NOTES: NEW OXFORD PRIMARY SCIENCE LEVEL 4 Third EDITION NICHOLAS HOSBURGH

NOTES: NEW OXFORD PRIMARY SCIENCE LEVEL 4 Third  EDITION NICHOLAS HOSBURGH

Contents

PART 1 OURSELVES  

Unit 1 The Human Body Page 2

Unit 2 Food and a Balance Diet Page 11

Unit 3 Digestion Page 20

PART 2 LIVING THINGS

Unit 4 Characteristics of Living Things Page 31

Unit 5 Environments and Food Chains Page 42

PART 3 MATERIALS AND MATTER

Unit 6 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Page 60

Unit 7 The Study of Matter Page 67

PART 4 FORCES, ENERGY, AND MACHINES

Unit 8 Heat Page 76

Unit 9 Force and Machines Page 84

Unit 10 Circuit and Switches Page 92

Unit 11 Magnetism Page 98

Unit 12 Sound Page 104

PART 5 THE EARTH AND SPACE

Unit 13 The Movement of the Earth Page 115

PART 1 OURSELVES

UNIT 1 THE HUMAN BODY PAGE 2

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which kind of tissue gives shape to the organs and holds them in place?

a. connective ii. Cardiac muscles make up which organ?

b. heart iii. What are the muscles that perform their jobs without you even thinking about them called?

c. involuntary muscles iv. What makes our bones strong?

d. all of them v. The smallest bone of the body is in the d. ear.

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

 i. Bone is an example of a connective tissue.

ii. Cardiac muscles contract and relax when pumping blood around the body.

iii. A place in a vertebrate’s body where two or mare bones meet is a joint.

iv. The tissue that joins two bones together is known as ligament.

v. The joint which moves a part of our body only in one direction is known as a hinge joint.

vi. The joint that can move a part of our body in a circular direction is known as a ball and socket joint.

vii. The stomach is an example of smooth (or involuntary) muscles.

viii. The muscular system works with the skeletal system to help us move. ix. Smooth muscles make up the internal hollow organs in the body.

3. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B AND WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN THE SPACES GIVEN BELOW.

Column A Column B
   

ANSWERS:

i. a tissue that holds two or mare bones together at a movable joint b. ligament

 ii. the framework of bones in a body d. skeleton

iii. a group of tissues performing a specific function a. organ

iv. a thick sheet of tissues that attaches a muscle to a bone e. tendon

v. the building unit of all living things c. cell

4. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. What are the main functions of the skeleton?
ANSWER: i. What are the main functions of the skeleton? The skeleton is a framework of bones that helps to give strength and support to the body. It allows us to stand and move and provides a frame for the shape of the body. It protects internal organs.
QUESTION: ii. Joints. a. What is a joint? Which two types of joint have been discussed in this unit? Where is each of them found in the body? b. Write any one activity you can perform with the help of these joints.
ANSWER: ii. Joints. a. What is a joint? Which two types of joints have been discussed in this unit? Where is each of them found in the body? A joint is a place in a body where two or mare bones meet. The two kinds of joint discussed in the unit are the ball and socket joint and the hinge joint. The hinge joint is found at the knee, elbow, fingers etc. The shoulder and the hip are examples of the ball and socket joint. b. Write any one activity you can perform with the help of these joints. Students can name a range of activities.
QUESTION: iii. Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary muscles and give an example of each.
ANSWER: iii. Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary muscles and give an example of each one. Involuntary muscles operate automatically whereas we consciously use our voluntary muscles. If we wanted to pick something up and eat it, we would use voluntary muscles in our hand, arm and mouth to do so. The involuntary muscles of the digestive tract and the stomach would digest it automatically. Students can give other plausible examples.
QUESTION: iv. How many types of muscle are there? Describe each of them with an example.
ANSWER: iv. How many types of muscle are there? Describe each of them with an example. There are three different types of muscle: smooth, cardiac and skeletal. Students should use their own words to describe them based on the explanations given on pages 6 and 7. They may choose any of the examples given there too.
QUESTION: v. Suggest any two wags to take good care of muscles and bones.
ANSWER: v. Suggest any two ways to take good care of muscles and bones. Students can suggest exercise, eating the right kinds of foods (calcium rich for bones), or proper rest as ways to take good care of muscles and bones.

UNIT 2 FOOD AND A BALANCE DIET PAGE 11

 EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Dietary fibre can be found in b. wheat.

ii. Which of these foods is a good source of carbohydrate? a. bread

iii. This vitamin is made by the skin in sunlight: d. vitamin D

iv. Which food is a good source of protein and calcium? a. cheese

v. Which of these we should eat very little of? c. sweets

2. FIND THE ODD ONE OUT IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING.

i. milk, curds, cheese, jam, butter Jam is not a dairy product

ii. cucumber, peas, carrot, lettuce, spinach Carrot is a root vegetable (it is also orange and the others are green!)

iii. sugarcane, banana, apple, grape, guava Sugarcane is a stem rather than a fruit

iv. pistachio, cashew nut, walnut, onion, almond Onion is not a nut or seed, it is a bulb used as a vegetable

v. protein, mineral, wood, fat, vitamin Wood is not a food group

3. PUT TWO WORDS FROM THE LIST INTO EACH COLUMN OF THE TABLE BELOW.

Proteins –   Carbohydrates – Fats –                 Vitamins

eggs nuts- carrot cereals- butter chocolate -sunshine lemon

5- ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Why do we need food?
ANSWER: i. Why do we need food? Food gives us energy to live.
QUESTION: ii. What do proteins do for the body?
ANSWER: ii. What do proteins do for the body? Proteins give us energy and are body-building foods that make us grow. They help our body to build up and repair tissues and muscles. They enable your body to replace dead cells.
QUESTION: iii. Why does the body need carbohydrates?
ANSWER: iii. Why does the body need carbohydrates? The body needs carbohydrates because they give us energy.
QUESTION: iv. How do dietary  fibres help in digestion?
ANSWER: iv. How do dietary fibres help digestion? Dietary fibre helps to move waste through the digestive system.
QUESTION: v. In what wag are vitamins good for the body?
ANSWER: v. In what way are vitamins good for the body? Vitamins keep bones and skin healthy. They help eyesight, give energy, and prevent infections. They also help wounds to heal.
QUESTION: vi. What do we mean by d balanced diet?
ANSWER: vi. What do we mean by a balanced diet? A balanced diet means eating the right variety of foods in the right amounts.
QUESTION: vii. How much water is needed by the body every dog? Does this mean we hove to drink that amount?
ANSWER: vii. How much water is needed by the body every day? Does this mean we have to drink that amount? The body needs water in order to function properly. We should drink at least six to eight glasses of water daily. We also get water from our food.

UNIT 3 DIGESTION PAGE 20

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which teeth are used for biting into food? d. incisors

ii. The undigested food passes out through the c. anus.

iii. What is stored in the gall bladder? a. bile

iv. Where do the nutrients go after they pass through the intestinal walls? b. into blood vessels v. Which of the following are facts about the liver? d. All of the above.

2. MATCH THE FOLLOWING.

ANSWERS:

i. saliva b. a fluid that helps with digestion

ii. liver d. produces bile

iii. intestine e. a long tube in the digestive system

iv. gall bladder c. it stores bile

v. stomach f. stores food for several hours

vi. pancreas a. produces digestive juices that break down fats

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Saliva in the mouth helps to soften food.

ii. The stomach produces acid which kills the bacteria in food.

iii. The large intestine absorbs water from the waste and sends the solid part of it out of the anus body as faeces.

iv. The liver produces a digestive juice called bile.

v. The tongue helps to mix the food with saliva.

vi. Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.

vii. Saliva softens the food and starts the digestion of starches.

4. MARK THESE SENTENCES WITH  aOR  X .

i. The teeth which cut food are incisors. a

ii. There are salivary glands in the teeth. X

iii. Food enters the stomach through the small intestine. X

iv. The liver is bigger than the pancreas. a

v. It is better for the digestion if one stands while eating. X

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: I Name four types of teeth.
ANSWER: i. Name four types of teeth. Incisors, canines, molars, and premolars.
QUESTION: ii. What are the intestines and what are their functions?
ANSWER: ii. What are the intestines and what are their functions? The intestines are tubes that carry food from the stomach to the anus. In the small intestine more digestive juices make the food softer. The walls of the small intestine are very thin. Digested food, in the form of nutrients, passes through the walls into the blood vessels. Some of the things you eat cannot be digested. They pass into the large intestine. Here, water is absorbed from the undigested food and fibre and the solid part of it is sent out of the body as faeces through the anus.
QUESTION: iii What is saliva? How does it help digestion?
ANSWER: iii. What is saliva? How does it help digestion? Salivary glands in the mouth produce saliva. Saliva is a liquid that softens the food and starts the digestion of starches.
QUESTION: iv. What does the liver do?
ANSWER: iv. What does the liver do? The liver has many functions. It helps to filter the blood and it stores food energy (in the form of glucose). It is the largest glandular organ in the body. It produces a digestive juice called bile.
QUESTION: v. How do the nutrients from food get to the different parts of the body?
ANSWER: v. How do the nutrients from food get to the different parts of the body? The walls of the small intestine are very thin. Digested food, in the form of nutrients passes through the walls into the blood vessels. The blood vessels transport the brokendown substances to the body cells where they are used to provide energy and build new tissue.
QUESTION: iv. What is bile? Where in the body is it produced and stared?
ANSWER: iv. What is bile? Where in the body is it produced and stored? Bile is a digestive juice. The bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder and when needed, released into part of the small intestine.
QUESTION: vii. Which foods are easier to digest? Make a list of the foods you think are easy to digest and those which are not.
ANSWER: vii. Make a list of the foods you think are easy to digest and those which are not.

PART 2 LIVING THINGS

UNIT 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS PAGE 18

EXERCISES:

1. Choose the correct answer.

i. Another word for movement is c. locomotion

ii. We need to look after plants and animals because c. we depend on each other for life.

iii. What hatches from the egg of a grasshopper? b. a nymph

 iv. The egg of a butterfly hatches into a b. larva.

v. What grows from a seed when it germinates? a. roots

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Humans and animals take in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.

ii. Plants make their own food by a process called photosynthesis.

iii. All living things do the following:

a. eat b. respire c. excrete d. have sensitivity e. move f. grow g. reproduce

iv. Plants and animals depend on each other.

v. Plants produce oxygen which is the air we breathe in.

3. MARK THESE SENTENCES WITH  aOR X .

 I. Plants never move. X

ii. Only plant cells have chloroplasts. a

iii. All living things grow. a

iv. All life cycles have three stages. X

v. Frogs eggs are called fry. X

vi. Humans inherit all their characteristics from only one parent. X

4. FIND ONE WORD FOR EACH SENTENCE.

 i. The gas that we need to breathe. oxygen

ii. Another word for movement. locomotion

iii. The word for the process of getting rid of waste products. excretion

iv. The word for frog eggs. spawn

v. A young fish. fry

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Give two examples of how plants and animals relg on each other.
ANSWER: i. Give two examples of how plants and animals rely on each other. Students can come up with specific examples. Some suggestions: plants provide humans and other animals with food. Plants produce oxygen that we breathe. Humans and animals breathe out carbon dioxide that is used by plants to make food. Animals provide plants with manure and, when they die, compost.
QUESTION: ii. What is the function of a vacuole?
ANSWER: ii. What is the function of a vacuole? The function of a vacuole is to store food, water and waste substances.
QUESTION: iii. Do plants respire?
ANSWER: iii. Do plants respire? Yes, plants respire. They take in oxygen and use it to break down their food.
QUESTION: iv. What things do plants need to make their own food? What do they use the food for?
ANSWER: iv. What things do plants need to make their own food? What do they use the food for? Plants possess chlorophyll and make their food themselves through a process called photosynthesis, using sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. Plants need foodin order to perform their life processes. Food gives them energy to move, grow, etc.
QUESTION: v. Where do animals get their energy from?
ANSWER: v. Where do animals get their energy from? Animals get their energy by eating different plants and other animals.
QUESTION: vi. How long does it take a newborn calf to get up and walk?
ANSWER: vi. How long does it take a new-born calf to get up and walk? Usually, a calf will be up and walking thirty minutes after it has been born.
QUESTION: vii. What are the stages in the life cycle of a cockroach?
ANSWER: vii. What are the stages in the life cycle of a cockroach? A cockroach has a three-stage life cycle. A nymph hatches from the egg. It looks and behaves just like an adult cockroach.
QUESTION: viii. Explain how you know that humans are a different species to other animals.
ANSWER: viii. Explain how you know that humans are a different species to other animals. Students should attempt to explain this in their own words, describing the similarities that all humans share (number of limbs, organs, etc.) and their differences to other animals.

UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTS AND FOOD CHAINS PAGE 26

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. The green substance in leaves that is needed for photosynthesis is called b. chlorophyll.

ii. Pick the correct definition of aerial animals. d. Aerial animals have wings and spend a lot of time in the air.

iii. An animal which eats meat and plants is called c. omnivore.

iv. Why are aquatic plants important for animal life? d. All of the above.

v. Which of these is an omnivore? c. human.

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Decomposers feed on the dead bodies of animals and plants.

ii. Only producers can make their own food.

iii. Consumers are those living things that cannot produce their own food.

iv. Cows and goats are examples of herbivorous animals. They do not eat animals.

v. Omnivorous animals eat plants and animals.

vi. An animal which maintains its body temperature by absorbing heat from the surrounding environment is cold-blooded.

vii. An animal that maintains its body temperature internally, and does change it with the surrounding temperature, is warm-blooded.

viii. A process through which plants make their food is called photosynthesis.

QUESTION: 3 READ THE TEED CHAIN BELOW.

cabbage -—-> caterpillar -—-> sparrow -—> eagle

Which of the above is a producer and which are consumers?

ANSWER: The cabbage is a producer. All the rest are consumers.

4. HERBIVARE, CARNIVARE, OR OMNIVARE

i. Put these animals in the correct columns of the table.

tiger jackal horse elephant rabbit

bear crow deer sheep human

cat cockroach dog cow vulture

HERBIVARE CARNIVARE CARNIVARE
horse elephant rabbit deer cow sheep Tiger cat dog bear human jackal crow cockroach vulture

ii. Add other names to each list.

ANSWERS:

iii. Discuss the animals you and others have added into your lists.

ANSWERS:

QUESTION:5 FIND TWO EXAMPLES OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING.

i. desert plants    
ii. terrestrial plants    
iii. floating plants    
iv. insect-eating plants    
v. underwater plants    

ANSWERS:

i. Desert plants a. cactus b. palm

ii. Terrestrial plants a. mango tree b. daisy

iii. Floating plants a. water lily b. lotus

iv. Insect-eating plants a. Venus fly trap b. pitcher plant

v. Underwater plants a. duck weed b. algae

7. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. How many types or species of plants have scientists found?
ANSWER: i. How many types or species of plants have scientists found? Scientists have found billions of species of plants.
QUESTION: ii. What is meant by classification? Why do scientists classify things?
ANSWER: ii. What is meant by classification? Why do scientists classify things? Classification means sorting things into different groups according to specific criteria. Scientists classify things because it makes them easier to study.
QUESTION: iii. Define the following terms with examples of each: a. cold-blooded animal b. warm-blooded animal
ANSWER: iii. Define the following terms with examples of each: a. cold-blooded animal Cold-blooded animals take on the temperature of their surroundings. Their body temperature changes with the outside temperature. They are hot when their environment is hot, and cold when their environment is cold. Snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and frogs are cold-blooded animals. b. warm-blooded animal Warm-blooded animals maintain a constant body temperature. This means that they do not depend upon the temperature of their environment. Humans, mammals, and birds are warm-blooded animals.
QUESTION: iv. What do herbivores eat? Where do they find their food?
ANSWER: iv. What do herbivores eat? Where do they find their food? Herbivores eat plants. These animals eat grass or plants that are around them.
QUESTION: v. Where do terrestrial animals live? Where do they make their homes?
ANSWER: v. Where do terrestrial animals live? Where do they make their homes? Terrestrial animals live on the ground. They make their homes on land or in caves or burrows.
QUESTION: vi.  What does ‘arboreal’ mean? Name three arboreal creatures.
ANSWER: vi. What does ‘arboreal’ mean? Name three arboreal creatures. Arboreal means of the trees. Monkeys, apes, squirrels, opossums, and some kinds of lizard, are arboreal. Students may think of other animals too.
QUESTION: vii. How does colour help animals to protect themselves? Give some examples.
ANSWER: vii. How does colour help animals to protect themselves? Give some examples. Colour can help animals to protect themselves by helping them to blend in with their surroundings. Green and brown birds blend in with the leaves or earth. Certain insects also do this. The stripes of the zebra help it to blend in with the grasslands. White fur stops predators and prey from being seen in the snow. Students can come up with some general animal examples.
QUESTION: viii. What are parasites? Name some and describe what they live on.
ANSWER: viii.What are parasites? Name some and describe what they live on. Parasites live on or inside the bodies of other animals (or trees). They use the other living thing as their source of life energy. Fleas and lice live on animals and suck their blood; certain types of worm live inside the bodies of animals, feeding on their flesh, blood, or the food they eat; mistletoe lives on other plants. Students may suggest others too.
QUESTION: ix. if you could be any animal (apart from a human) which would you be? Why?
ANSWER: ix. If you could be any animal (apart from a human) which would you be? Why? Students will give their own answers and reasons.
QUESTION: x. What things do plants need to make their own food? What do they use the food for?
ANSWER: x. What things do plants need to make their own food? Plants possess chlorophyll which they use to make their food themselves through a process called photosynthesis. The process also requires sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. What do they use the food for? They use their food for energy to live.

PART 3 MATERIALS AND MATTER

UNIT 6 SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES PAGE 32

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which of the following is not a state of matter? c. oil

ii. Everything on Earth is made of tiny a. particles.

iii. Ice, water and water vapour are made of a. water particles.

iv. Which type of matter has a fixed shape and a fixed volume? a. solids

v. When wood is burned and turns into ash what type of change has taken place? b. chemical change

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Matter is made up of particles.

ii. The particles in a solid are packed very closely together.

iii. The particles in a liquid are packed loosely together. They can flow.

iv. In a gas, the spaces between the particles are bigger.

3. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B.

Column A                                                                        Column B

1. a change in which new substances are formed C. chemical change

2. a change of state but no new substances are formed A. physical change

3. everything in the world that has mass and occupies space B. matter

4. Mark these sentences with aor x .

i. Particles move. a

ii. Particles in gas are packed tightly together. x

iii. A litre of water is more when it is in a 5-litre container. x

iv. Particles in orange juice are packed less closely than those in an orange ice lolly. a

v. Ice melts into a gas. x

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. What is matter?
ANSWER: i. What is matter? Everything in this world that has mass and occupies space is matter.
QUESTION: ii. What is the difference between a solid and a liquid?
ANSWER: ii. What is the difference between a solid and a liquid? In a solid, the particles are packed closely together and cannot move about freely. Particles in solids vibrate in their place. A solid has a definite shape and volume. The particles in a liquid are not packed together so closely. This means that liquids can flow. Liquids do have a definite volume, but they do not have a fixed shape.
QUESTION: iii. Do the particles in a liquid stay in one place?
ANSWER: iii. Do the particles in a liquid stay in one place? The particles in a liquid can flow.
QUESTION: iv. Do liquids have a fixed shape? Explain your answer
ANSWER: iv. Do liquids have a fixed shape? Why not? No, liquids can be poured into any shape of container.
QUESTION: v. Why is it not a very good idea to use aerosol sprays?
ANSWER: v. Why is it not a very good idea to use aerosol sprays? Aerosol sprays contain chemicals that could harm the environment when released into the atmosphere.
QUESTION: vi. Why is it not a good idea to dispose of oil down drains or into lakes and rivers?
ANSWER: vi. Why is it not a good idea to dispose of oil down drains or into lakes and rivers? Oil, fat, and grease do not dissolve in water. They can block drains. They form a film on water and can harm wildlife and plants.

UNIT 7 THE STUDY OF MATTER PAGE 39

EXERCISES:

1. Choose the correct answer.

i. Which of the following is NOT one of the properties of water? c. It has a definite shape.

ii. Which of the following are ways to separate salt from water? b. evaporation

iii. What can you use to remove iron filings from a mixture of substances? a. magnet

iv. A solution is created when a. a solute is mixed in a solvent.

v. Which TWO of the following will NOT dissolve in water? c. oil and d. sand

2. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B.

Column A ————————————————————-Column B

i. the solid that remains on the filter paper after filtration c. residue

 ii. the liquid that passes through a filter paper d. filtrate

iii. the method used to separate heavier solid particles from a liquid a. decantation

iv. when particles in a liquid fall to the bottom e. sedimentation

v. the method of separation in which the liquid is heated b. evaporation

4. GIVE TWO PROPERTIES FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING.

 i. solid has a definite volume and a definite shape, usually hard, the particles are tightly packed together.

ii. liquid has a definite volume, takes the shape of the container it is in, flows because the particles move around each other.

iii. gas no fixed shape or volume, it occupies the whole space of the container it is in, particles move about freely in all directions.

5. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION:  i. In which states can water exist?
ANSWER: i. In which states can water exist? Water can be a solid (ice), a liquid (water), or a gas (steam/water vapour).
QUESTION: ii. Does water contain oxygen? How do we know?
ANSWER: ii. Does water contain oxygen? How do we know? Yes. We know that water contains oxygen because plants and animals live in it and all living things need oxygen to respire.
QUESTION: iii. What are all substances made up of?
ANSWER: iii. What are all substances made up of? particles
QUESTION: iv. What are some of the properties of water?
ANSWER: iv. What are some of the properties of water? has a definite volume, takes the shape of the container it is in, flows because the particles move around each other, does not smell of anything in particular.
QUESTION: v. You have a mixture of sand, salt, and iron filings. How will you separate all the components of this mixture?
ANSWER: v. You have a mixture of sand, salt, and iron filings. How will you separate all the components of this mixture? The iron filings can be removed by a magnet. The sand could be separated from the salt by mixing both with water and then filtering out the insoluble sand. The water could be evaporated to leave the salt. Students may suggest other methods.
QUESTION: vi. Where do we use the magnetic method of separation? Give an example from daily life.
ANSWER: vi. Where do we use the magnetic method of separation? Give an example from your daily life. Electromagnets are used to sort magnetic metals in a scrapyard.
QUESTION: vii. What happens to a substance when it dissolves in a liquid? in your own words, try to explain what the word ‘dissolve’ means.
ANSWER: vii. What happens to a substance when it dissolves in a liquid? In your own words, try to explain what the word ‘dissolve’ means. When a substance dissolves in water its particles mix into the entire volume of the liquid.
QUESTION: viii. Why can we not taste all substances to tell what is in them? Give at least two reasons.
ANSWER: viii. Why can we not taste all substances to tell what is in them? Give at least two reasons. Some substances have no taste, and some are poisonous.
QUESTION: ix. Does a filter separate a substance which will not dissolve in water? How will you experiment to find out?
ANSWER: ix. Does a filter separate a substance which will not dissolve in water? How will you experiment to find out? Yes. Students should use their experience of previous filtering exercises.

PART 4 FORCES, ENERGY, AND MACHINES

UNIT 8 HEAT PAGE 42

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Temperature is the b. average energy of particles.

ii. Heat is the a. total energy of particles.

iii. The flow of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object is known as a. heat.

iv. Any temperature on the Celsius scale which is lower than that of melting ice (0o ) is written with a a. minus sign.

v. The normal human body temperature on the Celsius scale is a. 37o

2. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B.

Column A —————————————————————-Column B

i. the total energy of particles of a substance a. heat

ii. the average energy of particles of a substance c. temperature iii. the flow of energy from a warmer to a cooler object b. thermal energy

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. The average energy of particles in a substance is called temperature.

ii. The total energy of particles in a substance is called heat.

iii. The flow of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object is known as heat (heat transfer).

iv. The instrument which is used to measure temperature is called a thermometer. v. All matter is made of tiny particles called atoms.

v. The normal human body temperature on the Celsius scale is 37 degrees.

vi. The melting point of ice is 32 degrees Fahrenheit and 0 degrees Celsius.

vii. The temperature at which pure water boils is 212 degrees Fahrenheit and 100 degrees Celsius.

viii. Temperature that is lower than 0o C is written with a minus sign.

ix. Nothing can get colder than -273 degrees Celsius and this is called absolute zero.

4. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Define the following terms: a. heat b. temperature
ANSWER: i. Define the following terms: a. heat is the total energy of particles in a substance. b. temperature is the average energy of particles in a substance.
QUESTION: ii. Which two scales are commonly used to measure temperature?
ANSWER: ii. Which two scales are commonly used to measure temperature? Fahrenheit and Celsius
QUESTION: iii. Which instrument is used to measure temperature?
ANSWER: iii. Which instrument is used to measure temperature? A thermometer
QUESTION: iv. What happens to the liquid in a thermometer when the air around it gets a. warmer? b. colder?
ANSWER: iv. What happens to the liquid in a thermometer when the air around it gets a. warmer? When the air around the thermometer gets hot, the liquid inside the thermometer begins to expand. It moves upwards inside the tube. b. colder? When the air around the thermometer gets cold, the liquid contracts and moves downwards.

UNIT 9 FORCE AND MACHINES PAGE 45

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which of the following is not an example of a simple machine? a. juicer

ii. A light bulb is an example of a b. screw

iii. A fork is an example of a a. lever

iv. Toilet paper on a roller is an example of a b. wheel and axle

v. The metal cap of a bottle can be opened by using a bottle opener. In this case the bottle opener works as a c. lever

vi. A flagpole is an example of a c. pulley

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

 i. A device or tool used to make the work easier and faster is called a machine.

ii. A simple machine has few or no moving parts.

iii. A compound machine is made up of two or more simple machines combined together.

iv. A simple machine made up of a bar or rod, which rests and turns on a fixed point is called a lever.

v. A simple machine used to cut or split things apart is called a wedge.

vi. A simple machine that is used to fasten or hold materials together is called a screw.

vii. A fork is an example of a simple machine called a lever.

viii. A simple machine with a slanting surface, used to move heavy loads up or down is called an inclined plane.

ix. A simple machine consisting of a rope or string, wound around a grooved wheel is called a pulley.

x. The rod that goes through the wheel and helps the wheel to move is called an axel.

3. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B AND WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN THE SPACES GIVEN BELOW.

Column A——————————————————————- Column B

i. two inclined planes joined back to back, used to cut or split things apart d. wedge

 ii. a rigid bar or rod that rests and moves on a support, and is used to move a heavy load easily e. lever

 iii. a rope or string wound around a grooved wheel, used to move objects up, down or across b. pulley

iv. a slanting surface used for moving objects from lower to higher, or higher to lower surfaces easily a. inclined plane

v. an inclined plane wrapped around a cylindrical pole that is used to fasten, or hold things together c. screw

6. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. If an object is acting as a lever, what is the force applied on the object called?
ANSWER: i. If an object is acting as a lever, what is the force applied on the object called? The effort
QUESTION: ii. What is the point where a lever moves called?
ANSWER: ii. What is the point where a lever moves called? Fulcrum or pivot
QUESTION: iii. How is a simple machine different from a compound machine?
ANSWER: iii. How is a simple machine different from a compound machine? A simple machine has few or no moving parts. A compound machine is one in which two or more simple machines are put together.
QUESTION: iv. Draw a lever and label all three parts of it.
ANSWER: iv. Draw a lever and label all three parts in it.
QUESTION: v. Where do you see the use of pulleys? Give at least three examples from your daily life.
ANSWER: v. Where do you see the use of pulleys? Give at least three examples from your daily life. Some suggestions: flagpole, curtains, window blinds, clothes lines, cranes.
QUESTION: vi. How do wheels and axles make easier?
ANSWER: vi. How do wheels and axles make work easier? Wheels and axels make work easier by allowing heavy loads to be moved easily. They allow loads to be rolled along and to travel for greater distances.
QUESTION: vii. How can you say that inclined planes are machines? Give at least three examples from your daily life to support your answer.
ANSWER: vii. How can you say that inclined planes are machines? Give at least three examples from your daily life to support your answer. Inclined planes are machines because they make work easier. We use inclined planes regularly to move loads over raised obstacles. Some suggestions: chopping knife, spade, access ramps, stairs/escalators, dropped curbs.
QUESTION: viii. Read the following situations carefully and decide which simple machines should be used to solve these problems.
ANSWER: viii.Read the following situations carefully and decide which simple machines should be used to solve these problems. Students will think of solutions. Some suggestions: SITUATION 1:  Ali lives on the fourth floor of an apartment which does not have a lift. He is supposed to carry a bucket full of water to his apartment. Suggest which simple machine is best to help in this situation. Explain how that machine would be used. Ali could use a pulley mounted above a window in his apartment to raise the bucket up the side of the building.   SITUATION 2: A person needs to load a heavy bag of rice onto a truck. Suggest which simple machine is best to help in this situation. Explain how this machine would be used. An inclined plane would allow the person to roll the bag up and onto the truck.   SITUATION 3: A man needs to move a large, heavy stone from the road to avoid all accidents. Suggest which simple machine would help best in this situation. Explain how this machine would be used. A lever would allow the man to move the heavy stone. He would need to find a pivot to rest the lever on and apply effort to the other end in order to lift the load. He could also use a wedge and insert it under the stone to push it over.

UNIT 10 CIRCUIT AND SWITCHES PAGE 51

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. The materials which allow electricity to pass through them are called b. conductors.

ii. The materials which do not allow electricity to pass through them are called a. insulators.

iii. Which of the following is an example of an insulator? a. rubber

iv. Which of the following is an example of a conductor? b. copper

v. Which kind of circuit has two or more paths for the current to flow along? b. parallel circuit

vi. Which of the following describes the flow of current in a series circuit? c. the current only has one path to flow along

2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

 i. Electricity which flows through a material is called current.

ii. A complete path for electricity to flow is called a circuit.

iii. If there is a gap or break in the circuit, it is called an incomplete circuit.

iv. If there is no gap or break in the circuit, it is called a closed (or complete) circuit.

v. The device which is used to turn on or off an electrical appliance is called a switch.

vi. In a series circuit, the appliances are connected in a line, one after the other.

vii. In a parallel circuit, the current flows through different branches or paths.

viii.A substance which allows electricity to pass through is called a conductor.

ix. A substance which does not allow electricity to pass through is called an insulator.

3. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B AND WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN THE SPACES GIVEN BELOW.

Column A————————————————————————- Column B

i. the complete path along which electricity flows c. circuit

ii. a device or connection used to turn on or off an electrical appliance d. switch

iii. a material which allows electricity to pass through it a. conductor

iv. a material which does not allow electricity to pass through it b. insulator

I. DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS.

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Define the following terms. a. conductor b. insulator c. electric current d. circuit
ANSWER: a. A conductor is a material which allows electricity to pass through it. b. An insulator is a material which does not allow electricity to pass through it. c. An electric current is electricity which flows through a material. d. A circuit is the complete path along which electricity flows.
QUESTION: ii. What is a switch used for?
ANSWER: ii. What is a switch used for? A switch is used to turn on or off an electrical appliance.
QUESTION: iii. Compare series and parallel circuits.
ANSWER: iii. Compare series and parallel circuits.
QUESTION: iv. Draw and label the following circuits with a battery, wire, and two light bulbs in each. a. series circuit b. parallel circuit
ANSWER:
QUESTION: v. Make a list of electrical appliances in your home. Classify them into mains-powered and battery-powered.
ANSWER:

UNIT 11 MAGNETISM PAGE 57

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

i. Which pair listed below would attract each other? b. north pole and south pole

ii. Which of the following is magnetic? d. iron nail

iii. Materials which a magnet can attract are called b. magnetic

 iv. A freely suspended magnet always points in which direction? d. north-south

v. How can a magnet become demagnetised? d. all of these

2. FILL IN EACH BLANK WITH THE CORRECT WORD FROM THE BRACKET.

i. All magnets have two poles.

ii. An iron nail is not attracted to a magnet if it is far from the magnet’s magnetic field.

 iii. Some materials are attracted to magnets.

iv. A magnet’s power is strongest at the poles.

3. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. What is a magnetic field?
ANSWER: i. What is a magnetic field? The magnetic field is the area of invisible force around a magnet.
QUESTION: ii. Where are the poles of a magnet situated?
ANSWER: ii. Where are the poles of a magnet situated? The poles of a magnet are situated at the ends of it.
QUESTION: iii. Where is the magnetic force of a magnet the strongest?
ANSWER: iii. Where is the magnetic force of a magnet the strongest? At the poles.
QUESTION: iv. How can we make temporary magnets?
ANSWER: iv. How can we make temporary magnets? Metals like iron or nickel can be made into temporary magnets by stroking them across magnets or by passing on electric current through them.
QUESTION: v. How should magnets be stared? Why?
ANSWER: v. How should magnets be stored? Why? Magnets should be stored in pairs with unlike poles opposite and with keepers across the ends. Magnets can become demagnetised if they are heated, dropped or hammered, or not stored correctly.

QUESTION: 4. Use the table below ta write at list at different objects. Are they magnetic or not? Guess first then test them.

OBJECT MAGNETIC? (GUESS) MAGNETIC? (TESTED)
nails Yes Yes

UNIT 12 SOUND PAGE 61

EXERCISES:

1. Choose the correct answer.

i. More vibrations per second produce b. high sounds.

ii. Which of the following frequencies cannot be heard by the human ear? a. 5 Hz

 iii. The frequency of a sound wave is the a. number of vibrations per second.

iv. An echo is produced when b. sound waves bounce off a surface.

 v. If an object vibrates 500 times in a second, its frequency will be b. 500 Hz.

2. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B AND WRITE THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN THE SPACES GIVEN BELOW.

Column A ————————————————————-Column B

i. repeated motion of an object c. vibration

ii. the unit of measuring frequency d. hertz

iii. the bouncing back of a sound wave from one surface to another a. echo

iv. vibration passing from particle to particle b. sound wave

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. Sound waves cannot travel in a vacuum.

ii. The number of vibrations per second is called frequency.

iii. The number of vibrations is measured in units called hertz.

iv. A recurring disturbance, or movement that transfers energy through matter is called a vibration.

v. Most humans can hear sounds ranging between 20 and 16,000 hertz.

vi. Sound needs a medium to travel through.

vii. Sound travels fastest through a solid medium.

viii. Sound travels most slowly through a gaseous medium.

ix. Bats use a property of sound called echoes to tell where they are going.

x. A mouse can hear a sound up to 102,000 Hz.

4. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Define the following terms. a. sound  b. vibration c. echo d. frequency
ANSWER: a. sound is a form of energy. It is produced by vibrations and travels in waves. b. A vibration is a recurring disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter. c. An echo is the bouncing back of a sound wave from one surface to another. d. frequency is the number of vibrations per second.
QUESTION: ii. Explain in your own words how sounds are made and how they travel through the air.
ANSWER: ii. Explain in your own words how sounds are made and how they travel through the air. Students will use their own words.
QUESTION: iii. In what conditions do sounds echo?
ANSWER: iii. In what conditions do sounds echo? A sound made in a large, empty room or space produces an echo.
QUESTION: iv. In terms of their waves, how are noise and musical notes different from each other?
ANSWER: iv. In terms of their waves, how are noise and musical notes different from each other? Irregular, repetitive sound waves create noise, while regular, repetitive waves produce musical notes.
QUESTION: v. Can sound travel in a vacuum? Explain your answer.
ANSWER: v. Can sound travel in a vacuum? Explain your answer. No, sound cannot travel in a vacuum because sound needs a medium to travel through.

5. UNSCRAMBLE THE FOLLOWING WORDS.

i. itvrinoba

ii. saewv

m. tzrhe

iv. rqueetoyn

v. hoce

vi. odsun

vii. yeerng

answers:

i. itvrinoba vibration

ii. saewv waves

iii. tzrhe hertz

iv. rqueefcyn frequency

v. hoce echo

vi. odsun sound

vii. yeerng energy

PART 5 THE EARTH AND SPACE

UNIT 13 THE MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH PAGE

EXERCISES:

1. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

 i. How many days does the Earth take to complete one orbit around the Sun? c. 365

ii. How many hours does the Earth take to complete one turn on its axis? a. 24 hours

iii. Which of the following is correct? Seasons are caused due to the c. revolution and tilted axis of the Earth.

 iv. The fixed path of the Earth on which it moves around the Sun is called its b. orbit.

v. The time the Earth takes to rotate once on its axis is called a d. day.

2. MATCH EACH DEFINITION IN COLUMN A WITH THE TERMS IN COLUMN B

Column A ———————————————-Column B

i. the spinning of a body on its axis d. rotation

ii. the orbiting of one object around another c. revolution

 iii. to lean, incline, slope, or slant e. tilt iv. the path in space of one body as it goes around another body b. orbit

v. the time the Earth takes to complete one rotation on its axis a. a day

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

i. The imaginary line on which the Earth rotates is called the axis.

ii. The movement of the Earth, causing day and night, is called rotation.

iii. The Earth moves around the Sun and this movement is called revolution.

iv. The Earth takes one day to spin once on its axis.

v. The Earth takes 365 days to complete one orbit around the Sun.

vi. The path in space of one body as it goes around another body is called an orbit.

vii. Changing seasons on the Earth are caused by the Earth’s tilt on its axis.

viii. The area of the Earth which leans towards the Sun has the summer/warmer season.

ix. The area of the Earth which leans away from the Sun has the winter/cooler season.

x. The time the Earth takes to rotate once on its axis is called a day.

4. ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: i. Why is summer hotter than winter?
ANSWER: i. The Earth is tilted on its axis as it orbits the Sun, which causes different parts of the Earth to receive different amounts of heat and light. This tilt of the Earth’s axis creates the seasons. When the North Pole is tilted towards the Sun, the northern half, or hemisphere, is hot and has summer, while the southern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun.
QUESTION: ii. How many seasons are there? Name them
ANSWER: ii. There are four main seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter.

5. MARK THESE SENTENCES WITH aOR X  .

i. The Earth takes 364 days to revolve around the Sun. x

 ii. The Earth spins on its axis. a

 iii. The rotation and revolution of the Earth is what causes seasons. x

iv. The equator is an imaginary line running between the north and south poles. x

v. The Earth is divided by its axis into two hemispheres. x

vi. The Earth rotates from east to west.a

CORRECT THE SENTENCES THAT ARE WRONG AND WRITE THEM ALL IN YOUR NOTEBOOK.

 i. The Earth takes 365 days to revolve around the Sun.

iii. The tilt and revolution of the Earth is what causes seasons.

iv. The axis is an imaginary line running between the north and south poles.

v. The Earth is divided by its equator into two hemispheres.

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