. We learn that El Capitan is huge and composed of granite. We learn that is poses a challenge for even the most experienced climbers. It has a 3000-foot sheer cliff that looks like a smooth surface from a distance. There are more than 100 routes up El Capitan but only thirteen have been successfully free climbed. The most difficult of these is called the Dawn Wall. Another route is called Salathé Wall.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The Dawn Wall is so difficult to free climb because it is so sheer, with few holds and ledges. One pitch is especially difficult because the climber has ‘to balance carefully on fingertips and toes and spring sideways to catch and hold on to a small bit of rock.’
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Caldwell asked the doctors to take off the top of his finger because, after an accident, they said it would never fully recover. He knew that he would not be able to climb properly if one of his fingers could not grip well.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. To be a successful climber you need to be ‘fit and strong’, and ‘flexible and agile’. ‘They must be able to endure pain and physical hardship while keeping calm and focused.’
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Aid climbers use special equipment such as ropes, ladders, metal clips (called carabiners), and belays to help them climb. Free climbers use very little equipment preferring to only use the body to work out a route up or across the rock face. Free climbers use a safety rope that is attached below them to save them if they fall off.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. The phrase ‘dealt with it head on’ is an adverbial phrase meaning ‘in a direct way’. The following question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION: k
ANSWER: k. The suffering and fear he experience when being held hostage had a deep negative effect on Tommy Caldwell. However, it also made him realise that if he could cope with being held hostage, (where he coped with hunger, thirst and pain) and remain calm when faced with danger or difficulty, then he could cope with anything. It made him mentally and physically stronger, which helped him become a better climber.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. Over the next few years Tommy trained hard and made his mark in the climbing world.

i. Tommy Caldwell had won a climbing competition and become the national champion, in the USA.

ii. He climbed with his father: at 14 he climbed Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn, in Europe.

iii. Overcoming the injury to his finger and being held hostage.

iv. ‘made his mark’ means he had been successful and was being recognised for that success.

b. He asked the doctors to remove the tip and, with the help of his father, worked on making his hands stronger than ever before.

i. He recognised his talent and took him climbing and camping, and encouraged him.

iii. Tommy Caldwell needed to make ‘his hands stronger than ever before’ to overcome the loss of his finger.

c. For ten days Kevin was stuck on pitch 15.

 i. Kevin Jorgeson is Tommy’s friend and climbing partner – together they climbed the Dawn Wall.

ii. It means that he could not complete that part of the route.

iii. His fingers bled, his muscles ached, and his spirits were low. It seemed as if Caldwell would need to go on without him.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. MATCH THE IDIOMS IN LIST A WITH THE MEANINGS IN LIST B. A. TO BE AT HAND – TO BE VERY NEAR

b. to take something in hand – to take charge of it; manage it

c. to get out of hand – to become out of control

d. to have time/money in hand – to have it spare, left over to be used

e. to keep one’s hand in – to keep in practice

f. to have one’s hands full – to have a lot of work

g. to give someone a good hand to applaud someone for a good performance

h. to be a handful – to be difficult to control i. to be an old hand – to be experienced at something

j. to get the upper hand of something/someone – to win an advantage over it/him

2. USE THE IDIOMS IN LIST A IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

HYPHENS

1. SHOW WHERE THE FOLLOWING WORDS MAY BE HYPHENATED.

 Make sure that words are split in whole syllables and not where a letter or a couple of letters are left dangling on the following line. There are various possible ways of splitting the words if they occur at the end of a line.

Here are some:

some—times, ex—aggerate, exagger—ate, pro—long, bi—cycle, tur—nip, acci—dent, nine—ty, gram— mar, Eng—lish, tur—key, philo—sophical, cat—astrophe, catas—trophe, mis—use, tre—mendous, tremen-dous, har—dy.

PREFIXES

2. MAKE NEGATIVES OF THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES BY ADDING IN-, IM-, IR-, IL-.

Impractical

 irregular

irresponsible

 illegal

 immortal

impossible

 inconsistent

 irreligious

insufficient

 inflexible

illegible

 impartial

indirect

inadequate

illiterate

impersonal

 immobile

imbalanced

 immature

indefinite

Headlines

2. WHAT IS SO FUNNY ABOUT THESE NEWSPAPER HEADLINES?

a. Are the Senior Citizens for sale or are they running the sale?

b. Does the farmer have a tail?

c. If the woman has committed suicide she would be dead and unable to deny it.

d. Does this mean that, now they are married (at the altar), the friendship will end?

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

The importance of pausing at the right time

1. READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE ALOUD. READ THE PASSAGE TO THE PUPILS.

2. NOW READ THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES ALOUD. READ. THE COMMAS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE SENTENCES BELOW.

a. The principal told the teachers what time the assembly would be held.

b. The head boy told the others, whether they liked it or not, to stand in line.

c. The stranger who entered the room stared at me for a few minutes.

d. Asad said he would come to the party, even though he had work to do that day.

e. The tailor said he would mend the trousers, as they were torn.

f. The Major, known to his soldiers as ‘King Kong’, was a large man with a ferocious moustache.

 g. Where the three of us now stood in a bunch we had the smooth steep rock behind us, to our right a wall of rock, slightly leaning over the ravine, and fifteen feet high, and to our left, a tumbled bank of big rocks thirty or forty feet high.

LAST LESSON OF THE AFTERNOON page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. When will the bell ring (and signal the end of this tedious lesson)?
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The poet uses the metaphor of a pack of hounds (his pupils) tugging at their leashes, and straining. He continues this metaphor by using words such as ‘quarry’ (prey), ‘hunt’. Later he brings up the subject of dogs again.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. They are not interested in the quest or ‘hunt’ for knowledge and are unruly in their behaviour.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The insults are referred to even prior to this, in stanza 2. They are the books scattered across the desks, waiting for correction, and specifically the pages in these books containing ‘blotted pages and scrawl of slovenly work’.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The poet does not want to waste the last dear fuel of life (his energy and what is left to him of his life) and take their insults (their slovenly work) as punishment. He decides here that he will not take this any longer.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. This means that he has sunk to the very lowest point of his life, and cannot sink any further (or take this kind of life any more).
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Lawrence was supposed to care because at the time he was a teacher; but he felt his time at school was futile.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The poet’s final resolve is to sit it out, wait for the bell, and not drain his strength but keep it to live his own life. He has given up trying.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. More than one emotion is presented: iii. despair: ‘I can haul them and urge them no more.’ ‘No longer can I endure the brunt…’ ‘I am sick, and what on earth is the good of it?’ iv. anger: ‘I will not!’ ‘I will not waste my soul…’ ‘I do not and will not…’ v. frustration: Many instances where he asks a question and then answers it. The fact that he asks such questions indicates he is frustrated. ‘What is the point?’
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. i. The metaphor of a pack of unruly hounds straining at the leash and not prepared to join the hunt. ii. Fuel of life…to kindle my will to a flame that shall consume…

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. …; and take the toll Of their insults in punishment?

i. Toll means a tax and it also applies to the sound of a bell being sounded.

ii. The tax would refer to the way in which he has to pay for or suffer the indifference of his pupils, and also perhaps to when a church bell tolls at the time of a funeral… in this case his own.

iii. He decides to not waste his time or energy any more.

b. What is the point? To us both, it is all my aunt!

i. The ‘point’ is whether they can write a description of a dog, or if they can’t.

ii. It’s all the same to me; I am indifferent to it.

iii. He has come to the end of his tether and feels that there is little hope left for his pupils. He decides to give up teaching because he is bitter.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. PICK OUT ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF ALLITERATION IN THE POEM.

 When will the bell ring, and end this weariness? they hate to hunt,/ I can haul them… the brunt / Of the books my soul and my strength for this. A description of a dog,

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

Read the text and study the examples.

1. JOIN THESE SENTENCES USING A PRESENT PARTICIPLE.

a. She noticed a snake sliding into a hole.

b. They heard a peacock shrieking out loud.

c. The man spied a ship sailing into the harbour.

d. The boys watched the bees flying into the hive.

Discuss the explanation given about present participles.

2. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

a. In the house and in the garden small-bees were flying and speeding about in confusion, causing much distress to the family.

b. While we were walking along the quiet path last night the crescent moon looked beautiful.

c. A small rabbit was hopping along, chasing butterflies in the garden.

d. They arrested the demonstrators shouting loudly outside the City Hall.

e. When everything was ready the pistol went off for the race to start.

f. When the ship was crossing the Gulf of Oman, the sea was very rough.

g. While the children were walking through the forest this afternoon, they saw five rose bushes.

h. As Gafar was driving his car around the corner, a dog ran under his wheel.

i. The old man sat on a bench all day, waiting for his family and watching the passengers carefully.

j. While I was cycling across the field a ball suddenly appeared in front of me.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

6 THE ANT-LION page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. In the first paragraph of the story, Morvenna tries to push the ant up the slope away from the antlion and Max blows it down to the ant-lion.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. We know that Morvenna is not too keen on continuing the activity that she and her brother are engaged in because she tells Max not to get any more ants; she says she won’t watch any more and covers her eyes.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Evidence to show that the children are completely absorbed in watching the meat-ant being attacked by the ant-lion: ‘The two children stared down, lying on their stomachs, heads almost together.’ ‘Shamed, enraptured, she clung to the tree-root with one hand and stared down.’
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. In trying to get out of the reach of the ant-lion, the meat-ant had to contend with the sand slope, and with Max using his stick to push it down.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Quick, dextrous, thrust, jerk, seized, hung on… This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Discuss Max’s change of heart. Does he feel guilty, repulsed, ashamed? Would he like to forget about it? Look at the descriptions of Max in the last 6 paragraphs and invite pupils to comment on how Max is feeling?

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. The two children sat up slowly, breathing again.

i. The struggle of an ant trying to escape the ant-lion had made the children hold their breath.

ii. The ant-lion had caught and buried the ant.

 iii. They feel a kind of guilt. Max’s red face perhaps suggests embarrassment or excitement whereas Morvenna’s open mouth suggests shock.

b. Morvenna gave a scream. ‘If you do, Maxie, I’ll kill the lion.’

i. Morvenna screams because Max goes to get a meat-ant.

ii. The ant-lion

iii. She threatens to kill the lion because she does not want to watch it eat any more ants.

iv. No. She is fascinated and watches closely (although she tries not to by covering her eyes with her hands).

c. The golden air should have been full of their shrieks and groanings.

i. Afternoon

ii. The water flowing in the creak makes a noise.

iii. Those of the ant-lion and the meat-lion

iv. The ant-lion is attacking the meat-lion.

v. The meat-lion dies.

 B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. IF YOU GO THROUGH THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY,

 you will find all the adverbs (started but not completed) below. Find them in the passage and notice the way in which they are used. Which verbs do they describe? When you have completed the words below, use them in sentences of your own.

 a. slowly

b. frenziedly

c. frantically

d. truly

e. treacherously

 f. ruthlessly

g. gingerly

h. persistently

i. uncertainly

j. finally

2. READ THE FOLLOWING SENTENCE.

a. Underline the three words in the sentence which show movement of some kind. She thrust suddenly with the end of a twig, trying to push the ant up the shifting sandslope of the pit.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

Revise active and passive verbs.

 1. SAY WHETHER THE VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING ARE IN THE ACTIVE OR PASSIVE VOICE.

a. Kabir wrote some fine poems in Sindhi. (active)

b. A long poem was planned by Kabir. (passive)

c. Kabir was inspired by many poets. (passive)

d. His mother shared his love of poetry. (active)

e. His first book of poems was published last year. (passive)

f. His parents were thrilled by this publication. (passive)

g. Kabir’s poems were loved and (were) read widely. (passive)

h. His companions have written to congratulate him. (active)

2. WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN THE PASSIVE VOICE.

a. Tasty biscuits are sold here.

b. The bicycle was sold by him yesterday.

c. The garden is kept clean and the flowers are planted by a gardener.

d. Soon he will be sent a reminder by someone.

e. The elections are being postponed until next month.

f. The matter will be looked into by a committee.

g. Mt. Everest was conquered by Hillary and Tensing.

h. Treasures are being brought up from the bottom of the ocean by divers.

 i. This old cushion has been eaten by something.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 A GAME TO PLAY

ON THE GRASSHOPPER AND CRICKET page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The poetry of earth is ceasing never
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The grasshopper’s voice will run from hedge to hedge. This is where the grasshopper sits – perhaps after escaping the mowing of the meadow.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The birds hide in the cool trees because the hot sun has made them feel weak: they are ‘faint with the hot sun’.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Yes, the grasshopper tires. When that happens he rests ‘beneath some pleasant weed.’
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. evening
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The frost creates the silence.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The Cricket’s song sounds to the poet like that of the Grasshopper’s because he is drowsy and warm by the fire which perhaps reminds him of how he felt in the summer. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The grasshopper’s song becomes the main sound when the hot sun makes other creatures (such as the birds) go quiet; he enjoys himself in such a way as to be an example to others of how to have fun. That is what the poet means by ‘take the lead in Summer luxury’. Perhaps the idea comes from the fable.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. The poem is about the ceaseless beauty of nature. Song and poetry and linked through the use of the word ‘voice’ – the poet’s message is that poetry and nature are linked and constant (across seasons/generations/time).
QUESTION:
ANSWER: j. Pupils will need to do some research. grasshopper – short antennae; make sound by rubbing long back legs against wings; ears at base of abdomen; active during the day; mostly eat grass. cricket – long antennae, make sound by rubbing wings together; ears on front legs; active at dusk; eat grass and animal matter

3. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT:

a. … he has never done with his delights

 i. the grasshopper

ii. hopping about in the hedge, making his ‘music’

iii. rests under a pleasant weed

b. … when the frost has wrought a silence

 i. in winter

ii. ‘wrought’ means formed or fashioned (in a specified way). The frost might have ‘wrought a silence’ because a frost covers everything in ice and most creatures become silent.

iii. the cricket sings and the poet drowses (and dreams)

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND WORDS IN THE POEM AS DESCRIBED BELOW:

a. a past tense and past participle of ‘work’ (Use a dictionary!) — done

b. an adjective meaning ‘chilling’ or ‘temperature reducing’ — cooling

c. pleasures or enjoyments — delights; fun

d. a creature of the Locustidae family of insects — grasshopper

e. a creature of the Gryllidae family of insects — cricket

f. three words of three syllables each — poetry; luxury; drowsiness; grasshopper; increasing

g. two final words (in two separate lines) that should (or could) be abbreviated with an apostrophe in order to keep the metre — never: ne’er, and ever: e’er

2. FIND SYNONYMS IN THE POEM FOR THE FOLLOWING.

a. warmth

b. shrills*

c. mead

d. pleasant

e. drowsiness *tricky!

SIMILES

3. COMPLETE THESE WELL-KNOWN SIMILES.

Use the list below.

Pupils can come up with plausible alternatives.

Example:

as brave as a lion

as bright as a button

as fat as a hippo

as brittle as glass

as fierce as a lion

as brown as a berry

as fit as a fiddle

as changeable as the weather

as happy as a clam

as dead as a doornail

as gaudy as a peacock

as deaf as a post

as harmless as different

as chalk as cheese

as heavy as lead

as fair as the morning

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

SPELLING

Is there a difference? Explain the following:

 a. i. The blue and white shirts were soon covered in dust. Each shirt is blue and white.

ii. The blue and the white shirts were soon covered in dust. Some of these shirts are blue, others are white.

b. i. Every player on the winning team was presented with a short and long photograph. Every player got one photograph.

 ii. Every player on the winning team was presented with a short and a long photograph. Every player got two photographs.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

7 A BOY’S BEST FRIEND page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. When Mrs Anderson asks: ‘Did he arrive?’ she is referring to the Scotch terrier puppy.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Jimmy is to ‘handle the lunar gravity’ easily because he is moonborn and agile.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. We know that Jimmy had been in the crater many times before because he is confident there and knows it well.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Jimmy was so confident in the crater because he knew the exact location of every one of the few rocks and because he could not go wrong when Robutt was with him.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Why does Jimmy’s father seem ‘to be waiting for Jimmy to say something’, when he has told him about the dog?
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Robutt got his name because he is a robot mutt and these two words were merged into his name.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Jimmy holds Robutt tightly because he does not want to exchange him for the Scotch terrier. The ‘dog’ reacts by squeaking high and rapid squeaks of happiness.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Pupils will think of reasons why the dog was ‘at the rocket station, going through the tests’. Jimmy has been born on the moon and has not been exposed to germs from Earth so perhaps this is what the dog is having tests for.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Pupils will think of reasons why Jimmy and anyone else ‘always had to wash up after coming in from outside’. Perhaps they need to clean off germs from the moon landscape.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. ‘Because he’s Moonborn and can’t visit Earth.…’

i. Mr Anderson is speaking to Mrs Anderson.

ii. The speaker is referring to Jimmy as being ‘Moonborn’?

iii ‘Jimmy has never seen one.’

iv. A Scotch terrier puppy

b. The Earth sank below the top of the crater wall and at once it was pitch-dark around him.

i. Jimmy. He is with his robot dog.

ii. Jimmy was not supposed to be in the crater because the grown-ups said it was dangerous.

iii. Jimmy gained confidence in the crater by becoming familiar with it.

c. ‘It’s hard to explain’, said Mr Anderson, ‘but it will be easy to see.…’

i. Jimmy

ii. The dog’s feelings of love for Jimmy

iii. Mr Anderson go on to say that Jimmy will know the difference when he experiences the love of a living thing.

iv. Jimmy frowns and has a desperate look on his face that meant that he would not change his mind.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. USE THE FOLLOWING IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

Pupils will make up their own sentences.

2. HAVE THESE WORDS BEEN SPELT CORRECTLY?

 rocket crater spacesuit non-existent gravity squeak exercise quivering imitation machine mechanical programmed difference wiring alarm really

THE SUFFIX -IC

3. WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING WORDS MEAN? CONSULT A DICTIONARY

The meanings given below are indications only and not complete definitions.

myopic: 1. a visual defect, 2. lack of discernment in long-range thinking

claustrophobic: uncomfortably closed or hemmed in

anaesthetic: relating to anaesthesia (loss of sensation);

an agent that causes loss of sensation

peripatetic: walking about from place to place

psychic: a medium; one who has powerful extra-sensory perception

 4. MAKE ADJECTIVES FROM THE FOLLOWING BY ADDING THE SUFFIX –IC. (WATCH THE SPELLING CHANGES!)

i. cyclic ii. acidic iii. anaemic iv. patriotic v. nationalistic vi. manic vii. paranoiac (paranoic) viii. philosophic ix. geographic x. atomic

SPELLING TRICK

5. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING WITH –IC OR –ICK:

 trick   traffic   stick   public   sick   fantastic

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

2. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS JOIN THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF SENTENCES TOGETHER.

The pupils can make up sentences orally first. The main clauses are in italics in the sentences below.

a. He arrived at the station after the train had left.

b. Shabbir decided to go home early because he was very tired.

c. The men cannot do the work as they have no tools.

d. When they had had their dinner the children came home.

e. The students stood up smartly as soon as the teacher came into the room.

 f. Whenever he visited his parents he took them presents.

g. The shopkeeper went home because there were no customers.

h. Although the problem was difficult to solve, the clever boy had the answer very soon.

i. The shopkeeper kept the shop open till the last customer left.

j. If you don’t like chocolates, don’t buy any.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

GOING FOR WATER page:

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM       

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The people in the poem had to go out to get water because the well beside their door had dried up.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. evening; autumn
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The brook is across the fields, behind the house, in the woods.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The people play a game of hide and seek with the moon.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The brook makes a tinkling sound (like a bell).
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The droplets of water with the moon’s light on them are compared to pearls and a silver blade.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The poet conveys the idea that the water is precious by comparing it to silver and pearls. These are expensive materials.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The details from the poem that make the people in the poem seem childlike are: ‘We ran as if to meet the moon’ – children are more likely to run spontaneously; ‘With laughter’ – getting caught up in a game and laughing would be more usual in children, and playing hide and seek – game playing is most often associated with children. The game of hide and seek and imagining the moon as a player taking part also make them seem childlike. Frost does not say that the people are children – the people could be adults.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Pupils can pick out any details they think create a magical or mysterious atmosphere. The setting – empty, moonlit woods; the mention of gnomes; the ‘hush’ and the personification of the moon are some possible suggestions.

UNDERSTANDING POETRY

a. Frost uses a rhyming scheme: abcb

Every line has 8 syllables, except for the first line of the 5th stanza. That has 9 syllables – perhaps indicating the pause made by the people going for water.

WORKING WITH WORDS

 LANGUAGES AND COUNTRIES

Match the languages with the countries, then find them all in the word square below. (The words can appear forwards, backwards or diagonally. Yes, it’s difficult!) You may have to look up the languages in a reference book to get the first part of the exercise correct.

Languages Countries

SWAHILI KENYA

MANDARIN CHINA

GAELIC IRELAND

CREOLE HAITI

NUBIAN SOMALIA

KURDISH IRAQ

DUTCH NETHERLANDS

 HAUSA NIGERIA

SHONA ZIMBABWE

MAGYAR HUNGARY

HEBREW ISRAEL

LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

IDIOMATIC LANGUAGE

1. PUPILS WILL WRITE THEIR OWN SENTENCES, IF THEY KNOW THE MEANINGS. SOME EXAMPLES ARE GIVEN BELOW.

a. go to town: to do something eagerly and as completely as possible The volunteers went to town and finished the work early. (They worked with enthusiasm.)

b. go to waste: to not be used The clock I bought him went to waste: he had three already.

c. go to great pains: to try very hard to do something We went to great pains to make them feel comfortable.

d. go under the knife: to have a medical operation He goes under the knife on Tuesday: I hope he recovers soon.

e. go up in flames: to come to an end suddenly and completely The holiday went up in flames when he broke his leg.

f. go up in smoke: to become spoiled or wasted (such as a plan) All their plans went up in smoke when the Chairman resigned.

g. go with a bang: to take place with excitement and success (such as a good party) The annual arts festival went with a bang; thousands attended it.

 h. go without: to manage, to live with, not having or doing something The payment did not arrive in time, so the family went without for a whole week.

8 B. WORDSWORTH page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The narrator describes a man, who only came once and behaved somewhat strangely, as an example of a rouge.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The narrator says, ‘His English was so good, it didn’t sound natural . . .’ because the poet speaks Standard English. The narrator and the people around him, including his mother, do not speak in Standard English.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Cry
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Pupils can say yes or no as long as they give a reason for what they think. It may be that she does not have the time or opportunity to enjoy poetry; she does not want to buy a poem from the poet.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. B. Wordsworth’s reason for travelling about is that he gets to watch many things.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. B. Wordsworth’s answer is funny because he responds to the policeman’s question (about what they are doing in that particular place at that particular time) as if the policeman is asking what his purpose is on earth.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The world became an exciting place for the narrator because the poet took him to see lots of places and did everything as though he were doing it for the first time in his life.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. When the narrator saw Wordsworth looking so ill he felt himself wanting to cry. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. This exchange tells us that the mother has no interest in the poet and wants him to leave. She probably views him as just another caller or rogue. It tells us that the boy does not wish to offend the man and that he is interested in him.

2. BELOW THERE ARE TWELVE SENTENCES, ALL OF WHICH ARE INCORRECT. CORRECT THEM AND REWRITE THEM IN YOUR BOOK. CAN YOU EXPLAIN WHAT IS WRONG WITH EACH ONE?

a. ‘What do you want?’—missing auxiliary ‘do’

b. ‘Stay here and watch him while he watches the bees.’—subject verb agreement

c. ‘I don’t have the time.’—ain’t = am not, are not, is not

d. ‘What do you do, mister?’—placement of auxiliary and subject verb agreement

e. ‘Why do you cry?’—subject verb agreement

 f. ‘When she is not beating me.’—missing auxiliary

g. ‘Ma, do you want to buy a poem for four cents?’—determiner noun agreement (or some poetry)

h. ‘My mother says/said she doesn’t have four cents.’—Subject verb agreement

i. ‘You really think I am a poet?’—subject verb agreement

 j. ‘Do you write a lot, then?’—question format and agreement

k. ‘(Have) you sold any poetry yet?’—question format and tense

l. ‘Where were you?’—verb placement and subject verb agreement

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. WRITE DOWN THE MEANINGS.

 Consult a dictionary if you need help. Pupils should consult a dictionary and make a list of the different (contrasting) meanings for each word, e.g.

WATCH—

1. wakefulness at night

2. alert state

3. man or body of men for patrolling the streets at night

4. small time-piece worn on the wrist

5. be vigilant

ROUND—

1. circular

2. involving circular motion

3. entire

4. circular object

5. allowance of something distributed (to each member of a group)

2. FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PICTURES. CAN YOU THINK OF THE CORRECT WORD AND A HOMOPHONE?

 a. sheik/shake b. cell/sell c. mail/male d. sun/son e. sweet/suite f. root/route

3. CAN YOU THINK OF ANY HOMOPHONES AND HOMONYMS?

 Make a list. Examples of homonyms:

lead, back, rest, saw, forge, fair, head, ear, late, last, organ, pat, sound, found, spade, etc.

Examples of homophones:

dear/deer, flower/flour, plain/plane, die/dye, write/right, sole/soul, heal/heel, tide/tied, etc.

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

Do you know the rule for the use of ie and ei?

perceive receipt height sheikh field receive deceit achieve ceiling conceive deceive chief grief believe sieve relieve relief shriek yield thief

The rule is: ‘i before e except after c’.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

1. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING BY USING SUITABLE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME.

2. IDENTIFY THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF TIME IN THE FOLLOWING.

a. Irfan went straight to the cinema after his friends had left.

b. I promise to come and say goodnight to you as soon as you have got into bed.

c. While the clock ticked, the girl’s parents sat waiting and watching.

d. We visit them whenever they come to stay in the city.

f. Before the day broke they had woken and bathed.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

MAKE UP YOUR OWN STORY

SKIMBLESHANKS: THE RAILWAY CAT page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The train can’t start without Skimble because he is in charge.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Skimble supervises everything.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The passengers were quiet when Skimble is about because he does not ‘approve of hilarity and riot’.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The passengers on the train have cosy berths that are clean and comfortable, with an adjustable light, a sink, and a window. Also the guard will bring them tea in the morning.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The passengers are comforted by Skimble’s presence because he won’t let anything go wrong.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. While the passengers are all safely asleep Skimble walks up and down the station that they pass through and greets station masters, and speaks to the police. This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER:
QUESTION: h h. The poet creates the impression of a moving train: There’s a WHISPer down the LINE at eLEVen thirty NINE, when the NIGHT mail’s (or MAIL’S) READy to dePART Saying SKIMBLE where is SKIMBLE, has he GONE to hunt the THIMBLE, we must FIND him or the TRAIN can’t (or CAN’T) START. Pupils should attempt to examine the lines of the poem and work out the rhythm.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. Saying ‘Skimble where is Skimble has he gone to hunt the thimble?…’

 i. The people down the line (at the train station).

ii. A party game.

 iii. The train can’t start without him.

iv. The train can’t start.

 v. At 11.42

B. DOWN THE CORRIDOR HE PACES AND EXAMINES ALL THE FACES

i. Skimble

ii. The faces of the travellers.

 iii. To establish control by a regular patrol.

iv. To see what you are thinking.

v. They are very quiet and don’t play any pranks.

c. Which says: ‘I’ll see you again!…’

i. A wave (from Skimble’s tail)

ii. The passenger(s)

iii. Skimble’s tail

iv. ‘I’ll see you again! You’ll meet without fail on the Midnight Mail The Cat of the Railway Train.’

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. PLACEMENT OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Make up sentences using the noun and the adjectives given.

a. distant, blue mountains

b. high, narrow, mountain road

c. shiny, new, steel watch

 d. dull, grey, expressionless face

e. long, venomous, green snake

 f. new, sleek, black Rover car

g. famous, young, Pakistani artist

h. ready-made, Italian, evening suit

i. smart, new, red shirt

 j. jet-propelled, trans-Atlantic, passenger plane

2. IDIOMATIC USAGE

USE THE FOLLOWING IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN:

a. more or less: about, approximately; to an undetermined degree

b. on the move: moving about

c. to a man: without exception

d. is abroad: is prowling about, is walking about

e. all clear: the green signal (to move ahead)

f. now and then: occasionally

g. by and large: to a great extent

h. without fail: without any fear of failure or disappointment; definitely

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

THE THREE KINDS OF CLAUSES INTRODUCED HERE ARE:

1. condition (if, unless)

 2. reason (because, since, as)

3. place (where, wherever)

1. FIND ADVERBIAL CLAUSES TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING.

SOME EXAMPLES ARE GIVEN BELOW.

a. We will go to the cinema without you,

if you are not here on time. Would the sentence sound better like this?

 If you are not here on time, we will go to the cinema without you.

2. IDENTIFY THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES IN THE FOLLOWING AND SAY WHAT KIND THEY ARE.

a. The children sat in the library because Mr Arif told them to read more. (reason)

b. She will be allowed to go to the party, if you go with her. (condition)

c. Since we are going, they can come too. (reason)

d. He goes to the zoo whenever he visits the city. (time)

 e. He will never find out what is wrong, unless he visits the doctor. (condition)

f. They settled down on the grass where it was dry. (place)

 g. He will post your letter as he is going that way. (reason)

h. They will be allowed some sweets after they have eaten their dinner. (time)

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

9 DIARY OF A NOBODY page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Pooter has rented a house. It is a six roomed house located by a railway track. It has lots of things in it that need fixing or replacing. The issues caused by the location are the noise of the trains and the damage to the garden wall caused by their vibrations.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Pooter’s wife’s name is Caroline and he refers to her as Carrie.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Pooter and his wife do chores in the evenings. Pupils can list some of these. (It seems as though Pooter does not have many real friends or hobbies.)
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Pooter blames his wife for the double order of mutton. (It seems as though he does not usually deal with tradespeople and that he put in his order simply because the butcher called by and it made him feel important to do so.)
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Gowing is an old friend. Pooter gets irritated by him because he keeps complaining about the smell of paint and the scraper.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Pooter’s jokes are puns: scraper/getting into a scrape and dry rot/ talking rot (rubbish).
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Pooter’s friends – Gowing (and Cummings, the neighbour); Pooter’s colleagues: Pitt, Buckling, Mr Perkupp; tradespeople: Farmerson the ironmonger; Horwin the butcher, the other butcher, Mr Putley the painter and decorator.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Farmerson is mentioned five times on four different days: April 3: Mr Pooter promises to employ him if he needs any nails or tools; April 9: Mr Pooter calls at his shop to give him the job of moving the scraper and repairing the bells; April 10: Farmerson comes to Pooter’s house to fix the scraper. He tells Pooter that he does not usually do such small jobs himself but he is making an exception for Pooter. Pooter is flattered by this. April 12: Pooter leaves Farmerson repairing the scraper, but when he comes home he finds three men working. When he asks about it, Farmerson says that he had penetrated the gas-pipe. He makes excuses but Pooter feels that is ‘no consolation for the expense’ he will incur. Pooter promises Farmerson work and then thinks highly of him, without any real reason to do so. His view changes when he realises that Farmerson’s mistake will cost him more money.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Pupils can pick any details as long as they can explain their reasoning with reference to the passage.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. ‘Mr. Gowing must have took it by mistake last night as there was a stick in the ‘all that didn’t belong to nobody.’

 i. Pooter is reporting Sarah’s speech.

ii. Pooter’s umbrella

 iii. ‘Mr Gowing must have taken it by mistake last night as there was a stick in the hall that didn’t belong to anybody.’

 b. ‘I consented, but felt I had been talked into it.’

i. Mr Putley

ii. He consents to allowing Mr Putley to entirely repaint the stairs.

iii. ‘talked into it’ means being persuaded to do it (usually against initial feelings or will).

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. MATCH THE PHRASES BELOW TO THEIR MEANINGS AND THEN USE THEM IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

 keep your hair on – don’t panic or lose your temper talked into it – persuaded drop in on – visit take the trouble – make the effort without ceremony – informally and spontaneously given the tip – notified Pupils will make up their own sentences.

2. FIND THE ODD WORD OUT IN EACH LIST AND THEN WRITE THE WORDS WHICH HAVE SIMILAR MEANINGS (SYNONYMS) INTO THE GIVEN ORDER. PUPILS SHOULD DISCUSS THE MEANINGS AND DECIDE ON THE ORDER. THERE IS SOME ROOM FOR DEBATE IN ALL OF THEM EXCEPT C! SUGGESTED ORDER:

a. insolent rude disrespectful sassy impolite (most to least sophisticated)

b. annoyed riled indignant angry sad (in ascending order of the strength of feeling)

c. boring dreary monotonous tedious fun (in alphabetical order)

d. sacked fired released discharged shocked (least to most formal)

3. USE ONE WORD FROM EACH LIST IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN TO SHOW YOU UNDERSTAND THEIR MEANING.

Pupils will make up their own sentences.

4. FIND TWO SYNONYMS FOR EACH OF THE ODD WORDS OUT.

 Pupils could use a thesaurus.

Some suggestions:

  • polite – courteous, well-mannered, civil;
  • sad – miserable, unhappy, glum;
  • fun (n) – entertainment, amusement, excitement. (adj) – amusing, entertaining, enjoyable;
  • shocked – stunned, surprised, startled.

5. CAN YOU SPLIT THE FOLLOWING WORDS INTO TWO, AND FIND OUT WHAT EACH PART REFERS TO?

Look in a dictionary. Pupils will need to break each word into two and look up each part. They need to take care to find the correct definition for each part.

 a. neuro – relating to nerves and the nervous system science – the study of a particular subject

b. ego – a person’s sense of self-esteem or self-importance centric – in or at the centre

c. exo – prefix meaning external or from outside skeleton – a framework of bone or other rigid material d. proto – original or primitive type – a thing exemplifying the ideal or defining characteristics of something

e. mega – very large phone – denoting an instrument using or connected with sound

6. WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING ABBREVIATIONS STAND FOR?

Some have more than one option but pupils should attempt to find the most common meaning. air conditioning; anno Domini; association; Bachelor of Science; 100; cubic centimetre; milligram; hundredweight; department; education; esquire; Greenwich Mean Time; Information Sciences and Technology; general practitioner; higher education; headquarters; hour(s); I owe you

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

Discuss the text, with additional examples for each type mentioned.

1. UNDERLINE THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES.

a. so that it might fly around the room —purpose

b. Though he is only four —concession

c. as her sister —comparison

d. although it was being sold at half price —concession

e. as I have shown you —comparison

f. as though he is ill —comparison

g. in order that we might talk —purpose

h. though we asked him not to —concession

2. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING, USING THE INSTRUCTIONS IN BRACKETS. TAKE CARE OF THE CHANGES IN PUNCTUATION.

a. If a note had to be sent, it had to be inserted into an envelope.

b. A purchase price of Rs100 is considered the maximum, otherwise expenditure tends to be too high.

c. Although this proved extremely difficult, it was finally managed by the Chief Executive.

d. Although the Opposition seem politically reliable, they have certain limitations as a governing party.

e. A horse can carry a rather heavier load of items, since these are spread over the back, whereas a rider is carried at one point in the saddle.

f. As the top travels up and down the wooden plank, it spins round and round.

g. If a broken vase is repaired and polished within a few minutes, it will appear to the owner that it has never been damaged but one can imagine that this trick will not always work.

h. The manager could not get rid of the salesman, for such an action would be criticised by the Union and he would suffer for it.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

IF page:

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. i. try to keep calm when others are panicking. ii. don’t tell lies yourself when you know others are lying. iii. don’t hate people if they hate you.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. According to the poet a man should have: a clear head, belief in himself, patience, honesty, forgiveness, intelligence, modesty, tolerance, and should live to the full.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. ‘Triumph’ and ‘Disaster’ are imposters because they are passing moments. We should not give way to either.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. We must not become conceited with Triumph or downhearted in Disaster. Both should be regarded as phases. The poet feels that one should be able to take triumph, when it comes, with equanimity; one should not get too excited about winning and revel in the defeat of others. When one fails, and suffers a disaster, one should also not take it too much to heart. One should have balance in both winning or losing, and be able to handle both.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Triumph is described as an Impostor: it is personified. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. i. to be able to dream and yet hold onto reality; dream, but do not get carried away by your dreams ii. to be able to think and yet be a person of action; think, but think clearly and with good reasoning
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Pupils will give their own views.

2. RHYME AND RHYTHM

a. Apart from the first four lines, the rhyming scheme is: a b a b.

(But note that in stanza 1, the first line and the third line have an extra syllable, and that the penultimate words in each line rhyme (about/doubt).

b. The metre throughout is constant, but see above.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

IDIOMATIC USAGE

1. REWRITE, USING THE EXPRESSIONS IN PLACE OF THE WORDS IN ITALICS.

a. I think it was Abid’s cousin who put the idea into his head.

b. … talked over their heads…

c. … to not lose their heads.

d. … come to a head. e. … put their heads together…

f. … has a good head on his shoulders.

g. … he has gone off his head.

h. … keeping his head above water.

i. … is head and shoulders above any of…

 j. … has a good head for …

PUNCTUATION

2. PUNCTUATE THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.

There was the noise of a bolt shot back, and the door opened a few inches, enough to show a long snout and a pair of sleepy blinking eyes.

‘Now, the very next time this happen,’ said a gruff and suspicious voice, ‘I shall be exceedingly angry. Who is it this time disturbing people on such a night? Speak!’

‘O Badger,’ cried the Rat, ‘let us in, please. It’s me, Rat, and my friend, Mole, and we’ve lost our way in the snow.’

ACRONYMS

3. HERE ARE THE INITIALS OF THE NAMES OF SOME FAMOUS ORGANISATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS.

 They are called acronyms.

Do you know what they stand for? British Broadcasting Corporation;

Central Intelligence Agency; Criminal Investigation Department; European Economic Community; Food and Agriculture Organisation; Federal Bureau of Investigation; General Post Office; International labour Organisation; International Monetary Fund; World Bank

IMPOSTERS

4. WHICH WORDS END IN -OR AND WHICH ONES END IN -ER?

 Are there any that end in -ar?

a. defender b. elector c. cellar d. seller e. designer f. instructor g. learner h. investigator i. conductor j. popular k. regular l. listener m. cleaner n. exhibitor o. circular

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. USE THE PHRASES IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

 Discuss these and introduce others as well. Pupils will write their own sentences.

2. WHICH PREPOSITIONS ARE NORMALLY USED TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING POPULAR PHRASES?

a. without a doubt

b. through thick and thin

c. in vain

d. by dint of

e. in the balance

f. in the last resort

g. in the lurch

h. in one fell swoop

i. by no means

j. at a premium

k. at your service

l. up to the hilt

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

10 A HELPLESS SITUATION page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The author thinks it will be fine to print the letter from the woman she died years ago and he does not reveal her name and address.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Uncle Simmons remembers the incident when a cow fell through the roof of the lean-to Twain lived in at one time. The incident was recounted by Twain in his memoir Roughing It.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The woman was 30 years old when she wrote to Mark Twain. (The incident was 16 years ago, and the woman was 14 years old then.)
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The woman tells the author that the reason for giving such a long introduction is that she feels it is the only way to make herself known to him.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The woman is not very specific. She asks Twain to give her some advice about a book she has written and to write a letter to a publisher for her or, better still, visit a publisher for her and let her know.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. We know that Mark Twain thought the letter was absurd because he refers to it as ‘embarrassing’ and ‘pathetic’ and he says he has no idea how to answer it. In the reply, he makes it clear that it is absurd by writing out a dialogue that reveals how little information he has about the woman and her book and how ridiculous it would be if he were to speak to a publisher about them.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. According to Mark Twain, the following people are likely to have ‘influence’: well-known merchants, railway officials, manufacturers, capitalists, Mayors, Congressmen, Governors, editors, publishers, authors, brokers, and bankers.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Two important things Mr H want to find out from Mark Twain are: what he thinks of the book and the author and whether he would recommend them.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Mr H draws his meeting with Mark Twain to a conclusion by saying that his time is valuable – this implies that he feels as though Twain has been wasting his time.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. Mark Twain describes people who write letters requiring help as incapable and unhelpable. He describes those who do not require help as independent and eager to reach their goal alone.
QUESTION: k
ANSWER: k. Pupils should spend a few minutes working on this in pairs, focusing on the woman’s letter, and then share ideas, as a class. Some general suggestions (ask pupils to be specific): the length of the introduction could be condensed; she could say more about herself and about the book…

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. He got hurt in the old Hal Clayton claim that was abandoned like the others, putting in a blast and not climbing out quick enough, though he scrambled the best he could.

i. The woman in her letter to Twain

 ii. The woman’s husband

 iii. A piece of land staked out by a miner

 iv. He was thrown by the blast: he flew through the air and landed on the trail and hit into a Native American.

v. He asks whether the almost fatal consequences to the woman’s husband or to the Native America.

b. It goes to every well-known merchant, and railway official, and manufacturer, and capitalist, ….

 i. What goes and how does it go?

ii. What pattern does this (it) always follow?

 iii. From what type of person would ‘it’ not be sent to people of influence?

c. ‘No, that isn’t all, there are other ties.’

i. Mark Twain/Samuel Clemens is speaking to Mr H.

ii. The connection is not so simple – there are more links between the woman and the speaker. The speaker and Mr H have been discussing why Twain would want to recommend the woman’s book.

iii. He says he knows the cabin her uncle lived in, his partners, and the abandoned mine shaft. He also says he came near to knowing her husband. These are all very weak links!

B WORKING WITH WORDS

2. MATCH THE OPPOSITES IN A AND B.

a. conceal           v. divulge

b. generous        vii. mean

c. gratitude          i. thanklessness

d. determination vi. disinterest

e. incapable       iv. competent

f. foolish             iii. prudent

g. premature      ii. Delayed

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. REPORTED SPEECH

a. Mr H said uncertainly that he did not think that was the case.

b. Mr C told him he was not sure.

c. Mr C stammered that he knew her uncle.

d. The woman wrote to plead with him to do as she asked.

e. Mr H enquired about his opinion of the books.

f. Mr H questioned how recently all this had happened.

 g. Mr H was shocked that anyone would judge a book on that basis.

NOUN CLAUSES

2. FIND SUITABLE NOUN CLAUSES TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING.

Pupils will supply their own noun clauses, but go through the text first.

3. WRITE FIVE SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN…

Pupils will write their own sentences: make sure these contain noun clauses. Examples of noun clauses (Note how they begin):

a. What he is doing is inexcusable.

b. Whether he said it or not nobody knows.

c. Whatever we decide we must do.

d. Why he wrote the letter is puzzling, indeed.

e. That he will come is certain.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

THE HOT SEAT

THE INCHCAPE ROCK page:

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The poet paints a picture of a placid, calm sea. Visibility is fine and the day is a clear one; the Inchcape Rock and Bell are clearly visible. The poet describes the sea in neutral terms to allay our fears (and those of the sailors, especially Sir Ralph) about the danger, so that later the effect of the disaster is all the more dramatic.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The words the poet uses describe a turbulent sea: surge’s swell; thick haze o’erspreads the sky; so dark it is they see no land; the breakers roar; the swell is strong.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The Abbot of Aberbrothok, John Gedy, a monk in the 1300s, tied a bell to a rock (the Inchcape Rock) on a dangerous reef in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland. The bell was installed to warn mariners of its danger. One day Sir Ralph the Rover, a pirate, spitefully cut the bell free from the rock. Later, he returned to the area but there was no bell to give warning, and his ship was sunk when it struck the rock.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. It warned mariners of the danger. ‘When the Rock was hid by the surge’s swell, / The mariners heard the warning bell.’
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Sir Ralph was a pirate or rover; he grew rich from plunder. He is described at first as being mirthful and full of good cheer because of the spring; but his mirth was caused by wickedness. Later, he is worried because he cannot hear the bell in the darkness, and after the ship is wrecked he pulls his hair and curses himself in despair.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Sir Ralph cut the bell free out of spite.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The weather conditions on his return were worse than when he left; there is a thick haze, it is dark, and there has been a gale blowing all day; the swell is strong.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. He swears, tears his hair, and curses in his despair. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. It is not good to be spiteful, and brings to mind the phrase ‘cutting off one’s nose to spite the face’— doing something spiteful may damage you more than it damages others.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. Pupils will say what feelings and emotions they have when reading the poem.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

Quoth Sir Ralph, ‘The next who comes to the rock,/ Won’t bless the Abbot of Aberbrothok.’

a. Sir Ralph is on a small row boat near the Inchcape Rock when he speaks these words. He is addressing his crew. b. Sir Ralph has just cut the Bell from the Inchcape float.

c. Sir Ralph mentions the Abbot of Aberbrothock because he was the one who installed the Bell.

d. After this Sir Ralph sailed away. Understanding poetry

3. EXAMINE THE RHYME AND METRE OF THE POEM.

The poem has 17 stanzas of 4 lines each (quatrains). The poem has an aabb rhyme scheme. It is a ballad.

a. Pupils should attempt to count the feet in each line. The pattern varies throughout the poem and while working through the stanzas pupils will see that the shorter lines create tension. Many of the lines are iambic pentameter but a few are tetrameters.

c. Flow’d, scream’d, o’erspreads are written thus, with an apostrophe in place of a letter, to alter the number of syllables in the word.

d. There are many examples of alliteration for the pupils to choose from – look for the repetition of words beginning with B and S.

e. Discuss the effect the use of old-fashioned (archaic) words and phrases has on the reader today. Some pupils may find the use of these words makes it harder for them to understand the poem whereas others may feel like it adds to the eerie atmosphere. Get pupils to find some examples of archaic expressions and try to put them into modern language. It is unlikely that these expressions will have the same effect. Rhyming

f. Ocean and motion are feminine rhymes. Get pupils to look through the poems in the book to see if they can find more examples. Get them to think of other examples themselves. Eye rhymes

g. Pupils can look for eye rhymes within the lines of the poem but they should also try to think of their own examples.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

SPELLING

1. MARK WHERE THE STRESS OCCURS IN THE FOLLOWING.

depos’it  inter’pret bal’lot defer’ deter’

 pi’vot desert’ (v) repeat’ diff’er ben’efit

 reveal’ confer’ transfer’ (v) fid’get conceal’

 deposited interpreted balloted deferred deterred

 pivoted deserted repeated differed benefited

 revealed conferred transferred fidgeted concealed

SAME, BUT NOT QUITE

2. FIND WORDS FROM THE FIRST PART OF THE POEM WITH A SIMILAR MEANING TO THE FOLLOWING:

a. movement/stir b. shift/move c. streamed/flowed d. obtained/received e. continual/steady f. climbed/rose

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONCESSION

1. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING.

 a. Though he had eaten a dozen bananas, he was still hungry.

b. Though he is a poor man and does not earn very much, he often gives money away.

c. Although Arshad and Naima bought a house, they never lived in it.

d. Although the children had measles, they were allowed to sit in the garden.

e. Although we have never been to see the Eiffel Tower, we know what it looks like.

2. ADVERB CLAUSES OF PURPOSE

a. The doctor gave the patient an injection, so that he would go to sleep.

b. They took a taxi to the station so that they could meet their friend.

c. The teacher wrote the instructions clearly in order that the children would not make a mistake.

 d. The shopkeeper locked his shop, in order to keep out burglars.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

GOING ABROAD?

11 TWELFTH NIGHT (OR WHAT YOU WILL) page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Orsino asks the musicians to play on so that he can hear so much of it that he tires of it entirely.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The play on words in Scene I is on heart/hart. Orsino is invited to hunt the hart (deer) and he twists it to refer to his heart being hunted by his desires.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. From the exchange between Orsino and Valentine, in which Orsino asks him for news and Valentine calls him ‘my lord’, we can work out that Valentine is one of Orsino’s attendants.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Valentine tells Orsino that Olivia hides away in her room, crying.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Olivia is mourning her brother because he is dead.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Viola is concerned about what she will do in Illyria because her brother is not there with her.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The Captain gives Viola hope that her brother survived the shipwreck when he tells her that he saw him tie himself to a strong mast (this would help him float on the waves).
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The Captain came by the information he gives Viola about Orsino through rumours and gossip.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Viola says she wants to work for Olivia so that she can hide away from the world until she feels it is the right time to reveal who she is.
QUESTION: j
j. Viola compliments the Captain by saying that he seems to be a good person.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. If music be the food of love, play on; Give me excess of it….

i. They are the first lines of the play

 ii. Count Orsino. Music is the food of love and he would like to have his fill of it.

iii. Yes

iv. The speaker in a confused state of mind following this because love makes him restless – it makes him want things and then feel sick of them a moment late, no matter how good they are.

 b. So please my lord, I might not be admitted; But from her handmaid do return this answer:

i. Valentine is speaking to Count Orsino

 ii. The speaker was not admitted to Olivia’s house

iii. He was not admitted because Olivia is in mourning.

iv. Olivia has decided not to see anyone for seven years because she is in mourning for her brother.

 c. My brother he is in Elysium. Perchance he is not drown’d:

 i. Viola is speaking to the Captain and the sailor.

ii. Illyria

 iii. Elysium means heaven – she believes her brother has died

 iv. The Captain says that he saw her brother tie himself to the mast and this comforts her because it gives her hope that he survived.

QUIZ

3. TRY TO FIND THE INFORMATION AND COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING:

 a. Full title of the play: Twelfth Night (or What You Will)

b. Author: William Shakespeare

c. Type of play (Tragedy, Historical, etc.): Comedy

d. Language: English

e. Approximate date written: 1601

f. Setting of play: the kingdom of Illyria

g. Main characters:

i. Count Orsino

ii. Olivia

iii. Viola

h. Characters who do not appear in Scenes I and II:

 i. Olivia

 ii. Sebastian

iii. Sir Toby (there are other possible answers)

i. Main theme: what love can make people do

j. Title refers to: the festival of Epiphany (Christian)

METRE

Notice that the lines of the play have been set out like lines of poetry.

4. IS THERE A METRICAL PATTERN EVIDENT?

Scan the lines to find out. Pupils should scan the lines to discover Shakespeare’s use of iambic pentameter.

 B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. TRY TO PARAPHRASE THE FOLLOWING, IN SIMPLE ENGLISH:

a. Orsino! I have heard my father mention him.

b. What country is this, friends?

c. My brother is in heaven. Sailors. do you think there is any chance that he did not drown?

d. Instead she will go around veiled like a nun, and once a day she will water her room with tears.

e. A virtuous young woman, the daughter of a count who died last year. Her father left her in the custody of her brother but then he also died. Since then she has decided to stay away from people, in memory of her brother.

===============ALHAMDOLILLAH=============

NOTES/Solved Exercises COMPUTER WHIZ Book 5 (revised Edition) OXFORD BY SAMEENA M. Haidermota

NOTES/Solved Exercises COMPUTER WHIZ Book 5 (Revised Edition) OXFORD BY SAMEENA M H

Content

Chapter 1  Generations of Computers

Chapter 2  Peripheral Devices

Chapter 3  More about Programming Languages

Chapter 4 Introducing GW-BASIC

Chapter 5  More about Word Processing

Chapter 6  Introduction to Desktop Publishing

Chapter 7  The Internet

CHAPTER 1  GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

ARE THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE. (page 3)

ANSWERS: 1-F 2-T 3-F 4-F

STATE THREE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MAINFRAME AND THE MINICOMPUTER. (page 4)

Mainframes are very powerful computers with large storage capacities, but they are bulky and more expensive than minicomputers. Hundreds of people can use a mainframe at the same time but a minicomputer serves fewer users at a time. Banks and large organizations use mainframes. Minicomputers are used in mediumsized companies.

UNCRAMBLE WORDS TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT COMPUTER CHIPS. (page 5)

1. silicon

2. transistors

3. microchip

HOW IS THE PRESENT-DAY COMPUTER DIFFERENT FROM FIRST-GENERATION COMPUTERS? (PAGE 7)

ANSWER:

EXPLORE WITH WHIZ (PAGE 9)

LABEL THE COMPUTERS AND DEVICES. MATCH THE COMPUTERS TO THE DEVICES THEY USED.

Left column:

 mainframe, minicomputer, microcomputer, laptop computer, smartphone

Right column:

 vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated circuit, microprocessor

Answers to Additional Activity 1. a, 2. c, 3. b, 4. d, 5. d

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY SELECT THE CORRECT ANSWER FOR EACH QUESTION.

(1) Which of these is the earliest computing device?

(a) vacuum tube (b) transistor (c) IC chip (d) microprocessor

(2) Which of these devices was used in third-generation computers?

(a) transistor (b) vacuum tube (c) IC chip (d) modem

(3) Which is the most important chip in a computer?

(a) microchip (b) CPU (c) circuit board (d) silicon chip

(4) Which generation of computers does the microcomputer belong to? (a) first generation (b) second generation (c) third generation (d) fourth generation

(5) Which of these is a feature of fifth-generation computers?

(a) fast processing (b) accuracy (c) memory (d) voice recognition

CHAPTER 2  PERIPHERAL DEVICES

 WHAT input or output devices WOULD YOU NEED IF YOU WANTED TO DO THE FOLLOWING. (page 13)

FIND A PICTURE OF A MOUSE THAT HAS BEEN DEVELOPED RECENTLY. HOW MANY BUTTONS DOES IT HAVE? WHAT CAN IT DO? (page 15)

HOW DO YOU THINK BAR CODES WOULD FACILITATE THE HANDLING OF LUGGAGE AT AN AIR PORT? (page 17)

Which picture has lower resolution? (page 20)

The picture on the right has lower resolution.

Explore with Whiz (pages 21) CHOOSE the correct answer. 1. pixels 2. manual data entry 3. barcode 4. Optical character recognition 5. numeric 6. high 7. input 8. Plotters

Chapter 3 12  Programming Languages

WHAT WOULD YOU DO IF YOUR TORCH DID NOT WORK? ILLUSTRATE WITH THE USE OF A FLOWCHART.     

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NUMERIC DATA AND STRING DATA? (P25)

Numeric data consists of numbers and is used for calculations. String data consists of letters, numbers, and special characters and is used to enter data such as names and addresses. (P27)

Chapter 4 COMPUTER NETWORKS

IDENTIFY WHERE LAN IS LINKING COMPUTERS (P31)

EXPLAIN HOW WHIZ USES WAN TO FIND OUT THE SCORE OF A FOOTBALL MATCH IN ENGLAND?(32)

NAME A BROWSER THAT YOU USE. HOW DOES IT HELP YOU? (P33)

LET US TRY SENDING EMAIL (P34)

EXPLORE WITH WHIZ (36)

Chapter 5 19 More ON MULTIMEDIA

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING TEMPLATES WOULD YOU USE FOR A PRESENTATION ON (P38)

1- THE SEA? 2- AN ART EXHIBITION 3- A NEW SOFT DRINK

WHAT SOUND WOULD YOU CHOOSE IF YOU WERE CREATING A MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION ON THE FOLLOWING? GIVE REASONS FOR YOUR CHOICE. (P39)

FIND PICTURES OF A SEED BEING PLANTED, A SEED BEGINNING TO SPROUT , A YOUNG PLANT AND THEN THE PLANT WITH A FLOWER TO SHOW THROUGH SLIDE SHOW HOW PLANTS GROW.

PASTE THEM IN THE SQUARES PROVIDED (P40)

EXPLORE WITH WHIZ (P42)

Chapter 6 INTRODUCING SPREADSHEETS

CALCULATE HOW MUCH THEY SPENT EACH MONTH (P44)

WRITE THE CELL ADDRESSES OF ATHE FOLLOWING

Chapter 7 WHIZ IS EVERY WHERE

HOW MANY COMPUTERS CAN YOU FIND HERE? WHAT ARE THEY BEING USED FOR ? (P52)

CREATE A LIST OF THE CHILDREN IN YOUR CLASS WITH THEIR NAMES, PHONE NUMBERSS AND EMAIL ADDRESSES SO THAT YOU CAN USE IT AS DATABASE. (P53)

DESIGN A LIBRARY CARD WITH THE REQUIRED DATA AND A BAR CODE. (P54)

WRITE A PARAGRAPH ON HOW COMPUTERS HAVE BECOME ESSENTIAL IN WORKPLACES? (P55)

IDENTIFY HOW THE COMPUTER IS BEING USED IN THBE PICTURE. (P56)

DO YOU RECALL SEEING COMPUTERS AT THE AIRPORT/RAILWAY STATION? WHAT WERE THEY BEING USED FOR? (P57)

FIND A PIC OF A ROBOT BEING USED IN A FACTORY AND PASTE IT HERE. THEN DESCRIBE IN A PARAGRAPH HOW THE ROBOT IS BEING USED IN THAT PIC. (P58)

DESIGN A COVER FOR A BOOK ON WHALES (P59)

EXPLORE WITH WHIZ (P60)

=============ALHAMDOLILLAH============

NOTES / SOLVED EXERCISES KNOW YOUR WORLD 6 BY KHADIJA CHAGLA-BAIG OXFORD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 2020

NOTES / SOLVED EXERCISES KNOW YOUR WORLD 6 BY KHADIJA CHAGLA-BAIG OXFORD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 2020

CONTENT

Sr HISTORY PAGE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Civilizations and Empires of South Asia The Indus valley civilization and Aryans Buddha and Buddhism Persian Rule under the Achaemenid Dynasty Alexander the Great Seleucus and Mauryans The Kushans The Guptas The subcontinent in the Eighth century The Arrival of Islam- Muhammad bin Qasim From rise to fall: the success and collapse of Empires  
GEOGRAPHY  
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 The Universe, the Solar System and the Earth Features and Movements of the Earth and Their Effects Layers of the Earth Weathering and Erosion Landforms- mountains and other land features Weather and climate Agriculture and livestock Agriculture in Pakistan Minerals and Natural Energy Resources Electricity and power plants Cities: the jewels of Pakistan  
CIVICS  
23 24 25 26 Visiting public places Gratitude Teamwork and spirit The national Anthem of Pakistan  

HISTORY

CHAPTER 1  Civilizations and Empires of South Asia

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 3

QUESTION:1 – Which modern countries make up the subcontinent

ANSWER: 1. Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan

QUESTION: 2- Why was the subcontinent a suitable place for settlement?

ANSWER: 2. Because basic resources for survival were available in abundance–water, flat land for farming; natural resources like coastlines, mountains, etc.

QUESTION:3 How does studying different peoples living on the subcontinent help us today?

ANSWER: 3. It helps us to:

i. understand how people, countries, and systems have evolved.

 ii. know about the past of our own nation.

iii. find out how culture and traditions have developed.

iv. plan our future by learning from history.

CHAPTER 2 The Indus valley civilization and Aryans

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 10

QUESTION:

ANSWER: 1. Mehergarh

QUESTION:

ANSWER: 2. No weapons or drawings of battle scenes have been found.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: 3. What the writing means and how the civilization ended.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: 4. Where they came from, what they introduced to the IVC, how they treated the locals, what ANSWER: the modern Hindu religion owes to them.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: 5. Through their religious literature

QUESTION:

ANSWER: 6. Farming

QUESTION:

CHAPTER 3 Buddha and Buddhism

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:14

QUESTION: 1- What was Buddha’s name?

ANSWER: 1. Siddharth

QUESTION: 2- In your own words, write about the event that changed Prince Siddharth’s life.

ANSWER: 2. Answer should mention Siddharth’s lineage, events at his birth, and early life in brief; this ANSWER: should link to what happened when he went outside the palace.

QUESTION: 3- Explain the difference between dharma and karma.

ANSWER: 3. Dharma means the eternal law which the universe follows. Good actions which support the universal law are also known as Dharma.

Karma means all those actions of a person which affect his fate in this life and the next

CHAPTER 4 Persian Rule under the Achaemenid Dynasty

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 17

QUESTION:

ANSWER: 1. Taxila, Peshawar, Charsadda.

QUESTION: 1- Name the three main cities of Gandhara under Persian rule.

ANSWER: 2. Key words: center for trade and learning; on the trade route; university; part of the postal ANSWER: system.

QUESTION: 2- What made Gandhara an important state?

ANSWER: 3. They were conquered by the Greeks.

QUESTION: 3- How did Persian rule on the subcontinent come to an end?

II. FILL IN THE BLANKS TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES BELOW.

1- The Achaemenid Dynasty was founded by—————————

  2- The capital of Gandhara was called —————————

3- darius divided his empire in provinces called————————

Answers

1. The Achaemenid Dynasty was founded by Cyrus the Great.

2. The capital of Gandhara was Taxila.

3. Darius divided his empire into provinces called satrapies.

CHAPTER 5 Alexander the Great

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 21

QUESTION: 1- Who were Alexander’s (i) father (ii) tutor?

ANSWER: 1. (i) King Philip, (ii) Aristotle

QUESTION: 2- What did Alexander inherit from his father?

ANSWER: 2. His kingdom and dream to be the king of the world

QUESTION: 3- Why was Alexander unable to conquer the subcontinent?

ANSWER: 3. He met resistance from local tribes and his army was tired and weakened.

QUESTION: 4- What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death?

ANSWER:  4. It was divided among his generals.

QUESTION: 5. Which of these three options is the best definition of ‘Hellenization’?

i. become influenced by Greek culture and customs

ii. become Persian and follow Ahura Mazda’s teachings

iii. become Indian and adopt Indian Culture

ANSWER: 5. (i) become influenced by Greek culture and customs

CHAPTER 6 Seleucus and Mauryans

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 28

QUESTION: 1- Who was Chandragupta’s inspiration?

ANSWER: 1. Alexander the Great

QUESTION: 2- What is the new name of Pataliputra?

ANSWER: 2. Patna

3- Who was Kautilya and what role did he Play in the creation of Mauryan Empire?

ANSWER: 3. Initially, Kautilya was a member of the Nanda court; he left after being insulted. He was Chandragupta’s tutor at the university of Taxila. He guided Chandragupta on how to overthrow the Nandas and takeover Magadha. Without his help, the Mauryan Empire may never have been founded.

QUESTION: QUESTION: 4- What happened to Ashoka’s empire after his death?

ANSWER: 4. It went into a decline because his successors could not look after it.

QUESTION: Complete the following table.

ANSWER: 5.

  Chandragupta Ashoka
Religion Hinduism Hinduism—later converted to Buddhism. Encouraged the spread of Buddhism
Attitude towards people Strict, laws were harsh but fair; Killed or tortured anyone who went or spoke against him. People were made to work hard. Was kind to his people; wanted to give them the best; Did a lot of good for his people.
Development in the empire Lived a luxurious life, spent a lot on himself; Kept a huge army. Welfare projects; lived a simple life; well trained army and navy
Taxes Taxed people heavily Kept the rate of taxes very low
Name of successor Died in 278 bce and kingdom passed down to his son Bindusara. Died circa 240 bce and kingdom passed on to his grandson Dasaratha Maurya

CHAPTER 7 The Kushans

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 31

QUESTION: 1- Where did the Kushans come from?

ANSWER: 1. Central Asia

QUESTION: 2- For how many years did they rule the subcontinent?

ANSWER:  2. 200 years

QUESTION: 3- Make a list of Kanishka’s contribution to the development and of the subcontinent.

ANSWER: 3. Trade, art and architecture, new form of art: Greco-Buddhist, tolerance towards all religions, peace

QUESTION: 4- Why was the Kushan Empire short-lived?

ANSWER: 4. Kanishka did not have capable successors

CHAPTER 8 The Guptas

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 36

QUESTION: 1- Name the modern countries that carne

under the Gupta rule.

ANSWER: 1. Pakistan, India, Nepal, Myanmar, and Bangladesh

QUESTION: 2- Who founded the Gupta rule in the subcontinent?

ANSWER: 2. Chandragupta Gupta I

QUESTION: 3- Who was Fa Hien? How many years did he spend on the subcontinent?

ANSWER: 3. A Chinese traveler; ten years

QUESTION: 4- What were the challenges faced by the later Gupta rulers?

ANSWER: 4. Attacks by two major enemies—the Malwas and the Huns

CHAPTER 9 The subcontinent in the Eighth century

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 39

QUESTION: 1- Why is Harsha considered to be an important ruler?

ANSWER: 1. Because of his good governance.

QUESTION: 2- For how many years did he rule?

ANSWER: 2. 41 years

QUESTION: 3- What happened to his kingdom after his death?

ANSWER: 3. It broke into several small kingdoms.

QUESTION: 4- Why were the Brahmin rulers unpopular?

ANSWER: 4. They were cruel and they patronized criminals.

CHAPTER 10 The Arrival of Islam- Muhammad bin Qasim

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 43

QUESTION: 1- Who ruled the subcontinent initially in the eighth century?

ANSWER: 1. Hindu rulers, the Brahmin dynasty, Raja Dahir

QUESTION: 2- Why were the pirates not scared of being captured and punished?

ANSWER: 2. They were protected by Raja Dahir.

QUESTION: 3- Write a few lines about the role each of these people played in the Muslim conquest of Sindh.

i. Hajjaj bin Yousuf

ii. Raja Dahir

iii. Mohammad bin Qasirn

ANSWER: 3. The roles of the following people in the Muslim conquest of Sindh

i. Hajjaj bin Yousuf—he was the governor of the eastern provinces of Arabia. He sent the expedition to punish Raja Dahir and establish peace and security in the region. This led to the arrival of Mohammad bin Qasim and the Muslim rule.

ii. Raja Dahir—he protected pirates and refused to cooperate with Hajjaj in restraining them. This resulted in Hajjaj sending his men to India to punish him. Had Raja Dahir cooperated, maybe Hajjaj wouldn’t have had the need to send his men.

iii. Mohammad bin Qasim—his capability and wise policies encouraged people to enter into the folds of Islam and spread Muslim rule.

QUESTION: 4- Do you think things would have been different had any of these men not been there? How?

ANSWER:

CHAPTER 11 From rise to fall: the success and collapse of Empires

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 46

GEOGRAPHY

CHAPTER 12 The Universe, the Solar System and the Earth

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 52

I. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

QUESTION:a. When did Pluto cease to be called a planet and why?

ANSWER a) 2006; because it does not fulfill the conditions for being classified as a planet

QUESTION:b. How many kilometres does light travel in one year?

b) 9 trillion km

QUESTION:c. What is a galaxy?

c) A cluster of stars

II. EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING TERMS

 a) Light year—distance travelled by light in a year

b) Meteoroid—rocky or metallic objects from space that collide with the Earth’s outer layer of gas

c) Comet—small, icy celestial bodies

d) The Solar System—the Sun with its group of planets

III. EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN:

 a) a planet and a satellite—

PLANET: orbits around a star;

SATELLITE: smaller body that orbits around a planet

b) a meteorite and a shooting star—

METEORITE: meteoroids that reach the Earth;

SHOOTING STAR: a briefly lit up path of a meteorite just before it hits the ground

IV. GIVE ONE-WORD ANSWERS FOR THE FOLLOWING:

a) A dwarf planet–Pluto

b) A snowball-like celestial body with a “head and tail”—comet

c) Another name for our galaxy—The Milky Way

d) The force that pulls objects away from the centre—centrifugal

CHAPTER 13 Features and Movements of the Earth and Their Effects

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 57

I. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS:

QUESTION: i- Name the three characteristics of Earth that are responsible for varying amounts of sunlight.

ANSWER: i. Tilt, bulge, movements

QUESTION: ii- On which imaginary line does the Earth rotate?

ANSWER: ii. Axis

QUESTION: iii- How long does the Earth take to complete one rotation?

ANSWER: iii. 24 hours

QUESTION: iv- What is the Earth’s circling around the Sun called? How long does it take to complete one such circle?

ANSWER: iv. Revolution—365 days

QUESTION: v- On which date does the southern hemisphere have the shortest day?

ANSWER: v. 21st /22nd June

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. In summer, we have long days and short nights.

ii. The equator is the hottest region of the Earth.

 iii. The word equinox means equal night.

iv. When the North Pole is leaning towards the Sun, the South Pole is tilted away from it.

v. The northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons at any given time.

3. STATE WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE. CORRECT THOSE THAT ARE FALSE.

i. True

ii. False. It rotates and revolves.

 iii. False. They have opposite seasons

iv. True

 v. False. It gives us seasons. Rotation gives us day and night.

vi. False. It experiences day.

 4. IN YOUR NOTEBOOK, DRAW AND LABEL A DIAGRAM SHOWING THE SOLSTICES AND EQUINOXES.

CHAPTER 14 Layers of the Earth

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 61

QUESTION: 1- Why do plates move?

ANSWER: 1. Plates move because they are floating on a molten layer of rock.

QUESTION: 2- How were the Himalayas formed?

ANSWER: 2. By the collision of two convergent plates that pushed into each other, forming folds on the surface.

CHAPTER 15 Weathering and Erosion

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 65

QUESTION: 1- What is the difference between weathering and erosion?

ANSWER: 1. Weathering is the natural wearing down of rock. Erosion means transportation and deposition of rock, debris and other material from one place to another.

QUESTION: 2- Name and describe the three ways in which weathering takes place.

ANSWER: 2. Physical, chemical, and biological weathering. See page 62 for details.

QUESTION: 3- Name the agents of erosion.

ANSWER: 3. Wind, moving water, ice

CHAPTER 16 Landforms- mountains and other land features

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 71

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i- On what basis are plateaus classified?

ANSWER i. Plateaus are classified by their surroundings and the method of formation: Intermontanne, piedmont, volcanic, continental, wind, and water erosion.

QUESTION: ii- Make a list of all the plateaus.

ANSWER ii. Some major plateaus of the world are the Tibetan Plateau, the Antarctic Plateau, the Andes Plateau in South America, the Colorado Plateau in North America, the Columbia Plateau in the USA, and the Deccan Plateau of west-central India.

QUESTION: iii Give three reasons why water is scarce in deserts?

ANSWER iii. High temperature, little or no rainfall, sandy, and rocky landscape

4- Why is an oasis important for desert dwellers?

ANSWER iv. It provides water in a hot, barren, dry place.

2. LOOK AT THE PHYSICAL MAP OF THE WORLD IN YOUR ATLAS. ON THE MAP GIVEN BELOW, ACTIVITY-BASED QUESTION. CONSULT ATLAS FOR ANSWERS.

CHAPTER 17 Weather and climate

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:75

QUESTION: 1- What is the difference between weather and climate?

ANSWER: 1. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere for any day including the temperature, winds, clouds, and rainfall. The weather can be sunny, windy, rainy, or stormy in one day. Climate is the average condition of the weather in a place over a longer period, usually thirty years.

QUESTION: 2- What is temperature?

ANSWER: 2. The degree of heat in the atmosphere

QUESTION: 3- What are the factors that affect the temperature of a place?

ANSWER: 3. Distance from the Equator, distance from the sea, rainfall, wind direction and altitude.

CHAPTER 18 Agriculture and livestock

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 81

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: 1- Why is agriculture important?

ANSWER: 1. For food and raw material

2- Why is flat land suitable for farming?

ANSWER: 2. Water does not run down slopes, absorption is easier

3- What are some of the sources of water?

ANSWER: 3. Rainfall, glaciers, springs, rivers

4-What are the dangers of using pesticides?

ANSWER : 4. May cause poisoning or other damages to human, animal, and plant lives

5- Why is it important to replace nutrients in the soil before planting new crops?

ANSWER : 5. So that new crops are not deprived of nutrients

2. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Natural or artificial lakes which store fresh water are called reservoirs.

ii. Chemicals used to kill disease-causing organisms in plants are called pesticides.

 iii. The most suitable place for growing crops is the flood plains.

CHAPTER 19 Agriculture in Pakistan

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 88

What is the difference between food crops and cash crops?

Answer: Food crops are grown for food. Cash crops are grown to be sold in local and international markets to earn money.

CHAPTER 20 Minerals and Natural Energy Resources

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 91

QUESTION: 1- What is the difference between a mine and a quarry?

ANSWER: 1. A mine can be above or below the ground, whereas a quarry is always above the ground.

QUESTION: 2- Name some:

i. metallic minerals

ii. non-metallic minerals

iii. natural energy resources

ANSWER: 2. i. metallic minerals—gold, silver, uranium, zinc, copper

 ii. non-metallic minerals—chromite, dolomite, gypsum, limestone

 iii. natural energy resources—coal, crude oil, natural gas

QUESTION: 3- Why are minerals and other natural resources important for a country?

ANSWER: 3. For industrial and commercial purposes, economic development, self-sufficiency

QUESTION: 4- Why are natural energy deposits important for a developing country like Pakistan?

ANSWER: 4. Cut down on imports, bring in foreign exchange, economic development, and prosperity

CHAPTER 21 Electricity and power plants

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 96

QUESTION: 1- Which city is known as the fruit basket and why?

ANSWER: 1. Quetta—has the most variety and abundance of fruit

QUESTION: 2- Which urban center of Pakistan is coastal city?

ANSWER:  2. Karachi

CHAPTER 22 Cities: the jewels of Pakistan

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 100

QUESTION: Which power plants produce clean energy?

ANSWER: 1. Hydel, nuclear, solar, wind

CIVICS

CHAPTER 23 Visiting public places

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 108

QUESTION: 1- Write down three advantages of following proper rules of etiquette in public places.

Answer: Earning respect from others, creating a good social environment, having fewer problems from people.

 2- (a) How are schools and other educational institutions a different kind of public place? Do we need to follow proper rules here too?

(b) In your notebook, write down some behaviour rules that you follow in your school

Answer:

(a) They are a different kind of public place because only those who are associated with educational institutions, like teachers, staff, and students, can enter here and we meet the same people daily. Yes, we need to follow rules of behavior in schools too.

(b) being punctual, queuing up, asking for teacher’s permission before entering or leaving class, avoid making noise, obeying the teacher.

3- Unwillingness to cooperate, arguing, and breaking rules: why are these considered bad behaviour in public?

 Answer:

They cause chaos, confusion, unpopularity, damage, embarrassment to oneself and one’s parents.

CHAPTER 24 Gratitude

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 111

QUESTION: What is gratitude?

ANSWER: 1. Being thankful and appreciative.

QUESTION: 2- Make a list of all the people you should be grateful to and say why.

ANSWER: 2. Make a list of all the people you should be grateful to and say why. Open-ended

QUESTION: 3- Complete the table below by adding your own experiences. Some have been done for you.

ANSWER: 3. Complete the table below by adding your own experiences. Some have been done for you.

My reaction Gratitude/ Ingratitude What I gained/ lost What I should have done
I sulked because my mother could not take me to my friend’s house. Ingratitude My mother’s sympathy I should have tried to understand her point of view, and be supportive of her in her problems.
My aunt sent me some chocolates and I shared them with my siblings. Gratitude Siblings’ respect and gratitude. Aunt and elders’ appreciation. An image of being a responsible and caring young adult  

CHAPTER 25 Teamwork and spirit

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 116

QUESTION: Describe in your own words your idea of a team.

ANSWER: 1. Open-ended question. Answer will vary from student to student. Must include ideas of togetherness, harmony, mutual respect, helping, sharing, and common goals.

QUESTION:2- Study each of these cases/ issues and complete the table in your notebook

ANSWER: 2. Open-ended question.

Issue How you felt about it How you dealt with it
Your teammate made fun of your suggestion in public.    
You have done research for a group project and two members from your group do not have any knowledge of the topic.    
Your leader scolded you for being late even though it was your team mate’s fault.    
You were playing with your pencil while instructions were being given out and missed some important details.    
You forgot to bring what you were asked to and because of that, your team lost points.    
Your team has lost all its matches in the last two years and your best friend suggests that you join a different team    

CHAPTER 26 The national Anthem of Pakistan

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 119

QUESTION: 1- What is a national anthem?

ANSWER: 1. Patriotic song adopted by a country as its identity

QUESTION: 2- Name the composer and the writer of the national anthem of Pakistan

ANSWER: 2. Ahmed G. Chagla, Abdul Hafeez Jallundhri

QUESTION: 3- In what year did Pakistan formally adopt its anthem?

ANSWER: 3. New national anthem was broadcast publicly for the first time on Radio Pakistan on 13 August 1954, sung by Hafeez Jullundhri himself.

Official approval was announced by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting on 16 August 1954.

4- What language is used in the lyrics of our anthem?

ANSWER: 4 Persian words, Urdu language

================ALHAMDOLILLAH=============

NOTES NEW OXFORD MODREN ENGLISH 6 BY Nicholas Horsburgh Claire Horsburgh 3RD EDITION 2019

NOTES NEW OXFORD MODREN ENGLISH 6 BY Nicholas Horsburgh Claire Horsburgh 3RD EDITION 2019

CONTENTS

 
UNIT: MOTHER TO SON—LANGSTON HUGHES PAGE: 2-5 UNIT: 1- NICOBOBINUS—TERRY JONES PAGE:6-14 UNIT: 2- THE RANSOM OF RED CHLEF—O. HENRY PAGE:15-22 UNIT: THE OLD BROWN HORSE—W. F. HOLMES PAGE:23-26 UNIT: 3- A POLAR EXPLORER PAGE:27-33 UNIT: THE POEM—AMY LOWELL PAGE:34-38 UNIT: 4- THE GREAT TRAIN JOURNEY—RUSKIN BOND PAGE:39-46 UNIT: THE ECHOING GREEN—WLLLIAM BLAKE PAGE:47-50 UNIT: 5- THE TOY-BOX PAGE:51-58 UNIT: 6- THE WHITE MOUSE CIRCUS—ROALD DAHL PAGE:59-66 UNIT: TRESPASS—JOHN CLARE PAGE:67-71 UNIT: 7- HOME, SWEET HOME! PAGE:72-79 UNIT: THE POBBLE WHO HAS NO TOES— EDWARD LEAR PAGE:80-84 UNIT: 8- IN A TUNNEL—EDITH NESBIT PAGE:85-90 UNIT: 9- THE WOLF-CHILDREN (L)—MIKE SAMUDA PAGE:91-97 UNIT: 10- THE WOLF-CHILDREN (LL)—MIKE SAMUDA PAGE:98-104 UNIT: THE WAY THROUGH THE WOODS— RUDYARD KIPLING PAGE:105-109 UNIT: 11- SNAKES ON THE LOOSE PAGE:110-116 UNIT: A HERITAGE OF TREES —DAVID HORSBURGH PAGE:117-121 UNIT: 12- UNCLE PODGER HANGS A PICTURE—JEROME K. JEROME PAGE:122-128 UNIT: THE CLOTHES LINE—CHARLOTTE DRUITT COLE PAGE:129-133 UNIT: 13- MANGOES PAGE:134-136

UNIT: MOTHER TO SON—LANGSTON HUGHES PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a Who is speaking in the poem and to whom are the words addressed?
ANSWER: a. A mother is speaking in the poem and her words are addressed to her son.                
QUESTION:b What does the speaker compare her life with?
ANSWER:   b. The speaker compares her life to a flight of worn down, dimly-lit stairs.
QUESTION:c             What does the speaker encounter on the stairs?
ANSWER:   c. The speaker encounters tacks, splinters, holes, bare boards, and patches of darkness on the stairs.
QUESTION:d Even though there have been obstacles in the way, what has the speaker done to continue her journey?                 
ANSWER:        d. She has kept climbing up.
QUESTION:e e. Which three pieces of advice does the speaker give the boy?              
ANSWER: e. Don’t turn back; don’t sit down, and don’t fall, are the three pieces of advice the speaker gives to the listener in the poem.
QUESTION:f          f. Which sentences are repeated in the poem?
ANSWER: f. The line, ‘Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair.’ is repeated. The speaker also repeats the message that she hasn’t given up with the similar lines: ‘I’se been a-climbin’ on’ and ‘I’se still climbin’’.
QUESTION: g. g. Which line is the shortest? Why do you think the poet made this line so short?
ANSWER: g. The one-word line, ‘Bare.’ is shortest.
QUESTION: h h. What is the mother’s experience Of life?
ANSWER: h. Life for the mother has been very difficult but she has not given up.
QUESTION: I i. Why do you think she is telling her son about her life in this way? b t the words and phrases
ANSWER: i. she wishes to share her experience and encourage him to never give up.
QUESTION: j j. Thinking about the words and phrases used in the poem (the imagery), What points in life would these represent? For example, tacks and splinters might represent hardships of a particular kind. Which hardships? Go through the poem, find other images and write what these may represent in real life.
ANSWER: j. The tacks and splinters might represent hardships and painful moments: if you step on a tack or get a splinter on your hand or foot, it hurts, so perhaps these represent moments of physical or emotional pain. Some examples: boards torn-up could represent opportunities that have been removed from her due to the lack of financial resources; no carpet on the floor could represent lack of comfort and wealth; the lack of light could represent times when she has felt sad, uncertain, or hopeless.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND ALL THE NON-STANDARD WORDS USED IN THE POEM. WRITE THEM OUT ALONG WITH THEIR CORRECT MEANINGS AND FORM. DON’T FORGET TO LIST ALL THE WORDS WITH AN APOSTROPHE.

ain’t – has not; I’se – I have; a-climbin’ – climbing; reachin’/landin’/turnin’/goin’ – all missing a g at the end; set down – sit down; ‘cause – because; kinder – kind of. Pupils should also turn the contractions, such as I’ll and Don’t into I will and Do not.

2. WRITE THESE SENTENCES USING STANDARD AND GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT ENGLISH.

a. I am expecting a friend for dinner.

b. I have been waiting at this bus stop for one hour.

c. I am not going to the cinema tonight.

d. They have been kind of sleepy today.

e. She stayed at home because she was ill.

f. You are not doing this at all if you find it is too difficult to do now.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 SENTENCES

1. PICK OUT THE STATEMENTS, QUESTIONS, COMMANDS, AND EXCLAMATIONS.

a. statement

b. question

c. command

 d. exclamation

e. statement

f. command

g. statement

h. question

2. MAKE QUESTIONS FROM THE SENTENCES BELOW. SOME EXAMPLES:

a. Did it have tacks in it?

b. Were there places with no carpet on the floor?

c. Did he sit down on the grass?

d. Does she find it hard?

e. Are you still working hard?

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 1 NICOBOBINUS—TERRY JONES PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a               What do we learn about Nicobobinus in the first paragraph?
ANSWER: a. We learn that Nicobobinus is an extraordinary child who stuck his tongue out at the prime minister. We also learn that he lives in Venice and that he could do anything!              
QUESTION:b b. Who is Rosie?
ANSWER:   b. Rosie is Nicobobinus’s best friend.
QUESTION:c c. Why don‘t people pay attention to what Rosie says?           
ANSWER:   c. People don’t pay attention to what Rosie says because she is always having wild ideas.
QUESTION:d                   d. What two things does Rosie suggest that she and Nicobobinus should do?
ANSWER:        d. Rosie suggests that she and Nicobobinus should pull up every weed on his doorstep and discover the Land of Dragons.
QUESTION:e               e. When do the children go on their adventures and what do they take with them?
ANSWER: e. The children go on their adventure the next morning, when it is just starting to get brighter. They take buns and lemonade with them.
QUESTION:f          f. Who do they meet on their journey? Say what happens at each of the two encounters?
ANSWER: f. They meet the Nightwatchman and a dog on their journey. The Nightwatchman tries to stop them from going on their adventure. Rosie trips over the dog and it barks at them until it notices the buns and starts to eat them.
QUESTION: g. g. How does Nicobobinus escape from the Man in the orchard?
ANSWER: g. Nicobobinus escapes from the Man in the orchard by doubling himself up and going backwards as fast as he could, instead of trying to run away, so the man’s legs are knocked from under him, and he lands in a pile of leaves. Then he hides in a shed.
QUESTION: h h. How does Nicobobinus get out of the well?
ANSWER: h. He squirms through a long, narrow passage made of stone.
QUESTION: I i. What shows us that the Man in the orchard doesn’t reall want to break down the door to the shed?
ANSWER: i. This line that shows the man is reluctant to break the door down is: ‘Right! I’m going to break this door down!’ said the Man. And then, because he knew he’d have to repair the door himself, he added: ‘Do you hear?’ Also, he bangs on the door and shouts, but does not break it down.
QUESTION: j j. What are the thoughts Nicobobinus has as he is falling down well? For each one, explain what you think he is feeling?
ANSWER: j. The thoughts Nicobobinus has as he is falling down the well, and some suggestions for what he is feeling (pupils may come up with other plausible ideas) are: 1. ‘Bother!’ He is annoyed/shocked. 2. ‘a rather unkind thought about his best friend, who had instigated the whole expedition, and it involved her dangling over a snake pit, while numerous fierce dragons flew at her chanting’: – he blames his friend and wants to get back at her. 3. ‘Suppose it’s a well? A deep, unused well, with slimy, slippery sides that you could never climb, and icy water at the bottom that…’ – he is starting to feel worried and frightened.

2. WRITE THE LINES OF SPEECH BELOW. PUT THE NAME OF THE SPEAKER AFTER EACH LINE.

a. ‘Ah ha! I’ve got you now!’ The Man

b. ‘Let’s pull up every single weed on your doorstep.’ Rosie 8 1

c. ‘It’s one of the best ideas I’ve ever had!’ Rosie

d. ‘Ow!’ Nicobobinus

e. ‘Open this door at once, d’you hear?’ The Man

 f. ‘You’ll think of something!’ Rosie

B WORKING WITH WORDS

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. WRITE QUESTIONS FOR THESE ANSWERS.

examples for

a: What was her job? Who was Mrs X? Why did she live in the Secretariat?

2. MAKE UP A STATEMENT, COMMAND, QUESTION, AND EXCLAMATION.

STATEMENT — The cat is near the door.

COMMAND — Let that cat out through the door.

QUESTION — Is the cat behind the door?

 EXCLAMATION — That cat! It has scratched the door!

2. CONVERT THE FOLLOWING EXCLAMATIONS INTO STATEMENTS.

a. That is a lovely dress.

b. You are very brave.

c. She is angry.

d. It is a fine day

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. LISTEN TO THE DESCRIPTION OF VENICE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWERS WITH A TICK.

a. Venice is a city in i. Italy.

b. The city is like a i. maze.

c. Venice is famous for its ii. architecture.

d. The city is in danger of: iii. sinking.

e. Venice has lots of i. museums and cafés.

2. WRITE FIVE DETAILED SENTENCES ABOUT WHERE YOU LIVE. THEN, IN A SMALL GROUP, TAKE TURNS TO READ OUT YOUR WORK. MAKE NOTES ON WHAT YOU HEAR FROM OTHERS. NEXT, TAKE TURNS TO ASK QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT YOU READ OUT. HOW MUCH INFORMATION DID YOUR CLASSMATE RECORD?

UNIT: 2- THE RANSOM OF RED CHLEF—O. HENRY PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION: A
ANSWER: a. The story is set in the state of Alabama in the south of the United States of America.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The two man decided to kidnap someone because they wanted two thousand dollars to buy some land.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The first sign that the kidnappers have picked a difficult victim is that he throws a rock at Bill’s head.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. We learn that Ebenezer Dorset is a prominent citizen, known for his wealth, which he made from lending mortgages and making foreclosures.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Encourage pupils to read through the passage and look for clues about Sam and Bill’s wrongdoings.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Pupils can pick out any number of details. Some suggestions are: We learn that Johnny Dorset is nine years old, has red hair, talks a lot, is violent (he kicks and bites), has a great imagination, is not popular with his neighbours, and he likes camping.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. He played a game in which he imagined he was a Red Indian.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Bill tried to release Johnny before they had the ransom because he is being driven mad by the boy (who had been pretending that Bill was his horse!).
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Sam and Bill got Johnny to go home by telling him that they were going to play with a new toy his father had bought him.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. Bill said that he would be over the Canadian border in ten minutes, which has not possible. He meant that he would be going as far away as possible to get away from Johnny.
QUESTION: k
ANSWER: k. Johnny exhausted, enraged, and frightened the two men. Get pupils to give examples of the things he did and the effect his actions had on the men.
QUESTION: l
ANSWER: l. Pupils will give their own reasons for feeling sympathetic to Johnny, Ebenezer, Bill, or Sam.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. At last, I fell into a troubled sleep, and dreamed that I had been kidnapped and chained to a tree by a ferocious pirate with red hair.

 i. Sam is dreaming about Johnny.

ii. He has kidnapped Johnny but the kidnap is not going according to plan.

iii. Sam is the kidnapper, not the victim, but in his dream the roles have been reversed. b. ‘I think Mr. Dorset is generous for making us such an offer.’

 i. Bill to Sam.

 ii. Johnny’s father. He is offering to take Johnny back if the kidnappers pay him.

iii. It is usually the other way round: the ransom is paid to the kidnappers, not by them!

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. Use these words and phrases in sentences of your own. Discuss them first.

Pupils will make up their own sentences.

2. Look at these sentences from the passage and change them into Standard English:

a. Bill and I had about six hundred dollars.

b. I was ridden like a horse.

c. Is it not awful, Sam?

d. Sand is not edible!

3. FIND TWO OR MORE MEANINGS FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING. USE YOUR DICTIONARY.

a. rattle

Verb: make or cause to make a rapid stream of short, sharp knocking sounds

Noun: a thing used to make a rattling sound

b. scalp

Noun: the skin covering the head (excluding the face).

Verb: to take the scalp of an enemy

c. home

Noun: a place where one lives, the native habitat, a headquarters, the starting position

Verb: to go or return to one’s residence: to be guided to a target

d. glance

Verb: to take a brief or hurried look.

Noun: a brief or hurried look

e. figure

Noun: a number. a person’s body shape

Verb: to calculate or work out f. prominent

Noun: important; well-known; sticking out from something

g. store

Verb: to keep or accumulate (something) for future use

Noun: a quantity or supply of something kept for use as needed

h. curse

Verb: to utter offensive words in anger or annoyance

Noun: a solemn utterance intended to invoke a supernatural power to inflict harm or punishment on someone or something

 i. noise

Noun: a sound, especially one that is loud or unpleasant or that causes disturbance.

j. moment

 Noun: a very brief period of time; an exact point in time

1. WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN YOUR EXERCISE BOOK, PUTTING A BOX (OR BRACKETS) ROUND THE SUBJECT AND A LINE UNDER THE PREDICATE.

a. (Bill) rose slowly.

b. Be good, (Johnny).

c. Now (I) want you to go home.

d. (Nobody), got any sleep because of the noise.

e. Just do it. (you)

2. ADD SUITABLE SUBJECTS TO THE FOLLOWING SO THAT THEY BECOME COMPLETE SENTENCES.

Pupils will use their own words. D Listening and Sp

UNIT: THE OLD BROWN HORSE—W. F. HOLMES PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a          a. What do we learn about the horse from his appearance and behaviour’?       
ANSWER:                a. We learn that the horse is weary, old, shaggy, not very well cared for, and a bit sad; but the horse responds to human touch.
QUESTION:b b. What does the poet ask the reader to do?
ANSWER:   b. Stop for a word or two and touch him softly.
QUESTION:c             c. When does the horse feel that life now is not so bad?
ANSWER:   c. The horse feels good when a passer-by strokes its mane and shaggy coat.
QUESTION:d                   d. Why is the horse no longer used for riding? Give at least two reasons.
ANSWER:        d. The horse is old; time has passed and brought new methods of transport such as the motor car.
QUESTION:e          e. Who might have been responsible for neglecting the horse? Why was it neglected?
ANSWER: e. The master. Because he is busy driving his motor car.
QUESTION:f          f. What would you have done to make the horse’s last years comfortable?
ANSWER: f. Pupils will think of ways to make the horse’s last years comfortable.

2. Mark these statements as true (T) or false (F).

a. F

b. T

c. F

d. F

3. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. ‘Oh, thank you, friend, for the kindly thought For a horse who has had his day.’ The underlined phrase means:

c. has now grown old

4. DO YOU THINK THERE IS A RHYMING PATTERN IN THE POEM? WHAT IS IT? THE ODD LINES RHYME: A B C B D E F E

5. WHICH WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS TELL US THAT THE POET CARES ABOUT THE HORSE? THE POET MAKES THE HORSE SOUND PITIABLE, AND RESIGNED TO ITS FATE THROUGH THESE WORDS EXPRESSIONS:

 ‘I’m simply watching’,

 ‘Nobody seems to mind…

 a horse who is lame and half-blind’,

 ‘makes him feel quite sad’,

‘gives a little sigh’,

 ‘once as full of life as you’, etc.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. ADD SUITABLE PREDICATES TO THE FOLLOWING TO MAKE SENTENCES.

2. UNDERLINE ONLY THE MAIN NOUN AND THE MAIN VERB.

a. The boy walked along briskly.

b. His dog followed closely behind.

c. The long electric train crashed into the back of a goods train.

d. Saima and Alina are playing in the garden.

e. We heard them crying. f. The elephant has large ears.

g. Parvez and Shahid live in Multan

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

VOWEL S

UNIT: THE POEM—AMY LOWELL PAGE:

A Comprehension

ANSWER these QUESTIONs.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The twig should be planted, watered, and set where the Sun will be above it, to become healthy and strong.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. If cared for, the twig will develop into a tall bush with many flowers and sparkling leaves.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. A closet is a large cabinet or area like a cupboard, for storage; in it there may be odds and ends such as a mousetrap and blunted tools.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The closet is not used much; there are mousetraps in it (a mousetrap is not used very often), and the tools are blunt (again, showing that they are seldom used).
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The twig will not grow in a closet, because it is too dark and there is little fresh air inside.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The twig is compared to an old, twisted nail.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER:  g. Look after and encourage something, even if it is small and appears useless.

2. FIND WHERE THESE EXPRESSIONS ARE USED IN THE POEM. READ THE LINES A NUMBER OF TIMES, AND TRY TO UNDERSTAND THE MEANINGS OF THE EXPRESSIONS. EXPLAIN THE MEANINGS IN YOUR OWN WORDS.

 A. IT IS NOTHING MORE; IT APPEARS INSIGNIFICANT. EXAMPLE: HE IS ONLY A SMALL BOY; HOW CAN HE BE EXPECTED TO DO THIS HARD TASK.

b. And plant it (place it) where the Sun will…

c. grow (sprout) vigorously and healthily all over the place

d. regain their upright posture

e. brush against, collide with each other

3. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

With mousetraps and blunted tools,

It will shrivel and waste.

a. The word ‘it’ refers to the twig.

b. The mousetraps and blunted tools are in the closet.

c. The twig might look like an old, twisted nail.

1. Find words of the opposite meaning in the poem.

a. large/little

b. short/tall

 c. below/above

d. few/many

e. staleness/freshness

f. sharpened/blunted

g. strengthen/waste (shrivel)

h. straight/twisted i. still (not moving)/blowing

j. close/open

2. Think of suitable adjectives to go with these nouns.

a. dusty, dark, rarely-used closet

b. rusty, twisted, iron nail

c. blowing, cold, harsh wind

d. green, lush grass-blades

e. long, twisted, thirsty, withered roots

f. rustling, green/red/yellow/brown, new/old leaves

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

SENTENCES

1. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE COMPLETE SENTENCES? WHICH ARE NOT COMPLETE? GIVE A REASON FOR YOUR ANSWER EACH TIME.

a. She laughed pleasantly. (Complete: there is a subject and a predicate; there is a finite verb. It makes complete sense.)

b. The large, black dog (Incomplete: There is no verb of any kind; there is no predicate.)

c. Walking along slowly (Incomplete: There is no finite verb; there is no subject; we do not know who or what is performing the action.)

d. Sit down. (Complete: There is a finite verb; there is a subject and a predicate. The subject is understood… ‘You’.)

e. The engine’s whistle (Incomplete: there is no finite verb; there is no predicate.)

f. They played cricket on Sunday (Complete: there is a finite verb; there is a subject and a predicate.)

NOUN

2. UNDERLINE THE PROPER NOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

a. Raheel and Hanif are going to Karachi on Tuesday.

b. They are going on the train, which leaves Lahore at two o’clock.

c. From Karachi they are going to fly to Dubai on an Emirates plane.

d. They will stay with their friends, Mr and Mrs Jenkins at 5, Park Lane, Dubai.

3. MAKE A LIST OF THE COMMON NOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.

day, children, hill, bicycles, top, grass, rocks, road, river, way, village, figures, toys, land

UNIT:3- A POLAR EXPLORER PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION: a             a- what is needed for the twig to become healthy and strong?
ANSWER: a. Amundsen’s mother wanted him to be a doctor. He followed her wishes until she died.              
QUESTION:b b- to what ways will the twig develop if it is cared for?
ANSWER:   b. Amundsen was inspired by famous British explorers. As a child, he prepared for life as an explorer by playing a lot of sports, sleeping with his windows open, and reading about explorers. As an adult, he worked as a ship’s crew member where he watched, listened, and learned useful skills (on board and from the Inuit people) such as how to prevent scurvy, how to keep warm, and how to use dogs to travel by sledge.
QUESTION:c c- what is a closet and what might be found there?           
ANSWER:   c. Amundsen learned some useful survival skills (See b.) but he was also very determined and well prepared. He made sure he knew how to survive before setting off on his own expeditions.
QUESTION:d                   d- is the closet mentioned in the poem used much? How do we know?
ANSWER:        d. Very cold temperatures, shallow seas and sea-ice made it difficult to pass through the Northwest Passage. Amundsen’s boat, Gjøa, helped him pass through it because it was small enough to pass through these waters and over the shallow areas.
QUESTION:e                e- will the twig grow in a closet? Why?
ANSWER: e. 1926
QUESTION:f          f- what isw the twig compared to in the second stanza?
ANSWER: f. Amundsen’s companions mistook the Inuit for Caribou because they were so far away.
QUESTION: g. g- do you think the poet has a message (or messages) for the reader?
ANSWER: g. Amundsen ‘talked’ to the Eskimos by using a mixture of simple expression, body language, and tone of voice: ‘expression of the fact, nods and shakes of the head, gestures and tones of the voice’.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Amundsen disappeared on a rescue mission so we cannot be sure of how he died.

2. COPY THE SENTENCES THAT ARE TRUE. CORRECT THE SENTENCES THAT ARE WRONG AND REWRITE THEM.

a. Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C. True

b. Getting to the North Pole was false difficult.

c. Amundsen was the first person to be able to claim that he had been to both Poles. True

d. There is no sunlight from March to September at the South Pole. (False)

e. The North Pole is not on land.

f. Polar bears, seals, and walruses are native to the North Pole. (False)

3. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. ‘Some other “two-legged caribous” joined the first, until five figures were outlined against the sky.’ i. Inuit/Eskimo people ii. 3

b. ‘Their leader, seeing this pacific move, imitated it by turning to his followers and uttering a command.’ i. When the leader of the Inuit people saw Amundsen make the peaceful move of instructing his men to put their weapons aside, he did the same with his men.

4. LOOK AT THE TWO FACT FILES ABOUT THE POLES. WRITE FOUR SENTENCES IN WHICH YOU COMPARE THE POLES.

 For example: The South Pole is colder than the North Pole.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. LOOK AGAIN AT THE EXTRACT FROM AMUNDSEN’S BOOK. FIND OUT WHAT THESE WORDS MEAN AND USE EACH ONE IN A SENTENCE. 

a. steadfastly: in a resolutely or dutifully firm and unwavering manner

b. ostentatiously: in a showy way that is designed to impress

c. pacific: peaceful in character or intent

d. reciprocate: respond to an action or gesture by making a corresponding one

2. YOU HAVE LEARNT THESE PROVERBS. CAN YOU COMPLETE THEM?

a. The early bird catches the worm.

b. Look before you leap.

c. Learn to walk before you run.

d. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched.

e. You may lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink.

3. CHOOSE ONE OF THE PROVERBS AND EXPLAIN THE MEANING TO THE CLASS.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 PARTS OF SPEECH

1. COPY THE TABLE. GIVE YOUR OWN EXAMPLES FOR EACH PART OF SPEECH.

2. WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES AND GIVE THE FUNCTION OF EACH UNDERLINED WORD.

a. Yellow describes snake and crawled tells of an action.

b. Shoaib is the name of a person and large describes the company.

c. Tap is the name of a thing; yesterday tells when it was leaking (helps describe the action).

d. Me stands in place of a noun (the person speaking) and morning is the name given to the early part of the day.

e. And joins two parts of the sentence; are fed tells of an action (continuing).

f. Saw tells of a past action; in shows the relationship between peacock and forest.

g. Oh! Shows a feeling or emotion; new describes the car.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

fill feel pill peal it eat sit seat lip leap still steal mill meal ill eel

UNIT: 4- THE GREAT TRAIN JOURNEY—RUSKIN BOND PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. How do we  know that Sajid likes trains?
ANSWER: a. We know that Sajid likes trains because he spends time watching them, waving to them, and wondering about the people on the trains. We learn, in the fifth paragraph, that he is fascinated by all trains.              
QUESTION:b b. What time of year is it?
ANSWER:   b. It is summertime; the story takes place during the summer holidays.
QUESTION:c             c. How do we know that Sajid is bored?
ANSWER:   c. We know that Sajid is bored because he has been wandering about all day, alone, and still does not know what to do with himself.
QUESTION:d                   d.What sort of things make Sajid curious and how does he react to what makes him curious?
ANSWER:        d. Sajid is made curious by things that are bolted or nailed down, or in some way concealed from him, such as parcels, locked rooms, carriage doors, and crates. He reacts by trying to see what is inside the crates.
QUESTION:e                e. Why does Sajid think that the trees  are walking?
ANSWER: e. Sajid thinks that the trees are walking because he had not noticed that the train had started moving.
QUESTION:f          f. Who else is in the carriage?
ANSWER: f. A man, who describes himself as a hippy, is also in the carriage.
QUESTION: g. g. Where does Sajid say that he would like to go?
ANSWER: g. Sajid says that he would like to go everywhere, to England, China, Africa, and Greenland. He wants to go all over the world!
QUESTION: h h. What warning does the man give to Sajid?
ANSWER: h. The man warns Sajid to keep out of sight if he doesn’t want to be caught!
QUESTION: I i. When Sajid thinks about his parents for the first time what does he imagine that they will think?
ANSWER: i. When Sajid thinks about his parents for the first time, he imagines that they will think that he had run away, or been kidnapped, or been involved in an accident.
QUESTION: j j. What presents does Sajid imagine that he will bring back for his friend?
ANSWER: j. Sajid imagines that he will bring back an African lion or a transistor-radio for his friend.
QUESTION: k k. When Sajid thinks about his parents‘ reaction to his disappearance he feels a few different emotions. What shows us that he is excited at first? How does he feel later on?
ANSWER: k. When Sajid thinks about his parents’ reaction to his disappearance, he feels a few different emotions. At first, he images that he will become famous for being the boy who disappeared; this shows that he finds the idea exciting. Later on, he feels sorry for them because he realizes that they will miss him.
QUESTION: l l. Why do you think the man was on the train?
ANSWER: l. He had been sleeping in the carriage because it was comfortable, safe, or cosy, or perhaps he was trying to get a free ride somewhere.
QUESTION: m m. How does Sajid feel after the conversation about getting to China?
ANSWER: m. Sajid does not react immediately to the conversation about going to China. Perhaps he is thinking about the skills he does not have. After a while, he thinks that he is not really sure if he really wants to go to strange, new, faraway places.
QUESTION: n n.Why doesn’t the man tell Sajid that the train takes a circular route?
ANSWER: n. Pupils will give their own reasons why the man doesn’t tell Sajid that the train takes a circular route. Perhaps he can see how excited Sajid is about going on a journey and, because he knows Sajid will be safe, he allows him to enjoy his adventure.

2. LOOK AT THESE WORDS. STARVE CONSUME DEVOUR SNACK NIBBLE GOBBLE FEAST MUNCH CHEW

 a. Which is the odd one out? Why? Starve is the odd word out.

The other words are ways of eating, whereas starve means to suffer or die from hunger.

b. Pick three of the words above and use each one in a sentence.

Example: I always nibble chocolate to make it last longer.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH SUITABLE WORDS FROM THE LIST BELOW.

a. stationary

b. anticipation

c. increased

d. astonished

e. awkward

f. sauntered

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

COLLECTIVE NOUN

a. sheep – herd

b. ships—fleet

c. sailors—crew

d. bees – swarm

e. wolves—pack

f. stars—galaxy

g. barbarians—horde

h. cattle—herd

i. criminals—gang

j. people in a theatre—audience

k. directors—board

 l. musicians—orchestra

 m. flowers – bunch

n. eleven footballers—team

o. mountains—range

ABSTRACT NOUNS

1. PICK OUT THE ABSTRACT NOUNS FROM THE FOLLOWING.

pride friendliness lightness victory peace

2. FORM ABSTRACT NOUNS FROM THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES.

 freedom delicacy width thinness height awkwardness sweetness breadth honesty

3. STATE WHAT QUALITY IS POSSESSED BY A PERSON WHO IS:

 tidiness helpfulness laziness quietness foolishness loyalty accuracy hardiness

VERB

1. PICK OUT THE VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING.

a. ‘Run to the shop and buy me a box of matches, please.’

b. The children in the crowd shouted and cheered.

c. ‘If you want to go to Karachi you must book a seat on the bus.’

d. The book fell to the floor. e. ‘Be careful or you might fall.’

f. Malik spent two weeks in hospital after the fall.

g. The boys go for a run every day.

h. The children crowded round the teacher.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: THE ECHOING GREEN—WLLLIAM BLAKE PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. What time of day is it at the beginning of the poem?
ANSWER: a. At the beginning of the poem, the Sun is rising so it is early in the morning.              
QUESTION:b b. Which words from the first stanza create a cheerful mood?
ANSWER:   b. Words from the first stanza which create a cheerful mood are: happy, merry, welcome, sing, and cheerful.
QUESTION:c             c. In the second stanza what are the older people doing? and what does it make them remember?
ANSWER:   c. In the second stanza, the older people are laughing at the children playing. It makes them remember when they used to play happily on the green when they were young.
QUESTION:d                   d. In the final stanza, what time of day is it?
ANSWER:        d. In the final stanza, the Sun is going down so it is the evening.
QUESTION:e                e. In the final stanza, what happens to the children?
ANSWER: e. In the final stanza, the children are tired and ready for rest so they sit with their mothers instead of playing.
QUESTION:f          f. In the final stanza, children to a type of animal. What animals are they compared to? What are they doing? What is the effect of using this comarision?
ANSWER: f. In the final stanza, the poet compares the mother and her children to birds in a nest. The children sit with their mothers. The effect of the comparison is that we can picture the children with their mothers, getting comfort and warmth and feeling safe.
QUESTION: g. g. Make a list of the animals mentioned in the poem?
ANSWER: g. Birds are mentioned in the poem; the sky-lark and thrush are named.
QUESTION: h h. Make a list of sounds mentioned in the poem. which stanza doesn’t have any sounds mentioned in it?
ANSWER: h. A list of sounds mentioned in the poem: bells ringing, bird-song, laughter, voices of the old folk, the echoing green (is it echoing with the sounds of play?). No sounds are mentioned in the final stanza. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: I i. What do you notice about the last line of the stanza? say how they are similar and how they are different
ANSWER: i. The last line of each stanza is almost the same. In stanzas one and two, the same words are used: ‘On the Echoing Green’. But, in the second stanza, this is a line of speech rather than a description. In the third stanza, the word echoing is replaced with the word darkening.
QUESTION: j j. How does the difference in the last line effect the mood of the end of the poem?
ANSWER: j. The pupils should discuss the impact of the word darkening – does it create a quiet, calm mood? Can it be read in other ways, for example, as signifying the end of life or an era?

B WORKING WITH WORDS

3. WRITE A DEFINITION FOR EACH WORD IN THE LIST. THEN USE YOUR DICTIONARY AND TRY TO WRITE A MORE ACCURATE DEFINITION.

word definition

dawdle — slowly, wasting time

hobble — as if old or lame

limp — as if lame

march — in a military manner, smartly

pace — with slow or regular steps, as if exercising

plod — slowly and laboriously

ramble — across the countryside, for pleasure

roam — without purpose, aimlessly shuffle — dragging one’s feet

slouch — droopingly and lazily

stride — with long steps, purposefully

stroll — in a leisurely way

strut — in a proud way, showing off

toddle — like a small child with short, tottering steps

trudge — laboriously and wearily, as if wearing heavy boots

waddle — like a duck, in a slow, side to side motion

Punctuation

4. Rewrite the following sentences putting in punctuation marks where necessary.

a. In his shop, he sells: nuts, bolts, screws, pins, and paper.

b. During the holidays, he visited his brother, his uncle, his father’s friend, his grandfather, and his grandmother.

c. The leaf floated with the current, whirled round and round, twisted over, stopped for a brief moment, and then disappeared.

d. The bells on the tree, streamers of every colour hanging from the ceiling, balloons of all shapes, a large star, and millions of sparkling lights completed the decoration in the hall.

5. MAKE UP YOUR OWN SENTENCES, USING THE WORDS IN EACH ROW.

C Learning about language

Add the suffixes -ing and -ed to the following.

 laughing/laughed

stopping/stopped

hitting (Note: hit)

boxing/boxed

catching ((Note: caught)

thinking (Note: thought)

fixing/fixed

 running ((Note: ran)

boiling/boiled

sitting ((Note: sat)

posting/posted

flipping/flipped

shipping/shipped

joining/joined

fattening/fattened

paying (Note: paid)

chatting/chatted

placing/placed

trapping/trapped

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 5- THE TOY-BOX PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a          a. what sounds did the children hear after entering the grounds in their car?      
ANSWER: a. The children heard the birds twittering, bees buzzing, and the crunching of gravel under the car wheels after entering the grounds.              
QUESTION:b b. How do we know that the children like the week in their old house before they moved out?
ANSWER:   b. We know that the children liked the week in their old house before they moved out because it is described as a magical playground in which they had fun living with boxes everywhere.
QUESTION:c             c. In what way was Matilda’s first impression of the new house different from Tom’s?
ANSWER:   c. Matilda’s first impression of the new house was different from Tom’s in that she described it as beautiful, went straight in, and started unpacking. Tom, on the other hand, says it looks scary.
QUESTION:d                   d. When and where did Tim first hear a cry? What was his reaction?
ANSWER:        d. Tom heard a cry on the first day when he was alone in the playroom. His reaction was to think it was a cat or his imagination.
QUESTION:e                e. What did Tom see out of the window? How did this contrast with the inside?
ANSWER: e. Tom saw the garden outside the window; Everything in it looked bright and warm, and green and fresh. The house, in contrast, is described as dark and cold, with echoing rooms and strange sounds.
QUESTION:f          f. What did Tom’s mother tell Tom to encourage  him to return to playroom and checked for any strange sounds there?
ANSWER: f. Tom’s mother told him not to be a scaredy-cat and said that the sounds must have come from outside.
QUESTION: g. g.  How did Tom’s constant screaming affect his parents and Matilda?
ANSWER: g. Tom’s constant screaming made his parents come running to check on him.
QUESTION: h h. What did Tom’s father take with him to investigate the coaibunker and why?
ANSWER: h. Tom’s father took a 3-iron, a golf club, with him when he went to look in the coalbunker. He took it as a form of defense against the intruder the family had heard through the vent.
QUESTION: I i. Where did all the rubbish at the side of the house come from?
ANSWER: i. The rubbish at the side of the house had been dumped there when the house was being renovated. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: j j. Tom describes the house in his own way. What is his view about the house? Does this view change? when and why?
ANSWER: j. Tom describes the house in his own way. His view of the house is that it is a cold, scary, rambling mansion that is towering and spooky, with echoing rooms. Pupils should be encouraged to collect quotes that describe Tom’s view of the house. His view changes when the mystery of the moaning toy-box has been solved and the family have settled in. He says that, ‘the spooky house became a warm and comforting home.
QUESTION: k. The woman, her husband, and daughter were obviously taken care of in the end. What is your view about how  and why they got there in the first place?
ANSWER: k. Pupils will give their own views about how the family got there. There could be many possible answers.

2. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER.

 a. Tom did not like the house because iv. it was cold, damp, and spooky.

b. Tom’s parents were annoyed with Tom because iii. they thought he had made up a story to get their attention.

3. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. ‘And, just in case, I’m taking a golf club.’

i. Tom’s father

 ii. He takes it as a precaution. He is worried about who he might find in his coalbunker.

 iii. He takes a 3-iron and he swings it in the air as they walk along.

b. Father entered the room at a gallop.

i. He is responding to his son’s scream.

ii. He found Tom, Matilda, and their mother/his wife.

iii. He starts speaking in the room but stops when he sees his wife indicating with one finger on her lips for him to be quiet. They all go into the living room where Tom’s mother explains what they have heard. Then Tom’s father goes to the playroom to investigate.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. Here are some nouns from the passage, but the letters are jumbled. What are they?

a. lawn

b. toys

c. blossoms

d. rubbish

e. playroom

f. medicine

g. staircase

h. husband

2. WRITE DOWN THE ADVERBS FORMED FROM THESE ADJECTIVES; THEN USE THE ADVERBS IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

a. tearfully

b. spookily

c. steadily

d. cautiously

e. purposefully Pupils will write their own sentences.

3. Give the full form and explain the following abbreviations. BA Bachelor of Arts Dir Director Dr Doctor ºF degrees Fahrenheit Fri Friday Jan January mph miles per hour Mr Mister Mrs Mistress Nov November NW North West kg kilogram Mar March

4. TRY TO WRITE YOUR OWN EXPLANATIONS FOR THE FOLLOWING PROVERBS.

a. ALL ROADS LEAD TO ROME. There are many ways of achieving the same aim or the same results.

 b. EVERYTHING COMES TO HIM WHO WAITS. If a person tries hard enough and is patient, he/she will have success in the end.

c. IF AT FIRST YOU DON’T SUCCEED, TRY, TRY, TRY AGAIN. A good result can be achieved with perseverance.

d. IT NEVER RAINS BUT IT POURS. Misfortunes seldom come alone.

e. MAKE HAY WHILE THE SUN SHINES. Make use of good opportunities when they present themselves

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

SUBJECT, VERB, AND OBJECT

Add further examples to a similar table drawn on the board.

1. IN YOUR NOTEBOOK, MAKE A TABLE AND WRITE IN IT THE SUBJECT, VERB, AND OBJECT OF THE SENTENCES BELOW. YOU MAY LEAVE OUT WORDS THAT DO NOT FORM PART OF THE SUBJECT, VERB, OR OBJECT.

Subject Verb Object Other words
a. The packers b. My sisters  c. I d. I e. Mother a. packed b. blamed c. pulled d. felt e. put a. the boxes b. me c. a couple of toys d. the breeze e. the clothes a. all . b. for their moodiness. c. from the box. d. again. e.  in the cupboard.
The policeman A strong pair of bullocks you Took Pulls did break the dog our cart the glass for a long walk. to market on Sunday. How?

2. FIND THE VERB AND THE OBJECT IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. THE VERBS ARE IN BOLD; THE OBJECTS HAVE BEEN UNDERLINED.

a. Matilda SCOLDED her brother.

 b. The woman WANTED the medicine.

c. The children’s father FOUND an air vent.

d. The father HIT the door with his club.

e. The mother PUT the clothes in the cupboard.

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH SUITABLE OBJECTS.

 Pupils will write their own objects.

D LISTENING AND SPEAK

UNIT:6- THE WHITE MOUSE CIRCUS—ROALD DAHL PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a          a. What reason did the grandmother give for going to Bournemouth?       
ANSWER:                a. The grandmother decided to go to Bournemouth in order to obey her doctor’s orders.
QUESTION:b b. How does the boy describe the hotel?
ANSWER:   b. ‘It was an enormous white building on the sea-front and it looked to me like a pretty boring place to spend a summer holiday in’ he describe the hotel as, ‘The ground floor of the hotel was a maze of public rooms, all of them named in gold letters on the doors.’
QUESTION:c         c. Why had the grandmother given the boy a pair of white mice?
ANSWER:   c. The grandmother had given the boy a pair of white mice as consolation because Bournemouth was a boring place.
QUESTION:d           d. What was the first trick the boy taught the mice?       
ANSWER:        d. The first trick the boy taught the white mice was to creep up the sleeve of his jacket and come out by his neck.
QUESTION:e                e. Why did the hotel manager get angry with the boy and his grandmother?
ANSWER: e. The hotel manager was angry with the boy and his grandmother for suggesting that the hotel was full of rats.
QUESTION:f          f. What made the boy confident that he had  found a good place to train his mice?
ANSWER: f. The boy was confident that he had found a good place to train his mice because the ballroom was large and empty. The room had been used for a meeting of the members of the RSPCC, and even if these members were to come into the room while he was there, they would be good, kind people. 
QUESTION: g. g. In what ways was the grandmother a clever and thoughtful lady?
ANSWER: g. The grandmother outwitted the hotel manager by suggesting that there were rats in the hotel and it might be closed down if this fact was reported to the Public Health Authorities.
QUESTION: h h. What difficulties might you come up against, if you were training mice?
ANSWER: h. Pupils will come up with their own ideas about what difficulties they might come up against if they were training mice.

2. FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING

i. say when the statement was made, to whom it was made, and what it refers to;

ii. say what is meant.

a. The grandmother to the boy when he asks her if it is true that a place like Bournemouth keeps people healthy.

Meaning: It’s nonsense!

b. The boy says this about the mice his grandmother has given him.

Meaning: They are lots of fun. Terrific means of a great amount, or intensity.

c. The boy says this about the manager.

Meaning: Bristly here means a) with thick set hair (bristles), and b) with a temper, ready for a fight.

 d. Mr Stringer, the manager, says this to the grandmother when she tells him there are rats in his hotel. Meaning: Going mauve in the face—getting very angry.

e. The manager says this when the grandmother asks him whether or not they are going to be allowed to keep the white mice in the hotel.

Meaning: The manager is afraid that if the grandmother carries out her threat, there may be more trouble to deal with, so he suggests a simpler solution which will suit both parties.

 f The boy says this when describing the hotel and his discovery of all the different rooms on the ground floor.

Meaning: There were so many rooms, and so many corridors, that the ground floor of the hotel appeared like a maze (a place in which to easily get lost) to the little boy.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. WHY DOES MR STRINGER TURN MAUVE? WHAT DOES THIS TELL US?

DISCUSS THE QUESTIONS FIRST.

2. WHICH OTHER COLOURS ARE USED TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE’S FEELINGS OR MOODS?

It tells us that the manager is very upset indeed! He is livid with rage, surprise, indignation, and many other emotions, so much so that he turns mauve. If he were merely embarrassed, he would have ‘turned pink’; ‘If he were filled with rage, he may have ‘turned red’; if he were in a thunderous mood, he would have taken on ‘a black look’.

3. MAKE A LIST OF ALL THE COLOURS YOU CAN THINK OF. THEN TRY TO USE THEM IN SENTENCES TO DESCRIBE HOW PEOPLE FEEL.

fear: white, ashen, grey, (yellow for cowardice)

anger: red, puce, purple, black

rage: (see above)

sadness: blue

sickness: white,

ashen, colourless

 envy: green

Alternatively, if we look at colours first and see which emotions and other ideas these convey, we get: purple—dreams, wealth, royalty, sophistication (born to the purple), intelligence, excessively elaborate (empurpled literature), a purple patch or stretch (things going well),…

red—fear, warning, blood, danger, excitement, fire, passion, debt, heat, warning,…

blue—sky, openness, quietness, serenity, truth, cold, cool, ice, melancholy,…

black—sophistication, evil, darkness, elegance, power, rebellion, mystery, mourning, death,…

white—sickness, purity, cleanness, luminosity, emptiness,…

yellow—warmth, sun and sunshine, brightness, light, cowardliness, weakness,…

green—calm, serenity, nature, freshness, growth, vegetation, health, envy, everlasting, natural,…

orange—warmth, energy, sunsets, happiness,…

pink—feminine, nurture, security, good health (in the pink), softness, sweet,…

silver: steel-like, hard, cold, rich, scientific,…

2. HERE ARE SOME WORDS USED BY THE AUTHOR TO DESCRIBE MOVEMENT. TRY TO FIND THEM IN THE PASSAGE. USE THE WORDS IN INTERESTING SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

a. pop (in): casually visit, for a moment or two, without any specific purpose, unexpectedly

b. bursting (in): entering suddenly, without warning

c. sidled: edged along in a furtive way d. marched: moved smartly forward, with a military bearing

e. wandered: moved from place to place without purpose, without destination

f. creep: move silently and stealthily

g. run: move fast, at a rapid pace

h. scuttling: moving or running quickly with short steps

 i. pouring (in): moving like a flow of water, en masse

 j. tiptoed: moved quietly, stealthily on the balls of the feet, cautiously, to avoid detection.

k. ventures forward: moves forward on a trip that is unpleasant, risky, dangerous

3. WHEN WOULD YOU USE THESE WORDS DESCRIBING MOVEMENTS? CHECK THE MEANINGS IN A DICTIONARY, THEN USE THE WORDS IN SENTENCES.

a. scrabble climb by scrambling, in disorderly haste; clamber

b. scramble move or climb hurriedly, especially on the hands and knees

c. scrape pass by while coming into contact in an abrasive or sliding manner

d. weave move in and out or sway from side to side

e. stampede move forward in a sudden, frenzied rush; come all at once at great speed

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES SO THAT EVERY UNDERLINED NOUN OR GROUP OF WORDS IS REPLACED BY THE CORRECT PERSONAL PRONOUN.

Example: the man watered the rose bush every day. He watered it every day.

a. She gave it some food.

b. They bought them.

c. She took us to see it.

d. It must have been cut down by you.

e. He spoke to them about it.

 f. He said, ‘Let me have it.’

g. We wanted to stop it.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: TRESPASS—JOHN CLARE PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. Find four words in the first four lines that indicate that the walker is worried.
ANSWER: a. Four words in the first four lines that indicate that the walker is worried: dreaded, cautious, wary, feared.              
QUESTION:b b. What is the walker worried about?
ANSWER:   b. He is walking across a meadow swath (a path cut through an area of grassland) which is privately owned so he is worried that the owner will come and reprimand him.
QUESTION:c      c. Why does the walker keep on going even though he is worried?
ANSWER:   c. The walker keeps on going even though he is worried because everything around him ‘appeared so beautiful’.
QUESTION:d      d. The walker meets people as he walks. What   does he think they are thinking about him them first.            
ANSWER:        d. The walker thinks that the people he meets as he walks are thinking disapproving thoughts about him because he has trespassed.
QUESTION:e               e. What does the walker wish for?
ANSWER: e. The walker wishes that he could have such a place for himself. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:f          f. The poet has used the same word to start six of the fourteen lines in the poem. What is the word? What impact does it have? 
ANSWER: f. The poet has used the word ‘and’ to start six of the fourteen lines in the poem. The impact is that it creates the sense of an ongoing journey, his walk, and the sense of connected thoughts that walking often produces.
QUESTION: g. g. How many sentences are in the poem? Is there a different mood or feeling in the last two sentences?
ANSWER: g. There are two sentences in the poem. The first sentence contains longer sections that run over the line ends. It contains the connective ‘and’ numerous times and creates a sense of his ongoing walk. The pace is faster in the second sentence because it is shorter; it also contains a lot more punctuation which makes it seem like he is being more decisive. It also contains negatives, ‘cannot,’ ‘never,’ and ‘naught’, which convey a sense of loss or negativity. Perhaps this reflects the end of his walk and less freedom for him.
QUESTION: h h. What does the walker decide in the final lines of the poem?
ANSWER: h. In the final lines of the poem, the walker decides that he cannot walk on another person’s land because he has not got the freedom to do so; he is not wealthy enough to have the right to walk freely without judgment.

2. WHAT IS THE RHYME SCHEME OF THIS POEM?

 The poem is written in rhyming couplets.

3. COUNT THE NUMBER OF SYLLABLES IN EACH LINE. WHAT DO YOU NOTICE?

Every line has ten syllables. Pupils might notice that the poem has a rhythm to it. If they do, you can introduce the concept of the iambic pentameter. If you wish, you can teach pupils about sonnet form (iambic pentameter, fourteen lines) which has been used here.

4. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT. ‘AND WHEN I GAINED THE ROAD WHERE ALL ARE FREE’

i. Walking on private land, a meadow.

ii. He passes strangers and thinks that they know he has been trespassing.

iii. Pupils will give their own views – to explore, to see different sights, to be ‘off the beaten track’…

 5. LOOK AT THE WORDS GIVEN IN A BOX ON THE NEXT PAGE.

Discuss them and look up any that you do not know the meaning of. Then, place them on a scale that goes down from the strongest emotion at the top. If you have words that you think are on a similar level, put them next to each other. Pupils will choose their own order and should be able to justify their choices. They should look up the words and discuss them, comparing their lists to those of others.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

Prefixes

Discuss the prefixes in the example.

1. See if you can write the negative forms of the following.

a. unable

b. unavoidable

c. disrespectful

d. invisible

e. nonviolent

 f. disunited

g. incorrect

h. disapproving

i. discourteous

 j. inconsiderate

 k. uncooperative

l. undefeated

2. How many words can you find of the same type as described above? The words should all be negatives. You may use your dictionary. Who can find the most words?

3. Make a chart for your classroom wall. Make boxes on the chart with the headings: dis-, non-, in-, and un-. Add words to the boxes when you can think of any new ones. Perhaps pupils might start without the dictionary, see how many words they can come up with, then consult the dictionary to add words. Examples: unexpected, unconscious, unhelpful, ungrateful distasteful, discomfort, disallow, disorderly incapable, inelegant, indecisive, insecure non-cooperative, non-aligned, non-vegetarian, non-religious The chart need not contain the words with the prefix already added; only the box or section needs to be marked with the prefix. Some words will undoubtedly find their way into two (or more) boxes. Example: count (dis- mis-), countable (un-, dis-,), considerate (dis-, in-).

 C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 ADJECTIVES

See if you can pick out and name all the adjectives in the following sentences.

a. dangerous—quality, thick—quality

b. her—possessive, yellow and red—quality

c. His—possessive, grey-haired—quality, delightful—quality

d. This/that—demonstrative, big—quality, small—quality

e. Our—possessive, amusing—quality, every—distributive

f. four—quantitative, each—distributive, our—possessive

g. poor—quality, blind—quality

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 7- HOME, SWEET HOME! PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a          a. What were the children doing in the house?       
ANSWER: a. The children were playing their musical instruments in the house.              
QUESTION:b b. What were Monica and Janko doing at this time?
ANSWER:   b. At this time, Janko had been trying to read the newspaper and Monika had been in the small kitchen.
QUESTION:c             c. What effect did the children’s music have on Janko?
ANSWER: c. The children’s music had given Janko a headache and made him irritable. 
QUESTION:d                   d. In what ways did Monica show that she was on the side of the children?
ANSWER:        d. Monica showed that she was on the side of the children by winking at them and by making a joke.
QUESTION:e                e. What made the children giggle?
ANSWER: e. Monika’s description of Janko’s snoring made the children giggle.
QUESTION:f          f. How had Wise Eva helped Janko before?
ANSWER: f. Wise Eva had helped Janko before by giving him advice about how to keep the birds out of his garden.
QUESTION: g. g. What did Eva look like? Give a full description of her.
ANSWER: g. Pupils can write their own description or lift the words from the text: ‘Eva was small, like (his) Janko’s wife, but much older. Her white hair, parted in the middle and flowing over her shoulders, made her look a little like a witch. All she needed was a cloak and a broom to complete the picture.’ She probably also looks friendly because she smiles.
QUESTION: h h. Did Janko tell Eva a lie about his wife? What was it?
ANSWER: h. Yes. He says that his wife snores.
QUESTION: I i. How did Janko feel after the animals were removed from the house?
ANSWER: i. Janko felt good after the animals had been removed from the house; he was able to appreciate his home and his family. 
QUESTION: j j. What statements and clues are there to indicate that the house was indeed small? 
ANSWER: j. Statements and clues that indicate that the house was indeed small: the cupboard in the room, ‘the kitchen too was small-not much larger than a cupboard’, The crockery rattles when a cart goes past, and the fact that the children are kept awake by Janko’s snoring.
QUESTION: k. What was Janko’s real problem and how did Eva sort it out? How do you think she solved his first problem?
ANSWER: k. Janko’s real problem was that he could not appreciate what he had. Pupils will come up with their own ideas about how Eva solved Janko’s problem with birds coming into his garden.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. ‘Anywhere, but in my ear!’

i. Janko

ii. Where else are they to play?

iii. Snoring. All night.

b. ‘Your expression tells me there is something on your mind …’

i. Wise Eva to Janko

ii. He looks forlorn.

iii. He wishes that he had a bigger house so that he could have some space and some peace.

1. USE THESE WORDS AND PHRASES IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

Pupils will write their own sentences. Discuss the words and phrases they do not know the meaning of, after they have looked up the precise meaning in a dictionary.

2. WRITE THE OPPOSITES OF THE FOLLOWING.

You will find all the opposites in the story (if you can’t think of them yourself). Pupils can come up with their own, valid, opposites. Here are the ones from the story.

a. imprecisely/exactly

 b. sadly/jovially

c. quietly/loudly

d. disobedient/obedient

e. unkindly/softly/kind

 f. worse/better

g. dirtying/cleaning up

h. abnormal/normal

 i. foreground/background

j. shrank/stretched

k. unexcited/excited

l. disagree/agree

m. ugly/pretty

n. gradually/quickly

 o. started/stopped

3. FIND TWO OR MORE MEANINGS FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING. USE YOUR DICTIONARY.

a. drumming

Noun: a percussion instrument sounded by being struck with the hands or sticks;

Verb: playing on a drum

b. clanging

Noun: the loud, resonant metallic sound or series of sounds.

Verb: making or causing to make a clang

c. fresh:

adjective. (of food) recently made or obtained; not tinned, frozen, or otherwise preserved.

adv. Newly; recently

d. noise:

Noun: a sound, especially one that is loud or unpleasant or that causes disturbance.

Noun: Random fluctuations that obscure or do not contain meaningful data or other information

e. aloft

Adverb: up in or into the air; overhead.

adv. up the mast or into the rigging of a ship

f. moment

Noun: a very brief period of time.

Noun: an exact point in time g. holding

Noun: an area of land held by lease.

Verb: grasping, carrying, or supporting with one’s arms or hands

h. home Noun: a place where one lives, the native habitat, a headquarters, the starting position.

Verb: go or return to one’s residence, to be guided to a target

i. pretty Adjective: (of a person, especially a woman or child) attractive in a delicate way.

Adverb: to a moderately high degree; fairly

j. problem

Noun: matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome. (in chess) an arrangement of pieces in which the solver has to achieve a specified result

B WORKING WITH WORDS

Indirect object

Go through the text with the pupils. Give further examples.

1. Find the direct and indirect objects in the sentences. Mark them as follows. verb direct object

a. Sameer told us a story last night.

b. My uncle sent me a calendar for Christmas.

c. The lady showed her son the presents.

d. The builder built Bill a building.

e. When the principal left the school the teachers gave him a clock.

f. ‘Please bring me a bunch of roses.’ Adverbs Discuss the different types of adverbs.

2. Pick out the adverbs in the following and say whether the adverb tells us where, when, or how often the action of the verbs takes place. a. adverb—carefully (it tells us how he looked)

b. adverb—tomorrow (it tells us when)

c. adverb—here and there (it tells us where)

d. adverb—just (it tells us when) e. adverb—slowly (it tells us how)

f. adverb—now (it tells us when) g. adverb—yesterday (it tells us when)

3. Add interesting adverbs to the following.

a. cough noisily/loudly/rudely/discreetly

b. creep silently/stealthily/surreptitiously/sneakily

c. leave immediately/abruptly/unwillingly

d. stands easily/uneasily/upright/proudly

 e. balance carefully/acrobatically/precariously

 f. imitate perfectly/expertly/realistically

g. punish severely/unreasonably/harshly/lightly

h. whisper quietly/secretively/conspiratorially Introduce other words too. Example: cry bitterly/inconsolably/piercingly laugh wildly frenziedly uncontrollably raucously

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. HERE ARE SOME PROVERBS. DISCUSS WHAT THEY MIGHT MEAN. PUPILS SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO TAKE PART AND CONTRIBUTE TO THE DISCUSSION.

a. All’s well that ends well. If the final result is good, the previous difficulties and failures are forgotten. What happens in the end is most important.

b. Beauty is only skin deep. The inner qualities, not the outward appearance, show the true nature of a person.

c. Every dog has its day. Every person will have success or good fortune some time.

d. A new broom sweeps clean. A new person doing a job makes a lot of changes and does the job well.

e. It’s easy to be wise after the event. It is easy to say what should have been done to avoid failure after the failure has happened.

f. First come, first served. The person who finishes something, or arrives first, has the best chance of success.

UNIT: THE POBBLE WHO HAS NO TOES— EDWARD LEAR PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a          a. What suggestions does poet make about the manner in which the Pobble lost his toes?       
ANSWER: a. Lear suggests that the Pobble’s toes may have been carried away by shrimps, crawfish, or crafty mermaids. How they disappeared is anybody’s guess.              
QUESTION:b b. What did Aunt Jobiska do for the Pobble?
ANSWER:   b Aunt Jobiska made the Pobble drink lavender water tinged with pink, gets him to wrap his nose in a piece of scarlet flannel and then sends him off to swim the Bristol Channel to find her ‘runcible cat with crimson whiskers’.
QUESTION:c             c. What do you think a Pobble looks like’?
ANSWER:   c. Pupils will give their own ideas, with reference to what they have read in the poem. They could also draw a picture.

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

For his Aunt Jobiska said, ‘No harm Can come to his toes if his nose is warm;

a. Aunt Jobiska said this after he set off across the Bristol Channel.

b. Before the Pobble set out, he wrapped his nose in a piece of scarlet flannel.

c. No—he lost his toes anyway!

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. MAKE A LIST OF THE SILLY WORDS AND IDEAS IN THE POEM.

Pobble (without toes),

Fish fiddle de-dee,

wrapped his nose in a scarlet flannel,

tinkledy-binkledy winkled,

runcible cat,

crimson whiskers,

eggs and buttercups fried with fish

2. WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE DO TO GET THESE NAMES?

poacher—poaches;

captures animals unlawfully on someone else’s property

magistrate—a civil officer who administers law

philanthropist—one who loves people; who exerts himself on behalf of his fellows

biographer—a person who writes about the lives of others

dramatist—a person who writes plays

martyr—one who undergoes death or suffering for any great cause

bursar—a person who looks after the money matters of a college or school

traitor—one who acts disloyally to his country, king, or himself

escapologist—a person who makes a living from escaping from bonds of various kinds

philatelist—a person who collects stamps

caterer—a person who provides food for others

tinker—a person who mends pots and pans

3. REWRITE THE SENTENCES, USING ONE OF THE WORDS FROM THE LIST IN PLACE OF THE ITALICIZED WORDS IN THE SENTENCES.

 Note that alternatives are possible, but the jigsaw has to be completed, so no words should be left dangling and then inserted inappropriately at the end!

a. The mouse in the trap squeaked, ‘Let me out!’

b. ‘Get out of here!’ yelled the angry lady.

c. ‘He won’t give me another cake,’ moaned the little boy.

d. ‘Where have you been?’ thundered the giant angrily.

e. I am the king of the jungle!’ roared the lion.

f. ‘We are lost! We are lost!’ wailed the tearful woman.

 g. The large policeman bellowed at the boys across the field.

h. ‘Help me! Help me!’ screamed the man who was hurt.

 i. ‘Quick! Pass the ball!’ cried the boy to his team mate.

 j. ‘We’ve won the match!’ the children whooped. C Learning about l

ADVERBS

2. Find interesting adverbs to go with these verbs from the poem. Use them in sentences of your own.

UNIT:8- IN A TUNNEL—EDITH NESBIT PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. Why were the carriage windows pulled up when the train was going through a tunnel?
ANSWER: a. The carriage windows were pulled up when the train was going through the tunnel to prevent the smoke from the engine coming into the carriage. (1. It is a steam train. 2. In old carriages the window frames were pulled up and hooked up with a short leather strap.)              
QUESTION:b b. what kinds of things do you see in a tunnel (when you are on foot)?
ANSWER:   b. When you are on foot in a tunnel you can see water dripping down the walls. The bricks are a dull, sticky, sickly green. The light from outside shines in for quite a long way.
QUESTION:c          c. How many children were there in the tunnel? d. Which child was the most frightened?  
ANSWER:   c. There were three children in the tunnel.
QUESTION:d   d. Which child was most frightened?               
ANSWER:        d. Phyllis was the most frightened.
QUESTION:e                e. Peter asks the others; ‘and what’s that?’ What is the that he refers to?
ANSWER: e. Peter is referring to the noise of the train.
QUESTION:f          f. What were the wires over which Phyllis stumbled?
ANSWER: f. The wires are those which connect the points or signals to the signal box.
QUESTION: g. g. How does the auther describe the train ‘hurtling by’?
ANSWER: g. With the words: rush, roar, rattle, blast, hurtled, clanging, jangling, echoing, whiz.
QUESTION: h h. Why does Phylis compare the train to a dragon? In what ways is it similar to a dragon? Do you think this is a good comparison?
ANSWER: h. Phyllis compares the train to a dragon because it roars and puffs out smoke and fire like a dragon. Also, the train’s lights look like eyes glowing in the dark.
QUESTION: I i. The train described here is a steam train. These days it is usual to find electric or diesel trains on railway lines. Are these better? How? Are these less romantic to travel on?
ANSWER: i. Pupils will give their own views about train travel or the idea of train travel. They should discuss the differences between travelling on an electric or diesel train and travelling on a steam train.

2. IN YOUR OWN WORDS, EXPLAIN WHAT IS MEANT BY THE FOLLOWING.

a. The wire between two telegraph poles sags and then catches at the top of the pole. From a moving train, the wires seem to dip and rise.

b. The hawthorn hedges have been clipped and trimmed to keep them neat and tidy.

c. A green which is very pale, like the skin-colour of a sick person.

d. The gathered material of a skirt where it meets the waistband (especially common in old-fashioned skirts).

e. A mild term of ridicule.

f. A cavity or recess in the wall which workmen can shelter in as trains go by. (There are also manholes on streets; these are cavities underground for sewers, etc. and the top is covered by a metal manhole cover.)

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND WORDS IN THE STORY THAT MEAN THE FOLLOWING.

a. a loud noise—roar

b. tearing—ripping

c. pulled—dragged

d. quietness—silence

e. a person who is not brave—coward

 f. tripped over—stumbled over

g. slowly—gradually

h. humming like a bee—buzzing

i. held on tightly—clung

 j. bright—dazzling

k. moving forward—advancing

l. moist and slippery—slimy

2. CAREFULLY READ THE LAST TWO PARAGRAPHS OF THE STORY AND PICK OUT ALL THE WORDS FOR SOUNDS AND NOISES.

Can you fit seven words into the grid below, exactly as they appear in the passage? rush, roar, rattle, blast, hurtled, clanging, jangling, echoing, whiz BLAST ECHOING ROAR RATTLE WHIZ CLANGING JANGLING

3. Can you add any other words for sounds to the list you have made? Pupils have already learnt a number of words for sounds of various kinds. How many can they remember? Here are a few: bang, bark, bawl, bay, bellow, bleat, boo, bray, buzz, cackle, call, caterwaul, caw, cheep, cluck, coo, crash, crow, crunch, cry, gobble, groan, growl, grunt, hiss, holler, honk, howl, lament, mewl, moan, moo, neigh, peep, pipe, roar, rumble, scream, screech, shout, shriek, snore, squawk, squeak, squeal, tinkle, titter, trill, tweet, ululate, utter, wail, whimper, whine, whinny, whir, whoop, woof, yell, yodel

4. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING IN YOUR OWN WORDS. PUPILS MAY USE THEIR OWN WORDS OR THOSE FROM THE STORY.

5. WITH THE HELP OF YOUR DICTIONARY, FIND AS MANY MEANINGS AS YOU CAN FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS.

 Say whether they are nouns or verbs. Encourage the pupils to find out, and then ask them to discuss the meanings.

WING

—a limb of a bird (n)

—supporting part of an aeroplane (n)

—to wound someone slightly on the arm (v)

—addition to a building (n)

—in football or hockey, a person who is to the side of the centre (n)

—two or more squadrons of aeroplanes (n)

—pilot’s badge (n)

SIGHT

—faculty of vision (n)

—being seen (n)

—space within which object or person can be seen (n)

—show, spectacle (n)

—take observation of something with an instrument (v)

—something worth seeing (n)

POUND

—a measure of weight; 2.2 pounds equals 1 kg. (n)

—enclosure for stray animals (n)

—crush as with a pestle (v)

—walk or run heavily (v)

—beat with fists (v) foot

—end part of leg beginning at the ankle (n)

—step, pace, tread (n)

—infantry soldiers (n)

—lower end of bed (n)

—unit of length (n)

—lower, usually projecting, part of something (n)

MATCH

—person equal to another in some quality (n)

—contest of skill (n) —matrimonial alliance (n)

—short piece of wood tipped with combustible material (n)

—to pair one thing with its equal (v) race

—to compete in speed with (v)

—group of persons or animals connected by common descent (n)

—root of ginger (n)

—onward movement esp. water (n)

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

UNIT:9- THE WOLF-CHILDREN (L)—MIKE SAMUDA PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a a. Why do you think one of the men licked his lips?
ANSWER: a. One of the men licked his lips because he was nervous and his lips were dry with fright.              
QUESTION:b b. Why does the author say that demons lived in the ant-hill?
ANSWER:   b. People knew they were not wolves but did not know what they were, so they called them demons.
QUESTION:c             c. Write down four sentences from the first part of the passage which tell you that it is evening.
ANSWER:  c. Now in the gathering twilight,… Sunset was time for the demons to appear. The forest was bathed in a deep red glow from the setting sun. The first of the large fruit bats flapped past the waiting men.
QUESTION:d              d. How do we know that Mr Singh kept a diary of some sort?
ANSWER:        d. Mr Singh made notes so we know he kept a diary of some sort.
QUESTION:e                e. How do Mr Singh know that the children had been living with the wolves for a long time?
ANSWER: e. Mr Singh knew the children had been living with the wolves for a long time because both ran on all fours.
QUESTION:f          f. Why did the villagers refuse to help?
ANSWER: f. The villagers refused to help because they believed that evil spirits, not the children, were in the wolves’ home.
QUESTION: g. g. Why did the hunting party beat the ground in front of them?
ANSWER: g. The hunting party beat the ground to frighten the wolves out of their lair.
QUESTION: h h. Why did Mr Singh feel bitter and angry with himself?
ANSWER: h. Pupils will pick out sections. They need to be able to explain the reasons for their choices. The weaker pupils will learn a lot from listening to the better explanations given by others.
QUESTION: I i. Which parts of the passage create a sense of suspense and how? Make your own observations and then share them with the others in class.                 
ANSWER:  

2. EXPLAIN THE ITALICIZED WORDS AND PHRASES IN YOUR OWN WORDS.

Pupils will use their own words. Let them do this, then discuss their suggestions. The weaker pupils will learn a lot from listening to the better explanations discuss in class.

a. attention was focused: focused is a word generally used with cameras and taking photographs. When something is in focus it is clear and detailed.

b. bathed is used in a metaphoric sense. We generally bathe in water; here the whole scene is flooded with light from the setting sun. It is a good word to use in this context as we get a clear picture of what it was like.

c. stiffened: became apprehensive, showing they were scared, ready, alert, and uncomfortable!

d. bared her teeth: showed, revealed all her teeth by pulling back her lips (like an angry animal, warning off an enemy).

3. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT ONE QUICKLY SIGNALLED THEM NOT TO SHOOT.

a. Mr Singh

b. Two men, part of a group of five who agreed to go with Mr Singh

c. Two feral children, ‘demons,’ and some wolves have come out of the wolves’ lair.

d. He wrote in his notebook.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. DO YOU KNOW WHAT THESE ABBREVIATIONS STAND FOR?

April, Assistant, Avenue, Brothers, Certificate, December, Diploma, dozen February, July, Monday, Professor, Saturday, Society, University, miscellaneous

2. USE THE FOLLOWING WORDS IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN AND SAY WHICH PART OF SPEECH THEY ARE.

Pupils will write their own sentences. Watch out for where these adverbs are placed in the sentences. What part of speech are these words? They are all adverbs.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 1. USE THE FOLLOWING VERBS TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

Pupils will write their own sentences; make sure the verbs used transitively do have an object,

example: rides a horse, charged an amount, rest her head, played a game, is stopping me.

2. Supply suitable nouns which can be described by these adjectives.

a. a humid afternoon

b. a mature person c. a powerful wrestler

d. an adhesive resin

e. an excessive amount

f. an obsolete machine g. an ancient building

h. a spectacular display

i. a defective rifle

Pronouns

Discuss pronouns and recall what the pupils have already learnt about various other categories of pronouns.

1. USE A RELATIVE PRONOUN TO COMBINE THESE SENTENCES.

a. The bus took the children to the cinema which was in the town.

b. These are the happy boys whose paintings were displayed in the exhibition.

c. This is Asif, who is a good pianist.

d. We went to see the patient who had malaria.

e. Give me the knife which I bought yesterday.

f. Sakina is the girl whom I spoke to you about.

 2. PUT SUITABLE RELATIVE PRONOUNS IN THE SPACES BELOW.

a. who

b. which

c. whose

d. which

e. whom

HOMOPHONES

UNIT: 10- THE WOLF-CHILDREN (LL)—MIKE SAMUDA PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a          a. Was Mrs Singh surprised by the children? How do we know?       
ANSWER:                a. Yes, she was surprised by them. She could ‘hardly believe her eyes’.
QUESTION:b b. How did the two children move about?
ANSWER:   b. The two children moved about on all fours. Sometimes they moved on their knees and elbows, but if they wanted to run, they used their feet and hands.
QUESTION:c             c. Why did the children drink milk by lapping it up with their tongues?
ANSWER:   c. Wolves drink by lapping with their tongues, and this was what the children had learnt, so they also lapped milk with their tongues.
QUESTION:d                d. In what ways did the children behave like animals?  
ANSWER:        d. They used their knees and elbows to move short distances; they used their hands and feet when running; they lapped milk from a dish; they howled and did not like being bathed; they crouched in the shade or stood motionless with their faces to the wall; they tried to escape and hurled themselves against the wall; they ate like wild animals, taking raw meat and liquids in a crouching position; they treated other children like wolf-cubs.
QUESTION:e                e. What did the Singhs decide to do and why?
ANSWER: e. The Singhs decided to keep the discovery of the wolf-girls a secret. They did not want people coming to see them out of curiosity.
QUESTION:f          f. Why did the girls become active only at night?
ANSWER: f. Wolves are active at night and sleepy during the day, and the girls were used to following this pattern of behaviour.
QUESTION: g.  
ANSWER: g. When Amala died, Kamala missed her greatly. She howled for many days and refused to eat. All she would do was sniff around for Amala’s scent.
QUESTION: h  
ANSWER: h. It took Kamala almost 9 years to learn about fifty words.
QUESTION: I  
ANSWER: i. Mrs Singh had to leave the orphanage because her aunt was ill.
QUESTION: j  
ANSWER: j. The important thing that Kamala learned was how to love a human being. This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: k. Pupils will give their own opinions and reasons.

2. USE WORDS AND PHRASES FROM THE PASSAGE TO COMPLETE THESE SENTENCES.

a. …believe her eyes.

 b. …discovery…

c. …preferred…

d. …behave like wolves

e. …upright.

f. …her old ways.

g. …writing up…

3. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

 a. His wife agreed that this was best for the girls. She agreed that keeping their discovery a secret was best for the girls in order to try and protect them from the townspeople.

b. This was far more difficult than Mrs Singh had imagined. i. That the girls thought they were wolves. The Singhs had to somehow get it across to them that they were humans. ii. Mrs Singh deliberately played with the other children in front of Kamala and Amala; she gave them toys to play with; and then, after Amala died, she persevered with Kamala, showing her patience and kindness.

c. Mrs Singh had to rush over and rescue him from their playful attack. i. One little orphan boy ii. He tried to make friends with the wolf-girls. iii. They treated him like a wolf-cub and attacked him playfully.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. USE A DICTIONARY TO FIND THE MEANINGS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS.

orphanage—institution which cares for children with no parents

miracle—marvellous event due to some supernatural agency e

cho—repetition of sound by reflection of sound waves

lap (v)—take up liquid by scooping with the tongue

deliberate (v)—consider carefully, intentional, not impulsive

progress (n)—forward or onward movement

setback (v)—impede or reverse progress

respond—give an answer

faltering—stumbling, staggering, unsteady

mourn—feel sorrow or regret for the dead

2. USE THE WORDS IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

3

4. GIVE THE OPPOSITES OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS.

VERBS

a. to succeed/fail

b. to hinder/help

c. to oppose/support

d. to increase/decrease

NOUNS

 a. amateur/professional

b. arrival/departure

c. danger/safety

d. lies/truth

e. wealth/poverty

ADJECTIVES

a. common/rare

b. negative/positive

c. delicate/hardy

d. stale/fresh

e. tame/wild

ADVERBS

a. everywhere/nowhere

b. fast/slow

c. frequently/infrequently

d. early/late

e. always/never

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. Pick out the verbs in the following and say whether they are in the active or the passive voice.

a. looked—active

b. ate—active; were locked—passive

c. was given—passive d. boiled—active

e. arrived—active; was being cleaned—passive

f. filled—active

2. CHANGE THE FOLLOWING FROM THE ACTIVE TO THE PASSIVE VOICE.

a. The children were scolded by the teacher.

b. The troops were ordered by the general to retreat.

c. The musicians were asked to play by me.

d. Mt. Everest was conquered by Sir Edmund Hillary, the mountaineer.

e. The world speed record was broken by Kashif’s new racing car.

f. The rubbish was thrown over the garden wall by the cleaners.

g. Thousands of people were helped by Dr Khan’s invention.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: THE WAY THROUGH THE WOODS— RUDYARD KIPLING PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. What is hidden in the woods?
ANSWER:                a. An old road that was shut seventy years ago is hidden in the woods.
QUESTION:b b. How is it hidden?
ANSWER:   b. Weather, rain, and plants have hidden it.
QUESTION:c             c. Why do the animals ‘fear not men in the woods?
ANSWER:   c. The animals do not fear men in the woods because they see so few of them.
QUESTION:d                   d. What mysterious sounds might you hear in the woods?
ANSWER:        d. Mysterious sounds you might hear in the woods are: an otter whistling to its mate, the beat of a horse’s feet, and the swish of a skirt in the dew.
QUESTION:e                e.Does he poem have a rhyme scheme?
ANSWER: e. Yes. The rhyming scheme is: a b c b / a d e d / d a (not quite!) d a a b c b / a d e d / d f d a /a
QUESTION:f          f. How is the word anemones pronounced?
ANSWER: f. Pupils should look up the word in a dictionary. (an/em/en/eez)
QUESTION: g. g. Where might the road have led? Why do you think it became disused?
ANSWER: g. Pupils will give their own answers and guess where the road led and why the road may have been closed. A possible clue is in the line: ‘You will hear the beat of a horse’s feet, and the swish of a skirt in the dew.’ Who was riding along this road and what happened? Was there an accident or did some unfortunate incident take place?
QUESTION: h h. Do you like the poem? Can you say?
ANSWER: h. Pupils will give their own opinions.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. Weather and rain have undone it again

i. the road through the woods

ii. They shut it.

iii. Now you would never know that there was once a road through the woods. Trees have been planted; it is overgrown; badgers and other animals roll about over where it once passed.

b. As though they perfectly knew The old lost road through the woods…

 i. The horse and rider – are they real?

ii. went through the woods

iii. Pupils will say whether they think they are or were real and why they think that

3. Underline the stressed syllables in the following words. Say them aloud first.

 colour

honest

never

admit

 about

awake

instant

 control

avoid

 human

 people

 insect

 complete

 below

 table

4. DIVIDE THE FOLLOWING WORDS INTO SYLLABLES AND MARK THE SYLLABLES THAT ARE STRESSED.

 dis-play-ed,

 sand-al-wood,

ma-gic-ians,

peace-ful-ly,

un-time-ly,

hor-ri-ble,

max-i-mum,

pos-sib-le,

distress,

dis-tress-ing

5. READ THE LIST CAREFULLY AND DIVIDE THE WORDS INTO TWO GROUPS ACCORDING TO THEIR VOWEL SOUND.

 Short medial vowel sound:

 bread tread stead read lead dead ready wealth health meant deaf death spread

Long medial vowel sound:

bead read lead bean mean cream team beam lean dream These can be in either group, depending on the context and meaning: read lead

B WORKING WITH WORDS

Singular and plural nouns

1. WRITE DOWN THE PLURALS OF THE FOLLOWING NOUNS. THE NUMBERS BELOW REFER TO THE GROUPS IN THE LIST OF RULES.

i. views, beliefs, nieces, receipts, jokes, bridges, widths, cliffs, storeys

ii. flashes, taxes, gases

iii. keys, directories, families, fairies, duties, companies

iv. zoos, potatoes, cargoes

v. shelves

vi. mice

2. FIND OUT THE PLURAL FORMS OF THE FOLLOWING.

 spoonfuls, cupfuls, crises, bases, formulae (formulas), apparatuses, brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law Pupils should consult a dictionary.

Here are some ways of forming the plural, with examples.

Regular plural forms,

-s, -es: boys, beds, tails, shirts, bands, books, trays, shadows, horses, edges, prizes, couches, buses, masses, inches

-y becomes -ie: spies, poppies, babies, hobbies, ladies, cries

-y becomes -ys: bays, days, ospreys -f or

-fe becomes -ves: calves, hooves, shelves, wives, thieves, wolves, loaves

men, firemen, teeth, mice, geese, children, oxen, lice, feet, women

-o becomes -os: autos, kilos, photos, solos, tattoos, studios, videos, zoos, kangaroos

-o becomes -oes: echoes, potatoes, torpedoes, tomatoes, heroes, vetoes No change for the plural: deer, fish, offspring, cod, perch (and other types of fish), sheep Some are already in the plural: crossroads, barracks, headquarters, gallows, means, species, series

-a becomes -ae or -as amoebae/amoebas, formulae/formulas, larvae, vertebrae, antennae/antennas

 -us becomes -i: alumni, cacti, foci, nuclei, stimuli, syllabi/syllabuses, octopi/octopuses

-um becomes -a: addendum/addenda, curriculum/curricula, datum/data, medium/media

-ex and ix becomes -ices or -xes: apices/apexes, appendices/appendixes, indices/indexes

-is becomes -es: analyses, axes, bases, diagnoses, crises, theses, oases

-on becomes -a: phenomena, criteria, automata

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

AUXILIARY VERBS

1. PICK OUT THE AUXILIARY VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING:

a. is

b. are

c. will be

d. have

e. was, were

 f. have

g. will have been

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: 11- SNAKES ON THE LOOSE PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. How can you find out what happened on the day you were born?
ANSWER:                a. You can find out about what happened on the day you were born by looking back through old newspapers or searching on the Internet
QUESTION:b b. Which singer was born and which singer died on 16 September?
ANSWER:   b. On 16 September, 1977, opera singer Maria Callas died, aged 53.
QUESTION:c             c. What is Wall Street and what happened there in 1920?
ANSWER:   c. Wall Street is a street in New York where the stock exchange and major banks are located. On 16 September 1920, a bomb exploded there, killing 38 people.
QUESTION:d                   d. Which tragic events occurred on 16 September during the years listed?
ANSWER:        d. The following tragic events occurred on 16 September in the years listed: 1920: A bomb on Wall Street kills 38 people. 1951: A stunt plane crashes in the USA, killing 19 people. 1978: An earthquake kills 26,000 people in Iran. 1986: A major fire in a gold mine in South Africa kills 175 miners. 2004: After causing havoc in Jamaica, Granada, and Cuba, hurricane Ivan lashes the Gulf Coast of the USA killing 45. 2007: A plane crash in Thailand causes 90 deaths.
QUESTION:e                e. Where precisely is the village of Shijiao?
ANSWER: e. Shijiao Township is in the Chongqing municipality in southwestern China.
QUESTION:f          f. Were the snakes captured or killed?
ANSWER: f. Most of the snakes were captured or killed. Some are unaccounted for.
QUESTION: g. g. Where were the snakes being kept, why, and by whom?
ANSWER: g. The snakes were being kept in an abandoned schoolhouse. They were being kept there in order to breed them so that they could be sold. A man named Cai Yong admitted to running the ‘illegal breeding factory’.
QUESTION: h h. What is a tourniquet? How might it prove to be helpful in the case of a snakebite?
ANSWER: h. A tourniquet is a tight bandage to temporarily stop the flow of blood; it might prove useful in the case of a snakebite because it stops the venom spreading until anti-venom can be administered.
QUESTION: I i. Who is Mr Yan and how does he come into the report?
ANSWER: i. Mr Yan is a country official who gave a statement to say that no one had been injured and the majority of the snakes had been rounded up. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: j j. Which report, in your view, is the best? Say why.
ANSWER: j. Pupils will give their own views. To help them they should recall their contributions to the While reading question.
QUESTION: K.  k. Why do you think the breeder was ‘given a break’? What does this mean?
ANSWER: k. Given a break means given accommodating treatment. The breeder was ‘given a break’ because the snakes didn’t do much harm or cost the government much money, and they cost a lot to raise, so the government did not punish him.

2. READ THE FOUR NEWS REPORTS AGAIN, THEN ANSWER THE FOLLOWING.

a. The cobras were found in outdoor toilets, in people’s kitchens, and on the streets.

b. Report 3.

c. The breeder escaped punishment because no one was harmed and the incident did not cost the government much money, but because the villagers were frightened, they might have felt that the breeder deserved some punishment.

d. Allow the pupils time to discuss and compare the headlines. Report 4 is the most sensational: it uses the word ‘terror’ which exaggerates the events. Reports 1 and 2 are similar – they both use the word ‘deadly’ to describe the cobras. All the headlines report the escape and potential danger in order to grab our attention, even though the incident was resolved quickly. Report 3 includes the words ‘illegal lab’ which provides more information (sensational/exaggerated information).

e. Report 4 gives us a good idea about why Cai Yong decided to breed cobras: there is a rising demand for cobra meat and traditional medicines made from the venom, so breeding cobras is tempting because the breeder can make lots of money.

3. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. It came up with the answer: 12 April 1954.

i. A computer programmed by a scientist in Cambridge came up with it.

ii. The question it was trying to answer was ‘Which day since 1900 was the most boring day?’.

iii. The answer was ironic because now that day has become significant as a result of people knowing that nothing happened on that day.

b. Some of them suggest that government officials had to convene them ….

i. The villagers.

ii. They were not as forgiving as the government had been towards the illegal breeder.

iii. They were told how to avoid being bitten and how to treat a wound if bitten. Get pupils to explain to each other how to avoid being bitten and how to treat a wound.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. Use the following in sentences of your own. Find the meanings of the difficult words in a dictionary. Pupils will form their own sentences.

 tragedy – an event resulting in great loss or misfortune allay the fear – relieve, calm, or pacify the fear

terrorizing – creating and maintaining a state of extreme fear in someone

significance – importance lucrative

source – something that produces a profit

abandoned – some place or thing which is no longer being used

rounded up – brought together or gathered in from various places

identified – established who or what someone or something is

convene – bring or come together for a meeting illicit

operations – unlawful activities; illegal activities

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH APPROPRIATE WORDS FROM THE LIST BELOW. USE EACH WORD ONCE ONLY.

a. boosting

b. tourniquet

c. catastrophe decimated

d. havoc

e. illicit penalized

f. breeding

3. What do the following abbreviations stand for? Three are used in the passage about snakes. Can the pupils identify the ones used in the passage?

p.m. – post meridiem

P.O. – Post Office

Pres. – President

WBA – World Boxing Association

Rev. – Reverend

AFP – Agence France Press

Sci. – Science

SE – South East

Sept. – September

sq. – square

PG – Parental Guidance

SW – South West

CNN – Cable News Network

Tues. – Tuesday

TV – television

VIP – Very Important Person

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

PREPOSITIONS

1. PICK OUT THE PREPOSITIONS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

 a. up —connects cat (n) and tree (n)

b. into —connects bus (n) and garage (n)

c. to —connects Ali and Faiz (n) and cinema (n)

d. under —connects thermometer (n) and patient’s tongue (n)

 e. between —connects train (n) and the two towns (n)

ADJECTIVES AND PREPOSITIONS

2. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH THE CORRECT PREPOSITIONS.

a. to b. by c. of d. at e. by f. of g. of

NOUNS

3. UNDERLINE THE NOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING.

a. The elephant rose to its feet.

 b. The rose on the bush was large.

c. The rose bush grew in the back garden.

d. The water was taken from the tank.

e. It is the gardener who has to water the plants.

 f. The water tank is near the wall.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT: A HERITAGE OF TREES —DAVID HORSBURGH PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a          a. What does attack  How was the man ‘attacking’ the tree?      
ANSWER: a. Attack means to assault or to set upon savagely. The man was hacking down the tree.              
QUESTION:b b. Which words in  tell us that the poet admires trees’?
ANSWER:   b. There you’ll see a tragic sight. A line of noble trees Those noble trees Let all enjoy them Trees are our heritage
QUESTION:c             c. Which words  and phrases In the poem tell us that the poet feels that trees have been misused or hurt by men?
ANSWER:   c. Attack a tree tragic sight Mutilated branches ripped Untimely from their trunks wounded, lacerated Cripples some have died scabs and scars
QUESTION:d       d. Why do you think is meant by the poet says, ‘Let them come now  to look once more on their life’s work”?             
ANSWER:        d. The poet means that those kings and kind people who lovingly planted trees in the past should now come and see what is happening to their trees. They would be very upset.
QUESTION:e            e. What do you think is meant by the phrase ‘More peaceful shade’? Where is this shade’?   
ANSWER: e. More peaceful shade refers to where these people have gone. They are now dead, and if there is life after death, then they are enjoying a more peaceful shade somewhere in heaven.
QUESTION:f     f. What do you understand by the last time?      
ANSWER: f. Trees have been planted (either naturally or by some kind person in the past) and they have been left in our care. They have been passed down from generation to generation in the form of an inheritance. heritage: 1. property inherited; an inheritance 2. something passed down from past generations; a tradition 3. the status acquired by a person through birth; a birthright All this implies that we should take good care of something that has been left to us.
QUESTION: g. g. Do you think the incomplete sentences in the poem add to the impact or lessen the impact of  the poem?
ANSWER: g. Pupils will give their own views and reasons for them.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS TAKEN FROM THE POEM.

a. attack

b. tragic

c. royal/noble d. untimely

e. defied

f. patronage

g. heritage

2. WORK OUT THE ANAGRAMS AND WRITE THE WORDS IN COLUMN B. MATCH THE WORDS IN B WITH WORDS OF THE OPPOSITE MEANING IN C.

a. repair/damage

b. work/idleness

c. untimely/opportunely

 d. plant/uproot

e. peaceful/turbulent

f. sweet/hateful

g. holy/wicked

h. noble/undignified

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. UNDERLINE THE PHRASES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. SAY WHETHER THEY ARE ADJECTIVE PHRASES OR ADVERB PHRASES. DISCUSS THE VARIOUS TYPES OF PHRASES, AND ASK PUPILS TO SUPPLY EXAMPLES. UNDERLINE THE PHRASES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

 a. in a modern way—adverbial phrase

b. of great talent—adjective phrase

c. with very little vegetation in it—adjective phrase

d. at the correct time—adverbial phrase

e. with yellow and gold marks on it—adjective phrase

 f. at my sister’s house—adverbial phrase

g. at great cost—adverbial phrase

h. made of gold—adjective phrase

2. USE THESE ADJECTIVE PHRASES IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN. PUPILS WILL WRITE THEIR OWN SENTENCES.

3. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES REPLACING THE ADVERBS WITH ADVERBIAL PHRASES.

a. The boys behaved in a rude manner.

b. The manager served me with promptness.

c. The woman spoke to the boys in a kind way.

d. Asad went to that place.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Read the passage about Abdul Sattar Edhi at the end of the student’s book. Pupils may already have read it. Pupils should listen to it carefully with their books closed. During the second reading, pupils may make some notes of the information they think is of importance.

ANSWERS:

1. The Edhi Foundation runs clinics, blood banks, orphanages, maternity homes, homes for the physically and mentally challenged, a cancer hospital, and mobile dispensaries.

2. Edhi’s mother suffered from diabetes.

3. Edhi’s mother gave him two paise to spend each day, one on himself and the other on a needy person.

4. The Edhi Foundation works in Pakistan and in other countries. 132 1

5. As a youth, Edhi showed his generosity by giving his friend half the money his mother gave him each day. He set up a dispensary; he encouraged his friends to give free lessons in literacy to those who could not read; he cared for his mother in her illness; he set up many caring organizations for the poor and needy; he drove one of his ambulances himself.

6. Edhi received the Nishan-e-Imtiaz, the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service, the Lenin Peace Prize, and many other awards and honours, including an honorary doctorate from the Institute of Business Administration in Karachi.

7. He worked for the good of others, wore simple clothes of homespun cotton, swept his own room, and prayed every day.

Which of the following statements is true? 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. F

UNIT: 12- UNCLE PODGER HANGS A PICTURE—JEROME K. JEROME PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. How do we first  Uncle Podger does not do things in a very organized  manner? 
ANSWER: a. When Uncle Podger sends the girl out for nails, he forgets to tell her what size. He has to send one of the boys after her. This is when we first learn that he is not organized.              
QUESTION:b b. What are the tws that the ‘girl’ has to doll
ANSWER:   b. The girl has to get sixpen’orth of nails and a bit of picture cord.
QUESTION:c             c. How does Uncle Podger lose his coat and then find it again?
ANSWER:   c. Uncle Podger loses his coat because he is sitting on it, and only finds it again when he stands up.
QUESTION:d            d. Uncle Podger  much credit to his  Give two examples to show this      
ANSWER:        d. Uncle Podger says—‘Might just as well ask the cat to find anything as expect you people to find it’. Later he says ‘Great heavens! Seven of you gaping round there and you don’t know what I did with the hammer!’ These examples show that Uncle Podger does not give much credit to his helpers.
QUESTION:e                e. Which statement s that the narrator does not think much of Uncle Podger’s intelligence? 
ANSWER: e. ‘When the old fool was leaning over the chair at an angle of forty-five and trying to reach a point three inches beyond what was possible for him to reach,’ tells us the author does not think much of Uncle Podger’s intelligence.
QUESTION:f          f. How long didn’t, it take Uncle Podger to hang the picture? How long does Aunt Podger  think it will take him hang it up?
ANSWER: f. It took Uncle Podger most of the day and half the night to hang the picture. Auntie Podger thinks it may take him a week. This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION: g. g. By his actions and words Uncle Podger to hang the picture? How long does Aunt Podger short assessment of his character?
ANSWER: g. Pupils can use their answers to a – f and further examples from the text to do this. They should discuss it first so that they can ensure their written response is succinct.

2. READ THROUGH THE PASSAGE AGAIN AND MAKE A LIST OF THE VARIOUS THINGS THAT GO WRONG.

Podger tries to save the glass and cuts himself.

He loses his handkerchief. He drops the nail.

He loses the hammer.

He loses sight of the mark on the wall.

Trying to do a sum in his head drives him mad.

He forgets the original number.

While using a piece of string to measure, he falls off the chair onto the piano.

After that he smashes his thumb with the hammer.

At the second attempt he drives the nail and hammer into the wall.

This nearly flattens his nose.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. MATCH THE WELL-KNOWN IDIOMS IN A WITH THEIR MEANINGS B.

a—3 b—5 c—2 d—1 e—6 f—4

SIMILES

 2. THESE SIMILES ARE ALL WRONG! CAN YOU REWRITE THEM USING THE WORDS GIVEN BELOW SO THAT THEY MAKE GOOD SENSE?

a. as agile as a monkey

b. as bright as a lark/peacock

c. as faithful as a dog/hound

d. as slow as a snail

e. as timid as a mouse

 f. as clumsy as an elephant Hy

3. LOOK THROUGH THE READING PASSAGE AND FIND WORDS WITH HYPHENS.

frame-maker, dining-room, step-ladder, kitchen-chair, spirit-level, picture-cord, semi-circle, thirty-one, forty-five

4. USE THE FOLLOWING IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN. PUPILS WILL FORM THEIR OWN SENTENCES.

5. Where will you add a hyphen to make these sentences correct?

a. A green-fingered gardener…

b. The top-heavy sack …

c. …with a hair-raising trick.

d. His brother-in-law was a hard-working office manager.

e. …has left-wing ideas.

 C Learning about language

 1. Change the following sentences from the present continuous tense to the past continuous tense. Add a suitable time phrase to each sentence.

a. The captain was shouting at his crew this morning.

b. The workers were on strike last week. (The workers were striking last week.)

c. Yesterday, the customer was complaining about the slow service.

d. This morning, Shiraz was waiting patiently to see the doctor.

e. Manzoor was helping his father build a house last year.

2. CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES FROM THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE TO THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE.

a. Tomorrow the gardener will be watering the plants with a hosepipe.

b. Tonight, Atif will be entertaining us with his songs.

c. Next Sunday, policemen will be checking driving licences on the highway.

d. The participants in the race will be motoring across the desert next month.

e. Next year, the ship will be sailing between Karachi and Singapore.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 MAKING A PRESENTATION

UNIT: THE CLOTHES LINE—CHARLOTTE DRUITT COLE PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. what is the subject of the poem?
ANSWER: a. The poem is about clothes drying and flapping on a clothes line and about a handkerchief that blows away.              
QUESTION:b b.Make a list of the things the poet compares the clothes?
ANSWER:   b. flipping and flapping like fluttering creatures, white as snow, capering and prancing like restive horses, dancing like fairy-tale witches, flying like a bird, like a sail in the sun
QUESTION:c             c.Which words describe the movement of the clothes ? Can you find ten?
ANSWER:   c. dance, hither and thither, to and fro, flip, flap, flop, fluttering, caper, prance, shiver, skip, struggling, flew,…
QUESTION:d                   d. In what way dothe clothes resemble witches?
ANSWER:        d. The clothes resemble witches in the way they dance wildly.
QUESTION:e           e. Which item of clothing flew like a bird? What happened to it?
ANSWER: e. The poet’s handkerchief flew like a bird. It danced excitedly, and struggled till it was free, then, leaving pegs and clothes line behind, it flew like a bird, and no one can find it. The poet guesses that the handkerchief may be in some ditch or drowned in the sea.
QUESTION:f          f. Explain the difference in meaning of the words : flip, flap, and flop. Use the words in three sentences to bring out the difference in meaning.
ANSWER: f. flip: throw or toss with a brisk motion; turn over or around; move in twists and turns flap: move with a fluttering motion; move or sway while fixed at one end flop: fall down or land heavily; move about limply or loosely

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. Use the following in sentences of your own.

Pupils should use the words in sentences that are grammatically correct. 1 143

2. WHAT ARE THE MISTAKES IN THE FOLLOWING? PUPILS SHOULD FIRST CORRECT THE MISTAKES AND THEN USE THE PHRASES CORRECTLY IN SENTENCES.

a. is departing for foreign (shores)/is going abroad

b. in two or three days

c. you all know (know, see, and other sense verbs are not used with the present continuous.

e.. I see that…, I observe that…, I know that…, I hear that… NOT I am seeing that… I am knowing that…, etc.)

d. his wife cooked well (nice and nicely are overworked words, and misused)

 e. with both men and women/ gentlemen and ladies/ with gentlemen and ladies too (No need for repetition)

 f. to improve her prospects (prospects means ‘something expected; a possibility’: it is used in the plural.)

g. will sum up (a formal way of ending an official meeting; Mr Ahmed is going to say a few words in conclusion. not sum up.)

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

CLAUSE

1. PICK OUT THE CLAUSES IN THE FOLLOWING AND SAY WHETHER THEY ACT AS NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, OR ADVERBS.

a. where it was cool— noun clause

b. because he won the lottery— adverb clause

c. which is not very difficult— adjective clause

d. what I heard— noun clause

e. who robs banks— adjective clause Tenses:

3. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING. USE THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE. PUPILS WILL COMPLETE THE SENTENCES IN THEIR OWN WORDS. EXAMPLES:

a. He was coming round the corner…

b. While Kabir was cleaning the car…

c. As he was walking across the courtyard in the dark…

d. While the woman was feeding the child…

e. I was making no noise at all but the baby woke up!

D Listening and speaking .

  1. Read this list quickly. Are the ‘o’s short or long? Be careful! Concentrate on the vowel sounds.

Short :

 foot, rook, shook, crook, took, look, brook, book, cook Long : fool, soon, stool, pool, tool, spoon, cool, drool, moon 2 and 3. Read this list of past participles aloud. Note that the pronunciation of the final

–ed is not the same for all the words.

Do you think you pronounced all the endings correctly?

—d —id —t

reigned seated tricked

 wrinkled crooked booked

pickled wicked walked

 bottled knighted hooked

drowned haunted picked

dared darted stopped

 failed salted dropped

UNIT: 13- MANGOES PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a               a. How does Mrs Asghar get the children to return to their homework?  
ANSWER: a. Mrs Asghar gets the children to return to their homework by telling them that their father will be most dissatisfied when he gets home and finds that they have not done their work. She reminds them what will happen then.              
QUESTION:b b. What kind  of homework is Nina doing?
ANSWER:   b. Nina is obviously doing her maths homework because she wants to know the answer to a multiplication sum.
QUESTION:c             c. Which words with double meanings are used in the play by the characters?
ANSWER:   c. Right, Left, arm/aam, cheap/cheep, sweet, harmless/aamless/armless/harmful, man go/mango, leave
QUESTION:d                   d. What makes Aslam return to the window?
ANSWER:        d. The temptation to see the mangoes draws Aslam to the window again.
QUESTION:e                e. Does lhe Mango Seller speak correct English? What mistakes does he make?
ANSWER: e. The Mango seller does speak standard English, apart from a couple of mistakes; the repetition of ‘much’, and ‘… and that man going round with a knife!’
QUESTION:f          f. What does the Mango Seller find amusing? Give two examples.
ANSWER: f. The Mango seller laughs loudly when he understands Aslam’s pun on the words aam/armless, harm/harmless. He giggles later when he hears the same joke again. And finally, he laughs when he says that Mrs Asghar is not buying mangoes from him and Majid is going round with a knife.
QUESTION: g. g.Why does Mr Asghar think that everybody has gone mad?
ANSWER: g. Mr Asghar thinks that everybody has gone mad because he cannot get a straight answer to any of his questions and all the members of his household, including Majid, are behaving very strangely.
QUESTION: h h. Why does Mrs Asghar collapse in the end?
ANSWER: h. Mrs Asghar collapses in the end because there has been complete confusion in the house. She has been shocked by Majid, thinking that he is going to kill the Mango seller with a knife.

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT THEN HOW CAN WE SET THE DOG ON HIM?

a. Mr Asghar speaks these words to Mrs Asghar.

b. Mr Asghar asks this question because Mrs Asghar has just reported to him that she told the Mango seller to leave, otherwise she would set the dog on him.

c. Mrs Asghar, in order to get rid of the Mango seller, tells him that she will set the dog on him. Nina asks her, ‘What dog?’, and says that they have a cat but not a dog. A little later, Mrs Asghar tells the Mango seller that they may not have a dog, but that they have a strong servant, who is then summoned. d. Mr Asghar does not get an answer to the question. (But Mrs Asghar has already explained why she had used the threat.)

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND THE MEANINGS OF THESE WORDS, THEN MAKE UP WORDS WITH THE OPPOSITE MEANINGS.

 a. dishonourable

b. unambitious

c. uncivilized

d. dissatisfied

e. impatient

f. unfaithful

g. impossible

h. disappearance

 2. USE THESE WORDS IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

PUPILS SHOULD LOOK UP THE MEANING OF ANY WORD THEY DO NOT KNOW, AND THEN USE THE WORDS IN SENTENCES.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

THE PERFECT TENSES

1. USE THE PERFECT TENSES FOR THE VERBS GIVEN IN BRACKETS AND COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING:

 a. had eaten

b. have studied

c. had learnt

d. have (never) told

e. had drunk

f. will have spoken

g. will have finished

2. MAKE FOUR SENTENCES FROM THE WORDS GIVEN (IN BRACKETS). USE THE FIRST VERB IN THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE AND THE SECOND IN THE PAST PERFECT TENSE.

Examples:

a. When I arrived, he had already prepared the meal.

b. By the time she got to the theatre, the play had already begun.

c. Since I took my father to see the bicycle in the shop, they had increased the price.

d. I passed him in the street, but did not recognize him because he had grown a beard.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

==========================ALHAMDOLILLAH===================

NOTES NEW OXFORD MODREN ENGLISH 1 BY Nicholas Horsburgh Claire Horsburgh 3RD EDITION 2019

NOTES NEW OXFORD MODREN ENGLISH 1 BY Nicholas Horsburgh Claire Horsburgh 3RD EDITION 2019

CONTENTS

Page Detailed Contents Sr
  ANWAR’S DREAM  
  MY CAT  
  2. THE LUCKY LEAF  
  THE MULBERRY BUSH  
  3. AT THE FARM  
  UP AND DOWN  
  4. GRANDMA  
  CAT IN A HAT  
  5. ON THE BUS  
  THE EARTH IS ROUND  
  6. THE DRONE  
  SUN AND MOON  
  7. CLEVER FOX AND GREEDY WOLF  
  GLOW-WORMS  
  8. MOIZ LIKES READING  
  NOW WE ARE SIX  
  9. THE NAUGHTY MONKEY  
  TO BED  
  10. TELL ME ABOUT GRANDFATHER  
  LITTLE RAINDROPS  
  11. THE RAIN  
  LIMERICKS  
  12. KABIR’S COMPUTER  
  OFF TO THE ZOO  
  13. THE HOUSE OF SAND  
  BE  
     

UNIT: ANWAR’S DREAM  PAGE: 2-8

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
         QUESTION: a Where is Anwar?
ANSWER:         a. Anwar is in his garden.
QUESTION:b             What is Anwar counting?
ANSWER:   b. Anwar is counting ants.
QUESTION:c          Where are the ants?
ANSWER: c. The ants are climbing a dead tree.  
QUESTION:d       What sounds does Anwar make?
ANSWER: d. Anwar makes these sounds: ZZZZ, Ouch! Ouch! Ouch! and Ow! Ow! Ow!. He also counts.
QUESTION:e          What happens to Anwar?
ANSWER: e. He falls asleep and has a dream. Then he wakes up because he is being bitten by ants.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 The indefinite articles ‘a’ and ‘an’. Copy the words from Exercise B.1 into your notebook. Write a or an before the name of each thing.

 a garden

 under

a banana

a leaf

 looking

an ant

climbing

dead

counting

 nodding

 closing

an eye

thinking

sleeping

a dream

a present

 a mother

a branch

chopping

an axe

falls

shouts

 wakes

biting

a dance

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: MY CAT  PAGE: 9-12

A Understanding the poem:

  1. Talk about the following with your teacher.
QUESTION:a         Is Rish male or female? (‘male’ is the word for a boy or man, ‘female’ is the word for a girl or woman.)
ANSWER:                     Rish is male.    
QUESTION:b                 Does Rish have hair or fur? What is it like?
ANSWER:       Rish does have fur. It is white.
QUESTION:c                   What does Rish do in the house?
ANSWER:               Rish hunts in the house.               Rish walks in the house.
QUESTION:d                   What do you think Rish does outside the house?
ANSWER:                       Rish hunts outside the house.  
QUESTION:e              Is Rish clever?
ANSWER:           Yes. Rish is clever.  
QUESTION:f                  In your own words, say what Rish is like. 
ANSWER:           Rish is clever.

(B) WORKING WITH WORDS
Can you hunt Like Rish?

Find the words. They are all in the poem. The letters
are jumbled.

   
tac  
usome  
ruf  
 yalp  
shif  
shunt  
ushoe  
mane  
ANSWERS: 1. cat 2. mouse 3.fur  4. play 5. fish 6. hunts 7. house 8. name

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 LOOK AT THE PICTURES AND COMPLETE THE SENTENCES USING THE CORRECT PREPOSITION GIVEN IN THE BOX ON PAGE 10.

a. Anwar is on the log.

 b. Anwar is climbing up the tree.

c. The leaf is falling down.

d. The ant is under the leaf.

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: 2. THE LUCKY LEAF  PAGE: 13-18

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. what does Rahila lose?
ANSWER: a. Rahila loses her golden bangle.       
QUESTION:b             b. Where does Rahila sit?
ANSWER:   b. Rahila sits under the wood-apple tree, next to the wall.
QUESTION:c          c. What does Rahila do?
ANSWER:  c. Rahila counts the falling leaves. (She does many things so discuss these too.)
QUESTION:d              d. Where does the leaf fig’?
ANSWER: d. The leaf dances up and down—left and right. It turns and turns! It spins like a top. It climbs high above the roof!
QUESTION:e          e. Where does the leaf full’?
ANSWER: e. The leaf falls into a hole at the side of a rosebush.
QUESTION:f          f. Whg does Rahila Laugh?
ANSWER: f. Rahila laughs because she is happy that she has found her bangle.

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

 a. Rahila

b. One leaf

c. blows

d. up/left

e. picks

B WORKING WITH WORDS

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: THE MULBERRY BUSH  PAGE: 19-22

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  who is speaking in the poem?
ANSWER: a. Children. Because they are telling us what they do every day; they are dancing, they are singing.       
QUESTION:b             what jobs do the children have‘?
ANSWER:   b. washing, ironing,
QUESTION:c          What do the children do on Tuesday?
ANSWER:  c. iron their clothes
QUESTION:d              How many days are there in one week?
ANSWER: d. seven (What are those days?)

B WORKING WITH WORDS

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  3. AT THE FARM PAGE: 23-28

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  a. where are the children?
ANSWER: a. They are on a farm.       
QUESTION:b             b.Who is playing with the kittens?
ANSWER:   b. Maryam is playing with the kittens.
QUESTION:c          c. What is the dog doing?
ANSWER:  c. The dog is barking (at the cat).
QUESTION:d              d. Why ore the chickens looking for worms’?
ANSWER: d. They are hungry.
QUESTION:e          e. Where are the lambs’?
ANSWER: e. The lambs are playing in the field.
QUESTION:f          f. What are the cows eating?
ANSWER: f. The cows are eating grass.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. MAKE SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN USING THESE WORDS.

2. ADD –ING TO THE FOLLOWING ACTION WORDS

hitting

dipping

putting

cutting

fitting

 hopping

patting

sipping

rubbing

tapping

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 Put these words into the correct boxes.

THINGS: shoe tomato boy tooth desk pencil

ACTIONS: playing buy take sing rubbing see

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

2. Fill in the crossword below with words for vehicles.

Follow the picture clues given below. Pupils can work in pairs.

1. train

2. truck

3. car

4. van

5. bus

6. plane

7. boat

8. tram

9. auto

UNIT:  UP AND DOWN PAGE: 29-31

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  who do you think is speaking in the POEM?
ANSWER:         a. Possibly a teacher or a parent; but it could be a child telling another.
QUESTION:b             WHO is climbing the steps?
ANSWER:   b. Children.
QUESTION:c          How are the steps climbed?
ANSWER:  c. By hopping.
QUESTION:d              How do the children come down the steps?
ANSWER: d. By skipping and jumping.
QUESTION:e          What should the children be careful about?
ANSWER: e. They should go slow or they might slip; and on the way down they might fall with a bump.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. LOOK AT THE PICTURE. USE WORDS FROM THE POEM TO FILL IN THE BLANKS BELOW.

a. hopping

b. jumping

c. climbing

d. down the stairs

e. skipping

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  4. GRANDMA PAGE: 32-37

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  where is Grandma and what is she doing?
ANSWER: a. She is at home, in her rocking chair, rocking to and fro. She is thinking about having a nap.       
QUESTION:b             what noise is the rocking chair making?
ANSWER:   b. Creak, squeak, creak, squeak!
QUESTION:c          what noise is other things make?
ANSWER:  c. Pupils can suggest what they like: bang, boom, crack, swish, scrape, screech, howl, hiss, growl, rumble, thunder, squawk, whine, echo, etc. Suggest various animals or actions and get the pupils to suggest the noises that are produced.
QUESTION:d              why do the children giggle?
ANSWER: d. They are being cheeky and have decided to worry her with silly questions. They find her and the sound of the rocking chair very amusing.
QUESTION:e          what do the children ask Grandma?
ANSWER: e. They start by asking her for a sensible suggestion of what they might do to stop being bored. They end by asking whether she can dance, fly, jump over the moon, or ride a bicycle.
QUESTION:f          what does Grandma tell them?
ANSWER: f. She tells them they can do lots of things: they can do anything, write, read, play, sing, or dance.
QUESTION: g. why do the children run away?
ANSWER: g. Grandma tells them to go outside.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. TALK ABOUT THE PICTURES GIVEN BELOW. WHO IS DOING WHAT?

Arif is catching a fish.

The girls are playing (in a garden).

 Parveen is reading a book.

Mother is calling someone to talk to them.

Seema is buying a pair of shoes.

Mr Khan is driving a jeep.

2. LOOK AT THE PICTURES AGAIN. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

a. Yes, he is.

b. No, they are not.

c. No, she is not.

d. No, he is not. (It is a jeep!)

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: CAT IN A HAT PAGE: 38-41

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  Why do you think the cat is going to town?
ANSWER: a. To get a hat.       
QUESTION:b             ls the speaker surprised? How can we tell?
ANSWER:   b. Yes. We can tell because of the exclamations and questions, and the tone of the statements.
QUESTION:c          Where is the dog going? What is the dog going to do?
ANSWER:  c. The dog is going to town, to sit on a log.
QUESTION:d              Have you ever seen a mouse in a house’?
ANSWER: d. Pupils will give their own answers.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

3. FIND THE CORRECT WORDS. THE LETTERS ARE JUMBLED.

a. sten d. koob g. nep j. tra     m. keans nest book pen rat/art snake

b. kay e. nit      h. stev k. peje  n. wonwid yak tin vest jeep window

c. tike f. ozo     i. tma   l. nam  o. arumbell kite zoo mat man umbrella

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: 5. ON THE BUS PAGE: 42-46

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  where are the people on the bus going?
ANSWER: a. To Lahore       
QUESTION:b             what is MrsAli dreaming about?
ANSWER:   b. The Shalimar gardens – a quiet, peaceful, beautiful place.
QUESTION:c          why does the bus stop?
ANSWER:  c. The bus stops because a cow is blocking the road.
QUESTION:d              how do people try to make the cow move?
ANSWER: d. The people (get out of the bus and) shout at the cow.
QUESTION:e          how does Mrs Ali try to make the cow move?
ANSWER: e. Mrs Ali waves her umbrella.
QUESTION:f          What does the drive do?
ANSWER: f. The driver claps his hands.
QUESTION: g. who make the cow move? How?
ANSWER: g. Sahir makes the cow move by offering it some grass/food.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

WRITE SHORT ANSWERS FOR THESE QUESTIONS.

1.

a. ten

b. near the bus

c. in his seat

d. an umbrella

2.

a. yes, very fast

b. sleeping and dreaming about Shalimar gardens

c. in the road

d. no

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 2. FIND NAMING WORDS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

a. The TREE is near the HOUSE.

b. The DOG is near the TREE.

c. The CAT is on the BRANCH.

d. Where is the BIRD?

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: THE EARTH IS ROUND PAGE: 47-49

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  ln the poem where does the frog sit?
ANSWER: a. On a log       
QUESTION:b             ls the dog furry?
ANSWER:   b. Yes, it is shaggy (it has long, thick fur)
QUESTION:c          Do they go by car?
ANSWER:  c. No, the frog rides on the back of the dog
QUESTION:d              How long do they go for?
ANSWER: d. A whole day

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND WORDS WITH THE OPPOSITE MEANING IN THE POEM.

 a. come/go

b. sad/happy

c. always/never

 d. near/far

 e. night/day

2. MAKE SENTENCES USING THE WORDS GIVEN ABOVE AND THE WORDS YOU HAVE FOUND

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  6. THE DRONE PAGE: 50-55

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  How is Wasif’s Dad clever?
ANSWER: a. Wasif’s Dad is clever because he makes lots of useful things in his workshop.       
QUESTION:b             What did Dad clever?
ANSWER:   b. Dad made a drone.
QUESTION:c          how did Dad make ther drone comeback?
ANSWER:  c. A drone can fly, it can take photos and it can take a video.
QUESTION:d              what did Wasif shout? Why?
ANSWER: d. Wasif shouted, ‘Stop!’ because he saw Sheba, his cat.
QUESTION:e          where was Sheba?
ANSWER: e. Sheba was stuck in a tree.
QUESTION:f          what did Wasif think of the drone?
ANSWER: f. Wasif thought that the drone was a great machine

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. PUT THESE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER. WRITE THE SENTENCES IN YOUR NOTEBOOK.

a. Wasif’s Dad is very clever.

b. I will bring my cell phone.

c. Dad pressed some numbers.

d. I can see Sheba on a branch.

2. USE THESE WORDS IN SENTENCES.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: SUN AND MOON PAGE: 56-58

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  What shines like silver?
ANSWER: a. The moon       
QUESTION:b             What shines like gold?
ANSWER:   b. The sun
QUESTION:c          Who hung up the lantern?
ANSWER:  c. God
QUESTION:d              who can blow them out? Why not?
ANSWER: d. Nobody can blow them out.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. READ THE SENTENCES AND TURN THEM INTO QUESTIONS. WRITE THEM IN YOUR NOTEBOOK.

a. Can you blow them out?

b. Can a farmer plough a field?

c. Can a tiger catch a deer?

d. Can a horse sing?

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. MATCH THE WORDS IN COLUMN A TO THEIR OPPOSITES IN COLUMN B.

high/low good/bad bright/dull up/down big/small far/near

2. WORK WITH A FRIEND AND TRY TO MAKE UP SOME PAIRS OF YOUR OWN. THEY CAN BE THINGS THAT ARE THE SAME AS EACH OTHER OR THINGS THAT ARE OPPOSITES.

THE SAME:

bright/shiny big/strong easy/simple hot/burning wet/soaked dark/gloomy/dull weak/helpless quiet/silent

NOT THE SAME:

short/tall good/bad big/small odd/even near/far high/low noisy/quiet rough/smooth

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: 7. CLEVER FOX AND GREEDY WOLF  PAGE: 59-64

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  Who was clever? How was he clever?
ANSWER: a. The fox was clever. He knew that the greedy wolf would get stuck. He tricked the wolf.       
QUESTION:b             Who was greedy? How was he greedy?
ANSWER:   b. The wolf was greedy. He took more cakes than he needed.
QUESTION:c          Who could not get through the small window?
ANSWER:  c. The greedy wolf could not get through the small window because he ate lots of cakes and became too fat to fit through the window,
QUESTION:d              Why did the wolf want to eat the fox?
ANSWER: d. The wolf wanted to eat the fox because he was hungry.
QUESTION:e          What lesson do we learn from the story?
ANSWER: e. We learn that we should not be greedy

B WORKING WITH WORDS

MATCH THE WORDS IN COLUMN A WITH THE OPPOSITE MEANING IN COLUMN B.

sitting/standing

 inside/outside

 asleep/awake

more/less

dirty/clean

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. CHANGE THE FOLLOWING INTO QUESTIONS.

a. Did the wolf jump through the door?

b. Did the woman make some cakes?

c. Did the boy write a letter?

d. Did the girl read a book?

2. MAKE QUESTIONS OUT OF THESE SENTENCES.

 a. Does Mr Salman collect the money?

b. Does Mr Chips go to his workshop?

c. Does Mrs Smith live near the bank?

d. Does Mr Rehan make tables?

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  GLOW-WORMS PAGE:  65-67

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  What was the strange sight the poet saw?
ANSWER: a. Lots of glow-worms       
QUESTION:b            How many glow worm come through the door?
ANSWER:   b. Dozens
QUESTION:c          Are we said why the glow worms come? why do you think they come?
ANSWER:  c. No. Let them give any plausible reasons.
QUESTION:d            Which words in the poem tell us about the glow worms? 
ANSWER: d. strange sight; brighter than the stars, Jupiter and Mars; like gold jars, or like headlamps on cars
QUESTION:e          What did the glow worms do in the house? what did poet do?
ANSWER: e. The glow-worms danced in the air, and raced up the stair. The poet fell off his chair

B WORKING WITH WORDS

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  8. MOIZ LIKES READING  PAGE: 68-72

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a               What was Moiz doing in the room?  
ANSWER: a. Moiz was reading.       
QUESTION:b             What was the time on the clock?
ANSWER:   b. The time was ten past five.
QUESTION:c          Why did Moiz not look at clock before?
ANSWER:  c. Moiz did not look at the clock before because he was reading an interesting book.
QUESTION:d              Why was Moiz a little frightened?
ANSWER: d. Moiz was a little frightened because he was alone.
QUESTION:e          Whom did Moiz call on the telephone?
ANSWER: e. Moiz called the Senior Master on the telephone.
QUESTION:f          What did the Senior Master ask Moiz?
ANSWER: f. The Senior Master asked Moiz, ‘Can’t you wait till then to read a book?’
QUESTION: g. What did Moiz tell the Senior Master?
ANSWER: g. Moiz told the Senior Master that he was locked in the library

B WORKING WITH WORDS

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS. USE THE WORDS IN THE BOX BELOW. IF THEY HAVE BEEN SUPPORTED THROUGH 1 AND 2, THEY MAY BE ABLE TO COMPLETE THIS INDEPENDENTLY.

a. The camel is an animal.

b. The kangaroo is behind the camel.

c. The children are at the side of the road.

d. The children are watching the animals.

e. The bear is between the deer and the horse.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. UNDERLINE THE DOING WORDS IN THE FOLLOWING.

a. likes

b. is eating

c. went

d. bought

e. put

 f. fell

g. squashed

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  NOW WE ARE SIX  PAGE: 73-75

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  When did the speaker just begin?
ANSWER: a. The speaker had just begun when s/he was one.       
QUESTION:b             When did the speaker become nearly flew’?
ANSWER:   b. The speaker became nearly new when they were two.
QUESTION:c          What happened when the speaker became six?
ANSWER:  c. When the speaker became six, they became clever.
QUESTION:d              Do you think the speaker likes being six?
ANSWER: d. yes,

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND RHYMING WORDS IN THE POEM TO PUT IN THE BLANKS BELOW. REMIND THEM THAT NOT ALL RHYMING WORDS HAVE SIMILAR SPELLING; THEY SHOULD SAY THE WORDS ALOUD TO TEST THEM.

 a. two/new

b. think

c. more

d. one/begun

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: 9. THE NAUGHTY MONKEY PAGE: 76-79

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  What were the men doing in the forest?
ANSWER: a. The men were working (chopping/cutting wood/logs) in the forest.       
QUESTION:b             Why did the men stop working?
ANSWER:   b. The men stopped working to rest and eat. They were very tired.
QUESTION:c          What did the men do when they stopped?
ANSWER:  c. The men put a wedge in the log. Then they sat down to eat.
QUESTION:d              What did the little monkey do?
ANSWER: d. The little monkey ran towards the log. (He jumped and danced on top of the log.) He pulled the wedge out of the log.
QUESTION:e          Who was very naughty?
ANSWER: e. The baby monkey was very naughty

2. MARK THE SENTENCES TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F). CORRECT THE FALSE SENTENCES. WRITE THEM IN YOUR NOTEBOOK.

a. False (baby monkey)

 b. False (two men)

c. False (huge)

d. True

e. True

B WORKING WITH WORDS

FIND WORDS IN THE STORY BEGINNING WITH:

M  men, monkey, mother

W  was, we

dge, went, were, woke, wood, work

S  sat, saw, shouted, shrieked, sleep, some, soon, stopped, swish

P  played, pulled, pushed, put

D  danced, dangerous, day, deep, did, down

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. READ THE SENTENCES. LOOK CAREFULLY AT THE DOING WORDS.

Once again, give some examples on the blackboard; show the simple present tense, the present continuous tense, and the simple past tense.

 2. WHICH DOING WORDS TELL US ABOUT THE PAST? WRITE THEM IN THE BLANKS.

a. look/looked

b. see/saw

c. walk/walked

d. laugh/laughed

e. play/played

f. shout/shouted

g. find/found

h. eat/ate

i. drink/drank

j. run/ran

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: TO BED PAGE: 80-82

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  Which things are green? ‘
ANSWER:         a. The leaves and grass are green.
QUESTION:b             How does the Sun shine in the dog? ‘
ANSWER:   b. The Sun shines magnificently.
QUESTION:c          How does the Sun took in the evening?
ANSWER:  c. The Sun looks like gold in the evening.
QUESTION:d              Which thing is coiled brown in the poem?
ANSWER: d. The Earth is brown.
QUESTION:e          What ooiour is the starlight?
ANSWER: e. Silver

B WORKING WITH WORDS

MATCH THE WORDS IN A WITH THE NAMING WORDS IN B.

green/grass

pink/lips

blue/sky silver/coin

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: 10. TELL ME ABOUT GRANDFATHER PAGE: 83-88

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  What were the children learning about in class
ANSWER: a. The children were learning about families.       
QUESTION:b             Did Ali know any stories about his grandfather
ANSWER:   b. No.
QUESTION:c          Whose part did Ali plag?
ANSWER: c. Ali played the part of his grandfather.
QUESTION:d              What did Zara sag about it being windy?
ANSWER: d. Zara said, ‘It’s not Wednesday.’
QUESTION:e          Why do you think the three children giggled?
ANSWER: e. The children might have giggled because they found their story funny or because they were a bit embarrassed about performing in front of the class.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. SOME OF THE WORDS IN THE STORY WERE NOT HEARD CORRECTLY. WHAT DID THE LISTENER HEAR WHEN THESE WORDS WERE SAID?

a. shop hop

b. windy Wednesday

c. Thursday thirsty

d. stop shop e. bald bored

2. THE LETTERS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS ARE JUMBLED. WHAT ARE THESE WORDS? YOU WILL FIND THEM IN THE LESSON.

a. thirsty

b. blowing

c. windy

d. clapped

e. giggled

f. shave

3. ADD NOT TO THE FOLLOWING. ORAL WORK WITH EXAMPLES ON THE BLACKBOARD FIRST.

a. I did not shave today.

b. They could not hear very well.

c. I do not want to get off and shop.

d. It is not Wednesday.

e. I am sure it is not Thursday. I am not sure it is Thursday.

f. Ali did not scratch his head.

4. WRITE QUESTIONS FOR THESE ANSWERS. USE DID AND WAS.

 a. Was Grandfather bored?

b. What did the children do?

c. What did they do?

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

UNDERLINE ALL THE DESCRIBING WORDS.

a. Aslam is an old man, but he is a strong man.

b. He lives in a small house.

c. His house is in a large village near a wide river.

d. Aslam has a fine boat.

e. Look at the huge fish he is pulling out of the deep water

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  LITTLE RAINDROPS PAGE: 89-90

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  What sounds do to the raindrops make? Do they always sound the same?
ANSWER:         a. Pitter patter; no (see Exercise B below for additional words)
QUESTION:b             Who do you think is speaking in the poem?
ANSWER:   b. A child; the teacher should ask for reasons…play, toys…
QUESTION:c          Why can’t the speaker go out?
ANSWER:  c. Because of the rain.
QUESTION:d              Why can’t the speaker play indoors?
ANSWER: d. The speaker has been punished for breaking playthings.
QUESTION:e          What does the speaker want to do?
ANSWER: e. Play with the raindrops.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. WHAT SOUNDS ARE MADE BY THE FOLLOWING?

a. a rusty door shutting (creak, squeak, scrape)

b. a balloon bursting (bang, boom)

c. a drum being beaten (rat-a-tat, thump)

d. thunder (rumble, roar, crash)

e. a car horn (toot, peep)

f. a windscreen wiper (screech, squeak, swish).

2. MAKE UP SENTENCES WITH DIFFERENT SOUNDS FROM EXERCISE B.1.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  11. THE RAIN PAGE: 91-95

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a               Why was there no water in Jamal’s well?   
ANSWER: a. there was no rain       
QUESTION:b What did Jamal do every day? Why?            
ANSWER:   b. looked to the sky; in the hope of rain
QUESTION:c          What did Jamal ask Masood? Why?
ANSWER:  c. for fifty rupees; to buy food/he did not have any food; and he had little money left
QUESTION:d              What did Masood reply?
ANSWER: d. no rain means no money; when the rains come you can have the money
QUESTION:e          How much money did Jamal find at home?
ANSWER: e. sixty rupees
QUESTION:f          Why did Jamal go towards the town?
ANSWER: f. to sell the earrings
QUESTION: g. What made Jamal happy?
ANSWER: g. the rain pouring down

2. ARE THESE SENTENCES TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F)?

a. False (two children)

b. True

c. False (no clouds)

d. False (tiny village)

e. False (did not sell)

3. CORRECT THE SENTENCES THAT ARE WRONG. WRITE ALL THE CORRECT SENTENCES IN YOUR NOTEBOOK.

a. Jamal had two children.

c. There were no clouds in the sky.

d. Jamal lived in a tiny village near Multan.

e. Jamal did not sell his wife’s earrings.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. Find these words in the story. The letters here are jumbled.

 a. rain

 b. clouds

c. please

 d. after

e. rupees

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 PUNCTUATION

PUT FULL STOPS AND CAPITAL LETTERS IN THE FOLLOWING.

 One day Masood went to Multan. He took twenty bags of fruit. He went to a big shop in Tank Street. He sold the fruit to Mr Khan. Then he came home again.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT WORD FROM THE BRACKETS.

a. Jamal did not sell the earrings.

b. Jamal did not go to town.

c. The rain did not come.

d. Jamal did not borrow fifty rupees.

2. ADD NOT TO THE FOLLOWING. YOU WILL HAVE TO CHANGE OR ADD SOME WORDS.

a. Jamal did not sell his wife’s earrings.

b. Jamal did not go to Multan.

c. Jamal did not borrow fifty rupees.

d. Jamal’s wife did not take off her earrings.

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  LIMERICKS PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                 
ANSWER:        
QUESTION:b            
ANSWER:  
QUESTION:c         
ANSWER:  

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. TALK ABOUT THE PICTURES.

a. The boys are playing, kicking a ball; one boy is kicking a ball and the other is chasing it.

b. The man is walking.

c. The ladies are drinking tea; they are eating biscuits. (they are also talking/chatting)

d. The boy is reading a book; the cat is climbing the tree.

2. WRITE TWO SENTENCES FOR EACH PICTURE IN YOUR NOTEBOOK. USE THE WORDS IN THE BOX BELOW

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: 12. KABIR’S COMPUTER PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                  Where did Kabir go one evening?
ANSWER: a. Kabir went to his room.       
QUESTION:b             What did he do in his room?
ANSWER:   b. He did not put on the light; he switched on his computer.
QUESTION:c          What noises did the computer make?
ANSWER:  c. Buzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz, tirp, plip, plip, plip……….. and Buzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz breep, blick, karrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr!
QUESTION:d              What did Kabir first see on the screen?
ANSWER: d. Blue; then a face.
QUESTION:e          What messages did Kabir type?
ANSWER: e. ‘HELLO. WHO ARE YOU?’
QUESTION:f          Who was boy on the screen?
ANSWER: f. It was Kabir (the reflection of Kabir.)

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FILL IN THE BLANKS. CHOOSE WORDS FROM THE BOX.

a. into

b. from

c. out of

d. round

e. under

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 1. FIND NOUNS IN THE FOLLOWING.

a. computer, desk

b. face, screen

c. light, webcam Revise adjectives.

2. FIND ADJECTIVES IN THE FOLLOWING.

a. noisy

b. loud

c. short

3. ADD INTERESTING ADJECTIVES TO THE FOLLOWING.

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT:  OFF TO THE ZOO PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a Which animal will the speaker see first?
ANSWER: a. the kangaroo       
QUESTION:b             Where will the polar bear?
ANSWER:   b. on an icy stair
QUESTION:c          What will they find on a tree?
ANSWER:  c. a great chimpanzee
QUESTION:d              What does the speaker hope?
ANSWER: d. that the bat is not looking too fat
QUESTION:e          Have you been to a zoo? What did you see?
ANSWER: Yes, lion

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND THESE WORDS IN THE STORY. THE LETTERS HERE ARE JUMBLED. LET THEM HAVE TIME TO WORK THESE OUT. ALL THE WORDS ARE IN THE POEM.

a. zoo b. stair

c. polar

d. chimpanzee

e. queue f. buckle

g. mango

h. wearing

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ASKING QUESTIONS

1. WRITE QUESTIONS FOR THESE ANSWERS. DON’T FORGET TO USE A QUESTION MARK (?)

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: 13. THE HOUSE OF SAND PAGE:

A Comprehension

  1. ANSWER these QUESTIONs.
QUESTION:a                 Who mode the house on the beach?      
ANSWER: a. Noman and Shahid.       
QUESTION:b          What was the first house mode of? What happened to him?    
ANSWER:   b. The first house was made of sand and palm leaves. It was washed away by the sea.
QUESTION:c          Who stayed behind, and who went away?
ANSWER:  c. Noman stayed; Shahid went away.
QUESTION:d              Why did Noman leave school?
ANSWER: d. He left to work because his family was poor.
QUESTION:e          Did Noman become rich? Why not?
ANSWER: e. No; he did not earn much.
QUESTION:f          What did Shahid do when he returned?
ANSWER: f. Shahid met Noman. He and Noman built a house

B WORKING WITH WORDS

FIND WORDS IN THE STORY WITH THE OPPOSITE MEANING.

 younger/older,

rich/poor,

before/after,

large/small,

came back/went away

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 1. FIND THE ADJECTIVES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. THEN USE THE ADJECTIVES IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

a. old

b. small

c. fine

d. little

2. DOING WORDS ARE CALLED VERBS. FIND THE VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. THEN USE THE VERBS IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

 a. sat/looked

b. went/stayed

 c. look/cried

d. worked

e. grew/went

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

UNIT: BE PAGE:

A Comprehension

B WORKING WITH WORDS

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

D LISTENING & SPEAKING

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