NOTES/ SOLUTIONS: GEOGRAPHY PTB CLASS-8th
NOTES/ SOLUTIONS: GEOGRAPHY PTB CLASS-8th
Note: some questions statements are not 100% same according to text book but questions & answers are same.
MAPS AND DIAGRAMS
Q.1: (a) What is a map? Why maps are made?
A representation of the features of an area of the earth or whole of the earth on at flat surface according to a scale is called a Map.
Maps are made to show the physical features distribution of agricultural production, population distribution or political administrative divisions of any region, for example Physical feature maps or weather maps etc.
(b) Discuss the Importance of maps
Ans: Maps not only identify the exact location of a place, but can also highlight its physical and economic significance.
With the help of political maps exact location and boundaries of different countries can be identified.
Physical maps tell us about the physical features like mountains, plateaus, streams and plains of any region.
Weather map tells about the weather conditions of a country. It not only tells us about the current weather but also helps in forecasting the coming weather conditions. Maps also help in a determining the directions of different places. Aeroplanes and ships move to their destinations with the help of maps.
(c) Explain Different Types of Maps.
Ans: Types of Maps:
There are many types of maps.
- Atlas Maps
- Topographical Maps
- Cadastral Maps
- Distribution Maps
- ATLAS MAPS:
Atlas maps are prepared for countries, continents and world with less details and general information. These maps provide important information about larger areas, for example, distribution of rainfall, temperature, forests, minerals and climatic conditions at continental level.
- TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPS:
Topographical maps are prepared for smaller areas with all the details, for example, low lying and elevated areas, rivers, streams, forests, railways, roads, footpaths, canals and wells etc. present in that area.
- CADASTRAL MAPS:
Cadastral maps are large scale maps. These maps contain more details as compared to topographical maps. These maps provide information at village level about ownership of farms and houses. Similarly cadastral maps of cities provide detailed information about every house, block, street, road, parks and markets etc.
- DISTRIBUTION MAPS:
Distribution maps are prepared to show and compare distribution of different phenomenon, for example, population of areas, number of cattle, mineral reserves etc. Every phenomenon is shown at its real location keeping topography of the area in view. Area of a region is also considered while showing distribution of a particular phenomenon. There are two types of distribution maps, i.e., Qualitative and Quantitative.
Q.2: (a) Discuss the types of Distribution maps.
Types of Distribution Maps:
There are two types of distribution maps, i.e. Qualitative and Quantitative.
Qualitative maps only show production and not the quantity (comparison of areas growing wheat)
Quantitative maps show variations in the production or numbers (comparison of per care yield of wheat).
PREPARATION OF QUANTITATIVE MAPS:
Quantitative maps can be prepared by two methods that are:
- DOT Method
- SHADE Method
(b) Describe the use of Dot Method in Distribution Maps. Also write its merits and demerits.
Ans: Dot Method
A dot distribution map is a-map type that uses a dot symbol to show the presence, quantity or value of a feature or variable in a specific area. Dot maps rely on a visual scatter to show distribution pattern. To prepare such distribution maps, area is divided into smaller units (province, divisions, districts, tehsils or towns.
According -to the data; number of dots is determined according to a scale in such a manner that number of dots-should not be too high or too low. In case of large number of dots, there may be inadequate or little space available.
On the-other hand, fewer dots in a large unit may distort the correct visual concept of the map. Scale for dots must be set very carefully. Before placing the dots on map, physical map of the region must be consulted to know that where most of the dots should be placed and where the dots are not required.
IMPORTANCE OF DOT METHOD:
Dot method is usually considered suitable for display of absolute data or total amounts. Any variation in production can be estimated from the number of dots.
MERITS OF DOT METHOD:
By Distribution maps, the production or distribution of population of an area can easily be estimated.
DEMERITS OF DOT METHODS:
- Sometimes people live temporarily in a region or a country, and after sometimes, due to economic or political conditions move to other countries. Therefore, it becomes difficult to show such mobile population on distribution maps.
- Often data used in producing distribution maps, changes yearly. So it becomes mandatory to make changes in these maps according to the latest changes in the data.
(c) Write a note on Shading Method in Distribution Maps, Also name methods of showing statistical data.
Ans: Shading Method:
Sometimes to show a country’s population or the production of various goods on the map, different colours or light or dark shades of one colour are used.
Drawback of Shading Method:
The major drawback of this method is that the division of anything seems uniformly distributed everywhere. Whereas depending on the time and place variations may take place.
Sometimes to show agricultural production in different regions, it becomes difficult to ignore non-productive areas i.e. mountains, rivers and lakes etc.
Methods of Showing Statistical Data:
In geography, diagrams are those conceptual sketches through which geographic information and data is transferred to the paper. These are called Statistical Diagrams. These are:
► Line Graph ► Bar Graph ► Pie Graph
(d) Describe disadvantages of Distribution Maps:
Ans: DISADVANTAGES OF DISTRIBUTION MAPS:
- The maps showing the distribution of the population in general are developed on the basis of the census. Most countries of the world have a census every ten years. Sometimes people live temporarily in a region or a country, and after sometime, due to economic or apolitical conditions move to other countries. Therefore it becomes difficult to show such mobile population on distribution maps. Within a country or a region, population, density;(persons per square kilometre) is usually displayed with the help of colours or shades of a colour which do not provide complete information about the region. It is difficult to differentiate between areas of dense population through shades of colours.
- By distribution maps; the production or distribution of population of area can easily be estimated. Often data used in producing these maps, changes yearly. So it becomes mandatory to make changes in these maps according to the latest changes in the data. It is beneficial if distribution maps are produced by averaging the previous years because in doing so, variations in production of various years can be compensated.
Q.3: (a) Describe line graph to show-statistical data. Also write its merits and demerits.
Ans. Line Graph
In line graph, statistical data is displayed with the help of a line on the graph, therefore it is called Line Graph.
In this graph two variables are shown, one as a variable quantity and other as constant. To construct a line graph, two lines are drawn meeting each other at 90 degrees. Horizontal line is called X-Axis and Vertical line is called Y-Axis. Constant variable is placed on X-Axis (Days, Months, Years, Distances etc.) and measurable variable is placed on Y-Axis (Rain, Temperature, Air Pressure, Production .etc.)
To measure the values at Y-‘Axis, an appropriate scale is determined. With the help of scale, values are marked in the form of dots for each constant variable. Then these dots are joined by a line to prepare a Line Graph.
MERITS OF LINE GRAPH
- With the help of line graph more than one variables can be compared easily, i.e. we can compare the annual temperatures and rainfall values of Karachi and Lahore, which is not possible on Barrand Pie graph. Due tot this property of line graph, it is preferred over bar graph.
- Line graph is the best way to show decrease or increase in annual, monthly and daily productions of various items. Besides this, line graph is also used to show weather conditions, population, animal distribution, exports and imports of a country. All these statistics are related to time, so these are better illustrated on a line graph.
- On line graph, we can easily understand the fluctuations as well as the production of items.
DEMERITS OF LINE GRAPH
- Although we can show average quantities and production on line graph, but we cannot show percentages on it. Percentages are better shown on pie graph.
- Although we can show fluctuations in productions, but we cannot show total production of any item on the line graphs, i.e. total annual rainfall of a place or total population of a country.
(b) Explain Bat Graph to show statistical data. Also write its merits and demerits.
Ans: BAR GRAPH
In bar graph, we show quantities in the form of bars of equal width on equal intervals. The height of the bar varies with quantity. Bars can be drawn both vertically and horizontally. This method is very useful for comparison of different quantities, i.e. population of big cities of Pakistan, length of canals, marks of students in a subject, imports and exports of a country, areas and productions etc. We can also shade and colour the bars.
MERITS OF BAR GRAPH:
- We can show total quantity of production on the bar graph.
- We can also compare different quantities of the same item.
- It is easy to show quantities on bar graph.
DEMERITS OF BAR GRAPH:
- To show more than one item or quantity, we have to draw multiple bars or a compound bar.
- It is possible to show value of only one item on the bar graph.
- We cannot show percentages on bar graph.
(c) Discuss Pie Graph to Show Statistical Data. Also write its merits and demerits.
Ans: PIE GRAPH
Sometimes geographical data is displayed in circles or sectors of circle, i.e. population or areas of a country or cities, imports or exports, trade and production of petroleum or electricity. This is called Pie Graph. We can show percentages on it. When we have to show quantities of same type in percentages, the circle is supposed to be divided in 100 parts and sectors are created with the help of following formula:
Given Quantity x 100
We can calculate the specific angle (sector of the circle) of the given percentage by following formula:
Percentage Value x 360
MERITS OF PIE GRAPH:
- Pie graph covers less space as compared to line and bar graph. It presents a better comparison between different quantities.
- We can show the total quantity on this graph.
- It shows the areas of different countries in a better way which is not possible on line and bar graph.
- It is preferred to show production of power resources. i.e. electricity or gas.
DEMERITS OF PIE GRAPH:
- Pie graph is not suitable to show weather data, i.e., distribution of temperature, rain and wind pressure.
- In pie graph method calculations of percentages and division of circle into sectors is comparatively difficult and time consuming.
Agents of Landforms Change
Q.1: What do you mean by Landforms? Explain.
Different types of landforms are found Lon our earth, because its surface is uneven, these landforms came into existence due to the internal and external forces of the earth.
LANDFORMS OF THE INTERNAL FORCES OF THE EARTH
Huge landforms that were formed by the internal forces of the earth are mountains plains, plateaus etc.
LANDFORMS CAUSED BY THE EXTERNAL FORCES OF THE EARTH
In the external forces of the earth different agents are included which cause destruction to the earths crust and form different landforms under different environmental circumstances.
These agents are glaciers, rivers, wind and sea Waves etc.
Q.2: Describe different landforms made by River.
ANS: LANDFORMS MADE BY RIVER
The river is the most important agent to bring a change in the earth landforms.
Permanent rivers are found in such areas where there is ample rainfall. The presence of mountains provides initial slope for the flow of surface Water where due to the mergence of big and small lakes, water ways a river is created.
After a river is created it performs three types of functions. The river breaks the rocks that come in its path, this process is called erosion.
- Process of transfer
The debris of rocks caused floats away with the flow of the river. The process is called the transfer process. The third and last process of the river is to dump the eroded material at some place, this is called Transportation.
iii. Very slow speed of the river
The transfer process takes place at a time when the flow of the river is very slow, this act is called deposition.
Q.3: What are the different landforms caused by river erosion?
Ans: RIVERS EROSIONAL LANDFORMS
The following landforms come into existence by river erosion:
- V-SHAPED VALLEY
In hilly area due to the destruction caused by the river the slope on the river pathway starts deepening by which the valley takes on the shape of the English word.
Areas of V-Shaped Valleys
These types of valleys are formed in the northern areas of Pakistan.
These are very deep and narrow valleys are often called ‘Gorges or Canyons’. Such valleys are found in northern areas of Pakistan.
- WATER FALL
The riverbed consists of hard and soft rocks. Sometimes under the hard riverbed a chain of soft rocks is present to a great depth. When the hard rocks on the river bed break then the river breaks the soft rocks under the river bed to a great depth, due to which the water falls down in a cascade.
iii. POT HOLES
Sometimes the swirling action of stones in the water develop holes in the riverbed. These are called Pot Holes.
- MEANDERS AND OX-BOW LAKE
There are hard and soft rocks in the rivers channel. The river breaks the soft rocks and creates a winding path due to uneven erosion of the river meanders are formed.
Sometimes these Meanders come so close that the river breaks these meanders and starts flowing in a straight position. By this a crescent shaped lake comes into existence. This lake is called an Ox-Bow lake for example Kalri, the lakeon the river Indus is an Ox-Bow lake.
Q.4: Explain the rivers depositional landforms.
Ans: RIVERS DEPOSITIONAL LANDFORMS
Rivers Depositional Landforms are as under:
(i) Flood Plains (ii) Natural Levees (iii) Delta
- FLOOD PLAIN
In a flood plain the river overflows its bank and. spreads far and wide. When it recedes it leaves behind sediments in its wake. In this way a smooth plain emerges which is called Flood Plain.
- NATURAL LEVEES
Silt and sand accumulate on the river bank making the river bank higher than the flood plains; this is called a natural embankments or Natural Levees.
When the river enters the sea, the speed of the river flow reduces bringing with it all types of sediments. It divides into many branches and the plane thus formed is called delta.
Q.5: Explain the Landforms made by Glaciers.
Ans: LANDFORMS MADE BY GLACIERS.
In the high mountain ranges of the world the areas of the far northern polar areas are very old. There is intense snowfall due to which layers of snow form and lower part of these layers turn solid like glass, on which the upper portion of snow starts sliding down the slope. The volume of this sliding snow is called a glaciers.
GLACIER IMPORTANT AGENT
Like river glacier is also an important agent in bringing change in the earth’s landforms but its process is limited to the mountainous and polar regions.
TYPES OF GLACIER
There are two types of glacier that form in particular areas.
(i) Valley Glacier (ii) Continental Glacier
- VALLEY GLACIER
Glacier found on mountain areas are either called Valley glaciers or Alpine glaciers. These glaciers due to more slope slide down more quickly as compared to continental glaciers, but this movement is not more than a few feet per day. But soon as they come down to the lower areas they start melting quickly, and they bring with them eroded material which is deposed into different areas.
Due to this breakage the earth’s landforms come into existence as under mentioned.
Due to the breakage of glaciers and their deposition, earths landforms come into existence as mentioned under.
In high attitude areas where the glacier valley comes into (existence a bowl shaped depression comes into existence, it is called a Cirque.
- Cirque Lake/Tarn
When a glacier comes out of a Cirque and starts’ sliding down towards the slope, the water starts collecting in this bowl shaped crater, natural lakes are formed these are called Cirque lakes or Tarn.
Examples of Cirque Lakes
In Pakistan lake Saif-ul-Maluk and Satpara lake Etc are such examples.
iii. U-Shaped Valley
A glacier causes erosion in its downward as well as side wards path due to which the path becomes wide and takes on the shape of the English word “U’’, therefore it is called a “U” shaped valley.
We can find such valleys like Kaghan, Naran and Hunza in the areas of Pakistan are examples of such valleys.
(iv) Hanging Valley
Like small streams join a big river likewise small glaciers join large glaciers whose glacier valleys are at a height comparatively, such type of glacier is called Hanging valleys.
(v) Fiord Valley
Many mountains ranges that are situated beside a coast the glacier valley goes straight into the sea afterwards the sea water enters into these valley such a valley is called a Fiord (drowned valleys).
Glaciers deposit eroded materials which they deposit in huge piles, which are called Moraines.
TYPES OF MORAINE
(i) Lateral Moraine
To widen its valley the glacier widens by lateral cutting. The broken rocky material of the glacier is deposited on the banks of a glacier in the form of piles in a continuous ridges; this ia called a Lateral Moraine.
(ii) Medial Moraine
Due to the joining of lateral-moraines of two glaciers a medial moraine comes into existence.
(iii) Terminal Moraine
The arc shaped material deposited at ‘itsrter1ninus deposited in an arch like heap it joins the lateral moraine this is called a terminal moraine or end moraine.
Q.6: Explain the earth landforms made by continental glaciers?
Ans: CONTINENTAL GLACIER
Glaciers found in the polar areas are called continental glaciers. Far away from the equator in the polar areas like Greenland and Antarctica are engulfed in a thick blanket of ice. These are continental glaciers they’ are many thousand feet in thickness and are spread out in millions of square kilometers. Due to lack of slope and vast area of the glacier their sliding speed is very slow.
For this reason the continental glaciers destruction is less as compared to the deposition process of small glaciers.
Landforms formed by Continental Glaciers Deposition
Landforms made by the continental deposition are as under.
(i) Marginal lakes and Delta Kames (ii) Eskers
(iii) Outwash plains (iv) Drulmlins
(v) Terminal Moraine
(i) Marginal lakes and delta Kames
Sometimes in between the end of a glacier and the rising surface natural lakes are formed in which the melted water from the glacier starts collecting in streams and lakes and sometimes the finely eroded material coming from the lakes and streams dry surface. are formed which are called Delta Kames.
The streams formed by the melting glacier often make tunnels in the glacier. These streams bring with them sand, soil and small pebbles with them and make a winding permanent long winding plains piles which comes into existence with the melting of a glacier these are called Eskers.
(iii) Out Wash Plain
Often melt water streams deposit fine material aver a vast area of land ahead of glacier. This smooth plain is called Out Wash Plains.
The material deposited by glaciers in the form of oval shaped hills which resemble inverted spoons or eggs is called drumlins.
(v) Terminal Moraine
The material deposited at the terminus of a glacier is called a Terminal Moraine.
Q.7: Describe the landforms made by wind?
Ans: LANDFORMS MADE BY WIND
There is very little rainfall in the desert areas and there are no permanent rivers and vegetation is very less. That is why the wind is an important agent that brings change in the landform plains in the desert. Wind also plays an important part like the breaking of glaciers and rivers and their deposition in forming new earth landforms, modification.
(i) EROSIONAL LANDFORMS
The wind causes two types of destruction first of all the wind blows away the finely ground rock particles, this process is called Deﬂation.
The wind again uses these rock particles as a tool for further erosion and deposition. This process is called “Abrasion”
The erosional landforms that come into existence are as under:
Sometimes on soft rocks there is a layer of hard rock’s present on the surface of the earth. In the lower portion of soft rocks the process of erosion is greater by which its volume decreases, whereas the hard rock on top due to its resistance stays like a slab such a carving is called “Zeugen”.
- Mushroom Rock
Sometimes by the erosion of wind and friction the rock assume the shape of a mushroom. On such type of rocks the process of erosion is more on the thinner rocks. Due to the destruction of the wind such type of land forms formed are found on the surface of the Potohar, Plateaus and Baluchistan in Pakistan.
(c) Deflation Basin and Lakes
When the wind blows away the fine rock particles sediments due to which shallow depressions are formed these are called Deflation Basins.
Sometimes the rain water gathers in these craters and assumes the shape of a lake. Later on these lakes become dry due to evaporation in time.
Different types of rocks are present on the earth’s surface. Sometimes hard and soft rocks are present in each other’s lap. The uneven process of wind does not effect equally on these rocks and they assume irregular shapes. These are called “Yardang”. We can observe the erosional landforms of wind in Potohar and Balochistan Plateau in Pakistan.
When soft rocks are completely eroded the hard rock’s remain in the shape of distinctive mounds. These are called “Inselbergs’
(ii) Depositional Landforms
Due to the depositional process of the wind on sand the mounds that are formed are called “Dunes”.
These mounds are of different shapes.
TYPES OF SAND DUNES
There are five types of sand dunes as under
(a) Longitudinal Dunes (b) Transverse Dunes
(c) Crescent Shaped Dunes / Barkhans (d) Star-shaped Dunes
(e) Coastal Dunes
Q.8: Discuss the Landforms Made by Sea-Waves?
Ans: EROSION MADE BY SEA-WAVES IN COASTAL AREAS
Like the river waves cause corrosion on land in the same way sea waves cause erosion and through deposition they form new earth land forms.
There are four types of landforms caused by erosion as under:
(i) Caves (ii) Head Land and Bay
(iii) Sea Arch and Stacks (iv) Sea Cliffs
Continuous wave attacks at the bottom of cliffs create cavities. These cavities by further erosion transform into caves.
(ii) Head Land and Bay
Sometimes the sea water enters the in land to at great distance, it is called a bay.
When a dry portion of land around the sea enters it to a great distance in water it is called a Headland.
(iii) Sea Arch and Stacks
When sea waves keep on colliding with the coastal head land fro in both sides. Sometimes this continues erosion results in creating an opening in the headland. These are called “Sea Arch”. When the sea arch is detached from the headland by further erosion the remaining column like structures are called Stacks.
When these waves separate from the headland they look standing in the shape of individual dunes.
(iv) Sea Cliffs
On mountains coasts, seaward the slopes due to the breakage caused by sea waves they became perpendicular. The breakage caused by sea waves depends upon the type of rocks. Hard rocks turn in to steep slopes after years of breakage whereas the soft rocks break up early.
Due to the deposition of sand brought by sea waves an even region comes into existence adjacent to the sea it is called a coast.
Sand on the coast due to waves assume the shape of different dunes or mounds. These are called a bar.
Types of Bar
There are types of bar as under mentioned.
(i) Spit Bar
On a straight coast waves keeps on depositing sand. Sometimes a bay comes beside the straight coast and the sand is deposited a long way ahead of the bay. It is called a Spit bar.
While increasing in size the spit bar joins a nearby island, this forms a bridge between the coast and the island. It is called a Timbolo.
(iii) Bay mount bar and Cuspate bar
While increasing the spit bar reaches the other bank of the bay and separates the seawater form the bay it is called the Bay Mouth Bar.
Oceans and Seas
Q.1: What is difference between an ocean and a sea? Discuss the characteristics of some important oceans.
A vast area of the earth which is covered with water is called an “Ocean”.
Small regions attached to them are called seas. An ocean separates a continent from another.
TYPES OF OCEANS
There are five oceans in the world, their detail is given below
Oceans and Seas
The Pacific Ocean is the biggest ocean in the world.
Its area is approximately l55 million square kilometers.
Its average depth is 4000 metres.
Its border areas consist of deep trenches and volcanoes. The Panama Canal which joins the Pacific Ocean with the Atlantic Ocean is among important sea trade routes of the world.
The second biggest ocean is the Atlantic Ocean.
Area: Its area is 76 million square kilometer.
Its average depth is 3900 metres. .
The particular characteristics of this ocean is the mountain range which is present in its middle, which due to the opposite movement of fishery plates and the emergence of magma comes into existence.
Length of the long mountain range
This a lengthy mountain range which spreads from the Atlantic ocean to the pacific ocean, Indian ocean to” the South Antarctic approximately 60,000 kms in length, this is also considered to be the most important area with reference to volcanoes
Busiest Trade Route
The Atlantic Ocean is the most important and the busiest trade routes of the world.
This is the third biggest ocean of the world.
Its area is 68 million square kilometers. This triangular shaped ocean is spread up to the half of the Southern Hemisphere.
Its average depth is 3900 kilometers.
The mountain range coming from the middle of the Atlantic ocean bisects the Indian Ocean floor east to west like the Pacific ocean, trenches can also be found-in the Indian Ocean.
The Jawa Trench is ‘also present in the Indian Ocean which is 7400 kilometers in depth. The importance of trade through the Indian Ocean has increased.
Important Trade Route
This is an important trade route between the East and the West. The Suez
Canal emerges from it which enjoins the Red sea with the Barents Sea.
The Area of Antarctic Ocean
Its area is 20 million square kilometers.
Its average depth is 4000 metres.
Characteristics of the Antarctic Sea
In comparison to the other seas it is difficult to assess the borders of the Antarctic sea because in this part the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean are enjoined. Extremely cold water, big ice bergs are the characteristics of this sea.
It is situated around the South polar sea.
Its area is l4 million square-kilometers.
It average depth is 1200 kilometers.
Characteristics of the Artie Ocean
Shallow water, due to the mixing of fresh river water, less salt and frozen ice on the surface are the distinctive characteristics of this ocean.
Landforms made by the distribution of water
Q.2: Explain some important landforms made by the distribution of water?
The continental sea is part of the border of the adjoining ocean for example, the Arabian Sea and the Red sea etc.
A large and vast part of an ocean which penetrates deep into the in Land is called a gulf for example the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Mexico. .
As compared to the gulf a vast region of the ocean which comes inland to a great distance is called a bay for example, the Bay of Bengal, the Hudson Bay etc.
If the gulf is very wide and extended is called a Bight for example in the south of Australia the great Australian Bight.
A narrow passage of seawater which enjoins the two oceans is called a strait for example the strait of Gibraltar which connects the Atlantic ocean with the Mediterranean sea.
The dry region of land which “is covered on three sides by the sea is called a peninsula, It 1s attached to dry land-from one side for example the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian Peninsula.
Such a region of dry land which is surrounded by water from all sides is called an Island for example Sri Lanka, Indonesia and the Islands of the West.
A narrow strip of land which enjoins two big dry regions is called an Isthmus, for example when a peninsula enjoins a continent or continents like the Panama strips which enjoins the South and North American continents and the Suez Strip which enjoins the Asian and African continents.
Configuration of Ocean Floor
Q.3: Analyse different landforms, found on the ocean floor?
Ans: SEA FLOOR
Like the earths surface the sea floor is also uneven, up gradients and down gradients can also be found.
Types of Ocean floors
The ocean floor can be divided into four parts as under:
(i) Continental Shelf
The edges of the continentals are covered with shallow waters adjacent to the sea is called the Continental Shelf. The ocean floors are not deep. The importance of this place from a geographical political and economic view point is much more than places.
Minerals, fishing rights, sea-trade routes and defense strategy depend upon this continental shelf.
(ii) Continental Slope
The continental slope, whether narrow or broad at last dips steeply to the bed of the ocean. The steep slope beyond the 600 feet mark is known as the continental slope.
(iii) Canyons/Submarine Trenches
A range oceanic trenches starts at the end of a continental slope instead of a level ocean floor. These “V” shaped narrow and deep trenches can be found in the deepest places of the ocean and. their depth can be up to 10 kilometers, If there is no trench before a continental slope then this slope very slowly converges with the ocean floor which is even and this covers most of the sea area. The depth of this place is between 4500 metres to 6000 metres. Volcanoes can also be found in these parts.
(iv) Ocean Basin and Mid-Oceanic Ridges
Like big mountain ridges or ranges are found on the earth surface likewise mountain ridges can be found. on the ocean floor. These underwater mountains and rocks. When the Teutonic plates move in the opposite direction then the magma from under the seas, Teutonic plates deposits its self on the ocean floor. Due to the presence of these mountain regions in the middle of the seas it is called central oceanic mountain ranges.
Q.4: What do you mean by waves? Also explain the reason for waves.
Ans: MOVEMENT OF OCEAN WATER
Ocean water is not motionless more or less movement remains. The reasons for this are currents, waves and tides.
Their reason and types are as under
The movement of water on the surface is called a wave. Due to the different natural elements in the sea waves are formed, in which the water movement can be seen up and down, forward and backwards. In reality it is the movement of energy which water particles transfer to each other.
The peak of a wave is called a crest.
The downward portion of a wave is called a trough.
The vertical distance between a crest and the vertical distance between a trough and trough is called a wave length.
Causes of Waves
Wind an Important Factor in producing Waves
Wind is the most important factor in producing waves. Often whirlpools and tornadoes are formed on the sea surface and while traveling on the seas they become the cause for producing huge waves.
Earthquake, the cause for producing huge waves
Due to the earthquake on the sea floor or near the coastal areas high waves are formed in the sea. Just as the waves come towards the shallow waters of the coast they loose their strength.
The peak of the wave becomes narrow and pointed it is called a breaker.
The peak of the wave goes ahead of its lower portion and when it breaks it turns into foam it is called surf.
Q.5: Write down the causes of circulation of ocean currents.
Like a river that flows on land in the same way the sea water flows permanently in a particular direction, it is called an ocean current.
Warm Water Current
The ocean current flows away from the equator towards the polar areas, these are called warm water current’s. They increase the temperature of the coastal areas. For example the current in the Atlantic Ocean on the East Coast of South American continent which flows towards the equator and the bay current is called warm water current.
Cold Water Currents
The ocean currents which flow from the polar areas towards the equator are called cold water currents. They decrease the temperature of the coastal areas, for example in the Atlantic Ocean the Labrador Current flowing from the North towards the South and the Kamchatka current of the Pacific Ocean are called water currents.
Circle of Currents
In-half of the northern Hemisphere the ocean currents move clock-wise and complete their circle, whereas in the half of the southern hemisphere they move anti-clockwise.
When currents meet a large current is formed it is called a drift.
Warm and cold water currents
In the areas where the Warm and cold currents meet with each other, a strong mist prevails which is hazardous to shipping.
Q.6: Write a note on spring and Neap Tides.
The rise and fall of seawater on the surface is sequential. On the sea coast the water level rises and falls twice, it is called a tide.
The basic reason of tides
Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon on the earth. This reality was proved by Newton in the 17th century as the “Law of Gravity”. According to Newton both the sun and the moon poses mutual gravity.
The important method of producing
As the moon is the nearest earths neighbour its gravitational pull is greater than the sun even though being smaller then the sun. Therefore it is the most important source for creating tides.
The distance of sun from the earth
The sun is present at 390 time’s greater distance from the earth; this is why the gravitational ratio of the sun is 46 percent of the moon.
Types of Tides
There are “two-types of tides Daily tides and Monthly tides.
In the daily high and low tide the water level rises and falls at an interval of I2 hours and 45 minutes. The greatest effect of the (moons gravity occurs in that area which is in front during its gravitational rotation.
On the other hand its effect is every less, but on the other side the centrifugal forces keep it parallel to its front part in this way the effect of the tide is equal on both sides.
Types of Monthly Tides
There are two types of monthly tides
(i) Spring Tide
At new moon and full moon, the sun the moon and the earth are practically in a straight line. The attractive force of the sun adds to the pull of the moon. The result is two flood tides much higher than the average. As a natural result the low tides are lower than the average. Such high tides are called spring tides. They occur twice in a lunar month.
(ii) Neap Tides
In the lunar month the moon and the sun are at an angle of 90° with the earth on the 7th and 21st days of a lunar month. The two bodies are opposed to each other. The tide rising force of the moon is lessened. The result in a high tide much below the average height and a low tide that does not recede so far. There is less differences between high and low waters. Such lesser tides are called “Neap Tides”.
Causes of Ocean Currents
Q.7: Write down the causes of waves.
Ans: The following are the reasons for ocean currents.
(i) Permanent Winds
Winds are the most biggest and important factor for the movement of sea water. The sea water starts moving in the direction of the wind.
Trade winds move from the north east in the half of the North Hemisphere and South Easter direction, therefore the seawater starts flowing from the east to the west.
In the same manner the sea water under the influence of western winds starts moving from west to east.
(ii) Salinity of Ocean Water
Another reason for the movement of sea water is salinity.
Salinity in the seas enclosed by land
The seas enclosed by land contain more salinity due to this reason the water contains more densities.
Salinity in the open seas
In the open and big seas due to less salinity the density of water is less this difference in salinity becomes the reason for the movement of water.
Temperature of Oceanic Water
The important factor for the movement of water is the difference in temperature.
Temperature on the equator
Due to high temperature-on the equator the density is less in the sea water.
Temperature in the Polar Regions
Due to less temperature in the polar areas the density is more.
The cause for the flow of Oceanic Currents
The Water rises in the equator but the water keeps on coming down in the polar regions, this becomes the reason for the flow of the ocean currents.
The difference between waves, Ocean Currents and Tides Waves
The upward, downward, forward and backward movement of water is called a wave. Winds, whirlwinds and earthquakes are the cause for bringing storms on the surface of the calm waters, these are the most important reasons for causing waves.
When wind makes the sea water of a particular area move in a particular direction this movement is called a current.
Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon on the earth.
Q.1: What are natural disasters?
Ans: Natural Disasters
When a natural phenomenon becomes the cause of human and economic destruction it is called a natural disaster.
TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS
Volcanic, landside, desertification, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, forest fires, these are natural phenomena’s for the destruction for mankind.
Q.2: What do you mean by Volcanism? Also write down its causes.
The eruption of molten rock (Magma) from the earth’s core is called volcanism.
CAUSES FOR VOLCANISM
Due to volcanism very hot magma erupts from the earths core and starts flowing on the earths surface and it -bums everything that comes in its path.
Causes for earthquakes
Sometimes due to volcanism the magma erupts with an explosion and becomes the cause for an earthquake.
Causes for Environmental Pollution
Due to the eruption from a volcanic mountain of hot gases, besides the magma hot volcanic ash also comes out, which goes up many kilometers into the atmosphere becoming the cause for environmental pollution.
Volcanism in Pakistan
Pakistan is the luckiest country in the hemisphere even being located in the most active region, it has no dangerous or Live volcanoes.
Volcanism in Pakistan
Whereas you can find the-presence of volcanic activities somewhere in the North West Mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush Mountains in Pakistan.
Keeping in view the safety measures to human lives and properties measures have been taken to introduce an effective surveillance system to monitor the volcanism in the entire world.
In the case of emergency a warning is issued to that area where danger is imminent. The people are warned to be ready to face the circumstances in an emergency.
Q.3: What do you mean by land sliding? Explain its losses and protective measures.
Ans: LAND SLIDING
The soil and the rocks on the slopes become dilapidated under the influence of the earth’s gravity, start moving outwards in a sliding manner, it is called land sliding.
Losses due to land sliding
Land sliding can occur in many ways. It can cause loss to property and human lives.
(i) Danger to property or construction
Landslides can cause heavy losses to buildings and constructions.
(ii) Closure of roads
The falling matter from a land slide can cause the closure of roads.
Landslides can cause damage to communication lines or cables.
(iv) Stoppage of river flow
Landslides can cause the stoppage of the flow of river. Such as the stoppage of flow of the Gilgit River by which the Atta-abad lake came into existence.
(v) Effects on production capabilities
Land slides can decrease the agricultural activities in the effected areas.
Land Slides in Pakistan
The northern areas of Pakistan during /rainfalls come across the dangers of land slide. When hilly areas are cut to build roads for connecting far way areas with each other the mountains slopes become weak and due to rainfall become the victim of landslides.
The Karakorum high way is an important trade route between Pakistan and China. It is often closed due to landslides.
Cutting of forests
The cutting of forests in Pakistan without any hindrance is also the cause for landslides.
Level of water under the earth
By stopping the under surface water, level increases, the land sliding can be controlled.
To develop the irrigation system
By making the irrigation system of the effected areas land sliding can be Controlled.
Construction should not be carried out in the land sliding areas as it is dangerous.
To grow forests
Arrangements should be made -to stop the unnecessary cutting of forests and new trees should be planted for the growth of a new forest.
Q.4: Analyze the impacts of desertification.
Ans: EXPANSION OF DESERTIFICATION
The turning of fertile land into a desert land or arid land increases the process of desertification.
Increase in the process of desertification
Although the seasonal changes have always effected the desert, but due to the human activities after the industrial revolution the process of desertification has greatly increased.
Decrease in agricultural production
It is causing a great decrease in the agricultural production as well as in the water reserves.
Emigration of People
People and animals emigrating from the effected region is increasing.
Increase in poverty
Decrease in daily food intake, famine’ and the increase in poverty on the local scale.
The seasonal desert conditions
80 percent of Pakistanis Land is effected by desert or semi-desert seasonal conditions.
Improper method of cultivation
The major role of desertification process in Pakistan is due to the improper methods of cultivation, erosion, poor quality of soil, unnecessary cutting of forests and vegetation therefore we are facing a gradual decline in these things.
To increase the area of forests
By increasing the area of forests we can decrease the intensity of the effects of desertification made by the intense seasonal changes.
To make barriers by trees
By making the barrier of trees we can stop the deserts from spreading towards the cultivable areas.
Use of fertilizer
Richness of soil (land) can be increased by the use of fertilizer.
Awareness program campaigns
An awareness program campaign should be launched among the people about desertification and they should be advised by local method is for stopping desertification.
Undue cutting of Plants and Vegetation
People should be legally discouraged from cutting any plants shrubs or vegetation.
Q.5: Describe the impacts of Floods in Pakistan.
An overflow of river water out of its channel, which may cause damage to the nearby settlements, is called Flood.
Flood is a Natural Disaster
It is considered a natural disaster because it may be a cause of social and environmental degradation.
It can-damage any constructional frame work, uncommented housing and buildings without deep foundations. Destroy Bridges, Roads and Communication. It may destroy bridges, roads, communication lines, crops, farms monuments as well. Loss of lives especially of women, children and aged can occur, along with the spread of diseases and epidemics.
At the termination of the floods, different diseases and viruses spread out.
Causes of floods in Pakistan
There is a natural system of rivers present in Pakistan. The source of this river system emerges from the Northern mountain ranges. In these high and mighty mountain ranges the biggest ice reserves are present in the form of a glacier after the Polar Regions. By the melting of these glaciers the water flows in the river all at the year round.
Region of Monsoon Rains
The monsoon rainy region is situated in the rivers of the upper plain areas in the centre of the Northern mountain regions, therefore when the snow starts melting in the summer reason the central and plain areas the monsoon season is at its peak the rain pours down with full force.
Causes of flood or overflow
The rain water and the water coming from the glacier mix with each other and becomes the cause for flood and overflow.
Campaign for the awareness of danger from floods awareness should be developed among the people of the flood affected areas in their conscious about the” approaching danger of flood. An evacuation plan should be prepared to evacuate the people from the danger area safely to ensure the safe evacuation process. People should be evacuated from the flood affected areas. The gas and electricity should be disconnected to avoid further accidents.
Camps should be established in safe areas without hurting their ego to evacuate them to as safe place and provide them with food, to provided facilities to the affectees to make their return home safe .
For the construction of damaged houses the government and NGO’s should help the owners of these damaged houses.
Q.6: Write a note on Cyclones?
Cyclone is such a natural system of stormy winds in which the pressure is less in the center.
The wind goes towards the center in a rotating manner by this we have heavy rain with lightning. The speed of the wind exceeds more than 200kmh. These winds destroy everything in their path.
Cyclones become the cause for heavy rainfall due to which floods occur and cause damage to human lives and properties.
Most of the devastation is caused on coastal areas of Pakistan, where the stormy sea waves rising from the sea due to cyclone cause devastation on a vast scale to human lives and property.
CYCLONES IN PAKISTAN
The importance for the creation of cyclones
The Arabian Sea is situated in the South of Pakistan which is a part of the Indian Ocean. This is the most important area in the world for the creation of cyclones these are called torrid cyclones.
Effects on coastal areas
Cyclones effect the coastal areas of Pakistan for example Thatta in the Sindh province and Badin Whereas the areas of Jeewani, Gwadar and Lasbela in Balochistan are greatly effected by the destruction caused by cyclones.
Important causes of cyclones
In appropriate method of construction sub-standard material for construction and the absence of laws for the proper use of land un-awareness to the people of the approaching danger of the storm, less literacy rate, poverty‘ etc are the important reasons for the destruction caused by cyclones.
A compact system for the warning of the impending danger should be established. As soon as the warning is received about the cyclone, cattle and household goods should be transferred to a safe area.
A compact evacuation plan and system should be enforced. Volunteers should be activated in the danger area. In case of evacuation from the houses the gas and electricity supply should be disconnected.
Evaluation of a calamity
A map should be prepared about the impending danger of a calamity evaluation of the disaster in order to contain the disaster, its danger and intensity. It’s possible in this way to assess the possible damage caused to the affected persons, crops and basic structure.
Construction of houses
Reconstruction of houses affected by the cyclone, drinkable water, food, radio candles, matchboxes etc should be stored.
A suitable arrangement should be made for first aid in the effected areas. A report should be submitted to the emergency centers established by the government.
Q.7: What do you mean by an earthquake? Analyze the damages caused by earthquake and Safety Measures.
The sudden and intense quivering of the earth’s Tectonic plates is called an earthquake.
Sudden, quivering appears due to the movement of the earth’s Tectonic plates. No pre hand warning sign is left before an earthquake that is why no advance information or prediction can be made about an earthquake.
Losses Due to the Earthquake
Damage to human colonies, buildings, under construction buildings, basic necessities infrastructure are usually changes by earthquakes. Buildings, road, railway lines, water tanks, pipe lines and communication system etc are damaged particularly.
Earthquakes cause irreparable loss to human lives, other indirect losses are fires to loss of water reserves and the sliding of the earth etc are included.
To keep the losses to a minimum in the effected areas the primary factor is to infuse awareness among the concerned people.
The following three preventive actions should be acted upon.
- If you feel a slight jerk, in that case sit down.
- Cover your head.
- Hold on to something strong.
- Other Safety Measures
- In the area where there is danger about earthquakes weighty things should be kept near the earth and light things should be kept up.
- Learn to disconnect the household gas and electricity connection in the case of an emergency.
- If you are out of your residence then try to stay away from electric wires, high rise buildings or anything that can fall upon you.
- Keep your radio set on and act on the government instructions being issued.
- Try to put out the small fires, check your -house for any damages or cracks that appear on you walls or construction framework and do not enter such premises.
- If you feel the smell or sound of the gas immediately switch of the supply line and vacate of the house.
- Stay aware from the aftershocks after the earthquake and do not enter the house until these shocks completely stop.
Q.8: What do you mean by forest fire? Explain its losses and protective measures.
Ans: FOREST FIRE
It is such an idiom that is used for uncontrollable forest fire, which burns the forests, vegetation or any type of organic growth into ashes, side y side it damages wild animal life forms present in that area.
There are many reasons for forest fires which can be divided into natural and human causes. The biggest reason for forest fire is said to be natural lightning.
The biggest reason for forest fire is man himself in the human cause, accidents, carelessness and criminal acts are important.
Losses from Forest Fire
Ecosystem becomes upset
By the forest fire the ecosystem of the forest becomes greatly effected.
Loss of human lives and financial loss
Loss to people in dwellings
Loss of lives and financial loss and loss to properties in dwellings near the jungle.
Loss to agricultural production for example wood, fruit and crops is caused by jungle fire.
The temperature increases in the areas surrounding the forest fire, the environmental pollution increases.
Negative effects on human health
Negative effects on human lives and economic activities are caused. The catchment areas are also effected.
- More than 52% of the forest fires incidents occur due to human negligence either they should be criminal or unintentional accidents.
- The responsibility is also fixed on humans to save the forest from fires.
- In the area vulnerable to forest fire the development work should be limited, particularly such areas should not be selected for residential purposes. Fire proof material should be used for construction work.
- Besides bushes small trees, dry leaves broken dry branches, twigs garbage dumps should be cleared because these can become the cause for providing fuel to the forest fire.
- Explosive material for example gas, petrol etc. should not be hoarded near the forest.
- Such trees should be planted which cannot be effected by fire or there are chances of catching fire for example such trees that can store water and such trees that have a thick stern and are made of hard wood that cannot catch fire easily.
- New constructions should be erected in those areas where there are less chances of fire. A plain-surface is much safer than a sloppy one in this way the lower part of a slope is comparatively safer than the upper level.
- Experts should give training of extinguishing fire to the people living near the forest.
- An effective surveillance system should be established particularly in the hot and dry season to stop such incidents from taking place. A constant vigil should be enforced for the prevention of forest fires.
- In the case of a forest fire the houses should be immediately evacuated and the occupants be shifted to safe areas and they should not return to that area until the fire is extinguished.
MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
Q.1: What do you mean by environmental pollution? Also write down its reasons and types.
Ans: Environmental Pollution
The entry of a material in a disproportionate quantity of unwanted substance into the environment which can become harmful for human life it is called an Environmental pollution.
Types of environmental pollution
According to environmental experts the environmental pollution which can be harmful for health are the following;
(i) Air Pollution (ii) Water Po1lution
(iii) Soil Pollution (iv) Noise Pollution
Reasons for Environmental pollution
The material which is being emitted from the industries, factories vehicles, trains aeroplanes etc is polluting the natural environment.
Noise pollution” is caused by traffic and the running of industries and factories.
The smoke emitted -from the traffic and industries is the cause of air pollution.
Pollution is also caused by garbage, dirty water from the houses and the inclusion of garbage into the water causes water pollution.
Q.2: Explain the causes and impacts for Air Pollution.
Ans: AIR POLLUTION
The atmosphere is composed of different gases which have enveloped the earth from all sides like a shell.
This atmosphere which contains the ozone layer protects us from the suns radiation and keeps the temperature of the earth normal.
Presence of life on earth
Life is possible on earth due to the presence of air in the atmosphere.
The presence of poisonous gases in the air
There are many types of poisonous gases present in the atmosphere dust, smoke dust particles, water vapours, chemical matter and radiation which are present due to human and natural elements and they pollute the atmosphere.
Reasons for atmospheric pollution
In our surrounding environment the reasons for air pollution are the following.
- The occurrence of Tsunami in the sea etc, volcanism out of control forest fires, storms, the establishing of industries, communication cutting of forests, destroying. garbage without protective measures, the use of pesticides in the agricultural profession and the use of chemical fertilizers, wars and the accidents of oil carrying sea tankers etc.
- Due to increase in air pollution in the world man has to face different types of problems.
According to experts the effects are as under:
Acidic rain due to the weakness in the ozone layer, prevalence of common diseases. Which include short period diseases like the burning sensation in the eyes, ear and throat diseases, pain in the head, allergy, asthma and difficulty in breathing.
Life taking disease
Life taking diseases that continue for a prolonged period which include respiratory diseases, cancer, cardiac diseases, defect in the brain (neuro) system, liver problem, kidney and lung diseases.
Negative effect on agricultural production
The negative effects on agricultural production etc
Q.3: Describe the causes and impacts of Water Pollution?
Ans: WATER POLLUTION
The unwanted changes in the physical and chemical components are called water pollution.
Negative Effects on Humans
Water pollution not only produces negative effects on humans but side by sides it produces negative effects on earth’s animal and plant life.
Our water reserves are being polluted rapidly due to human activities.
Causes of water Pollution
- The use of different fertilizers and sprays for cultivation of crops and its untimely use, water from the houses and factories falling in the drains and streams and then falling‘ into the rivers.
- Water also becomes polluted due to floods.
- Acidic rain also pollutes the water.
- Garbage is also dumped in the seas on a large scale. This garbage reaches the different parts of the seas through sea waves causing pollution.
- In the case of an accident of a sea oil tanker the oil mixes with the water which becomes the cause for -water pollution.
- According to the environmental experts there are many reasons for Water pollution for example the water coming out of the hospitals, schools and factories etc.
Effects of Water Pollution
Effects on humans and marine life
Water pollution besides human life, effects vegetation and marine life and causes losses to them for example the scarcity and termination of marine life.
Reasons for noxious diseases
Poisonous chemicals present in the water are transferred from one life form to another becoming the cause for noxious diseases for example malaria is becoming a common disease, diseases of the stomach, hepatitis, cancer and other stomach and kidney diseases etc are included.
Use of Polluted Water
Almost half of the earth’s population use polluted water. Due to the use of polluted water many people die of different diseases.
Q.4: Write the causes and impact of Soil Pollution?
Ans: Soil Pollution
The inappropriate changes in the physical and chemical properties of the soil which become the cause for negative effects on earth life is called soil pollution.
Reasons for soil pollution
According to the experts the most important reasons for soil pollution are as under:
- Waste and garbage from houses, industries and hospitals is disposed off without protective measures.
- The undue and untimely use of fertilizers and pesticides becomes the cause of soil pollution.
- The cutting down of forests the construction of roads and buildings, proper planning and the absence of environmental principles.
- Mining, the burning of garbage extra matter being emitted from oil refineries is also the cause for soil pollution.
Effects of soil pollution
- Effects of earths pollution are being felt clearly now, in the densely populated areas.
- Our earth is polluted due to natural and -human activities, which include garbage, dangerous chemicals being used in the industry, industrial accidents, pesticides, different type of fertilizers mining and atomic energy etc.
- The natural reasons for earths pollution includes the eruption of volcano, earthquakes, water logging and salinity and the earths erosion.
- Due to the garbage dumps or mounds a human being becomes infected by many diseases, also there is an-impending danger of noxious diseases for example lung infection, breathing problem, skin diseases and cancer etc. When the earth is polluted its water becomes polluted also.
- Dangerous gases emit from the burning garbage and mix with air becoming the reason for air pollution.
Q.5: Describe the impacts of Noise Pollution.
Ans: NOISE POLLUTION
We hear different type of noises everyday. Some of the noises are according td our liking but when the noises exceed the limit we feel them very badly; Such noises are called noise pollution.
- Noise pollution is also a type of environmental pollution. Such sounds are disliked and affect our mental and physical life.
- Different noises come from vehicles, aeroplanes, pressure horns, factories etc. not only humans are effected by noise pollution but wild life and marine life are also effected by noise pollution.
- Wild life is also effected by the noise produced by the cutting of forests.
- The noise produced by the running engines of boats and sea ships sailing on the seas effect marine life.
Reasons for noise pollution
- The daily used commodities in homes become the reason for noise these include speakers grinder machines, washing machines, air coolers and TV’s etc. Due to the use of all these things noise pollution is created inside the homes.
- Different type of social activities for example marriage ceremonies, meetings and processions are the reasons for noise pollution.
- In trade and industrial areas where printing press and factories are located which prepare different commodities cause noise pollution. Large construction projects are also becoming the reason for noise pollution.
- The noise produced by the running of vehicles motorcycles, rickshaws, aeroplanes train etc. is called noise pollution.
Effects of Noise Pollution
- Noise pollution causes negative effects on human health.
- It impairs the hearing capabilities.
- Untimely noise effects the sleep.
- In some circumstances the hearing capability is finished totally.
- To become angry increase in blood pressure or severe pain in the head are also included in the noise pollution.
- Mans mental capability is greatly effected.
Q.6: What is global warming? Also describe the causes and impacts of Global Warming.
Ans: GLOBAL WARMING
Nature has created a natural protective cover around the planet earth, human activities create a difference in this protective cover and its properties due to this effect the earths temperature is increasing. The gradual overall increase in the planet earth’s temperature is called global Warming.
Reasons for global warming
- Smoke emitted from, vehicles, factories, aeroplanes, trains – etc becomes the reason for global warming.
- Due to the burning of oil, diesel and coal on a large scale the carbon dioxide thus emitted is entering the atmosphere which is the reason for the increase in temperature.
- The unnecessary cutting of trees and air pollution becomes the cause for global Warming.
- Due to global warming a change its occurring in the environment of the whole world.
- Due to global Warming the sea level is rising gradually and its effects are appearing.
- The rapid melting of glaciers due to global warming, excessive untimely floods, increase in temperature on a global scales and drought are the reasons for the rapid melting of glaciers.
- Diseases are spreading on a vast scale and we are facing droughts due to global Warming.
- Due to global warming production of “cattle and crops has decreased to a great extent.
- Inconsistency in‘ the natural rain system, unavailability of drinkable water for example there is much rain in some areas, whereas there is no rain in some areas.
- Natural resources for example forests pastures etc their productivity potential is gradually decreasing.
- Due to absorption of carbon dioxide; dust particles water vapours the energy being emitted from the earth and its absorption in it, the temperature of the lower atmosphere increases, this is called the Greenhouse Effect.
- Which keeps the earths temperature balanced. The average temperature of the earth is 15° centigrade.
- The increase of carbon dioxide, water vapours, dust particles methane chloroﬂuorocarbons (CFC’s) and other gases present in the atmosphere the earths temperature is increasing, besides it is also damaging the ozone layer.
- The presence of carbon-di-oxide in the atmosphere is increasing to a great extent after the industrial revolution.
- The burning of coal, oil, gas and other fuels on a large scale are the basic reasons. The green house effect is becoming the reason for global warming.
The strategies for reducing environmental pollution
- Abstain from throwing garbage out of the houses in the streets, roads streams and drains.
- Use water according to your needs.
- Keep your home your community and your city clean. Don’t throw usable things into the garbage.
- Do not burn the garbage without protective measures.
- Minimize the use of plastic bags.
- Grow more and more trees.
Q.1: What do mean by a region? Explain.
Such environment or geographical areas which have identical physical and cultural homogeneity is called a region. It can consist of any -area or areas in competition with the earth. It is not necessary that the areas” included in the region should be joined geographically.
Concept of region
The level of the earth’s surface is not uniform everywhere due to this difference the atmosphere of the worlds different parts is not uniform and also this environment.
Due to the reason the economic conditions and living life style differs in the whole parts of the World due to this plant and animal life also differ from each other.
Physical and cultural difference in the world
Besides the physical and culture differences, uniformity can also be formed. If we can divide the world into different parts on the basis of differences we join the different parts of the world together and form a region.
Examples of regions
Region of rocky areas, the desert region of forests and the region of Muslim countries.
Region a unit of an area
A region is a unit of an area, every region contains a specific area, every area has its own geographical borders and every region has its own location, which can be described by longitudes and latitudes or by any other reference.
Linked geographically or culturally
All regions are mutually joined geographically and culturally together
Major Regions of the World
Q.2: Explain the division of three major regions of the world.
Ans: The division of three major regions
The World can be divided into three major regions on the basis of horizontal distribution of temperature.
These regions are as follows:
(i) Tropical zone (ii) Temperate Region
(iii) Cold Region
- TROPICAL ZONE
It is situated on the both sides of the equator in between 23.5° on the Tropic of Cancer (north) and 23.5° on the Tropic of Capricom (south). The countries areas of continent Asia, the Southern parts of North America and South America, Africa and Northern areas of Australia. The sun rays fall vertically ‘on the areas around the equator and surrounding areas the whole year that is why these equatorial regions have a high degree of temperature. More rain on the Eastern Coasts of the continents. There is abundant rainfall on the eastern coasts of the continents. Going towards the West the quantity of rain becomes very less. For this reason in this region deserts are found in the interior of the continents towards the western coasts big deserts can be found.
- TEMPERATURE REGION
This region is located on both sides of equator from the Tropical Capricorn at 66.5° in the North polar circle and 66.5° in the Tropic of Capricorn to the South polar circle. The countries included in this region are Continent Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa and areas of Australia. In this region the sunrays fall slantingly, for this reason the temperature is less therefore it is called the temperate region. Summer reason and winter season can be both found in this region. There is abundant rainfall in this region. The quantity of rainfall is more on the western coasts as you go towards the east the quantity of rain fall decreases. Therefore large deserts are found in the middle “of these continents.
iii. COLD REGIONS
This is situated from the Tropic of Cancer 66.5o in the circle of the North Polar Region and 66.5° from the Tropic of Capricorn towards the circle of the South Polar Region in between these two regions. The countries include continent Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa and the areas‘ of Australia. In this region sunrays fall obliquely for this reason according to the temperature it is called a temperature region. The summer and winter seasons can both be found in this region and there is more rain fall in this region. The quantity of rainfall is more in abundance on the west coasts of the continents as you go towards the east the quantity of rainfall keeps on decreasing. Therefore in this region deserts are found in the middle of the continents.
- LOCATION OF COLD REGION
This region is located from the North Pole towards the South Pole at 90° and from the circle of the South Pole to, the South Pole 90° in between these Po1ar Regions.
It includes continent Asia, Europe, North America, Northern areas of North America and continent Antarctica. In this region the sunrays fall obliquely on the earth therefore it is an extremely cold region. The season is not formed in this region due to intense cold in the polar region the wind (air) pressure remains ‘more due to which the winds become weighty and come down. Therefore there is very less rainfall in this region but snow storms often occur.
Important Natural Regions:
Due to the natural likeness found in the under mentioned large regions more regions can be formed.
(a) The Rainforest region (b) The Monsoon Region
(c) The Mediterranean Region (d) The Steppe Region
(e) The Tundra Region (f) The Desert Region
Rain Forest Region
Q.3: Discuss the rain forest region in detail.
This region is situated on both sides of the equator 5o north towards 5o south longitude and latitude in the tropical region.
In this region (continent Asia) we have to countries for example Indonesian Island, Malaysia, Thailand and Sri-Lank. The countries of the African Continent are Kenya, Uganda, Congo and Gabon.
In the equator and the areas almost situated near it the sunrays fall almost vertically the whole year therefore the average temperature remains almost 27° centigrade the whole year. Due to high temperature the wind pressure remains less in the equator when the wind becomes lighter it goes up therefore the wind temperature drops.
The process of condensation becomes the cause for rainfall, such rain is called conducive rain. In this region of the world the rainfall is more than any other region its average rainfall exceeds 200 millimeters.
Densely populated forests are found in this region of the world. These regions are called the rain forests. Food, dress, existence and economic activities of the people of this region mostly depend on the products obtained from the forests. People living in the forests still cover their bodies with leaves and live on safe places at the top of trees. Wood obtained from the forest is most suitable for furniture building and construction work. The most important economic activity of this region is tree plantation obtaining natural rubber, coco, coffee, tea, bananas, coconut are the important products of this region.
The other agricultural products of this region are sweet potatoes, root vegetables, cassava, arum and yam. When the region of a forests is cleared for cultivation such type of agriculture is called the slash and burn cultivation. Such agriculture is restricted to this region only.
This region is -famous for its wood, natural rubber and coconut oil industry.
Q.4: Write-a note on monsoon region.
Ans: Location and Countries
This region is located in the tropic on both sides of the equator 5° to 25° longitude and latitude in between the continents on the eastern shores of the continents.
The distinctive countries of continent Asia are India Pakistan, Bangladesh Myanmar, Vietnam, Philippines and South China.
The African continent consists of Madagascar and South eastern Australia.
Continent South America
South Brazil is-included in the South American continent.
In this region on the 21st of June sunrays fall vertically on the Tropic of Cancer and obliquely on the tropic. of Capricorn, therefore the average temperature on the tropic of Cancer exceeds 27° centigrade this situation becomes exactly opposite on the 22nd December.
This characteristic separates it from the rain forest region; due to the difference in temperature the situation of rain fall is also different from the rainfall of the rain forests region.
In the summer season the winds blow from the sea towards the dry land, these winds are full of humidity which result in heavy rainfall. These winds are called the monsoon winds of the summer season.
In the winter season the monsoon winds blow from the dry land towards the seas therefore they do not produce rain. This is the briefest period of the dry season of these regions.
In the dense forest present in this region it produces wood and through agricultural plantation rubber, tea, coffee, banana and coconut are the important production of this region.
The important economic activity of this region is rice cultivation for which the quantity of rainfall is very beneficial. In this region besides the plain areas rice is also cultivated on rocky slopes.
Suitable climate and ample natural resources are the reason for the dense population of this region. This region is rapidly on the way to success in industrial development.
Q.5: Explain, the climate and location of the Mediterranean region?
Ans: Location and Countries
This region is situated on both sides of the equator between 30° to 45° longitude and latitude north and south on the west banks of the continents in the temperate region.
Continent North America
In this region of north continent of America, Southern California and the coastal areas around the Mediterranean Sea are located.
Countries like Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Israel are located in this continent.
The countries of Spain, Italy and Greece are located in this continent.
The countries of Egypt, Tunis Algeria and Morocco are located in this continent.
Continent South America
The western coastal area of Chile the coastal areas of western and southern. Australia is located in the South American Continent.
Located near the sea in the temperate zone the average temperature of this region is 20° centigrade and it never goes below 10° centigrade.
There is more rain fall in the winter season as compared to the monsoon region. Whereas the summer season remains dry. More rain falls on the coastal western banks of the continents.
Q.6: Describe the human activities of the Mediterranean Region?
Ans: Human Activities
The Mediterranean region is recognized throughout the world for its pleasant and moderate climate. For this season the region is densely populated.
The important economic activity of this region is agriculture. The summer season is very suitable for agriculture. This region is recognized throughout the world for its production of wheat, barley, grapes, olives and orange. In the pastures (grassy plains) cattle rearing are the important profession of these people.
This region is famous for its wheat products woolen clothes, drinks industry and agricultural production throughout the whole World.
Q.7: Describe the location and human activities of the Steppe region.
Ans: Location and Countries
The steppe region is located 35° to 55° longitude and latitude on the borders of the plain desert areas.
The countries of Mali, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan Namibia and South Australia are located in the African Continent.
North American Continent
The central part of continent North America, the Northern parts of Argentine in South America New South Wales-and Victoria in Australia and the Middle East states are included in this region.
Since this region consists of the borders areas located on the margins of the deserts regions therefore the climate is better than the desert areas.
Average Annual Rainfall
The average quantity of the annual rainfall is 100 to 300 millimeters.
Large Habitat for grass eating animals
Due to the large quantity of rainfall this region consists of grass plains. This is the largest habitat for grass eating animals in the whole world. Cattle rearing are an important economic activity of this region.
In the temperature region the sole large crop is wheat which is cultivated in all the countries of this region in the vast plains.
The North American prairie and the South American plain of Pampas are worth mentioning in Europe and central Asia these plains are called Steppe plains.
Q.8: Write the location of the Tundra region. Also explain the climate of Tundra Region.
Countries and Location
The tundra region is located in the north of the equator in between 60° to 75° longitude and latitude around the Artic Ocean. In the South of the equator a very short part of the Antarctica is included in this region.
In this region of Continent Asia the Siberian plains of‘ Russia are located, Norway, Finland and Sweden the countries of Europe are located.
Continent North America
The Northern area of Canada and Alaska are located in the North American continent
Intense Cold Winter
The climate of this region is intensely cold. The winter is quite cold and lengthy which remains for a period of eight months in which the temperature remains below freezing.
The summer, season is of a short duration in which the average temperature stays below 10° centigrade. In summer season that is July and August the ice starts melting due to the increase in temperature.
Cause of Rainfall
Due to increase in temperature the quantity of humidity in the air increases which becomes the cause for a very less rainfall.
Quantity of Annual Rainfall
The quantity of annual rainfall in this region is less than 25 millimeters.
Q.9: Write the location and human activities of the desert region.
Ans: Location and Countries.
The desert region is located in both sides of the temperate regions and tropical regions. They are located on both sides of the equator in between bearing 15° to 25° longitude and latitude between the wests of the continents.
The biggest deserts of the world are located in the tropical region.
This includes the African continents Sahara Desertin which Mauritanian, Mali, Algeria, Chad, Sudan and ninecountries are included the Calahari desert and Angola etc.
In continent Asia of the area of Thar, Saudi Arabia, Iran and India upto the area of Rajasthan and Mongolia and China in the Gobi desert in China
Continent South America
The western countries of South American continent include besides Peru, Chile and the central part of Australia.
Climate of Tropical Regions
The desert located in the tropical region is the hottest desert of the world. The average temperature exceeds 32° centigrade. A lot of difference can be found between the day and night temperature. ‘
Annual Average Rain Falls
Desert-found in the tropical regions are the driest areas of the world, where
the average rain fall is even lesser than 30 millimeters.
- Due to the scarcity of rain in the desert areas and the intense temperature human activities are limited.
- The vegetation in desert areas is such that it cannot be benefitted from.
- In such desert areas where water is present under the earth, oasis is present and by the Help of fountains and wells cultivation can be done on a limited scale which is called dry farming.
- In the desert region mostly people live the life of a nomad in search of water. This is a backward area in the field of industry.
CLIMATE OF PAKISTAN
Q.1: What do you mean by seasons? Also write the names of the seasons of Pakistan.
According to the climate a particular period or duration in a year is called climate.
Seasons of Pakistan
Pakistan is located in the Warm Temperate region in which the under mentioned seasons are found.
(i) Winter Season (ii) Spring Season .
(ii) Summer Season (iv) Autumn Season
Q.2: Describe the characteristics, features of winter season in Pakistan.
Ans. Start of the winter
In Pakistan the winter season starts from December and continues till the end of February.
The average temperature of the country
The average temperature remains below 18° centigrade in this season in most parts of the country. While going from South towards the North the temperature gradually lessens. The intensity of cold increases in the plain areas.
Temperature in the hilly areas
In the hilly areas the temperature falls below 0° centigrade causing heavy snowfall. In this season the rain fall is less as compared to the summer season.
Cyclones an important cause for rain
The important causes for rain are cyclones which enter Pakistan from the west side.
Q.3: Describe the characteristics features of spring season in Pakistan?
Ans: Start of the Spring Season
At the start of March till the end of April the season is neither very hot nor very cold most of the time horizons or sky remains clear. Although there is slight rainfall with thunder in the Northem areas. In this season new leaves spring out on trees and plants and different varieties of flowers come into bloom, this is called the spring season.
Q.4: Explain the characteristics of the summer season in Pakistan.
Ans. Start of the Summer Season
At the end of the winter season the summer season commences from May which continues till mid September. The temperature increases in this season. In most part of the bountiy the temperature remains above 18° centigrade. In plain areas particularly in deserts the intensity of the heat increases to a great extent. In coastal areas the temperature remains moderate due to the effects of the sea, whereas the heat is not much in the hilly areas.
Due to the increase in heat the wind pressure decreases in Pakistan, for which the monsoon winds coming from -the Arabian sea and the bay of Bengal start flowing towards Pakistan these winds are full of humidity
In this season the duration of rain starts from mid July and remains till mid September. In this season there is ample rain fall therefore it is called the rainy season.
Most rainfall occurs in the North Eastern Punjab and the rocky areas attached to it. Whereas the rain gradually lessens in the North,” South and West areas of Pakistan.
Q.5: Describe the characteristics of the autumn season in Pakistan?
Ans: Start of the Autumn Season
Once again in October and November the weather is neither very hot nor very cold. In the autumn season the quantity of rain becomes very less. In South Punjab and North East Sindh, wind full of dust starts blowing. In the Autumn season of the Northern Areas slight rainfalls with thunder occur. In this season plants and trees shed their leaves; this is called the autumn season.
The surface level of Pakistan is not uniform due to this difference the temperature and the quantity of rainfall is not alike.
Keeping in view the difference in surface level and climates Pakistan’s famous geographical scientist Qazi Saeed ud Din Ahmad in 1951 divided Pakistan into four large regions according to the climate as mentioned under:
- Sub Tropical Continental High Land Climate Region
- Sub Tropical Continental Plateau Climate Region
- Sub Tropical Continental Low Land Climate Region
- Tropical Coast Land Climate Region
Q.6: Discuss the sub-tropical continental high land climate of Pakistan.
Ans: Sub-Tropical Continental High Land Climate of Pakistan
This climate region consists of Pakistan’s North and Western mountain ranges besides these Balochistan mountain ranges due to its distance from the sea and its height it has bad effects in this region which are distinctive. The height of these Northern Mountain Ranges is more than 5000 meters. In the winter the temperature remains below 0° centigrade and the average temperature in the summer season remains between 10° to 20° centigrade. The Himalaya Mountain the Karakoram Mountain and the Hindukush are the highest mountain ranges.
In the mountain areas fast winds blow with thunder and lightening and besides the rain there is heavy snow fall. There is also snow fall in western mountain ranges and in some parts of Balochistan. The quantity of rain fall is less in these mountain ranges.
Sub Tropical Continent Plateau Climate Region
Q.7: Explain the Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau Climate Regions in Pakistan?
Ans: Sub-Tropical Continent Plateau Climate Region
This climate region is located in the western part of the plateau in Balochistan climate region being far from the sea it creates a bad effect on the climate of this region. Areas like Chaghi, Kharan, Nokundi and Noshki are included in this region.
The average temperature remains between 0° centigrade and 9° centigrade. The average temperature remains above 32° centigrade in the summer season. The quantity of rain remains less in this region. Rain is usually caused by cyclones coming from the west.
Q.8: Explain the Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland Climate in Pakistan.
Ans: Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland Climate Region in Pakistan
This climate region consists of the plain areas of Sindh and Balochistan and deserts. Due to the increase in distance from the sea the bad effects on the climate of the region can be seen.
Due to the bad effects on this region intense hot temperature is found here. The average temperature in winter season remains between 1° to 20° centigrade. Average Temperature in Summer Season remains above 32° centigrade.
In this region the quantity of rainfall is very less. But in the summer season the winds coming from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal cause very heavy rainfall.
Tropical Coast and Climate Region
Q.9: Explain the Tropical Coast Land Climate in Pakistan.
Ans: Tropical Coast and Climate in Pakistan
Pakistan Western areas are located near the torrid zones in the north tropic of Capricom. The coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan are included. The effects of the Arabian sea can be clearly seen on the climate of this region.
Due to the effects of the sea the temperature of this region remains moderate. The average temperature remains between 10° to 20° centigrade in the winter season. The average temperature remains between 21° to 31° centigrade in the summer season.
The distinctive characteristic of this region is the continuous flow of land breeze. These winds due to the difference in temperature the sea breeze blows from the sea towards the land and at night the land breeze blows from the dry land towards the sea.
Although humidity remains high in the air due to the effects of the sea the amount of rainfall remains low. Average amount of rainfall remains between 125 to 250 millimeters which varies seasonally.
A Impact of Climate on Vegetation and Human Life
Q.10: Describe the impact of climate on Natural Vegetation.
Ans: Effects of Climate on Vegetation
Variation of climate in different parts of Pakistan has a great impact on vegetation and human activities.
The forests found in the mountains areas of Pakistan above 4000 meters are called Alpine forests.
Reduction in the plantation of trees
However they do not grow to their full height because of extreme snowfall and a short summer season.
The Areas Consisting Dense Forests
However the forests which are found below 4000 metres are comparatively dense. Here trees attain there full height because of adequate rainfall, temperature and duration of summer season.
Areas of Forests
These are found in northern areas Mansehra, Abottabad in KPK and Galliat in Northern Punjab and Quetta and Kalat in Balochistan.
Favourable areas for the growth of forests
The climate of Balochistan plateau and Piedmont areas favours the growth of scattered dry forests and grasslands.
Forests of Bela
The climate of plains favours the growth of broad leaved forests along the river banks. These are called Bela forests.
Vegetation found in faraway areas of river
Away from the rivers in open plain-areas is found thorn bush type of vegetation.
Extremely dry and hot climate
In desert areas of Pakistan where the climate is extremely dry and hot thorn scrubs and date palms are found.
The moderate climate of the coastal areas favours the growth of Mangrove forests in the deltaic region of river Indus and Hub.
Impact on Human Activities
Q.11: Analyse the impact of climate on human activities.
Ans: Impact of climate on human life
The mountains areas of Pakistan are not densely populated. There is severe snowfall in winters which tends to keep the human activities limited. People store -food items.
These people, who have live stock, shift their cattle to the piedmont areas.
Life becomes paralyzed
Life becomes paralyzed and the region remains disconnected by road blockages due to snow fall while the air transport remains disturbed too.
However the summers are pleasant in this region. People re-shift their cattle in the grassy meadows upland.
Agriculture is also practiced on a limited scale and com is the most important crop of this region in summers.
Fruits and trees of the mountain areas
Apples, plums, apricots, peaches almonds and walnuts also grow well in this climatic region.
Hindrance the promotion of tourism
Rainfall is frequent which often results in the occurrence of landsides and floods. These hazards are a hurdle in the development of tourism in the region.
Plain areas are favourable for human activities
The plains of Pakistan are densely populated due to favorable climatic conditions for different types of activities.
Agriculture is important economic activity wheat and grain are major Rabi crops while rice corn, cotton and sugarcane are major Kharif crops.
The climate is also favourable for different type of industries.
In winters the fog disturbs the schedule of road traffic, railways and air ways in this region.
Desert Areas of Pakistan
The desert areas of Pakistan are not densely populated, Life remains tough due to hot and dry climatic conditions, population is scattered due to scarcity of water.
Agriculture on a limited scale
Hot wind known as “Loo” blows during the day which paralyses the life. Limited farming is practiced in those areas, where water is available.
Rearing of goats and sheep is also an important economic activity.
NEIGHBOURING REGIONS OF PAKISTAN
Ans: Discuss the characteristics of South Asian countries.
Ans: Pakistan’s Foreign Policy
In present time due to the global economic circumstances, energy needs and the unfortunate threat of terrorism the countries of this region (which were once apart) are trying rapidly to improve their bilateral relations for ﬁnancial and economic development is due to the above circumstances Pakistan is also trying to develop peaceful and friendly bilateral relations with its neighbouring countries through its foreign policy.
Relation with Neighbouring Countries
The foreign policy of Pakistan with its neighbouring regions like South Asia, Central Asia, Middle East Central Asian countries has always been to establish friendly, peaceful and bilateral relations this foreign policy has been given great importance.
A View of the neighbouring countries
Geographically South Asia is an important region of the World in terms of population and area. It is a densely populated region accommodating almost 25 percent of the World population.
Countries of South Asia
Countries included in this region are Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal and Maldives.
Colonialism has accepted all South Asian countries inthe past.
Ample Natural Resources
This region has not progressed economically inspite of the presence of a lot of natural resources. The impacts are very much obvious on the everyday life of individuals and community as a whole in these countries.
Per capita and gross national income is dependent upon agricultural system. Efforts are being made to improve this system by rapidly implementing the use of modern technology.
Increase in per capita income
The results of these efforts have started to appear in the form of increase in per capita income and gross national income.
Worlds densely Populated Region
This region is included among the most densely populated regions of the world.
Social and Economic Conditions
But unfortunately the population of this region because of different socio-economic conditions is proving to -be a burden on the financial and economic development of this region.
To improve this situation, special attention is being given to manpower development in these countries and it is hoped that soon the population of these countries would prove to be an economic resource rather than a burden.
Facilities of Health and Education
Inadequate facilities and low standard of education and health was a hurdle in the way of economic development of this region any how these are gradually diminishing with increase in literacy rate.
(SAARC) South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation
There is a lack of mutual trust and cooperation among South Asian Countries. To overcome-these problem positive steps were taken from the platform of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) and it is hoped that improvement in bilateral relations among the countries of this region would result enormously in boosting economic activities in the region.
Late Start of Industrial Activities
Although late industrialization is also an important reason of under development of this important region but in the global economic circumstances the results in the form of valuable increase in industrial activities and production of this region have started appearing.
Q.2: Discuss Pakistan’s relation with South Asian countries.
Ans: India and Afghanistan
At the time of the creation of Pakistan two important countries of South Asia i.e. Afghanistan andlndia because of their short-sightedness did not accept the existence of Pakistan.
Due to Pakistan continuous efforts and global circumstances the gulf between South Asian Countries is narrowing with the passage of time.
SAARC Very Important role of the organization in the area
SAARC established in 1985 played an important role. Initially Afghanistan was not the part of this association but through the efforts of Pakistan, Afghanistan also becomes the member of SAARC in 2007.
Social Regional Issues
Limited economic resources along with complicated and political and social regional issues stopped this regional association SAARC to play its full role.
Wave of Terrorism
In present time the unfortunate threat of terrorism prevailing in these countries is a great hindrance in their development.
Improvement between relations of these countries
The countries of this region which were once apart are trying rapidly to improve their bilateral relations for financial and economic development.
Q.3: Describe the economic characteristics of the Middle East. Also write Pakistan’s relations with these countries.
Ans. Location of Middle East
Blessed with the wealth of petroleum the geographical region of Middle East is situated in the South West of Asia.
Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Emirates and Yemen are the main countries of this region.
Being a part of the Arabian Desert has remained a victim of under development on the economic front.
Wealth of oil
The discovery of petroleum in this region has changed the way of life. The financial and economic development of Middle East is almost dependent upon petroleum wealth and mineral resources.
This region has been forced with the shortage of manpower needed for economic development.
Agricultural activities are limited to river valleys and some oasis which are insufficient to meet the food requirements of the region.
Industrial activities started quite late in this region and most of the industries are associated with the production of petroleum.
Focal Point of the Muslim World
Historically and from the religious point of view this region has always been the focal point of the Muslim world.
Pakistan Relations with Middle East Countries Peaceful Bilateral Relations
Because of being the centre of Islam and the Muslims peaceful bilateral relations with this region have always been the basis of foreign policy of Pakistan.
Preference of Pakistan Manpower
When the discovery of petroleum opened way of economic activities in this religion all countries of’ the Middle East preferred Pakistan for the required manpower for these activities.
Improvement in Pakistan
This resulted in further strengthening of economic ties between Pakistan and Middle East Countries which helped Pakistan to overcome the problems.
Help in Natural Disasters
The Middle East countries with the passion of Islam and Muslim brotherhood have always helped Pakistan at the time of natural disasters and regional issues in response.
Favouring Middle East Countries
The people and government of Pakistan have never stepped back in helping Middle East countries on every front in their war against Israel.
Q.4: Describe the characteristics of Central Asian states. Also write Pakistan’s relations with these countries.
Location of Central Asia
Stretching over a vast area the geographical region of Central Asia is situated in the North and North West of Pakistan.
It has an area of about 4 million square kilometers.
The five countries included in this region are Kazakhstan, Kirghiestan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Pakistan Social Historical and Cultural Bondages
Karakoram highway links Pakistan with this region which has historical social and cultural bondages with Pakistan for thousand of years.
The presence of unaccountable natural resources made central Asian states the focal point of world after their independence from the soviet union in the last decade of the previous century.
Importance of the Geographical Region
Due to the nearness of Pakistan ports to this region it is said that the resources of this region can be proved fruitful if only the countries of this regions are linked with the outside world via Pakistan.
Due to limited regional needs these resources have the capacity to fulfill the rapidly growing energy needs of the world.
Historically the central Asian States also hold an important position in agriculture especially Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are well known for the production and supreme quality of their cotton in the world.
The defence industries which were established in the times of soviet union have gained importance in this region especially Kazakhstan is earning valuable foreign exchange through its defence production.
After the breakup of Soviet Union, the human sources of this region have also become an attractive market not only for the neighbouring countries but also for the regional and international economic powers.
Important role of Saints
Historically the saints arriving from Central Asia have played a vital role in the advent and spread of Islam in Pakistan the memories of which are still alive in the hearts of people here.
Supply of Natural Resources
The most convenient economic and workable passage for petroleum and natural gas resources of Central Asia to the international markets is only possible via the territory of Pakistan. The results of this situation make Pakistan and central Asian States as natural partners.
Role of ECO
Pakistan and Central Asian States are getting closer together as both are trying to solve their economic problems from the platform of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Through strong economic and social bilateral relations Pakistan and Central Asian States can move forward on the path of financial and economic development by using their resources efficiently.
Q.5: Describe the Economic characteristics of china.
Peoples republic of China is situated in the North and Northeast of Pakistan. It stretches from Central Asian States to the Pacific Ocean in the east.
Pak-China friendship which is higher than the Himalayas and deeper than the Pacific Ocean is based on strong bilateral, strategic, social, political and foreign relations has become an example for the rest of the world.
Important Role in the development
Pak-China friendship has not only played a vital role in the mutual development but has also contributed appreciably for regional and global peace and development.
Pakistan was the first country which started to play a positive role to draw China in the global streamline after its independence. Due to Pakistan’s efforts Chine came out of international isolation and entered the streamline of world nations.
Cooperation of Chinese Government.
The people and government of China cooperated whole heartedly to compensate changes whenever Pakistan was faced with a natural disaster.
Chinas Stable Economy
Due to its stable economy energetic man power along with natural land human resources China has attained a pivotal position in the world. .
Worlds Development on Economic Development
According to economists the economic development of the world will rely upon the economic behaviour and economic role played by China in the coming times. The economic development of China is based on a strong industrial infra structure which is dependent upon industries.
China has a policy of promoting agriculture on scientific and industrial basis which enabled china not only to meet the domestic food requirement but the surplus food grains are also being sent to the world markets.
Keeping in view its immense industrial development China has also focused on promoting alternative energy resources i.e. wind, solar and hydel power along with the conventional power resources i.e petroleum, gas and coal etc.
Valuable Foreign Exchange
After facilities the massive population with education and technical skills China is sending it as an economic resource to the international market and earning valuable resource foreign exchange.
Q.6: Discuss Pak-China relation.
Ans: Pak-China Relations
Pak-China relations need no introduction. Chinese government and people have always stood with Pakistan at the time of difficulty as well as they have tried their level best to strengthen Pakistan“ economically and strategically.
Pakistan’s Energy Projects .
Various power projects are in process, like Neelam-Jhelum and Chashma are important examples in this regard.
Pakistan Defence Projects
Pakistan defence projects like heavy mechanical complex Taxila, Pakistan, Aeronautical complex Kamra and Pakistan ordinance factory Hegelian and Sanjwal are proof of this everlasting Pak-China friendship.
Karakoram highway which connects Pakistan with western China and central Asian states is also a magnificent example of Chinese skill and cooperation.
Importance of Gwadar -Sea Port
In present times the development of Pakistan, Central Asia and Afghanistan is not possible without developing the port of Gwadar.
Pakistan Limited Financial Resources
Due to limited resources of Pakistan this project was under delay but now the peoples Republic of China has agreed to promote this great development project. Now this greats development project has become the life line in the economic development of Pakistan.
Location of Pakistan
Q.7: Explain the importance of geographical location of Pakistan.
Pakistan has an area of 7,96,096 square kilometersin Asia in between 23.5 to 37-° north latitudes and 61° to’77° east longitudes.
India lies in its east Afghanistan in the North West Iran in the South West, China in the North and Northeast and Arabian Sea lies in the South.
The 20 kilometers wide “Wakhan Strip” of Afghanistan separates Pakistan from the Central Asian States.
Geographical Situation and Strategic Importance of Pakistan
Pakistan enjoys a unique position in terms of its location. Due to this location Pakistan is a centre of interest for all the big powers of the world Russia, United States of America and China always keep trying to enhance their influence in Pakistan.
Central Asian States
Central Asian States blessed with the wealth of petroleum are situated in the neighbouring areas of Pakistan and all the big powers have special interest in these oil reserves.
Importance of the Sea Part of Karachi
Pakistan is also source of providing a sea route to the land locked countries of Central Asia and Afghanistan. Karachi is an important sea port in the region and without the help and cooperation of Pakistan all these countries cannot trade through sea.
Q.8: Write a note on Economic development of South Asia.
The Southern countries of Asia from the region of South Africa.
Its total area is 4.5 million square kilometers.
Myanmar lies in the east of South Asia Afghanistan in the west, china in the north and the bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean lie in the South.
This region has a vital importance on the map of the world. It accommodates ‘almost one fourth population in this region.
Pakistan and India
Pakistani and India are the countries with larger populations in this region.
The geographical importance of South Asia
The presence of big powers like Russia and China in the North enhances the geographical importance of South Asia.
Rich in Natural Resources
The Central Asian states have to rely .on South Asia for a passage to the sea, South Asia is also equipped with the wealth of natural resources.
In the north are the mountains ranges of Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindukush which are the highest .mountains in the world. Indian ocean in the South has remained an important area during the cold war.
This region enjoys a unique position in terms of its geographic boundaries and location.
Geographical situation and Strategic Importance of Middle East
Q.9: Describe the Geographical Situation and Strategic Importance of Middle East.
The region comprising South West of Asia and some parts of Africa is referred as Middle East. It is situated at the junction of Asia and Africa. Russian Black sea and the Caspian Sea are situated in its North.
Central Asian States in the North East Pakistan in the east, northern Africa and Mediterranean Sea in the west and Africanecountries in the southwest.
Rich in Natural Resources
The region of Middle East-is equipped with the wealth of petroleum and mineral resources and all the big powers have an eye on these resources.
It is mostly inhabited by Muslims so it is called a Muslim region. It is also inhabited by adherents of other religions i.e. Christians and Jews and their Holy places are also situated in this region therefore it is considered as a sacred place for Christians and Jews in addition to the Muslims.
Important Region from the Trading View Point
Mediterranean Sea along with Red sea, Black sea and Persian Gulf are situated in this region which are important trade routes.
Important Industrial Trade Centers of the World
Due to the mineral wealth important industrial centers of the world are also concentrated in this region. This region is also known for the maximum scale and purchase of foreign goods in the world.
Geographical situation and Strategic Importance of Central Asia
Q.10: Describe the Geographical situation and Strategic Importance of Central Asia.
The region is situated in the -centre of Asia is called Central Asia, Mangolia and China are situated in its east, Russia and Georgia in the northwest and Afghanistan along with Pakistan are situated in the South of this region. .
Importance of Location
Although it is a land locked region but its geographical location has its own importance. These five states were a part of Russia in the past before separation from these States; Russia had a chance to approach the Middle East via Afghanistan. But now Russia needs to pass through these states to reach the Middle East.
Region of Minerals
The sea in the north of Russia remains frozen for six months and it is not possible to trade from there. Central Asia is also known for its mineral resources especially gold which is found in abundance here.
Importance of the Central Asian Region.
The location of two big powers China and Russia in the intermediate neighbourhood also enhances the importance of this region. Besides the region it is also a gateway to Europe.
Geographical Situation and Strategic Importance of China
Q.11: Explain the Geographical Situation and Strategic importance of China.
China is located in the east of Asia. Geographically it is situated in between 18° to 50° north and 70° to 135° east longitudes.
Its total area is 9.6 million square kilometers.
North and South Korea along with Japan and Taiwan are situated in its east, Kazakhstan,. Tajikistan and Kirghizstan in the west Mangolia and Russia in the north, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bhutan in the south and Myanmar (former Burma), Laos and Vietnam are situated in the south east.
Density Populated Country According to Population
China is the third largest by area and the largest country by population in the world. Economically it is_ considered among. the bigger economic countries of the world.
China is equipped with the wealth of natural resources it is the only country of the world which has to defend its boundaries against 14 to 16 .
Financial and Agricultural Development
Due to its financial and agricultural development China is considered an importance country in the world and is included in the developed countries of Asia.
PROBLEMS OF UNDER DEVELOPMENT
- What do you mean by developed and underdeveloped countries?
Ans: Developed Countries
The developed countries are economically stable nations and have a high literacy rate.
High gross national and per capita income and universal availability of facilities are the salient characteristics of these countries. The developed countries rely on industrial production.
The industrial activities of these nations are distributed across the country. The developed nations plan to balance their population and national resources.
These nations also give importance to agriculture of production and use modem agriculture practices.
The most famous countries of the world are Japan, Unites States of America, Germany, France and England etc.
Under Developed Counties
The underdeveloped nations are those nations which are financially, economically and technologically weak.
The basic cause for their underdevelopment is the unavailability of modern agriculture machinery and mismanagement.
The over population, scarcity of water and poor literacy rate are the other main obstacles in the way of their development, therefore the subsistence agriculture is the main source of survival.
Political stability, financial corruption and foreign loans are the major causes of their under development.
Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Congo etc.
Comparison Between Developed and Underdeveloped Countries
Q.2: Compare the developed and underdeveloped countries.
Ans: Standard of Developed and Under Developed Countries
The experts divide ‘the world in two groups developed and under developed countries on the basis of the following reasons:
Annual per Capita income of developed Countries
Annual per capita income of developed countries is much more than the underdeveloped countries.
The level of literacy rate in developed countries is very high while the literacy rate is low in underdeveloped countries.
The lavish life of developed countries
The majority of population in developed nations enjoys the facilities required for lavish living.
Poverty in underdeveloped countries
The majorities in underdeveloped nations are forced to survive in poverty.
Population growth rate is very high in under developed World as compared to the developed world.
Geographical facts which promote development
Q.3: Describe economic problems of underdeveloped countries.
Ans: Natural and Human Resources
According to experts, the development of any country depends upon natural resources availability and human resources development. Physical geography informs us about natural resource availability. While human geography guides us about the human resources development.
Development of Geographical Region
The development of a geographical region is impossible without proper planning of these resources.
Natural resources are those resources which are created by the nature e.g. location, geology, water resources, forest resources, soil fertility, power and mineral resources etc.
In present times, the economic and financial development of a region is considered a product of human efforts. In this connection population and population growth,‘ literacy rate, the level of scientific and technological development play an important role.
Q.4: Describe problems of underdeveloped countries. .
Ans: Problems of Underdeveloped Countries
In underdeveloped countries, the majority of population is forced to live below the poverty line.
Very Less Income
All the families members of a household are forced to work the children of these households go to a work place instead of schools, yet the families fail to meet their expenditure.
Basic needs of life
The basic needs of life are not available to these families. Therefore these poor nations are forced to live in poverty.
Riddance from Economic Problems
The experts say that if these nations want to get rid of their underdevelopment, they‘ must solve their present economic, social and political problems.
Q.5: Describe the Economic problems of underdeveloped Countries.
Ans: Economic Problems
In underdeveloped countries the low per capita income forces the people to survive below the poverty line.
Dependence on Rich Countries
These I countries are not developing due to their low economic development but depend upon the rich and developed nations.
The following are the basic reasons for dependence on developed countries of the underdeveloped. countries
- Lack of Capital
Lack of capital, foreign debts and unbearable markup on these loans.
Population pressure which is beyond the capacity of their national resources and growing unemployment.
iii. Primitive Agriculture Practices
Primitive agriculture practices and the dependence of economy on agriculture sector.
- Limited Resources
Unplanned use of limited resources and role of direct or indirect foreign interventions.
- Poor Infrastructure
Poor infrastructure limited national market and intrusion of foreign trade for national resources.
Low National Income
Low national and per capita income.
Energy crisis and lack of technical know-how.
Q.6: Describe the Social problems of underdeveloped countries.
Ans: Law and order situation
The peaceful atmosphere of a country positively contributes towards its economy while the law and order situation negatively impacts the national life.
If a society accepts and adopts the new technology and emerging ideas according to its social setting in a changing world then the outcomes will be positive and far reaching.
Bad Economic Circumstances
The under developed world is the victim of different economic and social problems due to bad governance in these countries.
The experts identify the following reasons for social problems of these underdeveloped countries.
- Lack of Modern Education
- Outdated social and societal traditions
iii. Society and Societal Corruption
- Social and Economical Corruption
- Prevailing tribal culture and way of life
- Difference-between Rich and Poor
vii. Outdated Social Traditions
Q.7: Describe the political problems of underdeveloped countries.
Ans: Political Problems
The unpredictable political circumstances also adversely affect the economic and social life of these underdeveloped countries.
The experts present the following reasons of political instability in the underdeveloped countries.
- lack of political stability
- The influence of foreign countries in the domestic affairs of these countries.
iii. The lack of consistency of government policies.
- Tribalism and control of unelected people on political power.
- The outdated judicial system is a major obstacle for social political and economic progress.
Q.8: Discuss the problems obstructing the path of economic development of Pakistan.
Ans: Pakistan and Underdeveloped Countries
Pakistan is considered an underdeveloped country the basic reasons of its under development are the lack of health and educational facilities. Poor planning, unemployment and over population. These problems are the major causes of poverty in Pakistan. Pakistan cannot economically develop without-removing these obstacles.
The reasons for -Pakistan’s underdevelopment are as under: .
Pakistan is in a serious grip of energy crises.
Lack of natural resources management and underdevelopment of industrial sector.
Foreign loans and unbelievable markup on these loans.
Lack of capital and the lack of confidence in international trade with Pakistan.
Outdated Agriculture System
Dependence on outdated agriculture system and over population.
Lack of Technical Human Resources
The lacks. of technical human resources are a hindrance to Pakistan economic development.
INTRODUCTION TO MODERN TECHNIQUES IN GEOGRAPHY
Q.1: Describe the importance of the Geographical Information system (G.I.S)?
Ans: Geographical Information system (G.I.S)
In the present age, study and modern research in geography is incomplete without the aid of Geographic Information system, Remote sensing and Global positioning system.
The need of this modern technique was felt when the scope of geographical studies extended with time.
Study of Geographical Science:
The development of science particularly in the field of computer opened the usage of modern techniques in scientific research.
Study of Modern Geographical Techniques:
Let’ us have a look on the use of these modern techniques in the field of geography.
- Remote Sensing ii. Geographical Information system
iii. Global Positioning System iv. Computer Based Models
Remote sensing is the scienceor technology of detecting, measuring and analyzing the characteristics or attributes of remote objects without having physical contact with them; we can gather information about earth while staying away from the earth.
Study of the earth
If helps in studying and portraying the ‘earth on local, regional and global
Ways of studying the earth
We can study the earth in two ways:
- Aerial photography ii. Satellite imaging
Q.2: Differentiate between Active and Passive Remote Sensing.
Ans: Basic Principles of Remote Sensing
Remote sensing works in two ways
- Active Remote Sensing
- Passive Remote Sensing
- Active Remote Sensing:
In active remote sensing, radar waves from a satellite are sent to earth. There waves are recorded on earth on an instrument known as Remote Sensor.
- Passive Remote Sensing:
Passive Remote sensing depends upon electromagnetic radiation of the sun.
The electromagnetic waves tend to reflect from the earth’s surface or transfer to the atmosphere in the form of heat waves from the earth.
Recording of heat waves
These waves are recorded on a remote sensor fixed on the satellite.
The information achieved from these waves are transformed into Digital Satellite images.
The satellite on which the remote sensor is fixed is called a platform.
Badar-I & Badar-II
Pakistan in recent years has successfully experimented the launching of Badar – I and Badar – II satellites in space.
These days PakSat – I in space is promoting telecommunication developments in Pakistan.
Geographic Information System
Q.3: Discuss the Primary methods of Remote Sensing.
Ans: (GIS) computerized system
The Geographic information system (GIS) is an integrated computer system by which geographical information is systematically collected stored analyzed and displayed in the form of maps. .
Complete Geographical Information System
GIS performs these different tasks conveniently with the help of these tasks we can find answers too many questions like location, specific conditions, trends, patterns and modeling etc.
Figures and Statistics
GIS enters the information regarding these questions in the data base in two forms by which we can have comparative analysis.
- Information regarding location is entered in the form of point line or polygons.
- From these geographic entities GIS organizes the information in the form of layers. These layers are analyzed separately or collectively to get the answers to questions.
Global Positioning system (GPS)
Q.4: Explain the Global Positioning System (GPS)
Ans: Correct Location
The Satellites in this modern age are used not only for remote sensing but we can also find the correct location of anyplace on the surface of the earth with the help of satellite system.
(GPS) Global Positioning .System
To find the correct location of any place on the surface of earth through a satellite is called (GPS) Global Positioning System.
These are twenty four satellites in this system.
The speed of satellites
These satellites transmit radio waves to earth at the speed of light i.e 3,00,000 km/sec.
On the basis of time consumed by these waves to reach GPS receivers on the earth, we can calculate the satellites position in space and the distance between the satellite and the receiver on earth.
Place of GPS receiver on earth
When the position and distance to the satellites are known the position of the receiver is calculated as the point of intersection between the rotation circles around the satellites.
The GPS instruments show the location of the receiver’s position in terms of latitude, longitude and height above the sea-level on the GPS receiver screen. This is the exact location of the person using the GPS receiver.
The use of GPS on a large scale
Global Positioning System is being used on a large scale in every developed country especially for navigation purposes on land, air and maritime transportation.
GPS use in traffic control
This system is also used for navigation on land air, and maritime trafﬁc.
Use of GPS for tourism
This system is very helpful in tourism for determining the location of places.
Modern warfare Strategy
The modern warfare is totally dependent upon the system.
Q.5: Write a note on computer modeling.
Ans: Computer Based Models
A computer model can easily produce a duplicate of the internal process of any complex scientific matter and displays the result as well.
Definition of a computer
We can define computer based models as “A practical method or a way designed with the help of a computer technology to perform a specific task.”
Computer Modeling Science
Computer modeling Science Computer based model about population Computer modeling is a science a technique or a workable ideas by which answers to complex scientific matters are seeked. If such a question is raised at any stage. If a scientific procedure that if it happened what would be the consequences. The answer to that or a specific condition can be found with the help of computer modeling. For example the population of the world is increasing at a fast pace and as a result the natural resources are depleting rapidly so what would be the consequences after ten years if we do not turn towards the alternative resources.
The use of computer in geography
Cartography, the art of map making has a vital importance in the field of geography. The maps are considered as the tools of cartographers. The use of computer has eased the art of making maps and statistical diagrams in geography.
Geographical information and Computer technology .
In this modern era the basis of computer in geography, map making figures and statistics diagram making has been made very easy. On the other hand GIS and GPS system is completely dependent on computer technology.
The utility of modern tools in geography
Remote sensing in the field of geography started by fixing cameras on birds and balloons. The advent of aeroplanes paved the way for aerial photography of the earth.
Information gained from satellites
Nowadays information is transmitted by satellites and is received on sensors and receivers on earth. The results are displayed in the form of maps and diagrams with the help of computer technology.
Location of Place with accuracy by modern tools
It has become possible to locate any place on the surface of the earth with accuracy. The use of modern tools has reduced the chances of mistakes and increased the possibilities of obtaining accurate results.
The scope of the use of modern tools
In the beginning geography was just considered to describe or remember facts and figures. In the present age remote sensing, global positioning system and computer modeling have eased many tasks i.e cartography, determining absolute location of places, hazard forecasting and mitigations understanding causes of environmental pollution and methods to reduce its impacts.
Forecasting of natural disasters causes of environmental pollution and methods to reduce its impact, the depletion of power resources and use of alternative resources etc.
A better awareness of environmental and climatic conditions to enhance agricultural productivity.
Solution of Problems
All the issues have enhanced the scope of modern tools and it can be expected that use of modern tools would be trustful in tackling certain problems associated with increase in population.