SHORT QUESTION/ ANSWERS: PSYCHOLOGY CLASS 12TH FEDERAL BOARD ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN
SHORT QUESTION/ ANSWERS: PSYCHOLOGY CLASS 12TH FEDERAL BOARD ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN
Answer the questions. Be brief and to the point in your answers.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 1
Differentiate between Growth and Development.
The main differences between both are-
(1) Growth is change of physical aspects of the organism. Development is overall changes and progressive changes of the organism.
(2) Growth is cellular but development is organizational.
(3) Growth is the change in shape, form, structure, size of the body. Development is structural change and functional progress of the body.
(4) Growth stops at maturation but development continues till death of the organism.
(5) Development also includes growth. Growth is a part of development.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 2
Write down the benefits of good health.
The impact of good health
SHORT QUESTION NO. 3
What are the external sources of stress?
EXTERNAL CAUSES OF STRESS
1. Major Life Changes
2. Financial Problems
3. Problems at Work
5. Children and Family
SHORT QUESTION NO. 4
Brieﬂy write the causes of Prejudice.
The leading theories of the causes of prejudice include social learning and personality differences. No single cause has been identified as the cause of prejudice, but it’s likely that there are multiple causes that can contribute in different cases.
Prejudice is a term that describes treating someone differently based on their gender, skin color, social class or other similar trait. Typically, prejudice is directed towards people that differ in some way. People with a personality that emphasizes homogeneity may look down upon people that are different in an obvious way. It is also theorized that children may learn prejudice as acceptable behavior from adults.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 5
Name ﬁve rating scales used for the measurement of attitude.
Self Rating Scales
- Graphic Rating Scale
- Itemized Rating Scales
SHORT QUESTION NO. 6
Write the types styles of leadership.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 7
How can the sexual harassment be stopped?
� Develop an anti-harassment policy together with employees, managers, and union representatives.
� Communicate the policy to all employees
� Make sure that all managers and supervisors understand their responsibility to provide a harassment-free work environment.
� Ensure that all employees understand the policy and procedures for dealing with harassment – new and long-term employees alike – this involves training, information and education.
� Show you mean it – make sure the policy applies to everyone, including managers and supervisors.
� Promptly investigate and deal with all complaints of harassment.
� Appropriately discipline employees who harass other employees.
� Provide protection and support for the employees who feel they are being harassed.
� Take action to eliminate discriminatory jokes, posters, graffiti, e-mails and photos at the work site.
� Monitor and revise the policy and education/information programs on a regular basis to ensure that it is still effective for your workplace.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 8
Differentiate between Guidance and Counseling.
|BASIS FOR COMPARISON||GUIDANCE||COUNSELING|
|MEANING||Guidance refers to an advice or a relevant piece of information provided by a superior, to resolve a problem or overcome from difficulty.||Counseling refers to a professional advice given by a counselor to an individual to help him in overcoming from personal or psychological problems.|
|Preventive||Remedial and Curative|
|APPROACH||Comprehensive and Extroverted||In-depth and Introverted|
|WHAT IT DOES?
|It assists the person in choosing the best alternative.||It tends to change the perspective, to help him get the solution by himself or herself.|
|DEALS WITH||Education and career related issues.||Personal and socio-psychoological issues.|
|PROVIDED BY||Any person superior or expert||A person who possesses high level of skill and professional training.|
|PRIVACY||Open and less private.||Confidential|
|MODE||One to one or one to many||One to one|
|DECISION MAKING||By guide.||By the client.|
SHORT QUESTION NO. 9
Explain Albert Ellis’s ABC Model with the help of an example.
Ellis proposed the A-B-C three stage model, to explain how irrational thoughts could lead to depression.
A: Activating Event
An event occurs, for example, you pass a friend in the corridor at school and he/she ignores you, despite the fact you said ‘hello’.
Your belief is your interpretation of the event, which can either be rational or irrational.
A rational interpretation of the event might be that your friend is very busy and possibly stressed, and he/she simply didn’t see or hear you.
An irrational interpretation of the event might be that you think your friend dislikes you and never wants to talk to you again.
According to Ellis, rational beliefs lead to healthy emotional outcomes (for example, I will talk to my friend later and see if he/she is okay), whereas irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy emotional outcomes, including depression (for example, I will ignore my friend and delete their mobile number, as they clearly don’t want to talk to me).
SHORT QUESTION NO. 10
List the first ﬁve stages of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development
1.Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
SHORT QUESTION NO. 11
Guidance counseling, byname counseling and guidance, the process of helping individuals discover and develop their educational, vocational, and psychological potentialities and thereby to achieve an optimal level of personal happiness and social usefulness. The concept of counseling is essentially democratic in that the assumptions underlying its theory and practice are, first, that each individual has the right to shape his own destiny and, second, that the relatively mature and experienced members of the community are responsible for ensuring that each person’s choice shall serve both his own interests and those of society.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 12
What is meant by Obsession and Compulsion.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions).Often the person carries out the behaviors to get rid of the obsessive thoughts, but this only provides temporary relief. Not performing the obsessive rituals can cause great anxiety.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 13
Write down any five disadvantages of Prejudice.
There are other disadvantages to stereotyping as well, among them:
* It imposes limits on people that may be inappropriate.
* It inhibits social development, group learning, communication and teamwork.
* It leads to an unhealthy and unproductive work environment.
* It gives companies a negative public image.
* Employers find it harder to recruit and retain employees.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 14
Write briefly the types of Leadership.
- Autocratic Leadership. Autocratic leadership style is centered on the boss. .
- Democratic Leadership. …
- Strategic Leadership Style. …
- Transformational Leadership. …
- Team Leadership. …
- Cross-Cultural Leadership. …
- Facilitative Leadership. …
- Laissez-faire Leadership.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 15
What are the internal sources of stress? Internal stress comes from inside ANSWER:
of us and determine our body’s ability to respond to, and deal with, the external stress-inducing factors or stressors:
- Nutritional status
- Feelings of anger, fear and worry
- Overall health and fitness levels
- Presence of illness and infection
- Emotional well-being
- Amount of sleep and rest you get.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 16
Define Phobia Also write its types briefly A phobia is an excessive and irrational fear reaction. If you have a phobia, you may experience a deep sense of dread or panic when you encounter the source of your fear.
2. Social Phobia
3. Specific Phobias
SHORT QUESTION NO. 17
What are the types of Violence?
There are nine distinct forms of violence and abuse:
- Physical violence;
- Sexual violence;
- Emotional violence;
- Psychological violence;
- Spiritual violence;
- Cultural violence;
- Verbal Abuse;
- Financial Abuse; and,
SHORT QUESTION NO. 18
Explain brieﬂy the Delusion of Persecution and Delusion of Reference. ANSWER: delusion of persecution a delusion that one is being attacked, harassed, cheated, persecuted, or conspired against. Itis one of the subtypes of delu sional disorder.
delusion of reference a delusional conviction that ordinary events, objects, or behaviors of others have particular and unusual meanings specifically for oneself.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 19
Define Bulimia Nervosa and give its diagnostic criteria
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging. Binge eating refers to eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time. Purging refers to the attempts to get rid of the food consumed. This may be done by vomiting or taking laxatives.
Bulimia is frequently associated with other mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and problems with drugs or alcohol. There is also a higher risk of suicide and self-harm.
The onset of bulimia nervosa is often during adolescence, between 13 and 20 years of age, and many cases have previously suffered from obesity, with many sufferers relapsing in adulthood into episodic binging and purging even after initially successful treatment and remission.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 20
What are the types of Conflict?
Types of Conflicts:
- a) Intrapersonal or Goal conflicts
- b) Interpersonal conflicts,
a. Intrapersonal conflicts:
This is called multiple approach avoidance conflict. These are as follows:
- Approach-approach conflict:
- Avoidance-avoidance conflict:
- Approach-avoidance conflict:
- Multiple-approach-avoidance conflict:
SHORT QUESTION NO. 21
Write the names of stages of development in chronological order.
- Zygote (first through third day).
- Blastocyst (second day through second week)
- Embryo (third through eighth week)
- Fetus (9th week until birth)
- Infant (birth until one year)
- Child (ages 1 year to 12 years)
SHORT QUESTION NO. 22
Write ten characteristics of normal behaviour.
- Effective Self-Perception
- Self-esteem and Acceptance (which is realistic)
- Control of behaviour
- True perception of the world
- Sustaining relationships and giving affection
- Self-direction and productivity
13. Maturing Physically,
15. Sexually Aware and Social
16. Intellectual Growth
SHORT QUESTION NO. 23
Brieﬂy write the psychological effects of stress.
Some side effects of stress that impact your mental well-being include:
excessive worry and fear
- anger and frustration
- impatience with self and others
- mood swings, crying spells or suicidal thoughts
- insomnia, nightmares, disturbing dreams
- trouble concentrating and learning new information
- racing thoughts, nervousness
- forgetfulness, mental confusion
- difficulty in making decisions
- feeling overwhelmed
- irritability and overreaction to petty annoyances
- excessive defensiveness or suspicion
- increased smoking, alcohol, drug use, gambling or impulse buying
SHORT QUESTION NO. 24
Write the names of disorders which come under the category of anxiety disorders.
- Agoraphobia – a fear of being in a public place where escape would be embarrassing or difficult. This is particularly prevalent when a person fears they may have a panic attack.
- Anxiety due to a general medical condition– this type of anxiety disorder can be short- or long-term depending on the medical condition. Anxiety often develops in relation to illnesses like heart conditions.
- Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)– anxiety symptoms occur in multiple environments and due to multiple objects or situations. Anxiety symptoms may not have a known cause.
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)– anxiety symptoms are in the form of intrusive, obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors (or mental acts). OCD is considered a chronic type of anxiety disorder.
- Panic disorder– consists of severe, immediate anxiety symptoms (a panic attack) due to a variety of causes, as well as the worry over having another panic attack.
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)– anxiety symptoms that occur after a trauma and are long-term in nature.
- Social phobia, also referred to as social anxiety disorder– anxiety symptoms occur in social or performance situations and stem from the fear of being humiliated or embarrassed.
- Specific phobia (also known as a simple phobia)– anxiety symptoms occur around a specific object or situation which results in avoidance.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 25
Describe five antisocial behavioral patterns. Some patterns of this behaviour include:
- noise nuisance, such as playing loud music or slamming doors
- using or threatening violence
- abusive language
- vehicle nuisance
- firework nuisance
- dogs barking and fouling
- street or residential drug dealing
- offensive behaviour
SHORT QUESTION NO. 26
Brieﬂy describe educational problems of a student of Govt. school of Pakistan.
- Financial problems
- Lack of guidance
- Examination system
- Language Barrier
- Imposed study programs
- Difference in Theory & practical world
- Load shedding affecting students in Pakistan
- Teachers’ insincerity
- Lack of Trained teachers:
- Teacher-Student relationship:
- Communication Gap
- Unhealthy environment
- Lack of Proper laboratory facilities
- Lack of learning aids
- Fear complex
- Psychological Problems
- Frequent change of teachers
- Inferiority complex
- SHORT QUESTION NO. 27
- Brieﬂy describe negative effects of smoking on human health.
- Cancer of the lungs, mouth, nose, throat, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, liver, bladder, bowel, ovary, cervix, bone marrow, and stomach.
- Lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
- Heart disease , heart attack and stroke.
- Poor blood circulation in feet and hands, which can lead to pain and, in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 28
Write a note on dream analysis.
Chances are you’ve had a dream in which you were falling – it’s one of the most commonly reported dreams. Have you ever wondered what it means? Many believe a falling dream signifies that something in your life is on the wrong track, such as a career or a marriage, and needs changing. Some psychologists dedicate their careers to the process of evaluating dreams to determine their meanings. This is called dream analysis.
The first recorded EXAMPLE of dream analysis date back to ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptian dream interpreters believed the gods communicated through dreams, and they even produced a book compiling more than 200 of the gods’ messages. It’s no surprise humanity has been trying to understand these puzzling visions since we gained the mental capacity to do so, but the greatest advancements in dream analysis came in the 20th century, when psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung developed scientific theories of the discipline.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 29
Write down five principles of growth and development.
The principles of growth and development are described below.
Development follows a pattern:
(i) Development proceeds from general to specific responses:
(ii) Development is a continuous process:
(iii) Different aspects of growth develop at different rates
(iv) Most traits are correlated in development:
(v) Growth is complex:
SHORT QUESTION NO. 30
Write a note on Double Avoidance Conflict.
Double approach-avoidance conflicts have two goals, each with good and bad points. The only available job is dull but will provide income. Should I go out with Agne or lina? Agne is intelligent but hard to talk while Lina is talkative but simple. Like single approach-avoidance conflicts, double approach-avoidance conflicts are anxiety-provoking and hard to resolve.
Real conflicts may not fit neatly into these categories because people often face more than two choices. Moreover, when examined closely, all options in a conflict have both positive and negative aspects. At the very least, the selection of any appealing option limits other choices; the adoption of any negative option has an attraction , removing the conflict and the anxiety it generated. In short, life conflicts are likely to be of the approach-avoidance type.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 31
What is Substance Dependence‘?
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 32
Write a note on Token Economy.
A token economy is a system of contingency management based on the systematic reinforcement of target behavior. The reinforcers are symbols or “tokens” that can be exchanged for other reinforcers.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 33
Attitudes can be defined as an affective feelings of liking or disliking toward an object (which can be basically anything) that has an influence on behavior. … If one component changes, then it influences the entire attitude structure.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 34
Write a short note on Schizophrenia.
ANSWER: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterized by incoherent or illogical thoughts, bizarre behavior and speech, and delusions or hallucinations, such as hearing voices. Schizophrenia typically begins in early adulthood. Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 35
Briefly write about the types of Delusions.
Erotomanic: Someone with this type of delusional disorder believes that another person, often someone important or famous, is in love with him or her.
Jealous: A person with this type of delusional disorder has an over-inflated sense of worth, power, knowledge, or identity.
Persecutory: A person with this type of delusional disorder believes that his or her spouse or sexual partner is unfaithful.
Somatic: A person with this type of delusional disorder believes that he or she has a physical defect or medical problem.
Mixed: People with this type of delusional disorder have two or more of the types of delusions listed above.
Persecutory: People with this type of delusional disorder believe that they (or someone close to them) are being mistreated, or that someone is spying on them or planning to harm them.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 36
List any six basic principles of guidance.
- Principle of all-round development of the individual.Guidance must take into account the all-round development of the individual when bringing about desirable adjustment in any particular area of his personality.
- The principle of human uniqueness.No two individuals are alike. Individuals differ in their physical, mental, social and emotional development. Guidance service must recognise these differences and guide each individual according to their specific need.
- Principle of holistic development.Guidance has to be imparted in the context of total development of personality. The child grows as a whole and even if one aspect of personality is in focus, the other areas of development which are indirectly influencing the personality have also to be kept in mind.
- The principle of cooperation.No individual can be forced into guidance. The consent and cooperation of the individual is a pre-requisite for providing guidance.
- The principle of continuity.Guidance should be regarded as a continuous process of service to an individual in different stages of his life.
- The principle of extension.Guidance service should not be limited to a few persons, who give observable evidence of its need, but it should be extended to all persons of all ages, who can benefit from it directly or indirectly.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 37
Write a short note on the Islamic concept of mental health.
There is a huge impact of Islamic religion and spirituality within psychiatric clinical practice. Using Islamic values and beliefs can be beneficial in treatment of mentally ill Muslims, through incorporation of Islamic beliefs that help in drug adherence and modification of different psychotherapeutic techniques to suit Muslim patients. Such aspects provide the basis for specific guidelines in working with Muslim mental health clients.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 38
What are the causes of smoking?
Three of the main reasons that young people smoke are to look mature, to be like their friends, and to experiment. They may have a lot of stress and pressures because of economic and personal problems. Some people smoke to control their weight.
Finally, there are people who say they love to smoke. Smoking gives them pleasure. It just makes them feel good.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 39
Describe briefly the important factors in the formation attitude.
The factors which lead to development of attitudes are:
- Social adjustment functions
- Direct instruction
- Satisfaction of wants and
SHORT QUESTION NO. 40
Explain brieﬂy the different stages stress experienced by human beings.
STAGE 1: Alarm Reaction. Any physical, emotional, or mental upset will cause an instantaneous reaction by the body to combat the stressor.
STAGE 2: Resistance. At the resistance stage, the body tries to become balanced (a process called homeostasis).
STAGE 3: Exhaustion. After combating stress for days to weeks, the body shuts down completely. Sometimes after days of unending stress, the body succumbs to illness—either a viral or bacterial infection.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 41
What is the relation between Attitude and Behaviour?
It seems common sense to think that someone’s attitude to something would influence their behaviour. For example, someone who did not like the idea of people killing animals for food is likely to be a vegeterian or a vegan. Moreover, someone who was interested in being healthy would not smoke. However, this does not always seem to be the case. This seemingly strange attitude-behaviour relationship interested Festinger in 1957. Festinger theorised that this relationship between one’s attitude and contradictory behaviour should be known as ‘Cognitive Dissonance’. When an individual holds two thoughts or cognitions that are polar opposites, this causes ‘psychological discomfort or tension’. We aim to reduce this by giving less importance to one cognition. This is a way to rationalise our behaviour.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 42
Write briefly any ﬁve agents of public opinion formation.
The following are the major agencies of Public Opinion:
- Public Meetings and Rebates:
- Political Parties:
- Radio, T.V. and Internet:
- Educational Institutions:
- Religious Institutions:
- Social Institutions/Organisations:
SHORT QUESTION NO. 43
Write down the stages of physical development.
INFANT :During the first few weeks and months of an infant’s life, her movements are reflexive or involuntary in nature.
A toddler is between the ages of 1 and 3 years old.
The preschool years occur between the ages of 3 and 5 years old.
A child between the ages of 6 and 12 years is considered a school-aged child.
Adolescents/Teenagers (13 – 18 years)
SHORT QUESTION NO. 44
Maturation is the process of learning to cope and react in an emotionally appropriate way. It does not necessarily happen along with aging or physical growth, but is a part of growth and development. A situation a person must deal with at a young age prepares them for the next and so on into adulthood. Maturation does not stop when physical growth ends – it continues through adulthood. An adult who loses a parent, for instance, learns to cope with a new emotional situation that will affect the way he or she deals with situations that follow.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 45
Differentiate between development and Maturation.
growth ,maturation and development are three different things.
- growth is the increase in the physical structure of living organism.it is the increase in the organs of living things.growth is quantitive change in the bodies of living organism.
- the development is the increase and expantion of mental capabilities of living organism.in other words,it is qualititive changes in the living organism.develoment is the improvement in the innante abilities of livings. for examle a person is said to be developed if he has outstanding abiliities lilke power of reasoning, logic,power of differenciation,and other abilities.
- while the maturation is the combination of the above mentioned quantitive and qualititive changes in living organism.
SHORT QUESTION NO. 46
Write briefly about cognitive development and social development.
Cognitive development is an important aspect of overall child development. Generally cognition refers to how we think, pay attention, remember, and learn.
Children are born ready and willing to develop cognitive skills. They have been compared to little scientists. They are constantly learning new ideas, how things work, and how to solve problems.
Language and cognition are partners in child development. We use language to learn new ideas, to talk about our thoughts and fears, and interact with those around us.
Schools foster cognitive development. Teachers don’t just teach a list of facts; they teach children how to think.
There are aspects of children’s cognitive development that may be affected when a child has an interpreted education.