Notes / SOLVED EXERCISES: GEOGRAPHY PTB -7

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Notes / SOLVED EXERCISES: GEOGRAPHY PTB -7

CH: 1) PHYSICAL STATE OF EARTH

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-d)(ii-a)(iii-b)(iv-b)(v-d)

 

SQ1-Give two reasons for earthquake.

Ans:.1. MOVEMENT OF PLATES: Mostly earthquakes happened due to the movement of  plates.  When these plates collide with each other, than vibration occurs on the surface of earth.

Anywhere in the world where there is fault line becomes centre for earthquakes.

  1. VOLCAMSM: Earthquakes also occur due to volcanism. When Lava erupt from the weak surface of earth, then movement on the surface of earth is a major factor of earthquake. ln this way volcanism also a cause of earthquakes.

 

SQ2. WRITE DOWN THE NAMES OF INTERNAL PARTS OF EARTH?

Ans: The internal part of earth is divided into three important parts Crust, Mantle and Core.

 

SQ3. WRITE DOWN THE NAMES OF BIG PLATES OF EARTH.

Ans: The big plates of crust are following

  1. Pacific Plate
  2. North America Plate.
  3. South America Plate
  4. Eurasian Plate
  5. Africa Plate
  6. Australian -Plate
  7. Antarctica Plate

 

SQ4. WHAT IS VOLCANISM?

Ans: The movement of magma and its associated gases from the interior into the crust land to the surface of the earth.

 

SQ5-WHAT IS THE MEANING OF “RING OF FIRE“?

Ans: Most of the volcanoes are found on the surrounding of the Pacific Ocean. Coast areas of Pacific Ocean, in particular the eastern islands are mostly formed with volcanism. This portion is known as, “Ring of Fire”.

LQ.1:         Explain the Composition of Earth’s Interior.

Ans:  COMPOSITION OF EARTH’S INTERIOR

Geographer has no equipment to know about the internal structure of earth. For this reason, man has limited knowledge about it. Therefore, to know about internal structure of earth, man depends on seismic waves, magnetic and gravitational force of earth. The distance between the surface and centre of earth is more than 6000 kilometres. The temperature gradually increases towards the centre of earth.

COMPOSITION OF EARTH’S INTERIOR

The internal part of earth is divided into three important parts.

  1. Crust 2. Mantle                  3. Core

DETAIL OF COMPOSITION OF EARTH’S INTERIOR

The detail of internal structure of earth is given below:

  1. CRUST

The upper layer of earth is called Crust. This surface of earth consists of both water and dryness and its thickness his not uniform. Its thickness is in between 8 to 40 kilometers.

DIVISION OF CRUST

Crust is divided into two parts. The upper part is known as continental shelve. While lower Portion is known as Oceanic shelve.

  1. Continental Shelve

The layer of earth on which human beings live is called continental shelve. The continental shelve consists of a number of landmasses, which are known as continents. It is made of Silicon and Aluminum, that is why it is also known as Sial.

 

  1. Oceanic Shelve

The part of earth crust, which is below the seas, is called oceanic shelve. Oceanic shelve is made of Silicon and Magnesium, that is’ why it  known as Sima. This portion of earth is rich in minerals.

  1. MANTLE

Below crust there is a thick layer, which is called Mantle. Its thickness is 2900km.

DIVISION OF MANTLE

Mantel consists of two layers. Upper layer is upper mantel and lower layer is called lower mantel.

Upper Mantle

Upper mantle is less thick as compared to lower mantel. It thickness is 670 kilometres. In upper mantel most of the rocks are found in liquid state.

Lower Mantle

Below the upper mantle is lower mantle. Its thickness is 2230 kilometres. Upper Mantel is hard and solid. Mostly it is composed of iron, silicon and magnesium.

  1. CORE

Below the mantel, there is another layer, which is called Core. The core is a layer rich in iron and nickel found in the interior‘ of the Earth. The core is about 7,000 kilometres in diameter.

DIVISION OF CORE

Core is composed of two sub-layers:

  1. Outer core              ii.   Inner core
  2. Outer Core

The thickness of outer core is 2250 kilometers. This layer is in liquid form exact below the mantle.

  1. Inner Core

This core is solid and heavy than other core and its thickness is 1220 kilometers. This is in solid form. This is also known as knife. This name is made with the initial words of both iron and nickel.

SQ.3:          Write DOWN the names BIG PLATES OF EARTH?

 

Ans:  PLATE TECTONICS

Thousands of year ago all continents were intact with each other because of which there was only one continent, which is known as Pangaea. Due to motion of tectonics plates, this big continent was shaped further and divided into a number of continents.

STRUCTURE OF OUTER LAYER OF EARTH

In 1960 the geographers used two new terminologies for the exterior composition of earth, their names are:

  1. Lithosphere                 2.         Asthenosphere
  2. LITHOSPHERE

Lithosphere consists of the upper surface of earth and solid upper portion of mantle.

  1. ASTHENOSPHERE

Under lithosphere, there is soft layer of rocks, which is known as Asthenosphere.

Division of Lithosphere

Lithosphere is divided into seven active parts, which are known as plates. The Big plates of curst are as under:

  1. Pacific plate ii.         North American Plate

iii.        South American Plate             iv.        Eurasian Plate

  1. African Plate vi.        Australian Plate

vii.       Antarctica Plate

 

LQ.2:         DESCRIBE Types of Faults.

Ans:  FALTS

Big cracks or spaces on the earth’s surface are called faults. Typically, these cracks are the boundaries among plates. Inactive faults had movement along them at one time, but no longer now. The type of motion along a fault depends on the type of fault. The aera where a fault is formed is known as fault zone the crack that exists in fault zone is known as fault line.

RING OF FIRE

Most of the earthquakes are occurred in Pacific plate. This area as surrounded by crakes, therefore its also known as “Ring of Fire”. Faults are made only in weak area and the place of fault is known as fault zone. Crakes in fault zone is called as fault line.

TYPES OF FAULT

There are three types of faults:

  1. Normal Fault 2.         Transform Fault          3.         Reverse Fault
  2. Normal Fault

When parts of crust are moving in opposite direction and due to removal of upper layers, this fault is called Normal Fault. In this condition, lava burst out through the weak

portions of earth and volcanic eruption occurs.

  1. Transform Fault

When parts of plates move they collide with each other. Such types of fault is called transform fault. In this fault no part of earth move up or down. When plates move towards each other then reverse fault occurs. In this way, because of inside pressure earthquakes and eruption of volcanoes occur. In this way, the plates become close to each other and usually rocks come into existence.

MAJOR PLATE FAULTS IN PAKISTAN

In Pakistan, two major plates are intact e.g. Eurasian plate and Indian plate. These plates move towards each other. Fault line, which lies in Pakistan, separates Eurasian plate from Indian plate. Therefore, this region is earthquake prone region. The earthquake of 8th Oct, 2005, occurred because of motion in these plates due to which hundreds of thousands people died in this earthquake and there was a great loss of lives and property. In future, this region has also become centre for both small and big earthquakes.

 

LQ.3:         Discuss the effects of earthquakes.

Ans:  CAUSES OF EARTHQUAKES, THEIR EFFECTS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION

 

EARTHQUAKE

A sudden violent shaking of the earth’s surface is known as earthquake.

OCCURRING OF EARTHQUAKES

Due to movements in internal structure of earth, it creates both vibrations and buoyancy. Earthquakes are caused due to movement in any part of earth. The waves of earthquake travels in all direction from the originated place. The waves of earthquake becomes weak as they are in at a distance from the origin.

CAUSE OF EARTHQUAKE

These are the major causes of earthquake.

  1. Movements of Plates

Mostly, earthquakes come due to the sudden movements of plates. When these plates collide with each other when vibration occurs on the surface of land. Anywhere in the world where there is fault, that line becomes a centre for earthquakes.

  1. Volcanism

Earthquakes also come due to volcanism. When lava bursts out by breaking weak surface of earth, then movement on the surface of earth occurs.

EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKES

Earthquakes are the disaster, which cause a lot of destruction. Some important factors are mention below.

Loss of Both lives and Material

Buildings destroy due to earthquakes. People become inured and lose of both lives and materials.

Effect on Agriculture

Due to earthquakes sources of irrigation are affected, standing crops are destroyed.

 

Effect on System of Electricity

Due to earthquakes the system of electricity, water and gas is disturbed.

Bursting of Fire

Due to earthquakes sometimes, fire bursts due to electricity and gas.

Hurdles in Rescue

Due to earthquakes, hurdles occur in the activities of rescue.

Cause of Floods

Due to earthquakes, there is also threats of floods.

Effects on Transportation

Due to earthquakes, the facilities of transportation are interrupted due to the destruction of bridges and roads.

 

LQ.5:         Make a table of larger earthquakes in Pakistan and the world.

Ans:  DISTRUBITION OF EARTHQUAKES IN THE WORLD.

FIRST BIG CENTRE OF EARTHQUAKES:

In the world, mostly earthquakes come around the areas of Atlantic Ocean. In this area the small and big cracks of earth crust are existed. The picture of these cracks presents a look of a circle or a ring. The areas of Alaska Alvin, Japan, Mariana, Philippine and New Ghani etc. are included in it.

SECOND BIG CENTRE OF EARTHQUAKES:

The other big centre of earthquakes is Trans Eurasian crack in the world. These cracks reach till Turkey, Gulf of Persia while passing through Himalaya and Indonesia Islands. One Northern and central Western part of Pakistan also come in the centre of these earthquakes.

THE GREAT EARTHQUAKES OF THE WORLD AND PAKISTAN

Nos. Year Place Devastating on 11, wastage of Richter Scale Lives
1 1920 Gan Su, China 8.6 2,00,000
2 1923 Kantu, Japan 7.9 1,43,000
3 1927 Shanghai, China 7.9 2,00,000
4 1932 Gan su, China 7.6 70,000
5 1935 Quetta, Pakistan 7.5 30,000
6 1948 Turkmensistan 7.3 1,10,000
7 1976 Tangestan, China 7.5 2,55,000
8 1990 Iran 7.7 40,000
9 1999 Turkey 7.6 17,000
10 2003 Iran 6.6 31,000
11 2004 Island of Northern Sumatra, Indoneshia 9.0 2,83,000
12 2005 Kashmir and Areas of Pakistan 7.6 80,000
13 2010 Haiti, Central 7.8 1,50,000

 

 

 

LQ.4:         Discuss the Instruments used to Measure Earthquakes.

Ans:  INSTRUMENTS AND SCLAES USED TO MEASURE EARTHQUAGES

 

SEISMOGRAPH

An instrument is used to measure intensity of earthquake is known as seismograph. The intensity of earthquakes is measured through Richter Scale.

RECTOR SCALE

To measure big intensity of earthquake is a scale, which is called rector scale.

 

LQ.6:         Analyze Volcanism and its Effects.

Ans:  VOLCANISM

The hot eruption of Sial (Magma) from the surface of earth is known as volcanism. While this process takes place the -underground volcanic magma comes out on the surface of earth in the form of lava. In this process, different types of liquid rocks and gases are included.

OCCURRING OF VOLCANISM

Volcanism mostly occurs along the crakes of earth as volcanoes are mostly found on the boundaries of the plates of earth. About 70% of volcanoes are found on the bed of sea but due to their presence in sea we cannot see them.

EFFECT OF VOLCANISM

These effects of volcanism are given below:

  1. Formation Mountains

Volcanoes are formed in volcanism process. The layers of lava and perennial volcanism raise these volcanoes. By this activity Mountains are formed.

  1. Deficiency of fertility of Land

When lava erupts from volcanoes it makes the land barren. The matter of lava expends all surrounding area. Therefore, no crop can grow.

 

  1. Atmospheric pollution

The matter, gases etc. which eruts from volcanoes make the atmosphere of

surrounding areas polluted which effect both human and botanic lives.

  1. Incensement of temperature

Sometimes in volcanisrn different types of gases, clouds are released rapidly because of high temperature.

  1. Deforestation

When lava erupts molten rocks excret rapidly, which burn everything. Due to this activity, fire bursts and deforestation accrues.

  1. Loss of both lives and material

Buildings destroy due to earthquakes. People become injured, and loss of both lives and materials occur.

 

LQ.7:         Explain Types of Volcanoes and their Distribution.

Ans:  TYPES OFVOLCANOES AND ‘THEIR DISTRIBUTION

The hot eruption of Sial (Magma) from the surface of earth is known as  volcanism.

Volcanoes are of three types, their detail is as under:

  1. ACTIVE VOLCANOES

The volcanoes in which the volcanism is in continues manner is known as active volcanoes. These volcanoes are usually erupt lava e.g. Fujiyana (Japan), Visuvious (Italy) etc.

  1. DORMANT VOLCANOES

Dormant volcanoes are those in which a long period has gone being erupted but volcanism can occur anytime in these volcanoes. Such, type of volcanoes are very dangerous.

  1. EXTINCT VOLCANOES

The extinct volcanoes are those volcanoes in which eruption of lava has stopped and there are no chances of lava eruption.

 

 

DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES

 

Distribution of Volcanoes

Volcanoes are found on the p1ate’s cracks of earth. Most of the volcanoes are found in the surrounding areas of the Pacific Ocean.

First important region

Coastal areas of Pacific Ocean, in particular the eastern islands are mostly formed, with volcanism. This portion in known as “Ring of Fire”.

Second important region

Trans-Eurasian is the second most important area where volcanoes are found.

Third important region.

Third important region

The area of Australian plate, Eurasian plate and Pacific Ocean plate is included the third most important are of volcanoes is between sea areas. It is in between Atlantic and Indian Ocean. This rocky area is formed due to volcanism. It is also known as the mid-Atlantic rock range.

 

IMPORTANT PINTS

 

  • The internal Structure of earth is found through waves of earthquakes magnetic force of earth and its gravitational force.
  • The upper surface of earth is known as crust, and its thickness is in between 8 to 40 kilometres.
  • The thickness of upper mantle is 670 kms and thickness of lower mantle is about 2230 kms.
  • The external core of earth consists of mostly liquid rocks, and its thickness is about 2250 kms.
  • The internal core of earth is made of iron and Nichel, and its thickness is about 1220 kms.
  • Crust is divided into seven big plates.
  • Big crakes and spaces in earth, is known as fault.
  • Fault forming area is known as fault zone and crake in fault zone known as fault line.
  • The area around pacific plate is also known as “Ring of Fire”.
  • In normal fault, the parts of crust are moving in opposite direction, to and fromotion in transform fault and towards each other in reverse fault.
  • The instrument to measure earthquakes intensity is seismograph.
  • The scale to measure earthquake‘s intensity is Richier’ Scale.
  • The eruption of hot Sial matter (magma) from the surface of earth is known as volcanism.
  • Those volcanoes in which volcanism is going on are known as active volcanoes.
  • A time has been passed after lava eruption in dormant volcanoes but that can be occurred again.
  • Those volcanoes in which continues eruption is stopped, known as extinct volcanoes.
  • A large number of volcanoes are found around the areas of Pacific Ocean.

 

 

 

CH:  2) DENUDATION

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-d)(ii-a)(iii-b)(iv-b)(v-d)

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ1-DEFINE DENUDATION?

Ans: Destruction of earth’s upper surface and the process of appearance of underground surface  on to surface are known as “DENUDATION“.

 

SQ2- WHAT IS THE MEANING OF WEATHERING?

Ans: It is a process in which rocks are broken down into small fragments and pieces.

 

SQ3-DEFINE EROSION PROCESS?

Ans: Cutting of the features of earth surface as known as erosion. This process is mostly done‘ by rivers‘ glacier’s, winds and coastal waves.

 

SQ4-WHAT IS MEANMG OF MASS WASTING?

Ans: Rocks stuff travels with gravitational force of earth towards the lower areas, which is known as mass wasting.

 

SQ5. DIFFERENTIATE AMONG WEATHERING, EROSION‘

PROCESS AND MASS WASTING?

Ans: WEATHERING:

The Rocks are not transferred to any other place after breakdown. There are two other process in weathering. The breakdown oft

rocks and change of their chemical composition included in it, these processes are performed both collectively and separately.

EROSION:

After breakage rocks are transfer to other place in erosion process. Not only worn and torn of rocks takes place in erosion process but the eroded stuff is transported to other places in erosion process as well.

MASS WASTING:

The eroded stuff moves from higher to lower direction in mass wasting due to earth’s gravitational force.

Q.1:  Write a note on denudation and it types:

Ans:  DENUDATION

Destruction of earth’s upper surface and underground areas appearance on the earth’s surface is known as “Denudation”.

PROCESS OF DENUDATION

Internal forces of earth exposed some internal area, its external elements like river, glacier, Wind, blazing sun and frost begin to level that area by worn and torn process and transport that debris from its original place to new one.

“Denudation” is the term used for all those elements which torn the earth surface, Waste the earth‘s elements, transfer it to some other place.

TYPES OF DENUDATION

There are three/types of weathering.

  1. a) Physical weathering
  2. b) Chemical Weathering
  3. c) Biological weathering
  4. PHYSICAL WEATHERING

The process in which rocks are broken down into small fragments and pieces is called Physical weathering. This process is directly of indirectly more dependent on weather conditions, intensity of sun light, snow at rainfall.

Following are the types of Weathering

TYPES OF WEATHERING

Following are the types of Weathering.

  1. Physical or Mechanical Weathering

If the weathering takes place due to natural elements, this type of weathering is called Physical or Mechanical Weathering.

METHODS OF PHYSICAL OR MECHANICAL WEATHERING

(i)         Temperature Change

Hot temperatures can give rise to thermal expansion in rocks and cool temperatures can cause rocks to contract. In areas such as deserts where the temperature is hot during the day, rocks get hot and can expand by a small amount. During the night’ the temperature can drop significantly making it very cold and so the rocks contract. This continuous expansion of the rock during the day and contraction during the night exerts stress on the rock and cracks form eventually causing pieces of the rock to fall away.

(ii)        Freeze-thaw

Water expands when it freezes. So when water enters the cracks in a rock and freezes, it expands and pushes the cracks further apart. When the water melts, in can travel further into the bigger cracks making the cracks even bigger when the water freezes again. This process occurs continuously until the crack is big enough to break a piece of the rock off. The animation below shows the weathering action of water freezing and thawing in a rock.

(iii)       Wind, Rain and Waves

Wind can carry small particles or sand and rocks such as in sandstorms in deserts. When these particles collide with rocks, they can wear them away. Rainfall can also wear away at rocks as can the action of waves over a long period.

  1. Chemical Weathering

Chemical weathering occurs when rocks are broken down by a chemical change.

(i)         Hydrolysis.

Rainwater can become slightly acidic by absorbing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and this reacts with the mineral grains in the rock-giving rise to new minerals and salts. It is the reason that breakage and destruction due to chemical process is known as chemical weathering.

(ii)        Acid Rain

 

 

 

  1. Biological Weathering

Biological weathering takes place when living organisms wear rocks away. Trees and other plants can grow within the cracks in a rock formation. As the roots grow bigger, they push open cracks in the rocks making them wider and deeper. Over time, the growing tree eventually prizes the rock apart.

 

Breakage of Rocks

Tiny organisms like bacteria; algae and moss can grow on rocks and produce chemicals, which can break down the surface layer of the rock. Burrowing animals such as rabbits can accelerate the formation of cracks.

 

Q.2:  Write down the reasons for erosion process.

Ans:  EROSION

Cutting of the features of earth surface is known as erosion.

ELEMENT OF EROSION

Following are the elements are the erosion.

Water  – Wind –  Glacier – Soil – Sea –  Water Erosion

Water erosion occurs from the chemicals in the water, and the force of the flow of water in the river. There are many chemicals in the water of a river, and those chemicals can break down certain rocks, such as limestone or chalk. This eroded rock is carried down the river.

Wind Erosion

Wind erosion, rocks and pebbles are carried by the wind and can hit landforms, eroding materials off them that are carried off in the wind.

Glacier Erosion

Ice erosion, besides that of hail, comes mostly in the form of glacier erosion. Glaciers are giant bodies of ice that can pick up huge pieces of rock, some even as big as houses. A combination of the water, ice, and picked up sediment, create a powerful eroding machine.

 

Sea Erosion

Erosion in the Sea also occurs. The salts and other chemicals can erode weak rocks on the coast, such as limestone and chalk. The eroded materials are carried up the shore by the means of alongshore drift waves crashing against the shore- can create air pressure inside cracked rocks that can eventually break them.

Soil Erosion

Soil erosion pays the biggest price to farmers. Flooding, wind etc. can carry the topsoil away from farmlands, and make the soil unfertile

 

MASS WASTING

Rocks stuff travels with gravitational force of earth towards the lower area, which is known as mass wasting. The shape of rock are distorted by weathering process. The rocks stuff travels faster on some good slopes with the help of gravitational force as compared to the area of not good slope with the help of gravitational force as compared to the area of not good slope and this process continues. Soil fluctuation and muddy flow etc. are the prominent movement of mass wasting. Rockslide is the rapid and sudden downward, movement of rocks or boulders along a steep slope under the influence of gravity.

TYPES OF MASS WASTING

►        Soil fluctuation                       ►        Flow of Mud

►        Flow of Soil                            ►        Flow of Slime

Soil fluctuation

Soil fluctuation is slow in mass wasting while speed up muddy flow due to water. The soil fluctuation is slowest movement in mass wasting. We cannot estimate its speed. Soil fluctuation is common in hilly and semi-hilly regions. Usually in this kind the crack appears on the comers of roads and road are destroyed. The panels of electricity and wires are inclined.Gravitational force of earth plays an important role in moving erosion stuff.

Flow of Mud

Water has importance in soil fluctuation. Mass wasting usually occurs in rainy areas. Soil fluctuation happens on sharp slide and within few hours a portion of mountain flows downwards. Mass wasting is the flow of specific kind of sprinkle and mud that is an environmental problem. This mud is a kind of soil sprinkle stream. The weak and soft minerals of rock are flowed by the rain water. Some processes take place in few hours and the villages, and other features come in their way are disappeared forever.

It often results in road blockages, endangering lives and seriously interrupting communication and transportation.

Land Sliding

The fall of big and small rock materials from height towards downwards is known as land sliding. Usually both the height and slope is large in it. Rocks become weak by weathering and due to gravitational force the stones start to fall downwards.

Disadvantages of Land Sliding

  1. Due to land sliding the paths are blocked.
  2. Roads and building are distorted
  3. If the land slide is big enough, then it might stop the path of rivers.
  4. Due to a big land slide a lake is formed in Atta Abad near Hunza valley.

 

Q.3:  What are the impacts of erosion process and mass wasting on agriculture, irrigation, human settlement and transportation?

 

Ans:    The impacts of erosion and mass wasting on agriculture, irrigation, human

settlement and transportation are explained as following:

  1. IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE

The irrigation system, consists of muddy canals and small streams, continuously faces erosion of water.

  1. Mass wasting. and soil erosion result in the loss of surface topsoil, which is essential for growth of vegetation. As a result, more areas become barren.
  2. The production of crops reduces.
  3. Reduction in the shelters of wild life and pastures on mountains also takes place.
  4. Erosion and mass wasting destroy wild life.
  5. Erosion and mass wasting destroy mountain meadows.

 

  1. IMPACT ON IRRIGATION

Erosion and mass wasting leaves great impact on irrigation. Some of them are given below:

  1. A huge amount of mud piles up at the bed of canals due to erosion of water which reduces the quantity of water in canals.
  2. The continuous transfer of material along with water fills the base of dams with mud and capacity of storing water reduces.
  3. Due to erosion and mass production of electricity is affected.
  1. IMPACT ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT

Erosion and mass wasting leaves great impact on human settlements-

Some are –given below:

Usually there is a loss of both lives and economy because of land sliding

and flow of mud in hilly areas. In 1985, a number of villages are abolished under the debris of earth in Columbia. Such accidents usually take place in northern area of Pakistan.

  1. IMPACT ON TRANSPORTATION NETWORK

The dwellers of hilly areas are facing earth’s movement and land -sliding on continuous basis due to which the roads are blocked and inhabitants. of hilly areas are disconnected from the rest of world. It effects efficient system wan to from the rest of world. It effects traffic system worst.

 

Q.4:  Suggest the Ways to Minimize the impacts of Reducing erosion process and mass wasting.

Ans:  MEASURES TO CHECK MASS WASTING AND SOIL EROSION

Since the impact of mass wasting, especially landslides, is so severe, some measures can be taken to avoid accidents.

  1. Chunam plaster for cement can be spread on steep slopes.
  2. Gradients of steeper slopes could be reduced.
  3. Potentially unstable rocks or soil masses should be removed.
  4. Retaining walls or structures can be built to hold back possible slides.
  5. Steep slopes ‘should be inspected regularly, especially during periods of heavy or prolonged rainfall.
  6. More surface drainage channels and ditches can be constructed.
  7. Dangerous slopes should be abolished.
  8. Subsurface drainage systems may need to be constructed or improved.
  9. Legislation can restrict development and building in dangerous zones.
  10. Vegetation can be planted on steeper slopes.
  11. Instruments can be installed to check slope instability, providing early warning in areas of concern.

 

 

 

 

CH:  3) INTRODUCTION TO ATMOSPHERE

 

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-d)(ii-d)(iii-d)(iv-a)(v-b)(vi-)(vii-)

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ(i)-WHAT IS ATMOSPHERE?

Ans: Atmosphere has surrounded our earth in the form of cover. Due to gravity, Atmosphere has surrounded our earth in the form of cover.

 

SQ(ii)- EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE.

Ans: The whole condition of temperature atmospheric pressure, speed of air, humidity and particles in air of a particular place, is known as

weather. Weather changes with time while the climate is the average weather conditions of a particular place for a long time. The only difference between weather and climate is what weather is the atmospheric condition of

particular time of some place while the climates is the atmospheric conditions of particular place for long time.

 

SQ(iii) WHAT IS MESOSPHERE?

Ans: Above Stratosphere there is mesosphere. Temperature decreases on height in this portion  again. At the boundary of mesosphere the temperature of air reaches about negative 100 degree centigrade: The presence of other gases in air and particles are in minute amount at this stage.

This layer is about 50 to 80 kilometers in atmosphere.

 

SQ(iv)WRITE DOWN ANY TWO REASONS FOR REDUCTION IN OZONE?

Ans: One of the main reasons for reduction and removal of ozone gas is CFC gas which  of Chloroflouro Carbon, Flourine and Carbonitems. The mixture of mankind also removing ozone gas. CFC are used in refrigerator and different kind of sprays.

Q.1:  Explain the composition of Atmosphere.

Ans:  ATMOSPHERE

Then thin envelope of air that surrounds our planet is a mixture of gases; this cover of gases is called Atmosphere. Due to gravity, Atmosphere has surrounded our earth in the form of cover. Due to gravity, Atmosphere is attached to earth from all sides. The survival on our galaxy earth is due to atmosphere. Three basic elements, which are ingredients of atmosphere, are regular gases, Variable gases and Polluted gases. These are mostly found on the lower surface of atmosphere.

  1. NITROGEN & OXYGEN

Atmosphere is a combination of a number of gases. These gases are directly or indirectly essential for survival of atmosphere. About 90% of atmosphere consists of these two gases Nitrogen & Oxygen, therefore the percentage of rest of gases is only 1%. Importance of Nitrogen

The fertility of soil depends on Nitrogen. Nitrogen is necessary nourishment of plants. It helps in controlling fire.

  1. VARIABLE GAES

No one can deny the importance of variable gases. Variable gases include Carbon dioxide, water Vapours & ozone. Carbondioxide is heavy than other gases. The quantity of carbon dioxide has increased in last two hundred year about 25%. The burning, of energy sources for example coal, oil, natural gas etc. produce smoke which increases the quantity of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. In this way the atmospheric temperature also arises which is harmful for survival of life. It affects world’s atmosphere. The other variable gas is Ozone O3. Ozone gas is about l7 to 50 km above in atmosphere.

 

 

Importance of Ozone

Ozoneabsorbs the bulk of solar ultraviolet rays from sun to reach earth. In the absence of ozone layer, such ultraviolet rays having energy become dangerous for life on earth. Such extreme energy carrying rays can cause Cancer & Eye diseases. The ultraviolet rays before reaching earth are filtered through ozone.

  1. POLLUTION

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the, form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can “be either foreign substances energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.

Air contains pollution. Minute particles are found in air. The smoke from factories and vehicles contains a huge amount of carbon dioxide, Sulphur and carbon dioxide etc. During burning process the smoke enters into air, which pollutes it.

Effect of Pollution

The atmosphere of industrial cities is affected with pollution. This is dangerous for health. The diseases of throat and breathing increases with it. Such gases are also included in polluted gases, which are destroying the ozone gas, and reduction in ozone gas takes place. The dust particles also fly with polluted gases. Their quantity is not uniform. Their quantity is greater in desert as compared to humid area. Their quantity is also large in both urban and rural areas.

  1. WATER VAPOURS

In atmosphere, water Vapours are important part of variable gases. Water Vapours not only absorb heat but also help in transferring of heat from one place to another. Water Vapours are present in atmosphere in the form of gas. If water Vapours do not exist in atmosphere then there will be no cloud and rain.

The system of life depends on it. Earth absorbs heat from sun and through the process of vapourization the water Vapours are added into air from sea and other water bodies. Their presence in atmosphere depends on temperature. If the temperature increases then the quantity of water Vapours also increases and the presence of water Vapours moderate both ’ heat and coldness of atmosphere.

 

Q.2:  Explain the importance of carbon dioxide and oxygen.

Ans:  IMPORTANCE OF OXYGEN

Oxygen is necessary for life. When we take oxygen into our lungs, we absorb oxygen in our bodies. Immediately, this gas dissolves with other chemical elements. This gas is absorbed in our blood and directly after chemical reaction with our food gives us energy. The survival of life is not possible Without of Oxygen. Oxygen helps in burning all kinds of energy resources for example, coal, and Natural gas.

Importance of Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is necessary for life. Interaction of this gas with other gases makes’ carbohydrates, which is necessary for the nourishment of both plants and animals. Carbon dioxide moderates. the temperature by absorbing heat.

 

Q.3:  Discuss in detail the Layers of Atmosphere.

Ans:  THE LAYERED STRUCTURE OF ATMOSPHERE

The atmosphere is divided vertically into four, layers based on temperature: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.

  1. TROPOSPHERE

The nearest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere is the troposphere. It contains 90% the mass of the atmosphere and almost all of the atmospheric water. All kind of climatic changes, which include clouds, rains and winds, are  which moderates the atmosphere.

Most of the gases, water Vapours and dust particles are present in the same layer. The temperature in upper portion of this layer is about 60 degree centigrade. The temperature drops about 6.5 degrees Celsius for every kilometer above the earth’s surface. Its presence is about 16km above earth surface.

  1. STRATOSPHERE

Above troposphere is stratosphere. This layer contains the ozone, layer. Ozone acts as a shield for the earth’s surface. It absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Instead of increasing temperature on height the temperature decreases and on its boundary temperature reaches to 0 degree centigrade. The air here is very dry, and it is about a thousand times thinner here than it is at sea level. Because of n that, this is where jet aircraft and weather balloons fly. This layer of atmosphere is about 16 to 50km above troposphere.

  1. MESOSPHERE

Above stratosphere, there is mesosphere. The top of the mesosphere, called the mesopause, is the coldest part of Earth’s atmosphere with temperatures averaging about minus 100 degree centigrade. The presence of other gases in air and particles are in minute amount at this stage. This layer is about 50 to 80 kilometres in atmosphere

  1. THERMOSPHERE

The thermosphere is located above the mesosphere. Thermosphere layer extends from 80 kilometres to the final boundary of atmosphere. The temperature increases towards height in this portion of atmosphere. At the height of 350 kilometres the temperatures is recorded about l00 degree centigrade.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE

Weather

The whole condition of temperature, atmospheric pressure, speed of air, humidity and particles in air of a particular place, is known as weather. Weather changes with time.

Climate

Climate is the average weather conditions of pa particular place for a long time.

Difference

The only difference between weather and climate is that Weather is the atmospheric condition of particular time of some place while the climate is the atmospheric conditions of particular place for a long time.

 

 

 

Q.4:  Discuss in detail the change in climate on the earth surface.

Ans:  CLIMATE CHANGE OVER THE EARTH SURFACE

The atmosphere of the earth changes due to activities of humans. Man makes roads, buildings and dams etc. as it’s his need. In 2009, a conference Was commenced in Copenhagen the capital of Denmark on the issue of atmosphere changes in which a number of countries participated. A number of decisions were made in conference to minimize the emission of carbon dioxide in order to have control over increasing temperature on earth. A specific amount of CO2 is necessary for life on earth but the increase in quantity of CO2 is up to a dangerous level. Increase in the quantity of CO2 and other dangerous gases in atmosphere are due to burning of energy sources e.g. coal, oil, natural gas etc. CO2 and other gases absorb the heat evolved from earth and ultimately temperature of earth increases, which is harmful for life. In this way the changes in atmosphere of the world occur. When volcanism takes place then dust particles and gases etc. enter into air in a huge amount, which ultimately results in atmosphere changes.

 

Q.5:  Explain the importance of Ozone Layer.

Ans:  SIGNIFICANCE OF OZONE LAYER

One of the atmospheric gases is Ozone. Ozone is made and ended naturally. Ozone absorbs ultraviolet rays and sends them to earth after filtration. In this way Ozone saves mankind form ultraviolet rays. It causes skin cancer and eye diseases. If the amount of Ozone decreases, the ultraviolet rays without filteration will reach the earth, which is harmful for life. So, the presence of ozone is necessary.

CAUSES OF OZONE EDEPLETION

The information collected from satellite helps in studying Ozone gas. The layer of ozone becomes, thick at different places. One of the main causes for reducing and destroying ozone gas is CFC gas which is mixture of Chloroflouro Carbon. There are fluorine and carbon items to keep in it. The activities of mankind also damaging ozone gas. CFC is used in refrigerator cool and in ‘different kind of sprays. Sometimes CFC is

released and damages Ozone worst.

 

Q.6:  Suggest the Measures to Control Reduction of Ozone.

Ans:  MEASURES TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEM OF OZONE DEPLETION

Due to efforts of different countries, there are some better results in reducing CFC and other dangerous gases in last few years. The information gathered from NASA and other sources to study about earth shows that the reduction in ozone gas is in lower pace. The main reason for this reduction is minimized use of CFC and then complete ban on it.

Now the other gases are used instead of CFC. For example, the use of HCFCs gas which is a mixture of carbon, hydrogen, chlorine and fluorine. This gas is less injurious as compared to CFC.

 

 

CH:  4) ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-a)(ii-a)(iii-c)(iv-d)(v-a)

2- GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ(i) DEFINE TEMPERATURE.

Ans: The degree of hotness and coldness of a particular place is known as temperature.

 

SQ(ii) GIVE NAMES OF INSTRUMENTS AND SCALES TO MEASURE TEMPERATURE.

Ans: The instrument to measure temperature is Thermometer. In orders to measure The temperature usually two scales are used”

  1. Celsius Scale
  2. Fahrenheit Scale

SQ(III)WHAT IS THE MEASURING OF ISOTHERM?

Ans: Isotherm helps in horizontal distribution of temperature. These lines join the areas of same temperature on map. These lines are mostly parallel to latitude.

Q.1:  Describe atmosphere temperature.

Ans:  ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE

Sun is a big source of heat and Light. Sunrays give heat along with 1ight. Survival of life on earth is due to its heat and Light. When these rays pass through atmosphere about 50% of them are reflected in atmosphere, therefore about half of them reach our earth. When these rays strike against earth, few of them are reflected back and few are absorbed by earth. Absorbency of heat makes the earth hot. Hot earth transfers heat into atmosphere and air becomes hot.

Due to spherical shape of earth, some rays fall in curve manner on earth while some fall vertically. The curved rays have to cover more distance to reach earth. Most of them are absorbed by air and a small amount of heat reaches earth. On the other hand, the vertical rays have to cover less distance; therefore, less amount of heat is absorbed in air and more amount of heat reaches earth.

The curved rays stretches in more space, therefore their intensity is low. Vertical rays fall on small portion of earth; therefore their intensity is high. Due to these two reasons, temperature does not go high with curved rays but increases due to vertical rays. In this way the equatorial areas are hot due to vertical rays and arctic areas are cold due to curved rays.

 

Q.2:  Define Temperature and Explain the Measurement of Temperature.

Ans:  TEMPERATURE

The measurement of degrees of hotness and coldness of a particular place is known as temperature. In geographical terminology the meaning of temperature is the temperature of the air.

 

SCALE AND INSTRUMENTS USED IN MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE

THERMOMETER

Thermometer is made of narrow glass tube in which an appropriate amount of mercury is filled and tube is evacuated to remove air pressure. This tube is divided into different grades. Liquid expands on heating and contracts on cooling. According to this principle mercury or alcohol inside the tube expands and contracts and indicates different readings.

Scales

In order to measure the temperature usually two scales are used:

  • Celsius Scale
  • Fahrenheit Scale

Thermometer has three main levels.

  1. Boiling Point 2.  Freezing Point            3.  Absolute Zero
  2. Boiling Point:

Boiling point is the temperature at which water starts boiling.

  1. Freezing Point:

Freezing point is the point at which water starts turning into ice.

  1. Absolute Zero

Absolute zero is the minimum possible temperature of some liquid. It is impossible to have temperature low than absolute zero.

HEATING OF EARTH AND THE ATMOSPHERE

Surface of earth is not uniform. Some places have water and some places are dry. As compared to wet places the dry places become hot and cold rapidly. It is the main reason of their hotness and coldness. The sunrays directly heat the earth without heating the atmosphere. The earth transfers this heat back to the atmosphere. As a result, the lower portion of atmosphere is hotter. And the upper portion is cooler. Earth absorbs heat during daytime and releases it at night. Those areas, which are covered by snow, reflect the sunrays in huge amount while the areas with dark colours absorb heat and reflect few amounts of sunrays. Such dark areas are competitively hotter than other regions. When the earth releases the absorbed sunrays, the heat is transferred to atmosphere.

 

Q.3:  Explain the Vertical Distribution of Temperature.

Ans.  VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE

The sunrays heat the earth. The earth transfers heat to the lower portion of the atmosphere. It after that heat takes time to reach the upper portion. -Still then loses its intensity when it reaches the upper portion. Therefore, lower portion is hotter than the upper portion. That is why the higher we go to cooler is it. Upwards temperature keeps on falling. This as known as the vertical distribution of temperature.

At every thousand metre height the temperature falls by 6-5 degree. The earth’s surface has seas, deserts, plains, forests and mountains on it. Because of this variation, the temperature ratio also varies from place to place. At dawn and sunset the sunrays do not fall vertically on the earth, therefore, there is less heat at these times. On the other

hand, at 120, the sunrays fall vertically on earth, therefore

there is more heat.

Q.4:  What is Air Pressure?

Ans:  AIR PRESSURE

The pressure of air is more on the lower portion of the atmosphere. High pressure of air results into rising of temperature while low air pressure keeps the temperature low. The air of low areas is more dense. This air contains heavy gases. The density of air decreases gradually at heights. Light gases enter in the air, which cannot absorb heat as compared to heavy gases. Because of this reason temperature keeps on falling with

heights.

 

 

 

 

 

Q.5:  What do you mean by Inversion of Temperature Explain with Example?

Ans:     INVERSION OF TEMPEATURE

The reverse situation of temperature is known as inversion of temperature.

Explanation:

Due to vertical distribution of temperature, it decreases with height but at certain places, it reverses and temperature rises with height as for example if the temperature at earth surface is 5oC, then it is 7oC above this point, which is inversion of temperature.

Q.6:  What is reason of Inversion of Temperature?

Ans:  REASON OF INVERSION OF TEMPERATURE

Through out the year equatorial regions remain hot and average temperature is 32oC. On contrary arctic regions are prone to coldness and temperature falls from freezing point. Such unequal distribution of temperature on the earth’s surface is known as horizontal distribution of temperature. On the basis of horizontal distribution of temperature the earth’s surface is divided into three zones.

  1. Tropical Zone

It is a hot region, which stretches on both sides of equator. It stretches from the topic of cancer on northern side to the topic of Capricorn on southern sides.

  1. Temperature Zone

Temperature Zone extends from mid of Arctic Circle on northern side to mid of Antarctic Circle on southern side. This region is neither too cold nor hot.

  1. Torrid Zone

Torrid Zone stretches from mid of Arctic Circle in northern hemisphere to mid of Antarctic circle in southern hemisphere. This region is very cold.

 

Q.8:  Elaborate the Factors Affecting Temperature.

Ans:  THE FACTORS INFLUENCING HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE.

Following are the factors influencing horizontal distribution of temperature:

  1. WET ARID DRYNESS

There is 71% water, and 29% dryness on the surface of the earth. The continents and dry places become hot rapidly. Continent and dry places become cold within short span of time after the sunset, on the other hand water or sea takes time to hot or cold. The dry places become hotter during summer as compared to water. It is so because of difference of physical features of the earth.

  1. SUNRAYS

The rays of the sun fall vertically on equatorial regions. These vertical rays cause more heat in comparison to the rays, which fall in a curve manner on Polar Regions. As a result of that these regions have very low temperature.

  1. WIND AND SEA CURRENTS

Winds travels from hot regions to cold regions and from cold regions to hot regions. The examples of these winds are land and sea breezes, mountainous breezes and valley breezes. Although the weather of Karachi is moderate but when Quetta cold wins hits it, there is coldness in Karachi. Sea currents travel both from hot to cold and cold to hot regions. When a hot wave after travelling reaches some area it increases temperature of that area. For example when a hot wave of northern Pacific Ocean after traveling reaches the western coast of Europe, it increases its temperature, due to this reason; this coast does not freeze even in winter season. Cold current reduces temperature of hot regions. For example, when a current flows along western coast of Africa is reduces its temperature.

  1. CLOUDS

Clouds are a hindrance, in the way of most sunrays as they reflect them and a few amount of sunrays reach earth, which reduces temperature of earth. Therefore the cloudy areas have low temperature as compared to the cloudless areas.

 

  1. COASTAL

Coastal region do not become hot even if they are situated near equator because of sea breeze. Being coastal area Karachi has moderate temperature throughout the year while the temperature of Lahore increases during summer and decreases during winter.

Q.10: Explain Isotherms

Ans: ISOTHERMS

Isotherms are the lines, which helps us know the horizontal distribution of temperature. These lines join the areas of same temperature on map. These lines are mostly parallel to latitude.

These lines are inclined towards equator in summer and inclined towards pools in winter. As compared to dry area the water area is large in southern hemisphere. These lines do not show any variation both in summer and winter because these lines remain parallel throughout the year.

 

CH:  5) ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE & CIRCULATION

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-b)(ii-b)(iii-a)(iv-d)(v-c)

2-GIVE SHORT ANSWERS

SQ(i) DEFINE CYCLONES?

Ans: CYCLONES

A cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. They are usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

 

SQ(ii) DEFINE TORNADOES?

Ans: Tornadoes are a small cyclone whose origin part consists of small area where as winds flow very fast in origin they are heavy black clouds. In the central part of tornado there is humidity , dust and other material is included and also is seen.

 

SQ(iii)WHAT IS MEAN OF AIR PRESSURE?

Ans: Air has weight like every matter. The weight of air is Air pressure.

Q.1:  Explain the difference between temperature and air pressure.

Ans:  AIR PRESSURE

Atmosphere is made up of a number of gases. These gases press down on the Earth’s surface, exerting a force that we call atmospheric pressure or air pressure. Another word weight of air is Air pressure.

BAROMETER

Changes in air pressure are measured on an instrument called a barometer. Most barometers give a reading in millibars (mb for short). Readings over 1010 mb indicate high pressure. The measurement of air pressure is taken from seal-level. The pressure of air is not uniform on the surface of the earth.

ISOBARS

The lines, which join the regions having same air pressure, are known as Isobars.

AIR PRESSURE AND HEIGHT

Atmosphere extends to a large scale in height. Because of the heaviness of air the air pressure is large at the lower portion of atmosphere. This pressure decreases increasing heights. That is why, air pressure is more on seas and Lesson Mountains. The height of a mountain can be found if we know the air pressure on the peak and foot of mountain.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND A1R PRESSURE

Temperature and air pressure have relationship between them. Those areas where air pressure is low have high temperature and vice versa. Air spreads and expands on heating and air pressure decreases when it becomes light in weight. Air contracts when it is cooled. Due to contraction it becomes heavy. Due to heaviness of air its pressure increases. Few water vapours are in air, which are lighter than air. The quantity of Water vapours makes air light and air pressure decreases. According to principle, humid air is lighter than dry air and its pressure is also low.

Q.2:  Explain Air Pressure Belt on Earth.

Ans:  AIR PRESSURE BELTS ON THE GLOBE

The occurrences of air pressure on earth are described as following.

  1. Equatorial Belt of low pressure
  2. Sub-tropical belts of high pressure
  3. Sub-polar belts of low pressure
  4. Polar belts of high pressure
  5. EQUATORIAL BELT OF LOW PRESSURE

This belt has very low air pressure. It is formed because ‘of heat at about 5 degrees on north south of both sides of equator. There is summer throughout the year in this belt. Air becomes high due to intense heat. It rises vertically upwards in the form of conventional currents. They also form a belt of low pressure here, known as belt of calms. Here, air rises upwards, so it cannot flow along the surface of the Earth. Due to this reason, atmosphere is calm here.

  1. SUB-TROPICAL BELTS OF HIGH PRESSURE

At about latitude 30 degrees North and South occur the sub-tropical high pressure belts, sometimes known asthe “Horse Latitudes”, zones of calm and descending air currents. In the Southern Hemisphere, this belt is clearly defined but contains centers of high pressure termed as “pressure cells”.

The air from equator lifts upwards and moves towards poles on reaching a particular height. Due to its heaviness it moves downward towards the surface of the earth and air pressure increases in such regions. The air from upper regions is cold and dry, due to which these belts do not have rains.

  1. SUB-POLAR BELTS OF LOW PRESSURE

Sub-polar belts of low pressure are formed when cold air collides with humid air and hot air rises upwards. When hot humid air currents from 30 degrees latitude north south and cold dry air current reach 60 degree latitude north-south, these air currents These belts are about 60 degrees latitude in North south strike against each other, and form the sub-polar belts of low pressure.

  1. POLAR BELTS OF HIGH PRESSURE

These belts are on either sides in Polar Regions. The temperature remains below freezing point “throughout the year. As a result, belts of high pressure are formed, which are known as polar belts of high pressure.

 

Q.3:  Explain Wind System

Ans:  Wind System

The variation in atmospheric pressure causes winds. The earth moves over the surface of earth from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. These air currents are called winds.

  1. PERMANENT WINDS

The winds which travels between the belts of air pressure all the year in the same are called as Permanent winds. These winds are of three types:

  1. Eastern Winds

Eastern winds flows from sub tropical regions towards equator. These are permanent type of winds. These winds flow between 30-50 degree latitudes. These Wind are know as eastern as they come from east. These winds are also called trade winds because in olden times ships used these direction of eastern winds for their travel. These winds cause raini on the eastern coasts of continents.

  1. Western Winds

Western winds flow from sub-tropical belts of high pressure to sub-polar belts of low pressure between 35-60 degree latitude. As they come towards west they are called as western winds. They travel in opposition direction of trade winds. These winds bring rains all the yearlong but there is more rain in winter than in summer.

iii.        Polar Winds

Polar winds flow from the polar belts of high pressure to sub-polar belts of low pressure and between about 60 degrees latitude in either hemisphere. As these winds travel from east to west that is why these wind, are also known as Polar Eastern winds. In sub-northern hemisphere these winds flow from North-Eastern side to south western side and in sub southern hemisphere from south eastern side to southern-west. These wind travel from severe cold region to less cold region.

  1. SEASONAL WINDS

The winds, which change their direction of blowing with the changing seasons, are called seasonal winds. They are also called temporary winds; an example of it is Monsoon wind winds.

Monsoon winds:

The entire surface winds, which change their directions with changing seasons, are called monsoon winds. These winds blow from sea to land in summer and from land to sea in winter. The reason of rainfall in summer in Pakistan due to Monsoon winds.

DIVISION OF MOONSON WINDS

Monsoon winds are divided into the following two types.

  1. Summers Monsoon

During summer, the winds that blow from sea towards land are filled with water vapours. As a result, they bring heavy rains in eastern sides of continents. These winds are filled with humidity. In Pakistan, rainfall in summer is due to summer monsoon. They start from July to November .

  1. Winter Monsoon

The temperature is low in lands during winter; therefore air pressure increases in lands. On the other hand, there is high temperature on Arabian Sea, which results into low pressure. Therefore, air blows from area of high pressure to area of low pressure. Being dry in nature, they cause no rain. Due to this reason, the Winter in Pakistan is dry and cold. However, rain in Balochistan is due to Western cyclone.

  1. LOCAL WINDS

These winds blow due to local variation in the temperature and pressure, and influence a very small area. Local winds are specific and limited. Land breeze, Sea breeze, valley breeze and Mountain breeze are important local winds..

 

LAND AND SEA BREEZES

Land is heated more quickly than the adjacent sea during the day time. As a result, warm air rises over the land creating low pressure area there. However, there is prevailing high pressure over the adjacent sea.

As a result, the pressure causes the air to blow from the high pressure to the low pressure areas i.e. from the sea to the land. This is called sea breeze.

MOUNTAIN AND VALLEY EREEZES:

The slope and valley floors in the mountainous regions are more heated through insolation during daytime. Consequently, the warm air moves upslope. This upward moving breeze during daytime is called Valley Breeze.

Valley breezes reach mountain peaks and many a time yield precipitation. In the night, the upper part of the mountain cools quickly and starts falling down along the slope of the mountain. Air moves downward towards valley and is known as valley breeze.

 

Q.4:  Explain types of cyclones

Ans:  CYCLONE

The formation of whirlpool due to low air pressure and blows spirally is known as cyclones. When air moves upward due to heat, it reduces the high pressure air. Therefore, air moves from area of high presence to the area of low pressure, which makes cyclones. The surrounding of cyclones are prone to heavy clouds and severe rains. If a change occurs suddenly in air pressure of cyclone or distance among isobars reduces then severe rainfall occurs. These cyclones cause rainfalls in Baluchistan.

TYPES OF CYCLONE

Following are the types of cyclones.

TROPICAL CYCLONE

Tropical cyclones are formed on oceans. They are mostly formed in between 8-15 degree latitudes from in North South. They are disastrous in nature and destroy the areas in their way.

HURRICANE:

On the eastern coasts of Pacific Ocean, they are known as Hurricane. ‘

HARRY CYCLONES

Cyclones which are formed in Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh; these hurricanes have severe effects on India and cause disasters in coastal areas. They are known as Harry cyclones.

TEMPERATE CYCLONE

Temperate cyclones blow‘ rapidly from north to south between 40 to 70 degree latitude. They usually cover large areas. They ravel along western winds. When cold polar and a bit hot sub-polar wind collide with each other, temperate cyclones are formed. These collisions of winds make a polar front.

RORNADO’S

Tornado is a small cyclone. It covers a small area. In its .central part winds  blow very fast spirally.

TRANDO’S STRUCTURE

In its centre there are heavy black cloud. It control part has humidity, dust and other material and nothing is visible. Tornadoes make disastrous in Northern America and some parts of Australia.

 

CH: 6) ATMOSPHEREIC HUMIDITY AND PRECEIPITATION Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-b)(ii-a)(iii-d)(iv-a)(v-c)

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ(i) DEFINE PRESCIPITATION?

Ans: The fall of water drops on the surface of earth both in liquid and solid form, is known as precipitation.

 

SQ(ii) WHAT IS THE MEANING OF HUMIDITY?

Ans: The presence of water in atmosphere is-humidity.

 

SQ(iii) DEFINE CONDENSATION.

Ans: The process by which a gas or vapor changes to a liquid.

 

SQ(iv) GIVE REASONS FOR SNOWFALL.

Ans: When air is in the form of water vapours, move upward and these water vapours form; clouds collectively. The temperature of these clouds decreases on height. The vapours combine with each other and take the shapes of; water drops. When these drops become big they; take the shape of rain fall.

Q.1:  Write a short note on Humidity and Condensation.

Ans:  HUMIDITY AND CONDENSATION

HUMIDITY

Humidity is the amount of water vapours in the atmosphere.

CONDENSATION

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vaporization. The presence of Water in atmosphere is humidity. The quantity of water vapours varies in atmosphere. Through the process of evaporation water from sea, lakes and rivers-enters into atmosphere. It indicates that water is present in atmosphere in the form of gas. If the temperature of air is high then the capacity of absorbing vapours is also high. If air becomes full of water vapours then after reaching a particular temperature a process of condensation starts. After that these water vapours turn into rainfall. If the temperature of atmosphere decreases then the existing water vapours will have no space to absorb more water vapours and condensation starts. It results in the form of cold water vapours clouds, rain snow hail and sleet occurs.

 

Q.2:  Explain the types of clouds.

Ans:  TYPES OF CLOUDS

Clouds are classified into twelve types. The names used for the clouds are based on three factors:

  1. The altitude at which the cloud occurs.
  2. The shape of the cloud.

iii.        Whether the cloud is producing precipitation.

Their details are following:

Low-Level Clouds

Low level clouds are found above the sea level about two thousands meters. They include stratus, stratocumulus and nimbostratus etc.

Mid-Level Clouds

Mid-level clouds are found about 2000 to 6000 meters above the sea level. Altostratus and altocumulus are included in this type because of their shapes.

High-Level Clouds

These clouds are found above the surface of sea about six thousands meters. Cirrus, Cirro-Stratus and Cirro-cumulus etc. are included in this type of due to their shapes.

Vertically Developed Clouds

Vertically Developed Clouds are off their own type. The trend of expansion towards height is found in them. The expansion on these clouds is about 1000 to 1200 meters on height. Cumulus and Cumulo-Nimbus are included-this type of clouds because of their shapes.

 

Q.3:  Write down a detail note on type of precipitation.

Ans:  PRECIPITATION

The fall of water drops on the surface of earth both in liquid and solid form is known as precipitation.

TYPES OF PRECIPITATION

There are four types of Precipitation. They are:

Rainfall, Snow fall, Hailing and Sleet

RAINFALL

Rain is liquid Water in the form of droplets that have condeses from atmospheric water vapours and then precipitates that become heavy enough to fall under gravity.

 

 

  1. Orographic Rainfall

The rain that falls because of mountains is called as orographic rainfall. When winds full of water vapours face hurdle of mountains, they move up along slops. Thus their temperature falls. Vapours turn into drops and rain start to fall.

  1. Convenctional Rainfall

The rain due to convectional waves is called as convectional rainfall. In hot areas the air due to higher temperature becomes light and when it goes upwards the process of the evaporation increases and rises there in the form of convectional waves. As long as air rises upwards temperature decreases and water vapours become cloud and rain fall occurs.

CYCLONIC RAINFALL

When air lows from the area of high pressure to the area of low pressure then due the intermingling of both hot and cold winds a cyclone is created, Cyclone is in the area of low pressure. Heavy air moves upwards after getting light in weight. Its temperature decreases gradually and a process of condensation starts which results in rainfall.

ISOHYET

The quantity of precipitation is not uniform on the earth’s surface. On some maps the quantity of precipitation is divided by isobars. These lines are formed by joining the region having same precipitation rate.

RAIN GAUGE

The instrument used to measure rain is rain gauge. Rain gauge consists of two silver cylinders and one glass cylinder having gauge to measure rain. An indicator is attached along one of big silver cylinder. Usually small cylinder is inside the big cylinder where the water of rain is collected, a measuring glass cylinder continuously measure the quantity of water, which is fixed under silver cylinders.

SNOW FALL

When light air reaches the point in atmosphere where the temperature is even below freezing point then the water vapours turn into snow or into canonical shape of snow. Due to the combination of these canonical snow pieces, small blocks of snow formed. These blocks fly in air and eventually fall on earth in the form of snow. It is also known as snow fall. The snow falls on the earth’s surface in the form of layers. These layers are initially soft and gradually become hard.

HALLING

Air arries water vapours in the whet perature is below freezing p.0int and these water vapours freeze and fall on earth surface in the form of hails. When they fall, the water vapours in their way join them and their size increase.

SLEET

The Combination of both rain fall and snow fall is sleet. When. Raindrops pas through the lower layer of atmosphere they are freezed. They have water inside them but their outer covering is hard.

 

Q.4:  Explain the importance of precipitation.

Ans:  PRECIPITAHON AS THE SOURCE OF FRESH WATER

Precipitation is necessary for all kind of fresh water reservoirs in hilly lands and deserts areas. Precipitation is the cause of fresh water resources. The storage of water in reservoirs increases through rain in rivers, streams and lakes.

Rainwater increases the resources of underground water by absorbing it in earth surface. One of the main elements in the formation of men, animal and plants is water. The survival of plants is at the verge of death if they are not provided with water. Survival is impossible on earth without water; water is used in excessive amount in different types of industrial sector. Water acts as backbone in the field of agriculture.

 

CH: 7) AGRICULTURE

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-d)(ii-b)(iii-b)(iv-c)(v-c)

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ(i) WHAT IS MEAN “BY AGRICULTURE.

Ans: Cultivation of crops and farming of cattle called Agricultur.

 

SQ(ii) DEFINE KAREEZ AND SPRING.

Ans:  KAREZ:

Underground watercourses are dug which are called Karez.

SPRINGS:

Spring is a natural source where water flows to the surface of the Earth from underground.

 

SQ(iii) WRITE THE NAME OF IMPORTANT CROPS OF PAKISTAN.

Ans:

1.Rice

2.Wheat

  1. Maize

4.Cotton

5.Sugar cane

 

SQ(IV) LIST THE MEANS OF IRRIGATION.

Ans:

1.Canals

2.Tube well

  1. arez

4.Well

5.Springs

Q.1:  Explain why is agriculture important?

Ans:  IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE AS AN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY.

 

DEFINITION OF AGRICULTURE

Cultivating of crops and raising of cattle is called agriculture. A major part of raw material is provided by agriculture sector to the industries. Supply of raw material to the industries of the world is also dependent upon agricultural sector. Importance of this sector is given below.

MAIN SOURCE OF INCOME

Main source of Income Agricultural sector is the mainstay of world economy. Majority of world population is dependent on agriculture.

INCREASE IN PER CAPITA INCOME

Agricultural sector provides new jobs to unemployed people. It increases the individuals as well as national income.

SOURCE OF FOOD

Agricultural sector provides food for the people of a country, for example grains, fruits, vegetables, milk and meat etc. which fulfill nutritional need of the people.

MAIN SOURCE OF NATIONAL INCOME

Agricultural sector is the main and most important sector in their economy of many countries. At present this sector is predominant in all productive sectors.

 

SOURCE OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE EARNING

Agricultural sector is the biggest source of foreign exchange earnings. All over the world foreign exchange is earned by exporting surplus produce to other countries. In this way foreign exchange earned through agricultural products plays a prominent role in national income of any country.

SUPPLY OF RAW MATERIAL

Agricultural sector provides raw material to main producing sectors and industries. For example, cotton and yarn is supplied to textile industries.

REDUCTION IN POVERTY

Agriculture development has significant impact on rural development. If productivity increases in agriculture it reduces poverty and stimulates non-farm employment, too. Sugarcane for sugar and seeds for oil. Thus agricultural sector provides firm basis for these industries.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Economic development, progress and ‘prosperity cannot be achieved without agricultural sector.

SOURCE OF BALANCE OF PAYMENT

Agricultural sector is very effective because it plays a vital role in maintaining the balance of payments. Many countries of the world receive a major part of their income through export of agricultural products, which are balanced by import expenditure.

 

Q.2:  Describe different types of agriculture.

Ans:  TYPES OF AGRICULTURE

Since ancient times humans have adopted the profession of agriculture. It provides employment to many people.” Different types of cultivation are mentioned below:

  1. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

Subsistence, agriculture is self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food for feeding themselves and their families. Most of the fields are small in size where the use of modern machinery is’ impossible. This type of agriculture is practised in South Asia, South-Eastern Asia and China, etc.

  1. INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE

Through -this type of agriculture better produce is obtained from a small area. By using quality fertilizers, clean water and pesticides on a small piece of land, abundant crop and better financial gains are achieved. This type of agriculture is in practice mainly in UK, France, Pakistan, India, China, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Egypt, etc.

  1. EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE

This type of agriculture is in practice in those countries where abundant land is available for cultivation. In America, Russia, Australia and Brazil etc. the land is more than population, so modern machinery is used to for agriculture on a large scale.

  1. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

This type of agriculture is done for commercial point of view to more earn profits. Crops are produced on a large-scale for this purpose. In some parts of Canada, America, Australia and Argentina etc. commercial agriculture is in practice.

  1. PLANTATION AGRICULTURE

Crops grown on plantations include sugarcane, banana, coconut, spices, and coffee etc. This type of agriculture is commonly in practice in South-East Asia, Africa, America, Malaysia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. The fields for this type of agriculture are usually very vast.

  1. TRUCK FARMING

Perishable fruits and vegetables are brought to market in trucks, hence this name is given to such farming. Big cities and industrial centres play a vital role in encouraging this type of agriculture, because they have markets. Instant profits are earned by selling the produce. Coastal areas of America are important centres of tuck farming.

  1. MIXED FARM IN

In this type of agriculture crop growing and cattle raising is done simultaneously. In some regions this type is in practice to meet the local requirements, whereas in other parts it has commercial objectives. Mixed farming is in practice in America, Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Europe and some parts of Asia.

  1. CEREAL CROPS

These crops are cultivated on a large scale to meet local needs of food. Main cereal crops of Pakistan include Wheat, rice, gram and various lentils.

 

Q.3:  Describe irrigated agriculture, rain-shed agriculture and mountainous agriculture.

Ans:  IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

Cultivation of crops by using irrigation system is known as irrigated agriculture. In Pakistan, development of agriculture is linked with the advancement and extension of means of irrigation. The climate of Pakistan is hot and dry. Northern and hilly areas of Pakistan receive reasonable rains, but rest of the Country is dependent on irrigation for agriculture or farming.

At present, 75% of total cultivatable lands of Pakistan depends upon irrigation. Canals are most important mean of irrigated agriculture including other means of irrigation i.e. tube wells, Karez system, wells, springs and pools.

RAIN-SHED AGRICULTURE

In the areas where underground Water is not fit for cultivation and canal water cannot reach, agriculture is wholly dependent on rain water. This is known as rain-shed agriculture.

This type of agriculture is in practice in desert areas, plateaus and mountainous regions. In Pakistan rain shed agriculture is commonly in practice in the districts of Muzaffargarh,. Layyah, Bhakkar and Bahawalpur etc. where spiked millet, pearl millet, wheat, maize and mustard is grown in adequate amount.

MOUNTAINOUS AGRICULTURE

Stepped fields are formed by cutting hill slopes for cultivating crops. In mountainous regions of Pakistan, both rain-shed and irrigated types of agriculture are in practice. In Swat, Chitral and Dir etc. water of natural springs is used for irrigation through small water courses. Crops of wheat, maize, fruits and vegetables etc. are cultivated in mountainous regions.

 

Q.4:  Analyze the distribution of major crops in Pakistan.

Ans:  DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR CROPS OF PAKISTAN

Major crops of Pakistan are divided into the following two main seasons.

  1. Rabi                 2.         Kharif
  2. RABI CROPS

Rabi crops are sown in winter (October) and harvested in the summer (May), and these include wheat, barley, gram, oil seeds etc.

  1. KHARIF CROPS

Kharif crops are sown in summer from June to September, and these include rice, maize, cotton, sugarcane, spike millet and pearl millet.

CASH CROPS

In Pakistan food and cash crops are sown and harvested. Food crops like rice, wheat, maize, spike and pearl millet etc. to fulfill food needs of rapidly growing population of the country.

FRUITS

Pakistan is famous for its fruits  provinces of Pakistan produce foods. Important fruits are mango, citrus fruits, grapes, apples, plums, apricots, dates and peach, etc. Fruits in large quantity is also exported to other countries.

 

MAJOR CROPS OF PAKISTAN

Major crops of Pakistan are given below.

  1. RICE

Rice is an impoltant Kharif crop in Pakistan. Hot humid climate, abundant rains and rich soft soil is best suited for this crop. Not only hot climate is necessary at sowing time, but adequate water should remain standing in its fields. Extra flooding and abundant rain is favourable for growth of rice crop.

  1. WHEAT

Wheat is most important Rabi crop of Pakistan. Level soil is necessary for it so that watering is easy. Two third of .this crop is harvested in canal irrigated areas. Total area under this crop is 5 million hectares. Other than dry canal irrigated lands of the country it is harvested in areas where winter and summer rains are sure and abundant.

Places

Multan,‘ Sahiwal, Faisalabad, Sargodha, Muzaffargarh, Jhang, Bahawalpur and Dera ,Ghazi Khan in Punjab, Sakhur, Hyderabad, Nawabshah and Khailpur in Sindh, Dera Ismail Khan, Peshawar, Bannu, Charsaddah and Mardan in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa,  and Naseerabad and Khuzdar in Baluchistan province are important areas for wheat produce.

  1. MAIZE

Maize is used for food and animal fodder. It is an important crop of Kharif.

Places

Most of the maize is cultivated in the plains of Peshawar and Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, and Sahiwal, Jhang, Bahawalpur, D Ghazi ‘Khan and Okara etc. Areas in Punjab.

  1. COTTON

Pakistan produces 5 percent of the world’s total cotton. It is an important cash crop of Pakistan. The land which has good facilities of drainage is most suitable for its cultivation. At harvesting time, weather should be hot and dry. Three fourth of the total cultivation area of Pakistan is in Punjab and remaining in other provinces. Cotton crop also provide raw material for textile and banaspati ghee industries.

Places

Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Jhang, Bahawalpur, Multan, Sahiwal, Faisalabad in Punjab, Thatta, Badin, Sakkhur, Sanghar, Nawabshah, Khairpur and Tharparkar in Sindh province, Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, and Nasccrabad, Jafferabad and Qalat etc. in Baluchistan province are important cotton producing areas.

  1. SUGARCANE

Another cash crop is sugarcane. Dry weather and winter is not suitable for this crop. Sugarcane fields are mostly found in areas with better irrigation system.

Places

It is cultivated in Peshawar and Mardan districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa and Punjab plains.

MISCELLANEOUS

Tobacco is another cash crop of Pakistan. It provides raw material for cigarette industries; Barley, Pearl Millet and gram crops are harvested in dry, sandy and less fertile lands Where irrigation facilities are not specially provided.

FRUITS

Pakistan is famous world over for its apple, peach, pomegranate, almond, plum, pear, apricot, orange, lemon and mango produce.

VEGETABLES

Vegetables of best quality, like potato, cauliflower, tomato, onion, green chili, radish, cucumber, okra, gourd, turnip, brinjal, peas etc. are also grown in Pakistan.

 

Q.5:  Point out the main agricultural problems in Pakistan.

Ans:  MAJOR AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS OF PAKISTAN

INTRODUCTION:

Agricultural sector is the backbone of our economy. But the growth of agriculture in Pakistan is facing a lot of problems.

PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

Problems of agricultural sector are categorized as below:

  1. Limited Cultivable Area

The total area of Pakistan is about 79.6 million hectares, out of which only 23.7 million hectares (28%) area is used for agricultural purposes. About 8million hectares area is idle and un-utilized.

  1. Water Logging and Salinity

Water logging and salinity are twin problems of agricultural sector due to salinity, deposits of salt in land have appeared on the surface of land and they have adversely affected the performance of agricultural sector.

iii.        Low Per Hectare Yield

The most important problem of agriculture is its low yield per hectare for almost every major crop. 45.0% of labour force is engaged in this sector in Pakistan while it is less than 5% in developed countries.

  1. Inadequate Infrastructure

Rural infrastructure like, roads, storage facilities, transport, electricity, education, sanitation and health facilities etc. is inadequate to meet the requirement of growth of agriculture.

  1. Uneconomic Land Holdings

Due to increasing population and division of land under the law of inheritance, landholdings are subdivided over and over again. The result is that very large number of farmers has less than 2 hectares of area.

Old Methods of Production

  1. Old Methods of Production

In Pakistan o1d implements are still being used for agricultural production. Old and orthodox techniques of production cannot increase the production according to international levels.

vii.       Inadequate Supply of Agricultural Inputs

The supply of modern inputs like high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, mechanized machinery etc are not only costly but also inadequate and irregular in Pakistan.

viii.      Lack of Irrigation Facilities

Shortage of irrigation facilities causes a serious limitation in the expansion of crop area in Pakistan.

  1. Inadequat Agricultural Research

In order to raise the potential of agricultural production, there should be continuous improvement in the research for agricultural growth.

  1. Problem of Land Reforms

Land reforms have been implemented against the will of people. There is an urgent need to conduct at proper land reform for improving agricultural growth. Due to this problem agricultural production cannot increase to a desired level.

Q.6:  What are the means of irrigation in Pakistan?

Ans:  MEANS OF IRRIGATION

In Pakistan the means of irrigation are following:

  1. CANALS

Pakistan has a very extensive developed canal network in the world. It is about 150 years old. This canal system consists of small and large dams, barrages, irrigation canals and link canals

1st Type of Canal:

The flow of water in rivers continues throughout the year and so in most of the canals known as perennial canals.

2nd Type of Canal:

The second types of canals are non-perennial which run: only in summer and the rainy season, when the rivers are filled by heavy rains and melting of ice. These canals are closed down in winter season.

Important Canals:

Canals taken from Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, Sutlej and Sind rivers are important and irrigate different parts of Pakistan. Most of the canals of Pakistan are in Punjab province.

Connecting Canals:

Connecting canals have been dug to transfer water of three Western rivers (Sindh, Jhelum and Chenab) into two eastern rivers (Ravi and Sutlej). These include Chashma Jhelum, Rasul Qadirabad, Qadirabad Baloki, Baloki Sulemanki, Trirnun Sidhnai, Mailsi Bahawal and Taunsa Panjnad.

Back Ground:

According to this treaty the three, Western Rivers – the Jehlum, the Chenab and the Indus were assigned to Pakistan, while the three Eastern Rivers – the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi were ‘given in the control of India.

Indus Water Treaty

The sources of all rivers of Pakistan are located in India. When three eastern rivers of Pakistan became part of India, the availability of water in these rivers was decreased. An extensive irrigation project was completed to meet this shortage of water. This is called Indus Water Plan.

  1. TUBE WELL

Tube wells are installed in those areas where the level of underground water is very deep. Number of tube wells is increasing day by day. For acquiring Water according to this method, a hole his dug and an iron pipe is inserted in the hole. An electric motor or diesel engine is used to pump the water from the depth of hundreds of feet.

  1. KAREZ

Underground watercourses are dug which are called Karez. In Baluchistan province, irrigation is done through underground channels. Most of karez are constructed in those areas where water is scarce and evaporation process is strong.

  1. WELLS

Wells are most (ancient way of acquiring underground water. In Pakistan wells are dug to install Persian wheel for irrigation Where canal Water is not accessible.

  1. SPRINGS

Spring is a natural source where water flows to the surface of the Earth from underground. There are innumerable springs in the mountainous regions of Pakistan. They are most important source of water for local population.

Q.7:  Describe the problems of means of irrigation.

Ans:  PROBLEMS OF MEANS OF IRRIGATION

  1. Salinity:

A great amount of Water is absorbed because of unpaved watercourses. Consequently the level of underground water rises and problem of salinity is caused. Salinity is bad for crops.

  1. Improper-Arrangements of Storing Water

We have no proper arrangements to store water. ‘Thus a great amount of water is lost in the sea. Because of silt in unpaved watercourses and delay is silt clearing, water cannot reach the tail ends. This is severely affecting the arable land. Level of underground water is dropping-down. Consequently tube-wells are becoming useless.

 

CH: 8) MINING & POWER

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-d)(ii-c)(iii-a)(iv-c)(v-d)

2.GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ(ii) WRITE THE NAMES OF FIVE NON-METAL MERALS.

Ans:

1.salt

2.lime stone

3.Gypsem

4.Sand stone

5.Marble

 

SQ(II) HOW WIND-ELECTRICITY IS GENERATED?

Ans: Use of winds for power generation IS called Wind electric power. In Pakistan plans being implemented to generate electric power with the help of wind; Windmill consists of three or four blade fans fixed on high poles. These fans are

called turbines, Wind move these fans and their energy is converted to electric power.

 

SQ (II) DEFINE MINING.

Ans: Extraction of valuable minerals and other materials from the earth is called mining.

Q.1:  Define mining and what is the role of minerals and power resources in the economy of country?

 

Ans:  MINING

Extraction of valuable minerals and other materials from the earth is called mining. Allah almighty has bestowed Pakistan with a number of minerals like coal, marble, iron, copper, chromite, gypsum, rock salt, etc.

IMPORTANCE OF MINING

Miners explore minerals from earths, which are used in various industries. Some people in the plateaus of Baluchistan and Pothohar are engaged in mining. It is regarded as an industry and an important source of employment and plays an essential role in the development and prosperity of the country.

ROLE OF MINERALS AND POWER RESOURCES IN THE ECONOMY OF COUNTRY.

In present industrial era, minerals have an essential role in the industrial and economic growth of a country. They are important for economic development and affluent society. Minerals are used in industries as raw materials. Among them iron is of utmost importance. Oil, coal and natural gas provide energy to industries. These minerals are source of foreign exchange. Every country exports minerals as raw or products prepared from minerals.

Q.2:  Point out Necessary Conditions for Mining.

Ans: IMPORTANT CONDITIONS FOR MINING

Some important condition for mining are given below:

  1. It is necessary to get the services of mining experts.
  2. Miners should be well trained in modern techniques and best means of transport should be available to take these minerals to industries.
  3. Taking canaries into the mine the canary dies, there is gas and the miners need to leave the pit.
  4. Cutting two shafts and lighting a fire at the base of one of them, to draw fresh air down the other.
  5. Moreover, modern machinery is also important.
  6. Thorough digging of mines and adequate financial resources for the extraction of minerals is of utmost importance so that work may continue without any interruption.
  7. Industries should be there or new industries should be established to use these minerals as raw material.

 

Q.3:  Describe the different types of mining?

Ans:  TYPES OF MINING

Some types of mining are given below:

  1. HAND-PANNING MINING

Some time precious metal deposits like gold etc. are found in alluvial deposits. When deposits are dried up, it is collected in a pan. After that the grains of gold are separated from sand.

  1. SHAFT TUNNEL MINING

Through this method minerals are extracted from great depth. In this method, a shaft is use to drill vertically into the earth, after which mining process is started.

 

  1. ADIT TUNNEL MINING

According to this method horizontal passages or tunnels are dug between slopes in hilly areas. Minerals slide down from slopes and. gather in tunnels or ditches. After this process digging is done in these ditches to extract the minerals. Adit tunnel mining is especially useful in the mining of salt and coal.

  1. OPEN-PIT MINING

This method is used for extraction of minerals, which are found near the surface. In this method overburden is removed little by little. In Pakistan, open-pit mining method is adopted for extracting copper, chromites and limestone, etc.

  1. DRILLING MINING

This method is used for extraction of minerals from deeper layers by drilling a hole into the earth. Pipes are fitted in this hole. Then minerals are brought on surface through pipes. This method is used for oil and gas extraction.

 

Q.4:  Use of 10 Minerals and Their Reserves.

Ans:  DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR MINERALS IN PAKISTAN

The mineral resources of Pakistan are the gift of Allah. For the industrial development, it is essential to plan to -exploit the mineral resources to the maximum.

Minerals are categorized in two groups: metal and non-metal. Metal minerals include iron, copper and chromites, etc. whereas non-metal minerals are cooking salt, limestone, marble, gypsum, china clay, etc.

MINERAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

The Mineral Development Corporation was established in 1975. In addition to that corporations were also established at provincial level.

MAJOR MINERALS OF PAKISTAN

Major minerals of Pakistan are described below:

  1. MINERAL OIL

Establishment of ODGC

In 1975 of Oil and Gas Development Corporation Limited (OGDCL) was established in Pakistan, oil exploration process got an impetus.

Importance of Mineral Oil

Mineral oil and its products have now gained dominating economic importance. Major products of mineral oil include gasoline, kerosene oil, mobile oil, wax, coal tar, etc.

Reservoirs

Oil wells are located in the following areas of Pothar Plateau. Balksar, Khor, Dhallian, Joyamir, Manwal, Tut, Kot Sarang, Mial, Aadhi and Qazian.

In lower Sindh, important areas for oil production are Khaskheli, Kunar, Tando Allahyar and Zamzama. These reserves are playing an, essential role in meeting with domestic oil demand. Mineral oil is used after refining.

  1. NATURAL GAS

Natural gas is the cheapest source of energy.

Sui Gas field

Natural gas was discovered in 1952  at  Sui (distn’ct Sibbi in Balochistan). That is why this natural gas is known as Sui Gas in Pakistan.

Usage

This gas is used for commercial as well  as for domestic purposes.

Reservoirs

Gas has been discovered in Uch and Zan in Baluchistan, Khairpur, Mazrani, Sari, Hundi, Kandkot and Sang in Sindh.

 

  1. COPPER

Usage

Copper is used in the production of electric goods especially wire networks. In the past it was only used for making of coins and pottery.

Reservoirs

In the province of Baluchistan, reserves of copper were discovered and explored in Chaghi, Sandak, Qalat and Zhob. In Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, copper reserves are found in Dir, Chitral and Hazara.

  1. COAL

Usage of Coal

In Pakistan coal is generally fused for thermal electric power and in brick kilns.

Reservoirs

Presently coal is being mined in Baluchistan from Khost, Sharag, Digari, Sherin, Aab, Macch, Bolan and Harnai. In Punjab coal mining areas are Dandot, Paddh and Makarwal. In Sindh province coal mines are located in Thar, Jamper, Sarang and Lakhra

In Khyber Pakhtunkhawa province, coal reserves are in Hangu. Coal is one of most important sources of energy.

  1. IRON ORE

The production of iron is started in 1957 in Pakistan. Its explored reserves are approximately more than 450 million tons. Major Iron Ore reserves in Pakistan are in Kalabagh (district Mianwali), Domal Nisar (district Chitral), Langrial and Chilghazi (district Chaghi).

These sites are of utmost importance for Iron Ore production

  1. ROCK SALT

Salt rock is used in chemical industry for making acid and castic soda. It is also used in cooking. Extensive reserves of ‘salt in Pakistan are found in Khewra, district- Jhelum. Other reserves are in Kalabagh (district Mianwali), Warccha (district Khushab) and Bahadurkhail (district Kirk). Salt is also mined from Lasbela and Mahan (near coast in Bal Chistan) and Maripur (Karachi).

  1. CHROMITE

There are more than 25 big reserves of chromites in. Pakistan. It is exported to different countries and also used in Karachi Steel Mills.

Reservoirs

Chromites reserves in Baluchistan province has been found in Muslim Bagh, Chaghi and Kharan areas. Some reserves were also found in Malakand and Momand Agency areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa province. Chromite is an important metal. It is mainly used in steel industry. ‘

  1. GYPSUM

Gypsum is used as raw material in phosphate fertilizer. It is also important for cement, paper, plaster of Paris, Sulphuric acid, paints and rubber industries.

Reservoirs

Most of gypsum in Pakistan is found in salt range areas of Khewra, Dandot, Daudkhel and Qadirabad. There are also some mines of gypsum in Rohri, Kohat, Dera Ghazi Khan, Lora Lai- and Sibbi. Pakistan is endowed with vast reserves of gypsum which are approximately more than 350 million ton.

  1. LIME STONE

Limestone is an extremely useful mineral. It is used in glass, soap, steel, bleaching powder industries, for whitewash, paints, chewing betel, lime and soda ash.

Reservoirs

Most of limestone in Pakistan is found in northern and western hilly areas. Its reserves are in Daudkhel, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad, Sibb-i, Dera Ghazi Khan Kohat Noshehra and Khuzdar.

  1. MARBLE

Marble of different types and colours is found in Pakistan. It is used for the surfacing of floors and walls of buildings.

Reservoirs

Marble producing areas include Mardan, Swat, Noshehra, Hazara, Chaghi, Gilgit and District Muzaffarabad (Azad Kashmir). Moreover, black and white marble in great quzintity has been discovered in Kala Chitta range of Attock.

Q.5:  Explain the role of Power Resources in the Economy of a Country.

Ans:  Power Resources

Power. resources play an important role in the industrial and economic development of a country.

IMPORTANT OF POWER RESOURCES

The important power resources are as under:

  1. Hydroelectricity 2.         Thermal Electricity
  2. Solar Energy 4.         Atomic Energy

(i)         HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER

Suitable Environment

In Pakistan, the nature has provided suitable environment for the hydroelectricity production.

Hydroelectric Power Project

  • Tarbela dam on river Sindh is the largest hydroelectric power project.
  • Ghazi Barotha is the second one.
  • Mangla dam on river Jhelum is third largest dam.
  • Warsak dam was constructed on river Jhelum.
  • Chashma hydroelectric plant, Malakand, Dargai hydropower project and Rasul hydropower plant etc. are other important hydroelectricity projects.

(ii)        THERMAL-ELECTRIC POWER

Thermal-Electric Power is that power which is generated by gas, oil and coal.

Thermal Power Project

Thermal power. production units are operational in Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Guddu, Jam Shoro, Muzaffargarh, Salckhu Larkana, Kotri, Pasni, Gilgit and-KotAddu, To cater the future needs of electric power in Pakistan many projects are in place and other are in progress.

 

 

(iii)       NUCLEAR POWER

Presently atomic energy is the most advanced and sophisticated source of energy. The population is increasing rapidly, and the growth of as resources is slow.

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is responsible for the planning, installation and operation of nuclear power plants in the country. In present time, atomic energy is playing an essential role in catering the needs of energy throughout the world.

Atomic Energy Power Station

Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) is the first such plant in Pakistan. Two more atomic energy plants have been set up near Chashrna town i.e, Chashma Nuclear Power Plant I and Chashma Nuclear Power, Plant II.

(iv)       SOLAR  ELECTRIC POWER

The source of the solar energy is sun. Energy extracted from sunlight is called solar power. Solar power is used for generating electricity.

Use of Solar Energy

In Pakistan, we can use this source of energy to the maximum. Presently, people are using this source of energy on small-scale, for example, solar energy is used to operate small machines and motors. This source of energy is very important for agriculture and industry.

(v)        WIND-ELECTRIC POWER

Use of winds for power generation is called wind-electric power.

Windmill

Windmill consists of three or four blade fans fixed on high poles. These fans are called turbines. Wind move these fans and their energy is converted to electric power.

 

 

CH: 9) INDUSTRY

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-a)(ii-c)(iii-b)(iv-c)(v-b)

 

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ(i) DEFINE AND INDUSTRY.

Ans: Industry is a place where investor provides different raw materials and natural resources to produce different items

 

SQ(ii) NAME FIVE HEAVY INDUSTRIES.

Ans:

textiles,

sugar,

cement,

automobile (jeeps,cars, tractors, motorbikes manufacturing)

electronic devices (television, refrigerator, and air-conditioner).

 

SQ(III) NAME TEN COTTAGE INDUSTRIES OF PAKISTAN.

Ans:

furniture industry,

dairy farming,

honey collection industry,

carpet weaving,

sports ware,

printing industry,

marble articles, paper industry, chemical

industry (paint, etc.) and

show making industry, etc.

Q.1:  Describe the factors for Location of an Industry.

Ans:  INDUSTRY

Industry is a place where goods from raw materials are made, especially in factories, where people are involved in producing particular things.

FACTORS FOR LOCATION OF AN INDUSTRY

The factors that influence the location of industries are given below:

  1. RAW MATERIAL

Availability of raw material is important factor for the establishment of an industry. Usually industry is located at such a place where raw materials are easily available in abundance and accessible. For example, sugar industries will bee located near such places where sugarcane is cultivated on a large scale.

  1. MANPOWER

Labour is necessary for any industry. Cheap and skilled labour is required for industry. Therefore, industries are mostly located in thickly populated areas to provide employment to local people.

  1. CAPITALS

Capital is necessary for the construction of building, installation of machinery and to meet other required expenses. This capital is acquired from local and foreign investors as well as foreign counties.

  1. ENERGY

Energy is very essential for running of heavy machineries of any industry. Coal, natural gas, oil and electricity are the chief sources of energy. The type of machinery in industry determines the nature of required energy.

  1. MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION

Industries are set up in such areas where means of transport and communication are better. These means are used to bring raw materials to industrial areas and sending finished products to markets. For this purpose better means of transportation and communication between industrial and concerned areas are important.

  1. MARKET

Generally, industries are located in close proximity to markets, because finished products are sent without any delay to markets to earn profits.

  1. GOVERNMENT POLICIES

Policy of Government considerably affects the -location of industrial units. Political stability in the country -provides continuity to government policies, which is beneficial for industrial development. Moreover, peaceful environment is very essential for the development of industries.

Q.2:  Describe the different types of industries.

Ans:  INDUSTRY

Industry is a place where -goods from raw materials are manufactured, especially in factories where so many people are involved in producing a particular thing.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDUSTRIES

There are three basic types of industries:

  1. Cottage industry 2.         Small industry
  2. Heavy industry
  3. COTTAGE INDUSTRY

Cottage industry is that industry which is set up locally. Artisans produce different articles by using their tools and sell their products in the markets.

Products Cottage Industry

Woodwork, making of small iron tools, mat weaving, preparation of household articles with leaves and willow branches etc. are included in the cottage industry.

  1. SMALL INDUSTRY

In Pakistan this industry is that one which after employing 2 to 9 workers, make different goods for the market on small scale. Small-scale industry is dependent on locally available raw materials. Most of the people in Pakistan are connected with small industry.

Products of Small Industry

Furniture industry, dairy farming, honey collection industry, carpet weaving, sports ware, printing industry, marble articles, paper industry, chemical industry (paint, etc.) and shoe making industry, etc.

  1. HEAVY INDUSTRY

Usually heavy industry is that industry which not only makes goods on large scale but also makes machines and raw ‘material for other industries.

Industries Including in Heavy Industry

Major heavy industries of Pakistan include:

Textiles, sugar, cement, automobile (jeeps, cars, tractors, motorbikes manufacturing), electronic devices (television, refrigerator, and air conditioner), chemical fertilizers and leather industries.

 

Q.3:  Describe the textiles, sugar, cement and automobile industries of Pakistan.

Ans:  MAJOR INDUSTRIES OF PAKISTAN AND THEIR IMPORTANCE

Industry is the backbone of a country and it is said that the country, which has a heavy network of industries, is considered a developed country. In Pakistan different types of industries flourished. Main industries of Pakistan are textiles, sugar, cement and automobiles, which are described below:

  1. TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Textile industry is playing a vital role in the economy of Pakistan. This is largest industry of Pakistan.

Importance

It is as dominant contributor in foreign earnings. This industry also has a big share

in Pakistan’s exports. It is providing jobs to a large number of Workers in our country.

Textile industries

In textile industry different types of machines are used for ginning, spinning and weaving. Investors of Faisalabad, Karachi and Hyderabad invested a huge amount of capital in local textile industries and thus contributed in the development of textiles. Other than these .three centres, there are many areas in all four provinces where cotton cloth weaving mills are located.

  1. SUGAR INDUSTRY

In Pakistan sugar is made from sugarcane. At the time of independence in 1947, there were only two sugar mills in Pakistan.

Present Number

According to 2011-l2 statistics, now this number has increased to 79.

Sugar Mulls

Sugars mills are located in sugarcane producing areas of the country. Sugar mills are located in Larkana, Pattoki, Kamalia, Jhang, Mandi Bahauddin, Bhakkar, Joharabad,

Layyah, Mardan, Charsaddah, Noshehra, etc.

  1. CEMENT INDUSTRY

In Pakistan, cement industry is flourishing rapidly. Limestone and gypsum are necessary for cement industry. Reserves of limestone and gypsum are in abundance in Pakistan.

Cement Factories

In Pakistan factories are located in district Karachi, Jhelum, Thatta, Hyderabad,-Mianwali, Hazara and Khairpur, etc.

  1. AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

Volume of vehicle manufacturing is rising because of national demand. This sector manufactures cars, trucks, buses, jeeps, tractors, motorbikes, etc. Automobile manufacturing units are located in Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, etc.

 

Q.4:  Point out the Problems of Industry.

Ans:  MAJOR PROBLEMS OF INDUSTRY

Due to various reasons we could not achieve industrial self-reliance. We are facing the following major problems in the development of industry.

  • We do not have sufficient and modern means of transport and well- connected means of communication.
  • Decrease in the productive capabilities of our labour.
  • We have very limited markets at the native and international level
  • Sources of energy like, petrol, diesel and other oils are very expensive
  • Due to low per capita income, savings are too low.
  • Resultantly, adequate capital is not available which is essential for any industry.
  • Shortage of skilled labour in our country is also a problem for investors.
  • Export based industry is less profitable now.
  • Imported industrial machinery is very costly.
  • Because of shortage of capital acquisition of advanced technology is also aroblem.
  • Many factories are using old and outdated machineries.
  • Pakistan is in the grip of energy crisis, due to which mill and factories are standing at hault.
  • Terrorism in our country has prevailed and life is unsafe. Due to which foreign investors are not investing in Pakistan.

 

Q.5:  Write a note on Cottage Industry

Ans:  COTTAGE INDUSTRY

It means that industry or productive work which is done at the home of the workers.

Method of Small scale industry:

Manual workers purchase the raw material by themselves, use their own tools and utilize the efforts of their family to produce things, which area part of our culture and tradition.

Selling of Products:

They sell their products in the market to meet the needs of their families.

Tools of Small Scale Industry:

Tools are very common and simple whereas the work is very technical. It is usually done at home.

Cost of Products:

The cost is 1ow and it helps poors to enhance their income. This industry includes mainly those goods which are made by local craftsmen.

Products

In handicraft industry woodwork, ironwork, hand made carpets and rugs, goods made of leaves and cane for daily use, stone. work, clay pots, embroidery and toys etc. are included in it.

ADVANTAGES AND IMPORTANCE OF COTTAGE INDUSTRY:

In every province and village of Pakistan handicraft industry is producing goods according to their culture and tradition since ges and is flourishing even today. Usually handmade goods are popular not only with the people of local areas but also in foreign countries. Handicraft industry is usually found in rural areas or in small towns.

National income

Cottage industry increases the national income.

Standard Of Living

Cottage industry raises the standard of living of the people.

Foreign Exchange

Cottage industry promotes export of the country and earns foreign exchange.

Economic Stability

Cottage industry stabilizes the’ economy of the country and creates economic stability.

Employment Opportunities

Cottage industry promotes employment opportunities in the country.

Promotes Agriculture Sector:

Cottage industry promotes agriculture sector and production of other sectors.

Promotes Specialization:

Cottage industry promotes specialization in the country in respective fields.

Savings and Investment :

Cottage industry increases the savings and investment and the supply of new items.

Income And Facilities:

Cottage industry not only helps in maintaining the phase of economic development but also provides better comfortable quick means of income and facilities.

Improves The Balance:

Cottage industry improves the balance of payments of the country.

Provides New Goods

Cottage industry provides new goods to the people.

 

COTTAGE INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

Importance of Cottage Industry

Our cottage industry is playing an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. They produce_ goods and raw materials locally to fulfill our necessities. Apart from traditional handmade goods, they are introducing new items in the market. They make these goods from local raw materials. These goods are mostly consumed locally.

Items of Cottage Industry

The cottage industry of Pakistan consists of embroidery, spinning, hand-woven cotton and woolen textiles, camel-hides products, gold and silver jewellery, delicate mirror bangles, leather goods, metal ware, cutlery, earthenware, sports goods, surgical equipment furniture steel, copper and silver utensils. Apart from items, woolen carpets and rugs are also made.

CH: 10) TRADE

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-b)(ii-c)(iii-c)(iv-c)(v-b)

 

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ(I) WHAT IS THE MEANT BY DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE?

Ans: Exchange of goods and service within the boundaries of a country is called domestic trade. The exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories is called international trade.

 

SQ(ii) WRITE THE NAME OF THREE MAJOR IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF PAKISTAN.

Ans:

MAJOR EXPORT:

(i) Cotton

(ii) Rice

(iii) Carpets

MAJOR IMPORTS:

(i) Petroleum

(ii) Tea

(iii) Machinery

 

SQ(iii) DEFINE BALANCE OF TRADE.

Ans: Difference in value over a period of time between a nation’s imports and exports of visible goods and services is called balance of trade. Lt implies that part of a nation’s payments which are related to the exports and import of visible goods.

Q.1:  Describe types of trade

Ans:  TYPES OF TRADE

There are two types of trade.

(i)         Domestic Trade                       (ii)        International Trade

(i)         DOMESTIC TRADE

The exchange of goods and services within the boundaries of a country is known as domestic trade. All the stakeholders involved in this exchange of goods and services belong to same country.

(ii)        INTERNATIONAL TRADE

The exchange of capital, goods and services across international borders or territories is known as international trade. Under this trade, goods and services are exchanged between two or more countries. Sellers and buyers belong to different countries of the world.

Example

For example, Pakistan imports different types of machinery, devices and raw material to different countries of the world to promote its industrial sector.

 

Q.2:  Describe the major factors that affect international trade.

Ans:    MAJOR FACTORS THAT AFFECT INTERNATIONAL TRADE

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

The exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories is known as international trade. Availability or shortage of resources affects the international trade. Major factors influencing the international trade are given below:

 

Markets

A major factor that affects mostly international trade is markets. Every country is always in search of new markets to sell its good to earn foreign exchange.

Means of Transportation

Means of transportation is another factors that affects international trade. Fast means of transportation are of utmost importance for international trade. Most of the international trade is done through sea routes. Neighbouring countries can trade with each other easily for which trucks and good-trains are suitable means of transportation.

Population

Population is also one of the factors influencing international trade. A country with less population is able to export surplus products. Usually more populous countries have a higher volume of trade. .

Skilled workers

Skilled labour is also a contributing factor in a country’s trade. Moreover, people’s natural disposition also contributes significantly in international trade.

Quota System

Quota system is imposed to balance the international trade. Different countries can trade according to their trade quota. This is another factor, which affects international trade.

Government Policies

Domestic political situation and government policies also influence and affect international trade.

 

 

Q.3:  Describe the major exports of Pakistan.

Ans;  EXPORTS OF PAKISTAN

Pakistanis basically an agricultural country. A large portion of our exports consists of agricultural raw materials.

MAJOR EXPORTS OF PAKISTAN

Major exports of Pakistan are as under:

  1. COTTON

Cotton is the backbone of Pakistani economy. Pakistan earns a considerable part of her foreign exchange through the export of cotton. Japan, China, Singapore and Italy etc. are major buyers of Pakistani cotton.

  1. RICE

Second biggest export item of Pakistan is rice, which is a good source of continuous increase in foreign exchange. Quality of Pakistani-rice is also better. Presently Dubai, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey, Sri Lanka and Iran etc. are main importers of rice from Pakistan.

  1. COTTON YARN

Cotton yarn is another important export item of Pakistan. Foreign exchange earned by its export is rapidly rising with increase in cotton production.  Major importers of Pakistani cotton yarn include Japan, China, Germany, and Hong Kong etc.

  1. COTTON GOTH

Pakistan also exports quality cotton cloth to many countries of the world. It has a great demand all over the world. Major buyers of Pakistani cotton include Uk, USA, Russia and Iran, etc.

  1. CARPETS

Pakistani carpets are most favourite because of their high quality and exquisite designs. They are an important mean of earning profit for exporters and bring ample foreign exchange to their country.

  1. LEATHER AND ITS PRODUCTS

Leather and its products from Pakistan are rapidly gaining worldwide demand. Leather products of best quality, e.g. handbags, purses; jackets, etc. are exported to Italy; Japan, Russia, China, etc. These exports are a source of earning plentiful foreign exchange.

  1. MISCELLANEOUS EXPORTS

Besides above mentioned export goods, Pakistan is exporting many products to other countries of the world like fruits, fish, surgical equipments, readymade garments, hosiery, towels, sports goods, shoes, etc.  These exports bring ample foreign exchange for the country.

 

CH: 11) TRANSPORTATION

Q1: FOUR SETS ARE GIVEN FOR EVERY QUESTION. MARK THE CORRECT ANSWER

ANSWERS: (1) (i-d)(ii-a)(iii-b)(iv-a)(v-a)

  1. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS.

SQ(I) WRITE DOWN THE NAMES OF MEANS OF RANSGORTATRON.

Ans:

Bus,

Car,

Rail,

Airplane

SQ(I) LIST DOWN IMPORTANT HIGHWAYS OF PAKISTAN.

Ans:

1.G.T. Road

  1. Indus Highway

3.Super highway

4.Coastal Highway

  1. Silk Road

 

SQ(iii) DESCRIBE THE COMMERCIAL IMPORTANT OF PORT IN THREE LINES.

Ans: Water routes are most ancient mean of transportation. Many merchants and travelers adopted these routes. They used to transport their merchanise to

other countries through sail and steam boats.

Q.1:  Explain the means of Transportation in Pakistan.

Ans:  TYPES OF TRANSPORTATION

TRANSPORTATION

A system for carrying people or goods from one place to another using buses, trucks, trains, ships, helicopters and planes by road, air and sea is called transportation.

IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORTATION

Means of Transportation play an important role in the development of a country. These means are helpful in transporting people and goods from one to another place. Inexpensive and fast means of transportation are must for the development of a country.

TRANSPORT NETWORK OF PAKISTAN

Transport network of Pakistan is mentioned below.

  1. ROAD

Pakistan has a vast network of roads, connects which far-flung areas. Road transportation in Pakistan is cheaper and more popular.

Means of transportation in rural areas

In rural areas motorbikes, carts, tongas, etc. whereas in urban areas buses roads, trucks, wagons, cars, etc. are generally used.

National Highway Authority

National highways and motorways are most important metal roads in Pakistan. Management of highways is under federal government who controls them through National Highway Authority. Apart from these, there are provincial departments for the monitoring and repairs of highways. At Division, District, Tehsil and Union council levels there are highway departments. All these departments are responsible for the construction and maintenance of roads, enforcement of traffic rules and prevention of road accidents.

Total Length

Total length of metal roads in Pakistan is 2,60,000 kilometres.

Major highways of Pakistan

Major highways of Pakistan are as under, which connect different cities.

  1. G.T. -Road, Peshawar, Lahore, Multan, Sukkur, Hyderabad, Karachi.
  2. Indus Highway Peshawar, Dera Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Kashmore, Larkana, Sehwan Sharif, Karachi.
  3. Super Highway Karachi, Ormara, Gawadar, Pasni, Jiwani .
  4. Coastal Highway Karachi, Hyderabad
  5. Silk Road is also important that connects Pakistan and China.

Motorway

A network of motorways is being established to meet the requirements of advanced age. According to this project, (Peshawar to Islamabad), M2 (Islamabad to Lahore) and M3 (Pindi  Bhattian to Faisalabad) has been completed, while other projects are under progress. Vehicles can travel unhindered at a specific speed on motorway. It has shortened distance between cities.

  1. RAILWAY

Railway is a fast and most important mean of transportation. It is very helpful in carrying people and goods from one place to another; Railway is a safer and cheaper mean of transportation. Stations are constructed at different places along railway routs.

Peshawar to Karachi

Peshawar to Karachi via Rawalpindi, Lahore, Multan, Bahalpur, Rohri, Hyderabad, Karachi.

Lahore to Queita:

Via Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, Sui, Jaeobabad, Sibbi, Quetta.

Karachi to Quetia:

Viai Kotri, Sehwan Sharif, Larkana, Jacobabad, Sibbi, Quetta.

Quetta to Zahidan;

Via Noshaki, Dalbadin, Nokandi, koh Taftan, Zahidan.

Multan to Rawalpindi

Via Muzaffargarh, Kot Addu, Layyah, Bhakkar, Jand, Taxila, Rawalpindi.

Lahore to Lodhran:

Via Raiwaind, Kasur, Pakpattan, Vihari, Lodhran.

  1. AIR ROUTES

Airplanes are fastest means of transportation, which enables us to travel thousands of kilometres in few hours. This is also the most expensive mean of travelling. Airplanes provide comfortable, fast and safe travelling.

Establishment of P.I.A.

In 1955, .Pakistan International Airlines (abbreviation PIA) was established to provide safer and standard travelling facility to the people. Now it is operating Pakistan international flights with many countries of the world. International airports of Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Multan and Quetta are very important.

Private Airlines

Private sector is also operating at domestic level, which includes Shaheen Air International and Air Blue, etc.

  1. WATER ROUTES

Water routes are most ancient mean of, transportation. Many merchants and travellers adopted these routes. Even in olden days merchants used to send their merchandise by ships and boats.

Sea trade

In the south of Pakistan lies the Arabian Sea. Most of Pakistani trade is done through this sea. It is the cheapest mean of transport. Heavy merchandise is sent to and brought from other countries though ships.

Important sea ports of Pakistan

Important ports of Pakistan are Bin Qasim, Karachi and Gawadar. Pakistan National Shipping Corporation was established in 1970, which monitors incoming and outgoing ships on these ports. Ports of Ormara, Pasni and Jiwani are also being used on smaller scale as well. Although there are many rivers in Pakistan, but transportation through rivers is too small. Only small boats are used for the transportation of passengers.

 

Q.2:  Describe the Importance of Means of Transportation.

Ans:     IMPORTANCE OF MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION.

Development of Foreign Trade:

Means of transportation are the main source of broadening the sphere of local and international trade.

Connecting the Rural Areas To the Urban Areas:

It connects rural population to the urban areas. It makes easy to bring labours and food wares from rural areas, that help the urban population to live a standard life.

Promotion of Geographical Skills:

Means of transportation and communication introduce us the different areas where we travel. We get know about Physical features of lands, people and its traditions and cultural aspects.

Promotion of Agriculture:

It promotes the agriculture, as it is a mean of conveying vegetables, Wheat and other goods to the markets.

Development of Backward areas:

It connects the developed areas to the back-ward areas and maintains the speed of progress in different parts of the country.

Upgrades the living standard:

It helps in increasing the income of the people and availability of standard roads provide good traffic as like A/C coaches, vans and buses which upgrade the living standard of the people.

Increases Revenue at the Government

Transport on the road pays toll tax and other taxes, which increase the income and revenue of the Govt. and it helps the Govt. to serve the public in a better way.

Provision of Education opportunities: –

It helps the villagers to go to urban areas easily to get education as maximum education facilities are available in the cities and it also helps the students to utilize the opportunities of education in the various parts of the country.

 

Promotion of unity and brotherhood:

Means of transportation introduce us to the different areas and regions of the country and thus help us in uniting the people of different regions of country and promote brotherhood.

Betterment of the Social Welfare:

By these means we can help the people in distress during floods, earthquakes etc Ambulance services and air lifts can help our countrymen to bring them at safe places.

Strong Defense of the Country:

Deployment and conveyance of the troops and ammunition to the border areas and battle-fields can be made possible only by the means of transportation which ensure the efficiency of the defense.

Promotes Political awareness:

Procession and session are held in the country to promote political awareness in the people they go to these processions and attend the sessions by these means and thus so they are provided chances to listen different party leaders and their ideas that provide awareness.

Promotion of industry:

Transportation means provide easy conveyance of industry goods to the markets that promotes industry.

Provision of Employment:

It also provides the opportunities of employments in the form of toll boys, traffic police, conductors and drivers. Motorways cafeterias and hotel have provided employments for the people living along the Motorways sides.

Development of Tourism Industry:

Means of transportation and communication has well awarded the people about tourism points and .roads have made easy access to them. Thus tourism industry develops and country earns a lot of foreign exchange. Dir, Gilgit Swat, Bonair, Chitral and Kaalam attract millions of tourists from the foreign countries.

Easy approach to Resources:

Development of industry totally depends upon raw material which can only can be provided to the industry by the help of means of transportation.

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