Notes: new oxford social studies for Pakistan (revised edition ) (Nicholas Horsburgh CLASS:5th

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Notes: new oxford social studies for Pakistan (revised edition ) (Nicholas Horsburgh  CLASS:5th


L:01 MAPS     P:4-5


Q No. 1             What information would you find on a physical map?
ANS:A physical map shows the landforms such as hills, mountains, rivers, lakes, valleys, deltas, plateaus, seas, and oceans.
Q No.2What information world you find on a political map?
ANS:A political map shows the different countries, their capitals and major cities, and the international borders between countries.
Q No.3Explain what is meant by meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude.
ANS:Meridians of longitude are the imaginary lines that run vertically, north to south, across the globe. They converge (meet) at the poles.

The imaginary lines that run horizontally from east to west are called parallels of latitude.

Q No.4           How do we show directions on a map?
ANS:The directions   on     a        map  are    shown        by      a       compass    rose  or      an      arrow marked       with   N       at       the        top.   The   compass rose shows the general directions and the arrow tells us where north is.
Q No.5How can we find a place on a map?
ANS:The     location      of      a        place is       calculated  by      its       position      in       degrees,    north or      south of      the    Equator       and   east  or      west  of      the    Prime         Meridian     or      the       International        Date  Line.

Work Page B

1 latitude 2 Greenwich 3 scale 4 key 5 180°



Peshawar,  34°    north;

Chakwal,      33°    north;

Sahiwal,   32°    north.


Landi Kotal,          71°    east;

Islamabad,   73°    east;

Nowshera, 72°    east.


L:02   WORLD CLIMATE   P:9-10


Q No. 1In what ways does the climate affect our lives?
ANS:Climate        affects        how   we     live:   the    kind   of      houses         we     live    in,      the    food  we     eat,   the    clothes       we     wear,         our    activities and work, and the way we spend our time indoors and outdoors.
Q No.2Why did the people of the Arctic region build houses out of snow?
ANS:There are no forests to cut down for wood, nor is stone available to build houses in the Arctic region. The only building material available is snow.
Q No.3Look at the map on page 8 and note the lines of latitude which divide the world into climatic regions.
ANS:The Arctic and Antarctic Circles, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and the equator.
Q No.4What are some of the factors that influence climate?
ANS:The temperature, the amount of rainfall, the direction and frequency of winds and the presence of hills and mountains are factors that influence the climate.


WORK PAGE A       

1    The   hill     station        of      Murree:      1789.3       mm   2       Nok   Kundi:         35.3  mm   3       Quetta:       -2.0°C      4       Jacobabad:         36.9°C

5 a) The average winter temperature in Quetta can go as low as -2°C, and the average temperature in summer can also go high to 25.6°C, whereas Murree’s average winter temperature is 3.7°C and maximum temperature in summer is 20.6°C.

  1. b) Murree gets 1789.3 mm of rain annually and Quetta gets 260.8 mm.   Both the places have low temperatures. However, Murree gets a lot more rain than Quetta.

B         1 False 2 True 3 False 4 True 5 False



L:03 LIFE IN DESERT   P:14-15


Q No. 1What are continental deserts? How are they formed?
ANS:Continental   deserts      are    in       the    middle        of     a         continent;   they  get    no     rain    clouds,       like    the    Gobi         Desert        in       Mongolia,   and  the    Great          Australian          Desert.
Q No.2What are rain shadow regions?
ANS:The areas on one side of a mountain that do not get rain as the mountains block the rain-bearing winds.
Q No.3Why is the population of desert regions so low?
ANS:Deserts     are    hot,   dry    places,       with   a        harsh climate;         there is       little   or      no     vegetation, very   little   water,         poor soil, no farming, and no food crops;

there are no settlements and no development, hence the population is very low. Mostly nomadic tribes live in these areas.

Q No.4What sort of vegetation would you find in a desert?
ANS:Desert       plants         are    spiny and   have  thick, fleshy         stems         that    store water.         The   spines        prevent      the    animals         from eating the plants.
Q No.5How has Saudi Arabia become a rich country?
ANS:Saudi Arabia has large reserves of oil underground. The government sells the oil and uses the money for the development of the country.


WORK PAGE A         

1      Bedouin     is       the    name          for     nomads      of      the    Arabian      Desert. 2 Sirocco is the name for the hot, dry, dusty wind that blows through the Mediterranean region. 3 A wadi        is       a        dry    river  bed   in       the    Middle        Eastern      desert.       It       means        ‘valley’. 4 A nomad is a wanderer, a person who does not live in one place and is constantly on the move. 5 A cactus is a fleshy plant, usually with prickles, found in a hot, dry climate.

B     Climate—wind,    temperature,       rainfall,       whirlwind    Land—sandy,      rocky,         wadi, dunes         Vegetation—spiny,        leaves,       stem,          roots Animals—camel, snake,        lizards,       hedgehogs


L:04 LIFE IN FOREST     P:19-20


Q No. 1Name the South American countries which have equatorial forests.
ANS:Ecuador,    Colombia,  and   Brazil.
Q No.2Why are equatorial forests important?
ANS:These forests are very important because they are a source of oxygen for all living things and are known  as      the    lungs of      the    Earth.
Q No.3Describe the main differences between equatorial and temperate forests.
ANS:Equatorial  forests       are    hot,   wet,   and   humid         all      year         round;         the    vegetation  is       very   dense         as      the    plants         grow very close together; there is a lot of animal life.

Temperate forests are very cold and the vegetation         is       very         different:    the    trees grow apart and   there is       ground         vegetation  in       the    form  of      bushes; the animal, bird, and insect population is not as high as in the equatorial regions.

Q No.4What problems do people living in equatorial forests face?
ANS:People ­find it diffi­cult to travel through these thick, dense forests and they cannot clear the land for cultivation; they also face the problem of tropical diseases.
Q No.5Look at the map on page 16. Why are there fewer temperate forests in the southern hemisphere?
ANS:There are fewer temperate forests in the southern hemisphere because there is less land mass, and more water covering     the    surface       of      the         Earth.

The  ocean         currents,     on     either          side  of      Africa         and   South         America, keep the land warmer than the huge land mass of the continents in the northern hemisphere.



Green:    a        lot      of      sunshine,   over  200   cm    of      rain,   hot    climate,      unnamed    species,     pygmies,          South         America,    fast-growing plants, millions of small insects, hot wetlands, heavy rainfall.

Blue: cold  climate,      snowshoes,         long  roots,          coniferous trees,          alpine         trees,          animals      with   fur,          North         America, frozen rivers.

B 1 of the cold climate

2 from being washed away

3 of the dense vegetation

4 of the heavy rainfall and fertile soil

5 there are laws to protect wildlife species




Q No. 1What are the two polar regions called?
ANS:The   Arctic          Circle         (North         Pole) and   the    Antarctic         Circle         (South        Pole).
Q No.2Name the animals found in the polar regions: How do they survive the cold?
ANS:a) Seals, whales, and penguins live in Antarctica, and polar bears, seals, walruses, and whales live in the Arctic Circle.

b) The animals in the polar regions, like polar bears, seals, whales, and walruses, have a thick layer of fat or blubber under their skins, which keeps out the cold.

Q No.3Why has the Antarctic region not been explored?
ANS:It is bitterly cold in Antarctica and the climate is dangerous, with hurricanes and blizzards blowing. People who travel here cannot bear the cold and often get frostbite.

Frostbite can be so severe that people can often lose their limbs. Because of these extreme weather conditions, the Antarctic region has not been explored.

Q No.4Why the polar regions are called ‘the Lands of the midnight sun?
ANS:In the middle of summer in each hemisphere, the Sun remains above the horizon all the time, so there is daylight all the time. That is why these are called the ‘lands of the midnight sun’.
Q No.5What are the differences between the Arctic and Antarctic regions?
ANS:DIFFERENCE:   The   Arctic          region         is       composed entirely         of      icebergs.   There         is       very   little   land   except        for     the         northern     coasts        of      the    Asian          and   North American         continents. The   people       of      the    region         are    called         Inuit.         Temperatures, most of the year, are below –23°C.

There are polar bears in the Arctic, but no penguins. The Antarctic region is a huge land mass covered with ice and snow. It is uninhabited, with temperatures as low as –87°C. There are penguins in the Antarctic, but no polar bears.



1 Arctic   2 Antarctica   3 Inuit 4     Kayaks       5Frostbite

B Fill    in      the    blanks:

1 Pytheas 2 Roald Amundsen, 1911        3       Robert        Edwin         Peary,         1909

4 Antarctica 5 Arctic



L: 06 OUR COUNTRY   P:29-30


Q No. 1Describe two contrasting features of Pakistan.
ANS:To the south stretches the Makran coastline along the Arabian Sea. Further inland in Balochistan are the plateaus and deserts, rich in minerals. Another example would be of high, snow-topped mountains in the north and the Indus delta region’s ‑at lands.
Q No.2Write about some of the things in Pakistan of which you are proud.
Q No.3Write about some of the things in Pakistan that make you sad. How are you going to make Pakistan a better place?
Q No.4         Name the international organizations of which Pakistan is a member.
ANS:1.   United        Nations       (UN),

2.   South         Asian          Association         for     Regional    Cooperation         (SAARC),

3.   Organization       of      Islamic Conference (OIC), now known as Organization of Islamic Cooperation.

Q No.5What are the features that attract tourists to Pakistan?
ANS:Tourists are attracted to the famous historical sites and buildings. They also go trekking, mountaineering, ­shing, and hunting.



The Gandhara civilization flourished in the north and north-west of the country. The remains can be found mainly in Taxila.

C       FILL IN      THE  BLANKS:

1 south 2 Thar, east 3 export 4 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 5 Makran, Arabian Sea



Q No. 1What makes the Punjab the best farming area in Pakistan?
ANS:The Punjab is the best farming area because of its fertile soil and canal irrigation system.
Q No.2Explain the difference between a kharif and a tab! crop. Give an example of each.
ANS:Kharif crops are grown in summer, for example, cotton and rice. Rabi crops are grown in winter, for example, wheat.
Q No.3Which crop makes up Pakistan’s largest export? Where is it grown?
ANS:Cotton is Pakistan’s largest export crop. It is grown in south-east Punjab and parts of Sindh.
Q No.4Explain the difference between a cash crop and a food crop. Give examples of each.
ANS:A food crop is one that is grown to feed the community, for example, wheat, rice, sugar cane. A cash

crop is grown for sale or export, that is, against which we can get cash. Cotton, tobacco, and also

sugar cane are cash crops.

Q No.5Why is livestock an important part of agriculture?
ANS:Livestock is an important part of agriculture as it is reared for meat, dairy products, and hides and

skins (leather). Almost all small farms in Pakistan also use cattle to work the land, help till the soil,

and provide transport for farmers.

Q No.6Explain what is meant by ‘staple food’. What is the staple food crop in Pakistan?
ANS:     Staple food means the main or principal food. The staple food crop in Pakistan is wheat.



Work Page A…………………………………………… Anss in horizontal sequence.

A 1 Sugar cane 2 Pulses

3 Wheat 4 Rice

5 Millet (jowar and bajra) 6 Cotton

B Fill in the blanks:

1 buffaloes

2 Thar and Cholistan deserts

3 170 kilograms. Divide this figure by 2.2 and the Ans is 77.27 pounds.

4 linseed, castor seed, sesame, mustard, and cotton seed




Q No. 1Why is irrigation so important for farmers in Pakistan?
ANS:Pakistan cannot depend only on rainfall for its crops to grow. Since it is an agricultural country and a regular supply of water is necessary, farmers depend on irrigation.
Q No.2How much of our arable land is under irrigation?
ANS:Almost 80 per cent of our arable (cropped) land is irrigated.
Q No.3Describe some of the different ways in which farmers irrigate their land.
ANS:Irrigation methods are mainly canals and tube wells, and in some areas the shaduf, charsa, karez, and

the Persian wheel are also used.

Q No.4What is the importance of dams and barrages in a country?
ANS:Dams are built to store water and release it when it is needed; barrages are used to divert river flows

into canals over a long distance, to the fields. Some dams are also used to produce electricity.


Work Page A…………………………………………… 1 Rivers: Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Kabul, Hingol, Hub, Dasht, and Porali.

2 Dams: Warsak, Mangla, Tarbela, Rawal, and Hub

3 Barrages: Kotri, Panjnad, Guddu, Taunsa, and Sukkur

L: 09   MINERALS          P:42


Q No. 1Name the different minerals found in Pakistan. Why are minerals important?
ANS:Use the maps on pages 40 and 42 of the textbook

to Ans this Q. Minerals are important as raw materials for industry.

Q No.2Why is it not worthwhile to mine some minerals?
ANS:Sometimes, it is difficult to reach the minerals, and quite expensive to acquire extra machines and labour required to mine them. If the quantity available does not justify the costs, it is not worthwhile to mine them. Chromite is found at Muslim Bagh near Quetta. Copper deposits are found at Saindak and Reko Diq. Iron ore is found in Dammer Nissar, Kalabagh, and Chilgazi. Antimony is mined at Krinj.
Q No.3Why is salt such a useful mineral?
ANS:Salt is used in cooking and preserving, and in the food industry. It is also used to make various sodas for laundry, textiles, and tanning.
Q No.4Name the minerals used in the manufacture of cement.
ANS:Limestone and magnesite.
Q No.5Which parts of Pakistan are rich in minerals? Look at the maps in this L for help.
ANS:Refer to the maps on page 40 and 42 for the Ans.


Work Page A……………………………………………

A 1 Chromite 2 Barite

3 Marble 4 Rock salt

5 Sulphur 6 Limestone

B 1 Hunza — rubies

2 Krinj — antimony

3 Quetta — chromite

4 Skardu — aquamarine

5 Koh-i-Maran — fluorite

6 Spin Kan — magnesite




Q No. 1Explain the importance of power resources for a country.
ANS:Power resources are important because they are needed for the running of industries, households, and transportation.
Q No.2Name the main sources of power used in Pakistan.
ANS:Pakistan uses energy generated from oil, gas, water, and coal, as well as nuclear energy, LPG, CNG, and wind and solar energy.
Q No.3What is thermal power? How is it produced?
ANS:Thermal power is generated from heat which is produced by burning oil, gas, or coal. This powers

the turbines, which in turn, work dynamos that produce electricity.

Q No.4Where are the most thermal power plants located? Why?
ANS:Thermal power plants are located in Karachi, Kotri, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and Guddu in Sindh. In the

Punjab, there are plants at Faisalabad, Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Kot Addu. In Balochistan

there are thermal plants at Quetta, Pasni, and Hub.

Q No.5Where are most of the hydel power plants in Pakistan?
ANS:Most of the hydel plants are in upper Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. They are also located in lower Sindh, at Jhimpir-Meting, Lakhra, Sanda-Thatta, and Thar.
Q No.6How is hydroelectricity produced?
ANS:       A fast-flowing river with a great volume of water in its upper part is needed to produce electricity at a hydel or hydroelectric power station. Dams are built across the river and the powerful release of water turns the turbines which produce electricity.


Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 Oil

2 Petroleum

3 Natural gas

4 Coal

5 Electricity

6 Solar energy

B 1 Karachi, Chashma

2 solar energy

3 hydroelectricity

4 9.5 hours long

5 Punjab

6 A megawatt (MW)









Q No. 1Which is the largest industry in Pakistan?
ANS:Cotton textiles.
Q No.2 Describe the other major industries in Pakistan.
ANS:Woollen textiles,

art silk,



cooking oil;



iron, steel and engineering;

cottage and small industries.

Q No.3Make a list of the goods produced by Pakistan’s cottage industries.




surgical instruments;

sports goods;




furniture;carved doors and window frames;


Dyeing, printing, and tailoring are also cottage industries.

Q No.4Name the countries that have helped Pakistan’s iron, steel, and engineering industries.
ANS:Russia, China, and Switzerland.
Q No.5Look at the map on page 50. Where are most of the industries located? Which are the places with no industry? Can you explain your Anss?
ANS:Cooking oil and ghee: 75 per cent of the edible oil used is imported.


Work Page ……………………………………………

A Exports: carpets, cotton textiles, art silk, towels, hosiery, and canvas

Imports: Art silk yarn, jute, fertilizers, edible oil, iron ore, manganese, and oil product to run the


B 1 textiles, household linen, hosiery, canvas.

2 Harnai and Mastung in Balochistan: Bannu and Nowshera in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; Quaidabad,

Lawrencepur, Rawalpindi, and Sahiwal in Punjab; and Karachi, Hyderabad, and Larkana in Sindh.

3 soap, paper, textiles, fertilizers, and iron and steel

4 limestone and gypsum.

5 Pakistan Steel Mills and Pakistan Machine Tool Factory Karachi, Heavy Mechanical Complex,




Q No. 1 In what way is Islamabad different from most of Pakistan’s other large cities?
ANS:Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. It is a fairly new city.

It is the place from which the country is governed

and all the foreign embassies are located there.

Q No.2 Why are there not many ancient buildings in Quetta?
ANS:Quetta does not have many old buildings as the city was almost completely destroyed by the

earthquake of 1935. It was then rebuilt.

Q No.3 Which town is called the Frontier Town?
ANS:Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Q No.4 How many times has Karachi’s population multiplied since Independence?
ANS:Karachi had 400,000 people in 1947. Today it has more than 14 million. The population, therefore,has multiplied 35 times, roughly.


Work Page ……………………………………………

1 a) Karachi

  1. b) Sindh
  2. c) Over 14 million people
  3. d) The Quaid’s mausoleum, the beach, the National Museum, Mohatta Palace

2 a) Islamabad

  1. b) Punjab
  2. c) Nearly one million people
  3. d) Daman-i-Koh, Margalla Hills, Shah Faisal Masjid, the Presidency

3 a) Lahore

  1. b) Punjab
  2. c) About 10 million people
  3. d) The Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, Badshahi Masjid, Minar-e-Pakistan, Lahore Museum

4 a) Quetta

  1. b) Balochistan
  2. c) 700,000 people
  3. d) Ziarat, Quaid-i-Azam Residency, Hannah Lake

Part B

Complete these

  1. Two cities in Punjab beginning with M—————–
  2. Three district capitals of Balochistan beginning with K——————
  3. Two district capital of Sind beginning with S——-
  4. The capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s northern most district , beginning with C——-
  5. Capital cities of the Provinces———————————————————————

Answers: (1- Multan, Murree)(2-Khuzdar,Kharan)(3-Sukhar, Sanghar)(4-Chitral)(5-Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta)



Q No. 1Between which lines of latitude and longitude is Pakistan situated?
ANS:Pakistan lies between 24° and 37° North, and 61° and 76° East.
Q No.2Name the countries that share a border with Pakistan.
ANS:Iran, Afghanistan, China, and India.
Q No.3Which country shares the longest border with Pakistan?
ANS:Afghanistan shares the longest border—2200 km—with Pakistan.
Q No.4Which mountain range forms the border between China and Pakistan?
ANS:The Karakoram Range forms the border with China.
Q No.5Where is the Gobi Desert situated?
ANS:China and Mongolia
Q No.6Which of Pakistan’s neighbouring countries has no coastline?


Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 a) People’s Republic of China

  1. b) Beijing
  2. c) Mandarin
  3. d) 1.33 billion people
  4. e) Rice, cotton, textiles, electronic goods
  5. f) Mao Zedong, Chou En Lai, Deng Xiao Ping

2 a) Islamic Republic of Iran

  1. b) Tehran
  2. c) Farsi
  3. d) 70.5 million people
  4. e) Oil, gas, minerals, carpets
  5. f) Shah Raza Pahlevi, Ayatullah Khomeini, President Khatami, President Ahmedinijad

3 a) Afghanistan

  1. b) Kabul
  2. c) Pushto and Dari Persian
  3. d) 32 million people
  4. e) Carpets, lambskins, fruit
  5. f) King Zahir Shah

4 a) India

  1. b) Delhi
  2. c) Hindi
  3. d) 1.2 billion people
  4. e) Rice, cotton and silk, machinery, computer software





Q No. 1What problems did Hazrat Abu Bakr~ face as a caliph?
ANS:During Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) time, there were many uprisings and some people refused to pay taxes,and some declared themselves to be prophets. These revolts were put down by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).
Q No.2Why are the first four caliphs held in special esteem?
ANS:The four Rightly-guided Caliphs are held in high esteem as they were the close companions of the

Prophet (saw).

Q No.3In what way did Hazrat Umar contribute to Islam?
ANS:During Hazrat Umar’s (ra) rule, Islam spread far and wide. He was an able administrator who set up

the basic systems for a sound government.

Q No.4What major work was completed during the time of the third caliph?
ANS:The important work of completing the compilation of the Holy Quran was done during the Khilafat of Hazrat Usman (ra).
Q No.5When did Spain come under Muslim rule and how long did this rule last?
ANS:Spain came under the Muslim rule during the time of the Umayyad dynasty and Muslims continued to rule over Spain for the next 800 years.
Q No.6During which century did parts of Sindh and Punjab come under Muslim influence?
ANS:     In the 8th century, under Mohammad bin Qasim.


Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 South-east Asia: Bangladesh, Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia

2 Africa: Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Mauritania, Mali, Niger,

Senegal, Gambia, Chad, Algeria, Uganda

3 The Middle East: Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Iran, Oman,

Yemen, Qatar, and Bahrain (Albania and Cyprus are located in Europe.)

B 1 Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) 632–634 ce

2 Hazrat Umar Ibn-al-Khattab (ra) 634–644 ce

3 Hazrat Usman Ibn Affan (ra) 644–656 ce

4 Hazrat Ali Ibn Abu Talib (ra) 656–661 ce

L: 15 EUOPEANS & THE SUBCONTINENT                   P:74

Q No. 1Why were the Europeans interested in the East?
ANS:The Europeans were interested in the East because they saw it as a land of rich spices, fruits, clothes of different colours and textures, fabulous ornaments, and jewellery. They established trade relations here.
Q No.2Who were the first European visitors to the subcontinent? When did they come here?
ANS:The first European visitors were the Portuguese. They arrived here during the 15th century.
Q No.3How and why did the British begin to rule the subcontinent?
ANS:The British came to India as traders. When trading became profitable for them, they started the

East India Trading Company in the 17th century. Since the French were also in India at the time, competition in trading grew between the French and the British. After the Mughal rule ended, however, the British succeeded in driving out the French from India and establishing their own rule over the subcontinent in the 18th century. They ruled India for 200 years.

Q No.4Describe some of the things the British did for the subcontinent.
ANS:The British introduced their language, architecture, politics, and their ideas. They built roads, railway lines, and large buildings and improved the canal irrigation system.
Q No.5Why could the people of the subcontinent not succeed against the British?
ANS:They could not succeed against the British because they were not united.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 Vasco da Gama

2 1498

3 Sir Thomas Roe

4 December 1600

5 Queen Elizabeth I

6 Surat, Bombay, and Calcutta


Q No. 1What events led to the War of Independence?
ANS:The soldiers in the British army were Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. In 1857 they were issued rifles whose greased bullets had to be bitten for loading. The bullets were greased with animal fat. Lard

is forbidden to Muslims and cow fat to Hindus. The soldiers objected and were severely punished by

the British. So they came out in open defiance, the battle they fought is called the War of Independence.

Q No.2Why was the Indian National Congress set up?
ANS:Some educated people thought that no progress could be made by just fighting the British. In 1885 they formed the Indian National Congress. They felt that by having their own political organization, one day they could rule their own country.
Q No.3What was the Quit India Movement?
ANS:The Quit India Movement was a call for the British to leave India. It was started in 1942 by the

Congress leader Mohandas Gandhi

Q No.4Why was the All India Muslim League started?
ANS:The Muslim League was created for the Muslims of India, so that they would be able to have a political say in the matters that concerned them in the Indian government, such as elections to the legislature and the judiciary and to ask for their rights. They also knew that when the British left India, the Hindus would take control of the country and the Muslims would not have any importance in the government. So the Muslim League was the first political platform created for the Muslims of India.
Q No.5Who were the leaders who helped to unite the Muslims?
ANS:Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Mohammad Iqbal, Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar, Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, Sir Abdullah Haroon, and many others.
Q No.6How was the subcontinent divided into two countries?
ANS:After a long struggle by the Muslims and Hindus, the British decided to leave India. A commission was set up by the British to mark the borders of the two new countries, India and Pakistan. The Muslim majority areas were to be included in Pakistan. The rest would be India. Thus Pakistan was created with two wings, West Pakistan and East Pakistan.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 1857 4 1906 7 1942

2 The middle of the 19th century 5 1930 8 14 August 1947

3 1885 6 23 March 1940 9 15 August 1947

B 1 Indian National Congress

2 Mohandas Gandhi

3 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

4 Allama Iqbal

5 All India Muslim League



Q No. 1How did Syed Ahmed Khan serve the Muslims of India?
ANS:He helped to create better understanding between the British rulers of India and the Muslims; he wrote many papers and essays explaining the Muslim position to the British; he established a college called the MAO (Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College) in the city of Aligarh in 1875.
Q No.2Who was AlLama Iqbal and why is he famous?
ANS:He was a well-known poet and philosopher who first put forward the idea of a separate country for the Muslims of India.
Q No.3Did Iqbal live-to see an independent Pakistan?
ANS:No; he died in 1938. Pakistan became independent nine years after his death, in 1947.
Q No.4Who is known as the Quaid-i-Azam? What does it mean?
ANS:Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, is known as Quaid-e-Azam, the great leader.
Q No.5What was the Quaid’s profession?
ANS:He was a brilliant and successful lawyer.


Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1) 1 Mohammed Ali Jinnah

2 Quaid-i-Azam

3 25 December, 1876

4 Karachi, Pakistan

5 11 September 1948

6 Karachi, Pakistan

7 Founding the nation of Pakistan

A 2) 1 Mohammad Iqbal

2 Allama Iqbal, Sir Mohammad Iqbal

3 9 November 1877

4 Sialkot, Punjab

5 21 April 1938

6 Lahore, Pakistan

7 First putting forward the idea that the Muslims of India should have their own country

B 1 Begum Raana Liaquat Ali Khan, the wife of Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, who helped towards

creating Pakistan

2 Tipu Sultan, ruler of Mysore

3 Fatima Jinnah, the Quaid’s sister, who worked beside the Quaid to create Pakistan

4 Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar, key figure in the Khilafat Movement; he was against British rule.



Q No. 1What was the Constituent Assembly? What was its job?
ANS:The Constituent Assembly comprised a group of leaders who had to write the constitution of Pakistan and to organize the government departments.
Q No.2How is the government chosen in a democracy?
ANS:In a democracy, the people elect a leader of their choice to run the government.
Q No.3Why did India and Pakistan approach the United Nations in 1948?
ANS:They went to UN because fighting broke out on the border regarding Kashmir. The UN ordered a ceasefire.
Q No.4List the reforms carried out by General Ayub Khan. By what name is his government known?
ANS:a) A new constitution was passed.

b) A law was introduced to redistribute the land.

c) Many new industries were set up.

d) The capital was moved from Karachi to the newly developed city, Islamabad. Ayub Khan’s era is known as the Decade of Development.

Q No.5What happened in the December 1970 elections and immediately afterwards?
ANS:In the December 1970 elections, the Awami League won most of the seats in East Pakistan, and the PPP won in West Pakistan. Being in the majority in the National Assembly, Sheikh Mujib made certain demands that the others did not agree to. Fighting started in East Pakistan and martial law was imposed there. With the help of India, the people of East Pakistan fought against the rule of West Pakistan. Dhaka fell to Indian troops in December 1971 and a new country, Bangladesh, was established.


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A August 1947: Pakistan gained independence.

September 1948: Quaid-e-Azam died.

October 1951: Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan was shot dead.

October 1958: Iskander Mirza declared martial law and the constitution was abolished.

March 1962: New constitution was passed.

March 1969: Ayub Khan handed over control to Yahya Khan.

December 1970: Elections

December 1971: Fall of Dhaka, creation of Bangladesh

B 1 Khwaja Nazimuddin

2 Governor General

3 1956

4 Pakistan People’s Party

5 Sheikh Mujibur Rehman

L: 19 PAKISTAN SINCE 1971 P: 90


Q No. 1Make a list of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s contributions to Pakistan.
ANS:1. a) Z. A. Bhutto signed the Simla Accord, as a result of which 93,000 prisoners of war, held by India, were released and India returned over 5000 km of land it had occupied during the war.

b) A new constitution was passed on 14 August 1973.

c) He organized the first Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974.

d) He signed trade and development agreements with important countries like USSR, USA, and


e) He began the development of the nuclear power programme.

Q No.2What was the Simla Accord? What is its importance?
ANS:Simla Accord was a treaty signed when Bhutto met Indira Gandhi at Simla to settle all disputes with India by discussion. As a result of this accord, prisoners of war were released and India returned over 5000 sq km of land it had occupied during the war.
Q No.3Briefly describe the changes in Pakistan between 1988 and 1999.
ANS:In August 1988, General Zia was killed in a plane crash and emergency rule was declared by Acting President Ghulam Ishaq Khan. In December 1988, Benazir became the first female prime minister of the country after winning the general elections. In 1990 her government was dismissed and Nawaz Sharif was elected prime minister. In 1993, Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismissed his government too and he resigned as well. Elections were held in October and Benazir again became prime minister. Her government was dismissed by President Leghari in 1996. Nawaz Sharif won the elections and became prime minister. He was deposed by General Pervez Musharraf who became the president in 1999.
Q No.4What was the major international event in 2001 that affected Pakistan?
ANS:These were suicide attacks in the USA when two commercial aeroplanes were intentionally crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre in New York. Another airliner was crashed in Pentagon outside Washington DC. These attacks caused great destruction and loss of many lives.
Q No.5List the important events that took place in Pakistan in 2008.
ANS:a) Elections were held in February 2008 and the Pakistan People’s Party came to power.

b) President Musharraf resigned in August 2008 and the co-chairman of the PPP, Asif Ali Zardari, became president in September 2008.


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August 1973: A new constitution was passed.

July 1977: The army, under Zia-ul-Haq, imposed Martial Law.

April 1986: Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan.

August 1988: General Zia-ul-Haq died in an air crash.

December 1988: Benazir Bhutto became the prime minister.

October 1993: Benazir Bhutto returned as prime minister.

October 1999: Nawaz Sharif was deposed.

September 2001: 9/11—the attacks on the Twin Towers in New York and the Pentagon in

Washington took place.

December 2007: Benazir Bhutto was killed in an election rally in Rawalpindi.


                                 P: 94

Q No. 1Why is it important to protect human rights?
ANS:It is important to protect human rights because these rights have been given to us by religion and by law.
Q No.2What interest did Martin Luther King share with Nelson Mandela?
ANS:Martin Luther King fought for the rights of African-Americans. Nelson Mandela also fought the

white government in South Africa for the rights and freedom of black people.

Q No.3Who is Aung San Suu Kyi and what does her struggle concern?
ANS:Aung San Suu Kyi is a brave lady who has been fighting for the rights of the Burmese people from

an oppressive government. She had been under house arrest since 1990, when her party won

elections but wasn’t allowed to form a government. However, she was released in November 2010.

Q No.4How does the Edhi Foundation help the poor in Pakistan? Find out more about Edhi’s service to the people.
ANS:The Edhi Foundation provides shelter for homeless women and children;

education for the children;

ambulance service for the sick and needy;

medical treatment for the poor;

burial service for the

homeless and beggars;

emergency help during natural calamities and other disasters and accidents.

They also help people in other countries, affected by wars, disasters, natural calamities such as floods and earthquakes.

Q No.5Which organization passed the international law for human rights? Give the complete name.
ANS:United Nations Organization in December 1948.
Q No.6How can we help those who are weak or poor?
ANS:We can help the weak and poor by providing them with financial and emotional support.

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A UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

HRCP: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan

HREP: Human Rights Education Programme

UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund

B 1 Convention for the Rights of Children

2 Ramon Magsaysay Award

3 Mother Teresa

4 The Citizen’s Foundation, good quality education

5 Dr Akhtar Hameed Khan

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