NOTES: NEW OXFORD MODERN ENGLISH LEVEL 8 NICHOLAS HORSBURGH & CLAIRE HORSBURGH  (3rd Ed)

CONTENTS

WHEN I HEARD THE LEARN’D ASTRONOMER

1- A SHOT IN THE DARK

THE NEWCOMER

2- THE SILVER LINING

THE SOLITARY REAPER

3- THE ADVENTURE OF THE DYING DETECTIVE

4- EXTREME WEATHER

CHILDREN UNDERSTAND HIM

5- DREAMING OF THE DAWN WALL

LAST LESSON OF THE AFTERNOON

6- THE ANT-LION

ON THE GRASSHOPPER AND CRICKET

7- A BOY’S BEST FRIEND 96 GOING FOR WATER

8- B. WORDSWORTH

SKIMBLESHANKS: THE RAILWAY CAT

9- DIARY OF A NOBODY

IF

10- A HELPLESS SITUATION

THE INCHCAPE ROCK

11- TWELFTH NIGHT (OR WHAT YOU WILL)

WHEN I HEARD THE LEARN’D ASTRONOMER page:

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. In the first half of the poem, the poet is in a lecture-room.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. He is with an audience, listening to a learned astronomer talk.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. ‘learn’d’ and ‘with much applause’
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The scientific tools and methods that the astronomer uses are proofs and figures arranged in charts and diagrams, used to add, divide, and measure.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. In the second half of the poem, the poet is outside.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. He is on his own and he is looking at the night sky.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The words and images in the first half of the poem that contrast to ‘the perfect silence’ in the final line are: ‘heard the learn’d astronomer’ and ‘lectured with much applause’. Both describe the sound of the lecture and the word heard is repeated, clearly suggesting noise.            The second phrase brings in the noise of the audience. The list of proof, figure, columns, charts, diagrams, etc. implies that the lecture is a continuous noise.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The poet is suggesting that science cannot show us the mystical wonder of nature, we must experience it for ourselves.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER:

B WORKING WITH WORDS

CONTRACTIONS

1. ‘Learn’d’, ‘wander’d’ and ‘Look’d’ –

pupils should understand that Whitman is contrasting the highly educated astronomer with the plain-speaking individual. They will see that only one of the contracted words changes the number of syllables. The other two seem to have been used to keep up this ‘common-man’ identity. Maybe Whitman wanted to convey that everyone can appreciate the wonder of the stars.

2 and 3.

Pupils should use a dictionary. Learned: well educated (see ‘Words to know’), two syllables. Wandered Looked: directed one’s gaze in a specific direction, one syllable.

4. Pupils can discuss this. ‘lectured’ and ‘ranged’ are two possibilities Grouping words

5. Whitman has used lots of pairs in the poem: the proofs, the figures; the charts and diagrams; tired and sick; rising and gliding; time to time.

6. to add, divide, and measure

7. Pupils have lots to choose from. Encourage them to talk about the effect: ‘diagrams, to add, and divide’; ‘lectured with much applause in the lecture-room’; ‘soon…sick’; ‘mystical moist’; ‘time to time’; ‘silence…stars’.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. ADJECTIVE PHRASES. THESE BEGIN WITH A PREPOSITION (OF, WITH, IN, ETC.). UNDERLINE EACH PHRASE.

Recall that an adjective phrase does the same work as an adjective; it describes a noun. A phrase does not contain a finite verb.

a. The balloon with the yellow stripes burst loudly.

b. The dog under the table was growling at the cat on the chair.

c. Those hills in the distance form the border between the two countries.

d. We went to visit the man with the large garden.

e. She spoke to the woman in the green dress, yesterday.

f. The love between mother and child is very strong.

g. The artist’s painting of the sea and the hills was sold for a vast sum. Note that in all the examples above the sentences can be read out without the underlined words. The underlined words (the adjective phrases) only help to further elaborate on the main idea in the sentence.

2. CAN YOU FIND THREE EXAMPLES OF ADJECTIVE PHRASES IN THE POEM?

Here are a few: before me; in the lecture-room; at the stars.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

UNIT 1  A SHOT IN THE DARK PAGE:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Philip Sletherby hopes to become the member of parliament for the county of Chalkshire.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Philip Sletherby is on his way to visit Mrs Saltpen-Jago because if she approves of him, she will support his ambition to become the MP for Chalkshire.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Bertie knows that Philip Sletherby is going to visit Bertie’s mother because he hears Sletherby’s club acquaintance saying that through the train window.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Bertie is going from London to the countryside to go fishing for the weekend.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The six items Bertie has in his pockets are: a sixpenny coin, a cigarette-case, a matchbox, a key, a silver pencil case, and a railway ticket
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Bertie has forgotten his coin-purse/money. He wants Philip Sletherby to lend him some money.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Philip Sletherby does not help Bertie because the crest he describes is different to the one Sletherby saw on the letter he received and because he says that his mother has dark hair.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The other man travelling to Brill Manor is Claude People. We learn that: he is an important lawyer; he has travelled on the same train; he is noisy/talks a lot; he is not the sort of man to notice an absorbed silence; he likes and knows about cars, and he knows Mrs Saltpen-Jago well. Pupils can pick out three things. Share their responses so that they can add further examples, if time permits.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. The part of the story that show us that Philip Sletherby thinks highly of himself is the paragraph at the top of page 9 in which Sletherby imagines impressing others with his story. Pupils might also comment on other passages in which Sletherby appears to be smug or self-satisfied.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. The language used shows us that the story was written a while ago. Pupils might pick out references to the coin purse or to sending letters or to old-fashioned phrasing. They might also look at the description of the car (and the horse-drawn carriages of their grandfathers).

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. Philip Sletherby settled himself down in an almost empty railway carriage, with the pleasant feeling of starting off on an agreeable and profitable trip.

i. smug

 ii. shocked/unwell/irritated

 iii. He hopes to secure the nomination of Mrs Saltpen-Jago so that he can become the MP for Chalkshire.

b. There was a tinge of coldness in his voice.

i. Cold is used as a synonym for hostility/unfriendliness here.

 ii. Sletherby

iii. Sletherby believes that Bertie lied to him and he is unable to disguise his feelings when he hears Bertie’s description of his family crest.

c. The train moved on, leaving the so-called son of the Saltpen-Jago family cursing furiously on the platform.

 i. Philip Sletherby’s

ii. Sletherby does not believe that he is Mrs Saltpen-Jago’s son.

iii. He thought he would be able to borrow money to fund his weekend trip but now he has been left stranded.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND THE ADVERBS IN THE PASSAGE. WHICH VERBS DO THEY DESCRIBE?

 The adverbs are followed by the verbs in brackets. The pupils may be asked to use the adverbs with different verbs, orally, before they begin to write their own sentences.

a. sedately (was greeted)

b. noisily (was greeted)

c. furiously (cursing/was searching)

d. promptly (responded)

e. carelessly (asked)

f. scarcely (was…worthwhile/had… glanced)

 g. ruefully (stared)

h. ineffectively (was searching)

i. hastily (glance)

j. rightly (remember)

k. presently (exclaimed)

l. severely (said)

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

3. MAKE UP INTERESTING SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN USING THE FOLLOWING.

a. You ought to feel ashamed of yourself for calling him names.

b. You ought to go now; it is getting late and your parents may start worrying.

 c. She ought to write to her father; she hasn’t written for ages and he is very ill.

d. They ought to have been punished, but they were let off.

e. We oughtn’t to hear what they are saying to each other; their conversation is private.

f. Ought he to be allowed to do that? (Ought he to do that?) I thought his teacher said he was not allowed to.

g. We ought to know the answer; we only learnt about it yesterday.

h. You oughtn’t to play near the windows; you might break the panes.

i. Ought they to return after the cinema, or might they be allowed to go to their friend’s house?

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

THE NEWCOMER page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. None of the animals is happy about the newcomer; they are all suspicious about it and want to warn the other animals as soon as possible. The main emotions or feelings in the poem are those of fear, suspicion, anticipation, awe, and surprise.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The repetition of the word ‘no’ helps to paint a dark or negative picture. It brings out or reiterates the great difference between the unwelcome visitor and the other animals living in the wild.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Pupils should give their own interpretations. Does it mean that humans have never had wings? Some creatures have wings but cannot fly while others seem to fly but do not have wings (flying squirrel, bats, etc.) but humans do not have any feathers or wing-like parts.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. In the river, the humans ‘ignore the impassable dam: In the warren, they dig deeper than the animals ‘dare’ go. This suggests that they have abilities beyond those of the other animals.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Once again, pupils will give their own ideas, with reasons. Some might not agree that all humans behave like this; some might feel that humans also do a lot for the welfare and protection of animals.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The world would be over-populated if we did not kill animals (for food); others might think this would not happen, and that they would die out naturally, not multiply quickly

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

‘There’s something new in the whiteness,’

a. The snow-white polar bear says this to the other animals (the fish, thrush, rabbit).

b. The polar bear says that he saw the newcomer’s shadow on a glacier, but it left no paw marks there. c. The ‘something new’ was a human.

d. The whole of the animal kingdom heard this news

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. IN THE POEM YOU WILL FIND A METAPHOR; CAN YOU SAY WHAT IT IS?

the ghost of a wing

2. Silent Letters

Note the words that contain silent letters, e.g. high. (gh is silent)

ghost, whiteness, bright, through

It’s not too important if some of the words are not found; the important thing is that the pupils should look for the words and go through the poem carefully.

3. NOTE THE SILENT LETTERS IN THE FOLLOWING.

ca(l)m hym(n) su(b)tle rei(g)n

4. PUT THE WORDS INTO FOUR COLUMNS, ACCORDING TO THE SILENT LETTER.

l         n                      b              g

alms   autumn         subtle           feign

 yolk   damned        dumb resign

should          hymn            debt    foreign

palm   column                   plumber almond

 condemn     numb salmon         doubt

5. FIND WORDS WHICH HAVE A SIMILAR MEANING TO THE FOLLOWING:

a. obliterate/kill

b. impenetrable/impassable

c. airing/spreading

d. trace/shadow

e. make bold/dare

f. swollen/bloated

g. disregards/ignores

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

CLAUSES

1. CAN YOU DIVIDE THE SENTENCES ABOVE INTO SUBJECT AND PREDICATE?

 Subject Predicate That boy is my brother the ship silently left the harbour She can read a book

2. Underline the main clauses in the following. Main clauses:

a. The children went (to the park)

b. Maham went (to the library)

c. We stopped (at the town)

d. the boys went out (to play football)

e. the actors met the children

f. He came

g. The man went

h. The trees died

 i. We shall all go (to the park)

j. The policeman arrested the men

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

2 THE SILVER LINING page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The author believes it is difficult to assess the range and quality of human emotions because it is usually not possible to tell what griefs people have by merely looking at their appearance.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The Ahads’ Guest House was a suitable place to stay because it was near the bus stand, market, and post office, yet far enough away to be peaceful. The views were pleasant, the cooking was good, and the hostess was charming.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The Ahads were very kind to their guests and looked after them well. Mrs Ahad took the narrator in hand the moment he arrived. She saw to his luggage, gave instructions about his room, and gave him a cup of coffee. She put him at his ease. Mr Ahad too treats his guests with courtesy. Maheen was shy and reserved, due to her deafness, but endeared herself to all the visitors. The narrator was won over by the entire family.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The author asked Maheen what her name was, smiled at her and beckoned to her. (i) Maheen reacted by blushing and running out of the room with tears in her eyes. (ii) Her parents frowned with pained looks on their faces. Mrs Ahad then apologetically explained to the author why the girl had behaved like this.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. ‘with pained looks on their faces’ and/or ‘The queries were answered by the parents haltingly and with obvious anguish.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Mr Ahad was sorry because Maheen had not gone to Mr Nadeem. Pupils should discuss this. Does he feel sorry for the awkwardness created? Is he apologizing for himself, for his daughter, or about the awkwardness created by the lack of communication?
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. They must have been worried about whether the plan would work and concerned that, if it did not work, it might cause Maheen further anguish.

2. COMMENT ON THE ITALICISED WORDS IN THE FOLLOWING:

a. Mrs Ahad, the landlady, looked after me the moment I arrived.

b. I couldn’t stop myself from smiling/ contain my joy.

c. And, at the very first meeting, or soon afterwards, they would come across (meet) the child…

d. ‘He shouldn’t have ignored our request like this,’ the landlord interrupted (added to the conversation), more mildly.

e. It took us time to understand (take in) the news / let the news sink in.

f. And then both parents started abruptly (speaking/making) incoherent statements of profuse apologies…

g. She almost became very emotional with gratitude…

3. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. I vaguely felt I had wronged her and her parents.

i. The speaker, Mr Nadeem, felt only slightly that he had wronged the family because he had not really known what he was doing. He had not done anything on purpose. He felt he had wronged the girl and her parents because he had tried to make friends with her by speaking to her, but had not realised she was deaf and dumb.

ii. To make the situation better, and to save the child from repeated humiliation, he suggested that the Ahads provide new guests with a note containing information about Maheen.

b. At this time he discovered the sealed envelope containing the typed chit lying on the table, addressed to him by name.

 i. Mr David

ii. Mr David was greeted by Mr Ahad, and made entries about himself in the guesthouse register.

iii. In the envelope was the information the Ahads had provided about Maheen and the fact that she was deaf and dumb.

iv. Immediately after this Mr David looked around astonished, saw Maheen sitting outside in the garden, looked at the Ahads and Mr Nadeem with a smile, and darted out towards Maheen.

c. She looked the happiest woman in the world.

 i. Mrs Ahad

ii. Mrs Ahad was happy because Mr David had outlined to her and her husband some plans for the education and betterment of Maheen. He had told her there were schools for such people and that he himself intended starting one and that Maheen could be his first pupil.

iii. Mrs Ahad laughed like a carefree girl. She gave the guests an extra helping of jam and butter and honey.

WORKING WITH WORDS

1. LOOK UP THE WORDS AND USE THEM IN SENTENCES.

Only the meaning of the word as used in the passage is given below, but if pupils look up these words in a dictionary they may find other meanings. Discuss the appropriateness of the words as used in the context within the passage.

a. hailing—coming from; originating from

b. forwardness—eagerness, presumptuousness

c. sympathetic—full of sympathy (shared feelings)

d. confirmation—act of confirming, corroboration

e. inferred—deduced, hinted at

f. apologetically—regretfully acknowledging

g. hospitality—friendly or liberal reception of guests or strangers

h. intimate—close in acquaintance, familiar

i. disconcerted—upset, disturbed

j. apprehensive—nervous about what is to happen

2. USE YOUR DICTIONARY TO CHANGE THE FOLLOWING NOUNS TO ADJECTIVES.

painful                    desirous        lawful           careful                    doughy/doughlike

 clayey                   scandalous   boyish                     girlish            fanciful

 spacious      famous        hopeful         childish         dirty

 sleepy                    meaningful   youthful       poisonous     springy

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

PLACEMENT OF ADJECTIVE PHRASES

1. WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES?

a. Did the man have three bedrooms? The statement implies that he did! Wanted by a man, a cheap house with three bedrooms.

b. The statement implies that the houses are in the sky. The aeroplane in the sky flew over the houses.

c. There is water in the bottle and the lemonade tasted like it. The correct sentence is: The lemonade in the bottle tasted like water.

d. The stranger is wearing the collar! The dog with a collar barked at the stranger.

e. The mother has a green border. She wanted a dress with a green border for her mother.

2. TENSES

Make a similar table for the verbs talk and drink. Then make a table for the verb sing using the third person singular he instead of the first person singular I

  Present  Past Future Present Past Future Present Past Future Simple I talk. I talked. I shall talk. I drink. I drank. I shall drink. He sings. He sang. He will sing Continuous I am talking. I was talking. I shall be talking. I am drinking. I was drinking. I shall be drinking. He is singing. He was singing. He will be singing. Perfect I have talked. I had talked. I shall have talked. I have drunk. I had drunk. I shall have drunk. He has sung. He had sung. He will have sung Perfect Continuous I have been talking. I had been talking. I shall have been talking. I have been drinking. I had been drinking. I shall have been drinking. He has been singing. He had been singing. He will have been singing.

3. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

FILL IN THE BLANKS

a. I had eaten the biscuits by the time the children arrived.

b. By the time she went to the hospital her uncle had died.

c. When we reached the hall the film had started and we missed the beginning.

d. I wish they had put in their applications earlier.

e. They had not been there two minutes when the display began.

f. The dog was hungry; it had not eaten anything for two days.

g. I was still weak as I had had a cold the previous week.

h. The students understood the lesson after the teacher had explained it.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

ACCENT/STRESS

a. hailing

b. forwardness

c. sympathetic

d. confirmation

e. inferred

f. apologetically

g. hospitality

h. intimate

i. disconcerted

j. apprehensive

THE SOLITARY REAPER

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Single in the fields, solitary, by herself, alone, melancholy
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The poet is addressing someone (anybody, possibly someone passing that way) by the field in which the reaper is at work.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The poet doesn’t know what the reaper is singing. He imagines it to be about old, unhappy far-off things or a battle, or a song of everyday affairs. He appeals to a listener, ‘Will no one tell me what she sings?’
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The nightingale’s note is welcome as it tells travellers of rest and shade ahead. The cuckoo’s song usually tells us that winter is over and that spring is ahead.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. We know that the reaper’s song is not a happy one from the words: melancholy, plaintive, old, unhappy, far-off things, battles long ago, natural sorrow, loss or pain.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Long after the poet has passed out of earshot of the singer, he can still hear the music in his heart. 
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Play some classical music while the pupils write about how it makes them feel and/or what it makes them think about. Discuss the question; pupils will give their own views.

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain;

 i. The poet is possibly addressing anyone passing by at the time.

ii. She is a reaper in a field, cutting and binding grain.

iii. her singing deeply affects the poet; her song is remembered for a very long time.

iv. Sad song’; later, the phrase ‘plaintive numbers’ is used.

b. A voice so thrilling ne’er was heard

In spring-time from the Cuckoo-bird,

i. The nightingale

ii. The Cuckoo-bird’s song may be heard ‘among the farthest Hebrides’.

iii. There, this thrilling voice will break ‘the silence of the seas’.

 3. UNDERSTANDING POETRY

a. Write the rhyming scheme of the poem

The rhyming scheme of the poem is a b a b c c d d.

Note the unrhymed words in line 3 of verses 1 and 4. (field, herself; sang, work)

B. COUNT THE NUMBER OF SYLLABLES IN EACH LINE OF THE FIRST AND SECOND VERSES.

Are they uniform? Are any lines shorter than the others?

All the lines have eight beats (four feet) except the fourth line in each verse, which contains only six beats (three feet). There is one line in the last verse with nine syllables! (The last foot has an extra syllable.)

c. Scan the following stanza of poetry.

Hŏw dōth/thˇe līt/tlĕ crōc/ŏ dīle (8)

 Ĭmprōve/hĭs shīn/ĭng tāil, (6)

 Ănd pōur/thĕ wāt/ĕrs ōf/thĕ Nīle (8)

 Ŏn ēv/eřy gōld/ĕn scāle! (6)

Show where the natural speech accents fall on these words. Into which foot would each most conveniently fit—the iambic foot or the trochaic foot?

Iambic Trochaic

First syllable Second syllable

 hūndrĕd bĕlōng

fōrwărd again

 fāshˇion băllōon

wēstwărds ĕxcēpt

ēmpty pĕrhāps

happy

 mērry

canter

 fōllŏw

brother

 blossom

WORKING WITH WORDS

1. LOOK UP THE MEANINGS OF THESE OLD ENGLISH WORDS.

Then write out the words (and the meanings) in alphabetical order.

art (see be) – are, doth – does, nay – no, nigh – near, prithee – I entreat you (please), quoth he – said he, thine – your, thou – you, thy – your, ye – you, yea – even, yon – that one there, yonder – that one there

2. Use the following in sentences of your own.

 These should not be paraphrases of the sentences in the poem.

3. CHOOSE THE CORRECT PREFIX, MIS- OR DIS-, AND COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING.

a. misbehave

b. disinfect

c. disloyal

d. disappear

 e. misspend

 f. misspelling

g. discourtesy

h. disbelieve

i. misgovern

 j. disapprove

k. mismanage

l. mistrust/distrust

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. BETWEEN AND AMONG

a. The headmaster was having trouble choosing from among the three students who put forward their names for school captain. (Correct)

b. The argument was to be settled between the judge, the magistrate, the Commissioner, and the Deputy Commissioner. (Incorrect)

c. We divided the cost of the holiday between the Ahads, the Azims, the Ahmeds and us. (Incorrect)

d. My brother and I argued among ourselves for two years. (Incorrect)

e. The panel had great difficulty choosing between the three contestants they saw perform. (Incorrect)

2. ALWAYS BETWEEN YOU AND ME

CORRECT THE FOLLOWING:

a. Between you and me, I think the team will lose the match.

b. During the past week there has been a difference of opinion between him and me.

c. The debate between the teacher and me went on for an hour.

d. There is really not much difference between them and us.

e. The sweets should be shared equally between you and him.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

3 THE ADVENTURE OF THE DYING DETECTIVE

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Sherlock Holmes’ landlady
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Holmes pretended to be ill by acting but also by fasting for three days and disguising himself. He did that by putting vaseline on his forehead (to look feverish), rouge on his cheeks (to look flushed) and crusts of beeswax around his lips. i. he looked terrible, his face was gaunt, there was a hectic flush on his cheeks, he had dark crusts on his lips ii. he twitched his hands incessantly, his voice was croaking and spasmodic, he lay listlessly
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Sumatra
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The box had come by anonymous post but it was from Mr Culverton Smith. It had a spring inside that was designed to draw blood and infect anyone who opened it.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Mr Culverton Smith wanted to kill Holmes because Holmes had guessed that Mr Culverton Smith had murdered his nephew, Victor Savage.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Inspector Morton was waiting outside Holmes’ house. He was waiting for the lights to be turned on.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Watson hid behind the head of the bed. Holmes needed him there so that he could witness Culverton Smith’s confession.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Pupils can pick out any of a number of details that create the impression that Culverton Smith is an unpleasant person. Some suggestions: his ‘dearest hobby’ is investigating a deadly disease (for malicious reasons); there is no good feeling between him and Holmes (our hero) because he has a grudge against Holmes; he is unwelcoming to Watson; he appears to smile maliciously at the news that Holmes is ill and then pretend to be concerned; he seems to enjoy Holmes’ distress and only gives him water so that he can tell him how he has made him ill/killed him before he dies; he has a nasty voice; and, when he has been caught, he says that he will lie in court.
 
i. He shows a gleam of recognition when Watson arrives; he leaps out of bed to stop Watson from leaving to fetch Dr Ainstree; he shouts to Watson to leave the box on the mantelpiece alone; he is very clear in the orders he gives Watson; Inspector Morton seems to smile when Watson tells him Holmes is very ill; he speaks in his normal voice as soon as he has had some water and heard Mr Culverton Smith’s confession.
 
j. Holmes makes sure that Watson does not guess that he is pretending by making him stand back and by keeping the lights low. He needs Watson to believe he is very ill so that Watson can convince Mr Culverton Smith and bring him to Holmes.

2. COMMENT ON THE ITALICIZED WORDS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

a. I could stand no more of it—to not be able to stand something means to be unable to tolerate something due to a strong dislike/disgust. The landlady hated to see Mr Holmes suffering and could no longer tolerate inaction – she insisted on getting a doctor.

b. The sight of me brought a gleam of recognition to his eyes—when Holmes sees Watson, his friend, he looks at him. Gleam is often used to indicate an expression in the eyes that shows that someone is amused or has a secret. Perhaps Holmes, who is known for such behaviour, is amused by his friend’s reaction to his fake illness. Watson interprets this as a sign that Holmes is still just well enough to recognise him.

c. You are not yourself. A sick man is but a child—to be yourself is to act naturally according to your character and instincts but Watson insists that Holmes’ illness is making him act like someone who does not fully know themselves. He says that Holmes is like a child because children do not always know themselves well.

d. You will soften him, Watson—to soften someone is to weaken their resistance to someone or something. Holmes wants Watson to get the expert on his illness to come to him despite the grudge he holds against Holmes.

e. It was with a sinking heart that I … heart sinks means to feel uneasy, apprehensive, disappointed or discouraged. When Watson re-enters Holmes’ bedroom he is uneasy because he is worried that his health will have deteriorated further.

f. And don’t budge, whatever happens—don’t budge means don’t move. Holmes wants Watson to stay hidden.

3. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. ‘It was certainly, as you said, very surprising that he should have contracted an Asiatic disease in the heart of London—a disease, too, of which I had made such a very special study.’

 i. Mr Culverton Smith is talking to Sherlock Holmes

ii. Mr Culverton Smith’s nephew, Victor Savage. He was murdered by Mr Culverton Smith (who infected him with a deadly disease).

iii. Sumatra, Asia

b. ‘The best way of successfully acting a part is to be it,’

 i. Sherlock Holmes

 ii. He has been acting the part of a very ill man, who is close to death.

 iii. Holmes did not eat or drink for three days to make himself seem gaunt and weak.

iv. He wants to eat ‘something nutritious’ at a place called Simpson’s.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

The apostrophe

2. INSERT APOSTROPHES WHERE NECESSARY.

a. We spoke to his father who is in his nineties.

b. In the ’forties Pakistan gained independence.

c. In ’92 he scored five 50s.

d. The MPAs who attended the meeting in ’86 stayed in the five DIGs’ houses.

e. All the PM’s speeches at the conference were recorded and filmed.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH

1. READ THE FOLLOWING. DISCUSS THE TEXT.

Practise changing direct speech into indirect (reported) speech in the examples, orally

2. CHANGE THE FOLLOWING INTO REPORTED SPEECH.

a. She hoped he didn’t mind.

b. He asked her where she had been.

c. Shad asked the boy how he could know what a thing was like if he never tried it.

d. When they returned home, Javed told his wife he hadn’t found out whether they had seen the film.

e. In a hushed voice John asked his father if he had any idea what was going on.

f. The father told John that he didn’t know what was happening but they were finding out.

g. The boy exclaimed to the old woman that she had paid for the house with all that gold and all those diamonds.

h. Saima protested that it would disappear in a flash.

3. TURN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO DIRECT SPEECH.

a. ‘What does the president say about this?’ asked the people.

b. ‘Why should I join the travellers?’ the foreigner asked in his own tongue.

c. ‘Why should I let the stranger in?’ the householder asked.

d. ‘You (the people) must leave the area immediately!’ blared forth the loud-speakers.

 e. ‘The machine is most definitely not made of plastic,’ the scientists declared unanimously.

 4. SAY IT IN A DIFFERENT WAY! CHANGE THE ITALICIZED PHRASES BY COMPLETING THE SENTENCE WITH THE CUE WORD. DO NOT CHANGE THE MEANING OF THE SENTENCES.

Pupils will write their own sentences.

Examples:

a. The people wanted to know what the visitor’s response was.

b. This is where his life is headed (this is what has been pre-determined for him).

c. The guide said that good things lay ahead (that the future looked bright).

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

REPORTING DIRECT SPEECH

4 EXTREME WEATHER

A COMPREHENSION       

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Encourage to find answer in the chapter.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Encourage to find answer in the chapter.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Some parts of the world are ‘hostile’ to humans because they have extreme temperatures or weather conditions that make it difficult or impossible to live there. Pupils may also provide examples of specific places mentioned in the article.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Weather stations are places where equipment is set up to measure temperature, rainfall, and other weather conditions. This data helps scientists to analyse, understand, and attempt to predict the weather.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Some ways in which we can find relief from very hot weather: taking cool baths (but water warms up quickly and is usually scarce when temperatures are this high), drinking iced drinks, staying in air-conditioned buildings, or resting in the shade.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. In 2005, in the Dasht-e-Lut desert in Iran, scientists measured the highest surface temperature ever of 70.7°C (159.3°F)!
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. It is hard to live a normal life if the temperature gets extremely hot because people are at risk from heat exhaustion, dehydration, and death.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The average daily temperature in Oymyakon, in January, is -46°C.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. The driest place on Earth are the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. It is so dry because it is a desert, with low humidity, where powerful winds rush down sheer mountain walls. These winds heat and evaporate all water so there is no precipitation at all.
QUESTION:
ANSWER: j. The weather in the UK is unusual because it is unpredictable and it is completely normal to have a range of weather in any one day. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION:
ANSWER: k. A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area. The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems and cast a ‘shadow’ of dryness behind them. Pupils should try to paraphrase this explanation, once they have found it. It would also be useful to discuss it first and, perhaps, do some further research if they are struggling to understand the term.
QUESTION:
ANSWER: l. Atacama in Chile – rainfall on the mountains to the east of the Atacama Desert creates a rain shadow on the desert so that no rain falls on the desert plateau. Mawsynram in Meghalaya – warm winds carry rain-filled clouds over from the Bay of Bengal.          The clouds, trapped over the mountains, over the summer, bring rainfall in massive and often continuous monsoon deluges. Again, pupils should discuss these two places and try to paraphrase the explanations. They might also pick out the Dry valleys of Antarctica.

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

The landscape is so arid that scientists are very interested in studying it—because it is the place on Earth that is most similar to the conditions on the planet Mars.

a. Dry, with little or no rain; too dry or barren to support vegetation.

b. The Dry Valleys of Antarctica

c. People think of Antarctica as full of snow and ice (frozen water).

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. READ THE SENTENCES BELOW AND THEN MATCH THE IDIOMS IN BOLD WITH THE CORRECT MEANING.

a. under the weather 2. not feeling well

b. as right as rain 6. to feel fine and healthy

c. head in the clouds 4. to be out of touch of reality; to have ideas that may not be sensible or practical

d. stole my thunder 10. when someone takes attention away from someone else

e. snowed under 7. to have so much to do that you are having trouble doing it all

f. broke the ice 9. to say or do something to make someone feel relaxed or at ease in a social setting

g. was a breeze 5. to be very easy to do

h. take a rain check 1. decline something now but offer to do it at a later date

i. the calm before the storm. 3. the quiet, peaceful period before a moment of great activity or mayhem j. put on ice 8. to postpone for another day

2. ADD SUITABLE ADJECTIVES TO THE FOLLOWING NOUNS.

Pupils will add their own suitable adjectives. Encourage them to make interesting choices.

Some suggestions:

a. artificial/frozen/giant/pretty

b. dry/arid/vast/sandy

c. sheer/towering/white

 d. painful/severe

e. deep/dark/damp/huge

f. high/plummeting/soaring

g. never-ending/smooth/bleak

h. melting/extensive/barren

i. undulating/bumpy

 j. harsh/hostile/welcoming

k. lush/fertile/great

l. crazy/intrepid/unwelcome

3. ABBREVIATE THE FOLLOWING; INSERT APOSTROPHES IN THE RIGHT PLACES.

a. the VIPs’ chairs

b. the DIG’s office      

c. the RTOs’ pens

d. the MNA’s supporters

e. the MNAs’ supporters

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ONLY

1. WHAT DO SENTENCES II, III, IV, AND V MEAN? DON’T USE THE WORD ‘ONLY’ IN YOUR EXPLANATIONS.

ii. Yesterday, Atif only said he liked rice. Sentence ii means that yesterday Atif stated one thing and that was that he liked rice.

iii. Yesterday, Atif said only he liked rice. Sentence iii means that yesterday Atif stated that nobody but him liked rice.

iv. Yesterday, Atif said he only liked rice. Sentence iv means that yesterday Atif stated that the one thing he liked was rice.

v. Yesterday, Atif said he liked only rice. Sentence v means that yesterday Atif stated that he did not like anything except rice.

 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

2. IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES, PICK OUT THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AND SAY WHAT NOUNS THEY DESCRIBE.

a. It’s raining cats and dogs is a common idiom that means it’s raining very heavily. describes the idiom given.

b. It’s no wonder that the weather has had an impact on the English language, which is full of weather-related idioms. describes the English language

c. It may come as a surprise that Antarctica, which is seen as a land of snow and ice, contains the driest place on Earth. describes Antarctica In contrast, the wettest place on Earth is drenched with downpours, which fill the streams and rivers to bursting point and sometimes beyond. describes the downpours

d. Take in the spectacular sights and marvel at the beauty of the lush and tranquil features that fill this awe-inspiring valley.

describes the features

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 MAKING A SHORT PRESENTATION

CHILDREN UNDERSTAND HIM page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The old man is compared to a ‘dry stream-bed’. The poet is telling us that the man has led his life, its ‘course’ has been run, like that of a stream or river, and it is now dry. There is little life left and little to offer (according to some).
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The old man would probably bore visitors with stories of his life, and may also put visitors off by showing some of his infirmities.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The old man probably goes from one child’s house to the next. We are told that he has ‘sons and daughters’. Putting up with him is a hard task for them, so they probably take it in turns to have him to stay and to look after him.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The children give the old man ‘friendly punches to the chest’. The old man gives his grandchildren the ‘damp kisses’ on their scrubbed cheeks. The children’s cheeks are scrubbed by their parents, when they are dirty.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Yes, the recipients of the punches and kisses like these things because they understand the old man and go to him as a sailing boat goes to a harbour. They feel safe on his knees, and they find his company ‘friendly’.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Pupils may discuss this and also mention the attitude of various people to the elderly in their own families.  
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. ‘living on memories’ refers to the thoughts and recollections of the old man; he lives in the past, relates stories of his life of long ago, and probably wishes for that life again, rather than the current situation in which he finds himself.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Pupils will give their own opinion and reasons for it. Listen to as many as possible.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER:

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. And only this has kept intact His pride and self-respect.

i. ‘intact’ means kept in one piece; kept as originally intended. In other words, the old man still has some pride and self-respect left, even though he is treated with some disregard by his own sons and daughters.

ii. His association with his grandchildren has kept his pride and self-respect intact. They still value him. iii. Without this he might have been a ‘dry stream-bed’.

b. They sail to the harbour of his knees.

 i. The grandchildren

 ii. They sail to his knees when they play with him (upstairs, away from the guests, while their parents entertain).

iii. sail (move towards); harbour (safe place/knees)

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND OUT WHAT IS MEANT BY EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PHRASES.

 Note that the order of each of the adverbs is fixed. e.g. by and large cannot be written large and by. Use the phrases in oral sentences and ask the pupils to practise.

a. again and again — repeatedly

b. on and on — continued

c. far and wide — covering a large area

d. round and round — moving in circles

e. in and out — inside and outside f. to and fro — to and from; moving forward and backward

g. by and by — in time, soon h. far and away — absolutely

i. over and over — continually

 j. here and there — in this place and that

k. off and on — stopping and starting

 l. now and again — sometimes

m. by and large — mostly

n. out and out — complete

o. first and foremost — at the beginning

p. through and through —completely

q. more or less — nearly

r. up and about — out of bed and walking

Pupils will make up their own sentences.

Here is another phrase: now and then — occasionally

2. DICTIONARY WORK

1. hypocrite

2. herbalist

3. optimist

4. widow

5. widower

6. donor

7. bachelor

8. pilgrim

9. genius

10. pessimist

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

MAY/MIGHT

1. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH ‘MAY’ OR ‘MIGHT’.

a. If we watch TV too long, we may get into trouble. (possibility)

b. If she saves enough, she might just make it to college. (weak possibility)

c. May you live a long life and have many children. (wishes)

 d. Might I have some sugar in my tea, if you have any in the house? (a polite question)

e. They asked if they might borrow our car. (asking for permission)

f. Rashid may not come to the play this evening as he is busy. (probably not)

g. May you have a long and prosperous life! (wishes)

Combining sentences

2. RECONSTRUCT THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF SENTENCES.

a. The children who came to the school were like tiny dolls.

b. The guests brought presents which made us very happy.

c. My friend, who was bitten by a mouse, jumped up and down shouting.

d. My father, who was a doctor and surgeon, worked in the poorest areas of the city.

e. I watched the moon which was rising high into the sky, bathing the earth with its light.

f. The children sat around the teacher whose bag was full of colourful pens.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

FAMILY TREES

mother, father, uncle, aunt, brother, sister, grandfather…

1. CAN YOU THINK OF ANY OTHERS?

Make a list. …grandmother, grand(children), great grandparents, nephew, niece, cousin, -in-laws, step-brother/ sister/….,

5 DREAMING OF THE DAWN WALL page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Yosemite is a popular place for tourists because it is a UN World Heritage site containing walking trails, waterfalls, forests, valleys, awe inspiring rock formations. It is a beautiful, unspoilt place.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Tommy Caldwell and Kevin Jorgeson.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Tommy Caldwell was 36 years old when he achieved his dream of climbing the Dawn Wall.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. A monolith is single massive rock or stone.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. We learn that El Capitan is huge and composed of granite. We learn that is poses a challenge for even the most experienced climbers. It has a 3000-foot sheer cliff that looks like a smooth surface from a distance. There are more than 100 routes up El Capitan but only thirteen have been successfully free climbed. The most difficult of these is called the Dawn Wall. Another route is called Salathé Wall.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The Dawn Wall is so difficult to free climb because it is so sheer, with few holds and ledges. One pitch is especially difficult because the climber has ‘to balance carefully on fingertips and toes and spring sideways to catch and hold on to a small bit of rock.’
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Caldwell asked the doctors to take off the top of his finger because, after an accident, they said it would never fully recover. He knew that he would not be able to climb properly if one of his fingers could not grip well.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. To be a successful climber you need to be ‘fit and strong’, and ‘flexible and agile’. ‘They must be able to endure pain and physical hardship while keeping calm and focused.’
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Aid climbers use special equipment such as ropes, ladders, metal clips (called carabiners), and belays to help them climb. Free climbers use very little equipment preferring to only use the body to work out a route up or across the rock face. Free climbers use a safety rope that is attached below them to save them if they fall off.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. The phrase ‘dealt with it head on’ is an adverbial phrase meaning ‘in a direct way’. The following question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION: k
ANSWER: k. The suffering and fear he experience when being held hostage had a deep negative effect on Tommy Caldwell. However, it also made him realise that if he could cope with being held hostage, (where he coped with hunger, thirst and pain) and remain calm when faced with danger or difficulty, then he could cope with anything. It made him mentally and physically stronger, which helped him become a better climber.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. Over the next few years Tommy trained hard and made his mark in the climbing world.

i. Tommy Caldwell had won a climbing competition and become the national champion, in the USA.

ii. He climbed with his father: at 14 he climbed Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn, in Europe.

iii. Overcoming the injury to his finger and being held hostage.

iv. ‘made his mark’ means he had been successful and was being recognised for that success.

b. He asked the doctors to remove the tip and, with the help of his father, worked on making his hands stronger than ever before.

i. He recognised his talent and took him climbing and camping, and encouraged him.

iii. Tommy Caldwell needed to make ‘his hands stronger than ever before’ to overcome the loss of his finger.

c. For ten days Kevin was stuck on pitch 15.

 i. Kevin Jorgeson is Tommy’s friend and climbing partner – together they climbed the Dawn Wall.

ii. It means that he could not complete that part of the route.

iii. His fingers bled, his muscles ached, and his spirits were low. It seemed as if Caldwell would need to go on without him.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. MATCH THE IDIOMS IN LIST A WITH THE MEANINGS IN LIST B. A. TO BE AT HAND – TO BE VERY NEAR

b. to take something in hand – to take charge of it; manage it

c. to get out of hand – to become out of control

d. to have time/money in hand – to have it spare, left over to be used

e. to keep one’s hand in – to keep in practice

f. to have one’s hands full – to have a lot of work

g. to give someone a good hand to applaud someone for a good performance

h. to be a handful – to be difficult to control i. to be an old hand – to be experienced at something

j. to get the upper hand of something/someone – to win an advantage over it/him

2. USE THE IDIOMS IN LIST A IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

HYPHENS

1. SHOW WHERE THE FOLLOWING WORDS MAY BE HYPHENATED.

 Make sure that words are split in whole syllables and not where a letter or a couple of letters are left dangling on the following line. There are various possible ways of splitting the words if they occur at the end of a line.

Here are some:

some—times, ex—aggerate, exagger—ate, pro—long, bi—cycle, tur—nip, acci—dent, nine—ty, gram— mar, Eng—lish, tur—key, philo—sophical, cat—astrophe, catas—trophe, mis—use, tre—mendous, tremen-dous, har—dy.

PREFIXES

2. MAKE NEGATIVES OF THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES BY ADDING IN-, IM-, IR-, IL-.

Impractical

 irregular

irresponsible

 illegal

 immortal

impossible

 inconsistent

 irreligious

insufficient

 inflexible

illegible

 impartial

indirect

inadequate

illiterate

impersonal

 immobile

imbalanced

 immature

indefinite

Headlines

2. WHAT IS SO FUNNY ABOUT THESE NEWSPAPER HEADLINES?

a. Are the Senior Citizens for sale or are they running the sale?

b. Does the farmer have a tail?

c. If the woman has committed suicide she would be dead and unable to deny it.

d. Does this mean that, now they are married (at the altar), the friendship will end?

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

The importance of pausing at the right time

1. READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE ALOUD. READ THE PASSAGE TO THE PUPILS.

2. NOW READ THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES ALOUD. READ. THE COMMAS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE SENTENCES BELOW.

a. The principal told the teachers what time the assembly would be held.

b. The head boy told the others, whether they liked it or not, to stand in line.

c. The stranger who entered the room stared at me for a few minutes.

d. Asad said he would come to the party, even though he had work to do that day.

e. The tailor said he would mend the trousers, as they were torn.

f. The Major, known to his soldiers as ‘King Kong’, was a large man with a ferocious moustache.

 g. Where the three of us now stood in a bunch we had the smooth steep rock behind us, to our right a wall of rock, slightly leaning over the ravine, and fifteen feet high, and to our left, a tumbled bank of big rocks thirty or forty feet high.

LAST LESSON OF THE AFTERNOON page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. When will the bell ring (and signal the end of this tedious lesson)?
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The poet uses the metaphor of a pack of hounds (his pupils) tugging at their leashes, and straining. He continues this metaphor by using words such as ‘quarry’ (prey), ‘hunt’. Later he brings up the subject of dogs again.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. They are not interested in the quest or ‘hunt’ for knowledge and are unruly in their behaviour.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The insults are referred to even prior to this, in stanza 2. They are the books scattered across the desks, waiting for correction, and specifically the pages in these books containing ‘blotted pages and scrawl of slovenly work’.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The poet does not want to waste the last dear fuel of life (his energy and what is left to him of his life) and take their insults (their slovenly work) as punishment. He decides here that he will not take this any longer.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. This means that he has sunk to the very lowest point of his life, and cannot sink any further (or take this kind of life any more).
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Lawrence was supposed to care because at the time he was a teacher; but he felt his time at school was futile.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The poet’s final resolve is to sit it out, wait for the bell, and not drain his strength but keep it to live his own life. He has given up trying.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. More than one emotion is presented: iii. despair: ‘I can haul them and urge them no more.’ ‘No longer can I endure the brunt…’ ‘I am sick, and what on earth is the good of it?’ iv. anger: ‘I will not!’ ‘I will not waste my soul…’ ‘I do not and will not…’ v. frustration: Many instances where he asks a question and then answers it. The fact that he asks such questions indicates he is frustrated. ‘What is the point?’
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. i. The metaphor of a pack of unruly hounds straining at the leash and not prepared to join the hunt. ii. Fuel of life…to kindle my will to a flame that shall consume…

2. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. …; and take the toll Of their insults in punishment?

i. Toll means a tax and it also applies to the sound of a bell being sounded.

ii. The tax would refer to the way in which he has to pay for or suffer the indifference of his pupils, and also perhaps to when a church bell tolls at the time of a funeral… in this case his own.

iii. He decides to not waste his time or energy any more.

b. What is the point? To us both, it is all my aunt!

i. The ‘point’ is whether they can write a description of a dog, or if they can’t.

ii. It’s all the same to me; I am indifferent to it.

iii. He has come to the end of his tether and feels that there is little hope left for his pupils. He decides to give up teaching because he is bitter.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. PICK OUT ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF ALLITERATION IN THE POEM.

 When will the bell ring, and end this weariness? they hate to hunt,/ I can haul them… the brunt / Of the books my soul and my strength for this. A description of a dog,

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

Read the text and study the examples.

1. JOIN THESE SENTENCES USING A PRESENT PARTICIPLE.

a. She noticed a snake sliding into a hole.

b. They heard a peacock shrieking out loud.

c. The man spied a ship sailing into the harbour.

d. The boys watched the bees flying into the hive.

Discuss the explanation given about present participles.

2. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

a. In the house and in the garden small-bees were flying and speeding about in confusion, causing much distress to the family.

b. While we were walking along the quiet path last night the crescent moon looked beautiful.

c. A small rabbit was hopping along, chasing butterflies in the garden.

d. They arrested the demonstrators shouting loudly outside the City Hall.

e. When everything was ready the pistol went off for the race to start.

f. When the ship was crossing the Gulf of Oman, the sea was very rough.

g. While the children were walking through the forest this afternoon, they saw five rose bushes.

h. As Gafar was driving his car around the corner, a dog ran under his wheel.

i. The old man sat on a bench all day, waiting for his family and watching the passengers carefully.

j. While I was cycling across the field a ball suddenly appeared in front of me.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

6 THE ANT-LION page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. In the first paragraph of the story, Morvenna tries to push the ant up the slope away from the antlion and Max blows it down to the ant-lion.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. We know that Morvenna is not too keen on continuing the activity that she and her brother are engaged in because she tells Max not to get any more ants; she says she won’t watch any more and covers her eyes.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Evidence to show that the children are completely absorbed in watching the meat-ant being attacked by the ant-lion: ‘The two children stared down, lying on their stomachs, heads almost together.’ ‘Shamed, enraptured, she clung to the tree-root with one hand and stared down.’
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. In trying to get out of the reach of the ant-lion, the meat-ant had to contend with the sand slope, and with Max using his stick to push it down.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Quick, dextrous, thrust, jerk, seized, hung on… This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Discuss Max’s change of heart. Does he feel guilty, repulsed, ashamed? Would he like to forget about it? Look at the descriptions of Max in the last 6 paragraphs and invite pupils to comment on how Max is feeling?

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. The two children sat up slowly, breathing again.

i. The struggle of an ant trying to escape the ant-lion had made the children hold their breath.

ii. The ant-lion had caught and buried the ant.

 iii. They feel a kind of guilt. Max’s red face perhaps suggests embarrassment or excitement whereas Morvenna’s open mouth suggests shock.

b. Morvenna gave a scream. ‘If you do, Maxie, I’ll kill the lion.’

i. Morvenna screams because Max goes to get a meat-ant.

ii. The ant-lion

iii. She threatens to kill the lion because she does not want to watch it eat any more ants.

iv. No. She is fascinated and watches closely (although she tries not to by covering her eyes with her hands).

c. The golden air should have been full of their shrieks and groanings.

i. Afternoon

ii. The water flowing in the creak makes a noise.

iii. Those of the ant-lion and the meat-lion

iv. The ant-lion is attacking the meat-lion.

v. The meat-lion dies.

 B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. IF YOU GO THROUGH THE PASSAGE CAREFULLY,

 you will find all the adverbs (started but not completed) below. Find them in the passage and notice the way in which they are used. Which verbs do they describe? When you have completed the words below, use them in sentences of your own.

 a. slowly

b. frenziedly

c. frantically

d. truly

e. treacherously

 f. ruthlessly

g. gingerly

h. persistently

i. uncertainly

j. finally

2. READ THE FOLLOWING SENTENCE.

a. Underline the three words in the sentence which show movement of some kind. She thrust suddenly with the end of a twig, trying to push the ant up the shifting sandslope of the pit.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

Revise active and passive verbs.

 1. SAY WHETHER THE VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING ARE IN THE ACTIVE OR PASSIVE VOICE.

a. Kabir wrote some fine poems in Sindhi. (active)

b. A long poem was planned by Kabir. (passive)

c. Kabir was inspired by many poets. (passive)

d. His mother shared his love of poetry. (active)

e. His first book of poems was published last year. (passive)

f. His parents were thrilled by this publication. (passive)

g. Kabir’s poems were loved and (were) read widely. (passive)

h. His companions have written to congratulate him. (active)

2. WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN THE PASSIVE VOICE.

a. Tasty biscuits are sold here.

b. The bicycle was sold by him yesterday.

c. The garden is kept clean and the flowers are planted by a gardener.

d. Soon he will be sent a reminder by someone.

e. The elections are being postponed until next month.

f. The matter will be looked into by a committee.

g. Mt. Everest was conquered by Hillary and Tensing.

h. Treasures are being brought up from the bottom of the ocean by divers.

 i. This old cushion has been eaten by something.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 A GAME TO PLAY

ON THE GRASSHOPPER AND CRICKET page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The poetry of earth is ceasing never
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The grasshopper’s voice will run from hedge to hedge. This is where the grasshopper sits – perhaps after escaping the mowing of the meadow.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The birds hide in the cool trees because the hot sun has made them feel weak: they are ‘faint with the hot sun’.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Yes, the grasshopper tires. When that happens he rests ‘beneath some pleasant weed.’
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. evening
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The frost creates the silence.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The Cricket’s song sounds to the poet like that of the Grasshopper’s because he is drowsy and warm by the fire which perhaps reminds him of how he felt in the summer. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The grasshopper’s song becomes the main sound when the hot sun makes other creatures (such as the birds) go quiet; he enjoys himself in such a way as to be an example to others of how to have fun. That is what the poet means by ‘take the lead in Summer luxury’. Perhaps the idea comes from the fable.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. The poem is about the ceaseless beauty of nature. Song and poetry and linked through the use of the word ‘voice’ – the poet’s message is that poetry and nature are linked and constant (across seasons/generations/time).
QUESTION:
ANSWER: j. Pupils will need to do some research. grasshopper – short antennae; make sound by rubbing long back legs against wings; ears at base of abdomen; active during the day; mostly eat grass. cricket – long antennae, make sound by rubbing wings together; ears on front legs; active at dusk; eat grass and animal matter

3. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT:

a. … he has never done with his delights

 i. the grasshopper

ii. hopping about in the hedge, making his ‘music’

iii. rests under a pleasant weed

b. … when the frost has wrought a silence

 i. in winter

ii. ‘wrought’ means formed or fashioned (in a specified way). The frost might have ‘wrought a silence’ because a frost covers everything in ice and most creatures become silent.

iii. the cricket sings and the poet drowses (and dreams)

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. FIND WORDS IN THE POEM AS DESCRIBED BELOW:

a. a past tense and past participle of ‘work’ (Use a dictionary!) — done

b. an adjective meaning ‘chilling’ or ‘temperature reducing’ — cooling

c. pleasures or enjoyments — delights; fun

d. a creature of the Locustidae family of insects — grasshopper

e. a creature of the Gryllidae family of insects — cricket

f. three words of three syllables each — poetry; luxury; drowsiness; grasshopper; increasing

g. two final words (in two separate lines) that should (or could) be abbreviated with an apostrophe in order to keep the metre — never: ne’er, and ever: e’er

2. FIND SYNONYMS IN THE POEM FOR THE FOLLOWING.

a. warmth

b. shrills*

c. mead

d. pleasant

e. drowsiness *tricky!

SIMILES

3. COMPLETE THESE WELL-KNOWN SIMILES.

Use the list below.

Pupils can come up with plausible alternatives.

Example:

as brave as a lion

as bright as a button

as fat as a hippo

as brittle as glass

as fierce as a lion

as brown as a berry

as fit as a fiddle

as changeable as the weather

as happy as a clam

as dead as a doornail

as gaudy as a peacock

as deaf as a post

as harmless as different

as chalk as cheese

as heavy as lead

as fair as the morning

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

SPELLING

Is there a difference? Explain the following:

 a. i. The blue and white shirts were soon covered in dust. Each shirt is blue and white.

ii. The blue and the white shirts were soon covered in dust. Some of these shirts are blue, others are white.

b. i. Every player on the winning team was presented with a short and long photograph. Every player got one photograph.

 ii. Every player on the winning team was presented with a short and a long photograph. Every player got two photographs.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

7 A BOY’S BEST FRIEND page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. When Mrs Anderson asks: ‘Did he arrive?’ she is referring to the Scotch terrier puppy.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Jimmy is to ‘handle the lunar gravity’ easily because he is moonborn and agile.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. We know that Jimmy had been in the crater many times before because he is confident there and knows it well.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Jimmy was so confident in the crater because he knew the exact location of every one of the few rocks and because he could not go wrong when Robutt was with him.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Why does Jimmy’s father seem ‘to be waiting for Jimmy to say something’, when he has told him about the dog?
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Robutt got his name because he is a robot mutt and these two words were merged into his name.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Jimmy holds Robutt tightly because he does not want to exchange him for the Scotch terrier. The ‘dog’ reacts by squeaking high and rapid squeaks of happiness.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Pupils will think of reasons why the dog was ‘at the rocket station, going through the tests’. Jimmy has been born on the moon and has not been exposed to germs from Earth so perhaps this is what the dog is having tests for.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Pupils will think of reasons why Jimmy and anyone else ‘always had to wash up after coming in from outside’. Perhaps they need to clean off germs from the moon landscape.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. ‘Because he’s Moonborn and can’t visit Earth.…’

i. Mr Anderson is speaking to Mrs Anderson.

ii. The speaker is referring to Jimmy as being ‘Moonborn’?

iii ‘Jimmy has never seen one.’

iv. A Scotch terrier puppy

b. The Earth sank below the top of the crater wall and at once it was pitch-dark around him.

i. Jimmy. He is with his robot dog.

ii. Jimmy was not supposed to be in the crater because the grown-ups said it was dangerous.

iii. Jimmy gained confidence in the crater by becoming familiar with it.

c. ‘It’s hard to explain’, said Mr Anderson, ‘but it will be easy to see.…’

i. Jimmy

ii. The dog’s feelings of love for Jimmy

iii. Mr Anderson go on to say that Jimmy will know the difference when he experiences the love of a living thing.

iv. Jimmy frowns and has a desperate look on his face that meant that he would not change his mind.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. USE THE FOLLOWING IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

Pupils will make up their own sentences.

2. HAVE THESE WORDS BEEN SPELT CORRECTLY?

 rocket crater spacesuit non-existent gravity squeak exercise quivering imitation machine mechanical programmed difference wiring alarm really

THE SUFFIX -IC

3. WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING WORDS MEAN? CONSULT A DICTIONARY

The meanings given below are indications only and not complete definitions.

myopic: 1. a visual defect, 2. lack of discernment in long-range thinking

claustrophobic: uncomfortably closed or hemmed in

anaesthetic: relating to anaesthesia (loss of sensation);

an agent that causes loss of sensation

peripatetic: walking about from place to place

psychic: a medium; one who has powerful extra-sensory perception

 4. MAKE ADJECTIVES FROM THE FOLLOWING BY ADDING THE SUFFIX –IC. (WATCH THE SPELLING CHANGES!)

i. cyclic ii. acidic iii. anaemic iv. patriotic v. nationalistic vi. manic vii. paranoiac (paranoic) viii. philosophic ix. geographic x. atomic

SPELLING TRICK

5. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING WITH –IC OR –ICK:

 trick   traffic   stick   public   sick   fantastic

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

2. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS JOIN THE FOLLOWING PAIRS OF SENTENCES TOGETHER.

The pupils can make up sentences orally first. The main clauses are in italics in the sentences below.

a. He arrived at the station after the train had left.

b. Shabbir decided to go home early because he was very tired.

c. The men cannot do the work as they have no tools.

d. When they had had their dinner the children came home.

e. The students stood up smartly as soon as the teacher came into the room.

 f. Whenever he visited his parents he took them presents.

g. The shopkeeper went home because there were no customers.

h. Although the problem was difficult to solve, the clever boy had the answer very soon.

i. The shopkeeper kept the shop open till the last customer left.

j. If you don’t like chocolates, don’t buy any.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

GOING FOR WATER page:

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM       

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The people in the poem had to go out to get water because the well beside their door had dried up.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. evening; autumn
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The brook is across the fields, behind the house, in the woods.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The people play a game of hide and seek with the moon.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The brook makes a tinkling sound (like a bell).
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. The droplets of water with the moon’s light on them are compared to pearls and a silver blade.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The poet conveys the idea that the water is precious by comparing it to silver and pearls. These are expensive materials.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The details from the poem that make the people in the poem seem childlike are: ‘We ran as if to meet the moon’ – children are more likely to run spontaneously; ‘With laughter’ – getting caught up in a game and laughing would be more usual in children, and playing hide and seek – game playing is most often associated with children. The game of hide and seek and imagining the moon as a player taking part also make them seem childlike. Frost does not say that the people are children – the people could be adults.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Pupils can pick out any details they think create a magical or mysterious atmosphere. The setting – empty, moonlit woods; the mention of gnomes; the ‘hush’ and the personification of the moon are some possible suggestions.

UNDERSTANDING POETRY

a. Frost uses a rhyming scheme: abcb

Every line has 8 syllables, except for the first line of the 5th stanza. That has 9 syllables – perhaps indicating the pause made by the people going for water.

WORKING WITH WORDS

 LANGUAGES AND COUNTRIES

Match the languages with the countries, then find them all in the word square below. (The words can appear forwards, backwards or diagonally. Yes, it’s difficult!) You may have to look up the languages in a reference book to get the first part of the exercise correct.

Languages Countries

SWAHILI KENYA

MANDARIN CHINA

GAELIC IRELAND

CREOLE HAITI

NUBIAN SOMALIA

KURDISH IRAQ

DUTCH NETHERLANDS

 HAUSA NIGERIA

SHONA ZIMBABWE

MAGYAR HUNGARY

HEBREW ISRAEL

LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

IDIOMATIC LANGUAGE

1. PUPILS WILL WRITE THEIR OWN SENTENCES, IF THEY KNOW THE MEANINGS. SOME EXAMPLES ARE GIVEN BELOW.

a. go to town: to do something eagerly and as completely as possible The volunteers went to town and finished the work early. (They worked with enthusiasm.)

b. go to waste: to not be used The clock I bought him went to waste: he had three already.

c. go to great pains: to try very hard to do something We went to great pains to make them feel comfortable.

d. go under the knife: to have a medical operation He goes under the knife on Tuesday: I hope he recovers soon.

e. go up in flames: to come to an end suddenly and completely The holiday went up in flames when he broke his leg.

f. go up in smoke: to become spoiled or wasted (such as a plan) All their plans went up in smoke when the Chairman resigned.

g. go with a bang: to take place with excitement and success (such as a good party) The annual arts festival went with a bang; thousands attended it.

 h. go without: to manage, to live with, not having or doing something The payment did not arrive in time, so the family went without for a whole week.

8 B. WORDSWORTH page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The narrator describes a man, who only came once and behaved somewhat strangely, as an example of a rouge.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The narrator says, ‘His English was so good, it didn’t sound natural . . .’ because the poet speaks Standard English. The narrator and the people around him, including his mother, do not speak in Standard English.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Cry
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Pupils can say yes or no as long as they give a reason for what they think. It may be that she does not have the time or opportunity to enjoy poetry; she does not want to buy a poem from the poet.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. B. Wordsworth’s reason for travelling about is that he gets to watch many things.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. B. Wordsworth’s answer is funny because he responds to the policeman’s question (about what they are doing in that particular place at that particular time) as if the policeman is asking what his purpose is on earth.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The world became an exciting place for the narrator because the poet took him to see lots of places and did everything as though he were doing it for the first time in his life.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. When the narrator saw Wordsworth looking so ill he felt himself wanting to cry. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. This exchange tells us that the mother has no interest in the poet and wants him to leave. She probably views him as just another caller or rogue. It tells us that the boy does not wish to offend the man and that he is interested in him.

2. BELOW THERE ARE TWELVE SENTENCES, ALL OF WHICH ARE INCORRECT. CORRECT THEM AND REWRITE THEM IN YOUR BOOK. CAN YOU EXPLAIN WHAT IS WRONG WITH EACH ONE?

a. ‘What do you want?’—missing auxiliary ‘do’

b. ‘Stay here and watch him while he watches the bees.’—subject verb agreement

c. ‘I don’t have the time.’—ain’t = am not, are not, is not

d. ‘What do you do, mister?’—placement of auxiliary and subject verb agreement

e. ‘Why do you cry?’—subject verb agreement

 f. ‘When she is not beating me.’—missing auxiliary

g. ‘Ma, do you want to buy a poem for four cents?’—determiner noun agreement (or some poetry)

h. ‘My mother says/said she doesn’t have four cents.’—Subject verb agreement

i. ‘You really think I am a poet?’—subject verb agreement

 j. ‘Do you write a lot, then?’—question format and agreement

k. ‘(Have) you sold any poetry yet?’—question format and tense

l. ‘Where were you?’—verb placement and subject verb agreement

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. WRITE DOWN THE MEANINGS.

 Consult a dictionary if you need help. Pupils should consult a dictionary and make a list of the different (contrasting) meanings for each word, e.g.

WATCH—

1. wakefulness at night

2. alert state

3. man or body of men for patrolling the streets at night

4. small time-piece worn on the wrist

5. be vigilant

ROUND—

1. circular

2. involving circular motion

3. entire

4. circular object

5. allowance of something distributed (to each member of a group)

2. FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PICTURES. CAN YOU THINK OF THE CORRECT WORD AND A HOMOPHONE?

 a. sheik/shake b. cell/sell c. mail/male d. sun/son e. sweet/suite f. root/route

3. CAN YOU THINK OF ANY HOMOPHONES AND HOMONYMS?

 Make a list. Examples of homonyms:

lead, back, rest, saw, forge, fair, head, ear, late, last, organ, pat, sound, found, spade, etc.

Examples of homophones:

dear/deer, flower/flour, plain/plane, die/dye, write/right, sole/soul, heal/heel, tide/tied, etc.

3. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

Do you know the rule for the use of ie and ei?

perceive receipt height sheikh field receive deceit achieve ceiling conceive deceive chief grief believe sieve relieve relief shriek yield thief

The rule is: ‘i before e except after c’.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

1. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING BY USING SUITABLE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME.

2. IDENTIFY THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF TIME IN THE FOLLOWING.

a. Irfan went straight to the cinema after his friends had left.

b. I promise to come and say goodnight to you as soon as you have got into bed.

c. While the clock ticked, the girl’s parents sat waiting and watching.

d. We visit them whenever they come to stay in the city.

f. Before the day broke they had woken and bathed.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

MAKE UP YOUR OWN STORY

SKIMBLESHANKS: THE RAILWAY CAT page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The train can’t start without Skimble because he is in charge.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Skimble supervises everything.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The passengers were quiet when Skimble is about because he does not ‘approve of hilarity and riot’.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The passengers on the train have cosy berths that are clean and comfortable, with an adjustable light, a sink, and a window. Also the guard will bring them tea in the morning.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The passengers are comforted by Skimble’s presence because he won’t let anything go wrong.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. While the passengers are all safely asleep Skimble walks up and down the station that they pass through and greets station masters, and speaks to the police. This question is more difficult. Discuss it first.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER:
QUESTION: h h. The poet creates the impression of a moving train: There’s a WHISPer down the LINE at eLEVen thirty NINE, when the NIGHT mail’s (or MAIL’S) READy to dePART Saying SKIMBLE where is SKIMBLE, has he GONE to hunt the THIMBLE, we must FIND him or the TRAIN can’t (or CAN’T) START. Pupils should attempt to examine the lines of the poem and work out the rhythm.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. Saying ‘Skimble where is Skimble has he gone to hunt the thimble?…’

 i. The people down the line (at the train station).

ii. A party game.

 iii. The train can’t start without him.

iv. The train can’t start.

 v. At 11.42

B. DOWN THE CORRIDOR HE PACES AND EXAMINES ALL THE FACES

i. Skimble

ii. The faces of the travellers.

 iii. To establish control by a regular patrol.

iv. To see what you are thinking.

v. They are very quiet and don’t play any pranks.

c. Which says: ‘I’ll see you again!…’

i. A wave (from Skimble’s tail)

ii. The passenger(s)

iii. Skimble’s tail

iv. ‘I’ll see you again! You’ll meet without fail on the Midnight Mail The Cat of the Railway Train.’

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. PLACEMENT OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Make up sentences using the noun and the adjectives given.

a. distant, blue mountains

b. high, narrow, mountain road

c. shiny, new, steel watch

 d. dull, grey, expressionless face

e. long, venomous, green snake

 f. new, sleek, black Rover car

g. famous, young, Pakistani artist

h. ready-made, Italian, evening suit

i. smart, new, red shirt

 j. jet-propelled, trans-Atlantic, passenger plane

2. IDIOMATIC USAGE

USE THE FOLLOWING IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN:

a. more or less: about, approximately; to an undetermined degree

b. on the move: moving about

c. to a man: without exception

d. is abroad: is prowling about, is walking about

e. all clear: the green signal (to move ahead)

f. now and then: occasionally

g. by and large: to a great extent

h. without fail: without any fear of failure or disappointment; definitely

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

THE THREE KINDS OF CLAUSES INTRODUCED HERE ARE:

1. condition (if, unless)

 2. reason (because, since, as)

3. place (where, wherever)

1. FIND ADVERBIAL CLAUSES TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING.

SOME EXAMPLES ARE GIVEN BELOW.

a. We will go to the cinema without you,

if you are not here on time. Would the sentence sound better like this?

 If you are not here on time, we will go to the cinema without you.

2. IDENTIFY THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES IN THE FOLLOWING AND SAY WHAT KIND THEY ARE.

a. The children sat in the library because Mr Arif told them to read more. (reason)

b. She will be allowed to go to the party, if you go with her. (condition)

c. Since we are going, they can come too. (reason)

d. He goes to the zoo whenever he visits the city. (time)

 e. He will never find out what is wrong, unless he visits the doctor. (condition)

f. They settled down on the grass where it was dry. (place)

 g. He will post your letter as he is going that way. (reason)

h. They will be allowed some sweets after they have eaten their dinner. (time)

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

9 DIARY OF A NOBODY page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Pooter has rented a house. It is a six roomed house located by a railway track. It has lots of things in it that need fixing or replacing. The issues caused by the location are the noise of the trains and the damage to the garden wall caused by their vibrations.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Pooter’s wife’s name is Caroline and he refers to her as Carrie.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. Pooter and his wife do chores in the evenings. Pupils can list some of these. (It seems as though Pooter does not have many real friends or hobbies.)
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Pooter blames his wife for the double order of mutton. (It seems as though he does not usually deal with tradespeople and that he put in his order simply because the butcher called by and it made him feel important to do so.)
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Gowing is an old friend. Pooter gets irritated by him because he keeps complaining about the smell of paint and the scraper.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Pooter’s jokes are puns: scraper/getting into a scrape and dry rot/ talking rot (rubbish).
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Pooter’s friends – Gowing (and Cummings, the neighbour); Pooter’s colleagues: Pitt, Buckling, Mr Perkupp; tradespeople: Farmerson the ironmonger; Horwin the butcher, the other butcher, Mr Putley the painter and decorator.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Farmerson is mentioned five times on four different days: April 3: Mr Pooter promises to employ him if he needs any nails or tools; April 9: Mr Pooter calls at his shop to give him the job of moving the scraper and repairing the bells; April 10: Farmerson comes to Pooter’s house to fix the scraper. He tells Pooter that he does not usually do such small jobs himself but he is making an exception for Pooter. Pooter is flattered by this. April 12: Pooter leaves Farmerson repairing the scraper, but when he comes home he finds three men working. When he asks about it, Farmerson says that he had penetrated the gas-pipe. He makes excuses but Pooter feels that is ‘no consolation for the expense’ he will incur. Pooter promises Farmerson work and then thinks highly of him, without any real reason to do so. His view changes when he realises that Farmerson’s mistake will cost him more money.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Pupils can pick any details as long as they can explain their reasoning with reference to the passage.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. ‘Mr. Gowing must have took it by mistake last night as there was a stick in the ‘all that didn’t belong to nobody.’

 i. Pooter is reporting Sarah’s speech.

ii. Pooter’s umbrella

 iii. ‘Mr Gowing must have taken it by mistake last night as there was a stick in the hall that didn’t belong to anybody.’

 b. ‘I consented, but felt I had been talked into it.’

i. Mr Putley

ii. He consents to allowing Mr Putley to entirely repaint the stairs.

iii. ‘talked into it’ means being persuaded to do it (usually against initial feelings or will).

B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. MATCH THE PHRASES BELOW TO THEIR MEANINGS AND THEN USE THEM IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

 keep your hair on – don’t panic or lose your temper talked into it – persuaded drop in on – visit take the trouble – make the effort without ceremony – informally and spontaneously given the tip – notified Pupils will make up their own sentences.

2. FIND THE ODD WORD OUT IN EACH LIST AND THEN WRITE THE WORDS WHICH HAVE SIMILAR MEANINGS (SYNONYMS) INTO THE GIVEN ORDER. PUPILS SHOULD DISCUSS THE MEANINGS AND DECIDE ON THE ORDER. THERE IS SOME ROOM FOR DEBATE IN ALL OF THEM EXCEPT C! SUGGESTED ORDER:

a. insolent rude disrespectful sassy impolite (most to least sophisticated)

b. annoyed riled indignant angry sad (in ascending order of the strength of feeling)

c. boring dreary monotonous tedious fun (in alphabetical order)

d. sacked fired released discharged shocked (least to most formal)

3. USE ONE WORD FROM EACH LIST IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN TO SHOW YOU UNDERSTAND THEIR MEANING.

Pupils will make up their own sentences.

4. FIND TWO SYNONYMS FOR EACH OF THE ODD WORDS OUT.

 Pupils could use a thesaurus.

Some suggestions:

  • polite – courteous, well-mannered, civil;
  • sad – miserable, unhappy, glum;
  • fun (n) – entertainment, amusement, excitement. (adj) – amusing, entertaining, enjoyable;
  • shocked – stunned, surprised, startled.

5. CAN YOU SPLIT THE FOLLOWING WORDS INTO TWO, AND FIND OUT WHAT EACH PART REFERS TO?

Look in a dictionary. Pupils will need to break each word into two and look up each part. They need to take care to find the correct definition for each part.

 a. neuro – relating to nerves and the nervous system science – the study of a particular subject

b. ego – a person’s sense of self-esteem or self-importance centric – in or at the centre

c. exo – prefix meaning external or from outside skeleton – a framework of bone or other rigid material d. proto – original or primitive type – a thing exemplifying the ideal or defining characteristics of something

e. mega – very large phone – denoting an instrument using or connected with sound

6. WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING ABBREVIATIONS STAND FOR?

Some have more than one option but pupils should attempt to find the most common meaning. air conditioning; anno Domini; association; Bachelor of Science; 100; cubic centimetre; milligram; hundredweight; department; education; esquire; Greenwich Mean Time; Information Sciences and Technology; general practitioner; higher education; headquarters; hour(s); I owe you

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

Discuss the text, with additional examples for each type mentioned.

1. UNDERLINE THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES.

a. so that it might fly around the room —purpose

b. Though he is only four —concession

c. as her sister —comparison

d. although it was being sold at half price —concession

e. as I have shown you —comparison

f. as though he is ill —comparison

g. in order that we might talk —purpose

h. though we asked him not to —concession

2. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING, USING THE INSTRUCTIONS IN BRACKETS. TAKE CARE OF THE CHANGES IN PUNCTUATION.

a. If a note had to be sent, it had to be inserted into an envelope.

b. A purchase price of Rs100 is considered the maximum, otherwise expenditure tends to be too high.

c. Although this proved extremely difficult, it was finally managed by the Chief Executive.

d. Although the Opposition seem politically reliable, they have certain limitations as a governing party.

e. A horse can carry a rather heavier load of items, since these are spread over the back, whereas a rider is carried at one point in the saddle.

f. As the top travels up and down the wooden plank, it spins round and round.

g. If a broken vase is repaired and polished within a few minutes, it will appear to the owner that it has never been damaged but one can imagine that this trick will not always work.

h. The manager could not get rid of the salesman, for such an action would be criticised by the Union and he would suffer for it.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

IF page:

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. i. try to keep calm when others are panicking. ii. don’t tell lies yourself when you know others are lying. iii. don’t hate people if they hate you.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. According to the poet a man should have: a clear head, belief in himself, patience, honesty, forgiveness, intelligence, modesty, tolerance, and should live to the full.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. ‘Triumph’ and ‘Disaster’ are imposters because they are passing moments. We should not give way to either.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. We must not become conceited with Triumph or downhearted in Disaster. Both should be regarded as phases. The poet feels that one should be able to take triumph, when it comes, with equanimity; one should not get too excited about winning and revel in the defeat of others. When one fails, and suffers a disaster, one should also not take it too much to heart. One should have balance in both winning or losing, and be able to handle both.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Triumph is described as an Impostor: it is personified. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. i. to be able to dream and yet hold onto reality; dream, but do not get carried away by your dreams ii. to be able to think and yet be a person of action; think, but think clearly and with good reasoning
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. Pupils will give their own views.

2. RHYME AND RHYTHM

a. Apart from the first four lines, the rhyming scheme is: a b a b.

(But note that in stanza 1, the first line and the third line have an extra syllable, and that the penultimate words in each line rhyme (about/doubt).

b. The metre throughout is constant, but see above.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

IDIOMATIC USAGE

1. REWRITE, USING THE EXPRESSIONS IN PLACE OF THE WORDS IN ITALICS.

a. I think it was Abid’s cousin who put the idea into his head.

b. … talked over their heads…

c. … to not lose their heads.

d. … come to a head. e. … put their heads together…

f. … has a good head on his shoulders.

g. … he has gone off his head.

h. … keeping his head above water.

i. … is head and shoulders above any of…

 j. … has a good head for …

PUNCTUATION

2. PUNCTUATE THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.

There was the noise of a bolt shot back, and the door opened a few inches, enough to show a long snout and a pair of sleepy blinking eyes.

‘Now, the very next time this happen,’ said a gruff and suspicious voice, ‘I shall be exceedingly angry. Who is it this time disturbing people on such a night? Speak!’

‘O Badger,’ cried the Rat, ‘let us in, please. It’s me, Rat, and my friend, Mole, and we’ve lost our way in the snow.’

ACRONYMS

3. HERE ARE THE INITIALS OF THE NAMES OF SOME FAMOUS ORGANISATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS.

 They are called acronyms.

Do you know what they stand for? British Broadcasting Corporation;

Central Intelligence Agency; Criminal Investigation Department; European Economic Community; Food and Agriculture Organisation; Federal Bureau of Investigation; General Post Office; International labour Organisation; International Monetary Fund; World Bank

IMPOSTERS

4. WHICH WORDS END IN -OR AND WHICH ONES END IN -ER?

 Are there any that end in -ar?

a. defender b. elector c. cellar d. seller e. designer f. instructor g. learner h. investigator i. conductor j. popular k. regular l. listener m. cleaner n. exhibitor o. circular

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. USE THE PHRASES IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

 Discuss these and introduce others as well. Pupils will write their own sentences.

2. WHICH PREPOSITIONS ARE NORMALLY USED TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING POPULAR PHRASES?

a. without a doubt

b. through thick and thin

c. in vain

d. by dint of

e. in the balance

f. in the last resort

g. in the lurch

h. in one fell swoop

i. by no means

j. at a premium

k. at your service

l. up to the hilt

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

10 A HELPLESS SITUATION page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The author thinks it will be fine to print the letter from the woman she died years ago and he does not reveal her name and address.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. Uncle Simmons remembers the incident when a cow fell through the roof of the lean-to Twain lived in at one time. The incident was recounted by Twain in his memoir Roughing It.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The woman was 30 years old when she wrote to Mark Twain. (The incident was 16 years ago, and the woman was 14 years old then.)
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. The woman tells the author that the reason for giving such a long introduction is that she feels it is the only way to make herself known to him.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. The woman is not very specific. She asks Twain to give her some advice about a book she has written and to write a letter to a publisher for her or, better still, visit a publisher for her and let her know.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. We know that Mark Twain thought the letter was absurd because he refers to it as ‘embarrassing’ and ‘pathetic’ and he says he has no idea how to answer it. In the reply, he makes it clear that it is absurd by writing out a dialogue that reveals how little information he has about the woman and her book and how ridiculous it would be if he were to speak to a publisher about them.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. According to Mark Twain, the following people are likely to have ‘influence’: well-known merchants, railway officials, manufacturers, capitalists, Mayors, Congressmen, Governors, editors, publishers, authors, brokers, and bankers.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. Two important things Mr H want to find out from Mark Twain are: what he thinks of the book and the author and whether he would recommend them.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Mr H draws his meeting with Mark Twain to a conclusion by saying that his time is valuable – this implies that he feels as though Twain has been wasting his time.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. Mark Twain describes people who write letters requiring help as incapable and unhelpable. He describes those who do not require help as independent and eager to reach their goal alone.
QUESTION: k
ANSWER: k. Pupils should spend a few minutes working on this in pairs, focusing on the woman’s letter, and then share ideas, as a class. Some general suggestions (ask pupils to be specific): the length of the introduction could be condensed; she could say more about herself and about the book…

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

a. He got hurt in the old Hal Clayton claim that was abandoned like the others, putting in a blast and not climbing out quick enough, though he scrambled the best he could.

i. The woman in her letter to Twain

 ii. The woman’s husband

 iii. A piece of land staked out by a miner

 iv. He was thrown by the blast: he flew through the air and landed on the trail and hit into a Native American.

v. He asks whether the almost fatal consequences to the woman’s husband or to the Native America.

b. It goes to every well-known merchant, and railway official, and manufacturer, and capitalist, ….

 i. What goes and how does it go?

ii. What pattern does this (it) always follow?

 iii. From what type of person would ‘it’ not be sent to people of influence?

c. ‘No, that isn’t all, there are other ties.’

i. Mark Twain/Samuel Clemens is speaking to Mr H.

ii. The connection is not so simple – there are more links between the woman and the speaker. The speaker and Mr H have been discussing why Twain would want to recommend the woman’s book.

iii. He says he knows the cabin her uncle lived in, his partners, and the abandoned mine shaft. He also says he came near to knowing her husband. These are all very weak links!

B WORKING WITH WORDS

2. MATCH THE OPPOSITES IN A AND B.

a. conceal           v. divulge

b. generous        vii. mean

c. gratitude          i. thanklessness

d. determination vi. disinterest

e. incapable       iv. competent

f. foolish             iii. prudent

g. premature      ii. Delayed

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. REPORTED SPEECH

a. Mr H said uncertainly that he did not think that was the case.

b. Mr C told him he was not sure.

c. Mr C stammered that he knew her uncle.

d. The woman wrote to plead with him to do as she asked.

e. Mr H enquired about his opinion of the books.

f. Mr H questioned how recently all this had happened.

 g. Mr H was shocked that anyone would judge a book on that basis.

NOUN CLAUSES

2. FIND SUITABLE NOUN CLAUSES TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING.

Pupils will supply their own noun clauses, but go through the text first.

3. WRITE FIVE SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN…

Pupils will write their own sentences: make sure these contain noun clauses. Examples of noun clauses (Note how they begin):

a. What he is doing is inexcusable.

b. Whether he said it or not nobody knows.

c. Whatever we decide we must do.

d. Why he wrote the letter is puzzling, indeed.

e. That he will come is certain.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

THE HOT SEAT

THE INCHCAPE ROCK page:

A UNDERSTANDING THE POEM

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. The poet paints a picture of a placid, calm sea. Visibility is fine and the day is a clear one; the Inchcape Rock and Bell are clearly visible. The poet describes the sea in neutral terms to allay our fears (and those of the sailors, especially Sir Ralph) about the danger, so that later the effect of the disaster is all the more dramatic.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The words the poet uses describe a turbulent sea: surge’s swell; thick haze o’erspreads the sky; so dark it is they see no land; the breakers roar; the swell is strong.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. The Abbot of Aberbrothok, John Gedy, a monk in the 1300s, tied a bell to a rock (the Inchcape Rock) on a dangerous reef in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland. The bell was installed to warn mariners of its danger. One day Sir Ralph the Rover, a pirate, spitefully cut the bell free from the rock. Later, he returned to the area but there was no bell to give warning, and his ship was sunk when it struck the rock.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. It warned mariners of the danger. ‘When the Rock was hid by the surge’s swell, / The mariners heard the warning bell.’
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Sir Ralph was a pirate or rover; he grew rich from plunder. He is described at first as being mirthful and full of good cheer because of the spring; but his mirth was caused by wickedness. Later, he is worried because he cannot hear the bell in the darkness, and after the ship is wrecked he pulls his hair and curses himself in despair.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Sir Ralph cut the bell free out of spite.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The weather conditions on his return were worse than when he left; there is a thick haze, it is dark, and there has been a gale blowing all day; the swell is strong.
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. He swears, tears his hair, and curses in his despair. These questions are more difficult. Discuss them first.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. It is not good to be spiteful, and brings to mind the phrase ‘cutting off one’s nose to spite the face’— doing something spiteful may damage you more than it damages others.
QUESTION: j
ANSWER: j. Pupils will say what feelings and emotions they have when reading the poem.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

Quoth Sir Ralph, ‘The next who comes to the rock,/ Won’t bless the Abbot of Aberbrothok.’

a. Sir Ralph is on a small row boat near the Inchcape Rock when he speaks these words. He is addressing his crew. b. Sir Ralph has just cut the Bell from the Inchcape float.

c. Sir Ralph mentions the Abbot of Aberbrothock because he was the one who installed the Bell.

d. After this Sir Ralph sailed away. Understanding poetry

3. EXAMINE THE RHYME AND METRE OF THE POEM.

The poem has 17 stanzas of 4 lines each (quatrains). The poem has an aabb rhyme scheme. It is a ballad.

a. Pupils should attempt to count the feet in each line. The pattern varies throughout the poem and while working through the stanzas pupils will see that the shorter lines create tension. Many of the lines are iambic pentameter but a few are tetrameters.

c. Flow’d, scream’d, o’erspreads are written thus, with an apostrophe in place of a letter, to alter the number of syllables in the word.

d. There are many examples of alliteration for the pupils to choose from – look for the repetition of words beginning with B and S.

e. Discuss the effect the use of old-fashioned (archaic) words and phrases has on the reader today. Some pupils may find the use of these words makes it harder for them to understand the poem whereas others may feel like it adds to the eerie atmosphere. Get pupils to find some examples of archaic expressions and try to put them into modern language. It is unlikely that these expressions will have the same effect. Rhyming

f. Ocean and motion are feminine rhymes. Get pupils to look through the poems in the book to see if they can find more examples. Get them to think of other examples themselves. Eye rhymes

g. Pupils can look for eye rhymes within the lines of the poem but they should also try to think of their own examples.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

SPELLING

1. MARK WHERE THE STRESS OCCURS IN THE FOLLOWING.

depos’it  inter’pret bal’lot defer’ deter’

 pi’vot desert’ (v) repeat’ diff’er ben’efit

 reveal’ confer’ transfer’ (v) fid’get conceal’

 deposited interpreted balloted deferred deterred

 pivoted deserted repeated differed benefited

 revealed conferred transferred fidgeted concealed

SAME, BUT NOT QUITE

2. FIND WORDS FROM THE FIRST PART OF THE POEM WITH A SIMILAR MEANING TO THE FOLLOWING:

a. movement/stir b. shift/move c. streamed/flowed d. obtained/received e. continual/steady f. climbed/rose

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONCESSION

1. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING.

 a. Though he had eaten a dozen bananas, he was still hungry.

b. Though he is a poor man and does not earn very much, he often gives money away.

c. Although Arshad and Naima bought a house, they never lived in it.

d. Although the children had measles, they were allowed to sit in the garden.

e. Although we have never been to see the Eiffel Tower, we know what it looks like.

2. ADVERB CLAUSES OF PURPOSE

a. The doctor gave the patient an injection, so that he would go to sleep.

b. They took a taxi to the station so that they could meet their friend.

c. The teacher wrote the instructions clearly in order that the children would not make a mistake.

 d. The shopkeeper locked his shop, in order to keep out burglars.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

GOING ABROAD?

11 TWELFTH NIGHT (OR WHAT YOU WILL) page:

A COMPREHENSION      

1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

QUESTION: a
ANSWER: a. Orsino asks the musicians to play on so that he can hear so much of it that he tires of it entirely.
QUESTION: b
ANSWER: b. The play on words in Scene I is on heart/hart. Orsino is invited to hunt the hart (deer) and he twists it to refer to his heart being hunted by his desires.
QUESTION: c
ANSWER: c. From the exchange between Orsino and Valentine, in which Orsino asks him for news and Valentine calls him ‘my lord’, we can work out that Valentine is one of Orsino’s attendants.
QUESTION: d
ANSWER: d. Valentine tells Orsino that Olivia hides away in her room, crying.
QUESTION: e
ANSWER: e. Olivia is mourning her brother because he is dead.
QUESTION: f
ANSWER: f. Viola is concerned about what she will do in Illyria because her brother is not there with her.
QUESTION: g
ANSWER: g. The Captain gives Viola hope that her brother survived the shipwreck when he tells her that he saw him tie himself to a strong mast (this would help him float on the waves).
QUESTION: h
ANSWER: h. The Captain came by the information he gives Viola about Orsino through rumours and gossip.
QUESTION: i
ANSWER: i. Viola says she wants to work for Olivia so that she can hide away from the world until she feels it is the right time to reveal who she is.
QUESTION: j
j. Viola compliments the Captain by saying that he seems to be a good person.

2. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEXT.

a. If music be the food of love, play on; Give me excess of it….

i. They are the first lines of the play

 ii. Count Orsino. Music is the food of love and he would like to have his fill of it.

iii. Yes

iv. The speaker in a confused state of mind following this because love makes him restless – it makes him want things and then feel sick of them a moment late, no matter how good they are.

 b. So please my lord, I might not be admitted; But from her handmaid do return this answer:

i. Valentine is speaking to Count Orsino

 ii. The speaker was not admitted to Olivia’s house

iii. He was not admitted because Olivia is in mourning.

iv. Olivia has decided not to see anyone for seven years because she is in mourning for her brother.

 c. My brother he is in Elysium. Perchance he is not drown’d:

 i. Viola is speaking to the Captain and the sailor.

ii. Illyria

 iii. Elysium means heaven – she believes her brother has died

 iv. The Captain says that he saw her brother tie himself to the mast and this comforts her because it gives her hope that he survived.

QUIZ

3. TRY TO FIND THE INFORMATION AND COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING:

 a. Full title of the play: Twelfth Night (or What You Will)

b. Author: William Shakespeare

c. Type of play (Tragedy, Historical, etc.): Comedy

d. Language: English

e. Approximate date written: 1601

f. Setting of play: the kingdom of Illyria

g. Main characters:

i. Count Orsino

ii. Olivia

iii. Viola

h. Characters who do not appear in Scenes I and II:

 i. Olivia

 ii. Sebastian

iii. Sir Toby (there are other possible answers)

i. Main theme: what love can make people do

j. Title refers to: the festival of Epiphany (Christian)

METRE

Notice that the lines of the play have been set out like lines of poetry.

4. IS THERE A METRICAL PATTERN EVIDENT?

Scan the lines to find out. Pupils should scan the lines to discover Shakespeare’s use of iambic pentameter.

 B WORKING WITH WORDS

1. TRY TO PARAPHRASE THE FOLLOWING, IN SIMPLE ENGLISH:

a. Orsino! I have heard my father mention him.

b. What country is this, friends?

c. My brother is in heaven. Sailors. do you think there is any chance that he did not drown?

d. Instead she will go around veiled like a nun, and once a day she will water her room with tears.

e. A virtuous young woman, the daughter of a count who died last year. Her father left her in the custody of her brother but then he also died. Since then she has decided to stay away from people, in memory of her brother.

===============ALHAMDOLILLAH=============

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