NOTES / SOLVED EXERCISES KNOW YOUR WORLD 6 BY KHADIJA CHAGLA-BAIG OXFORD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 2020
|1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11||Civilizations and Empires of South Asia The Indus valley civilization and Aryans Buddha and Buddhism Persian Rule under the Achaemenid Dynasty Alexander the Great Seleucus and Mauryans The Kushans The Guptas The subcontinent in the Eighth century The Arrival of Islam- Muhammad bin Qasim From rise to fall: the success and collapse of Empires|
|12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22||The Universe, the Solar System and the Earth Features and Movements of the Earth and Their Effects Layers of the Earth Weathering and Erosion Landforms- mountains and other land features Weather and climate Agriculture and livestock Agriculture in Pakistan Minerals and Natural Energy Resources Electricity and power plants Cities: the jewels of Pakistan|
|23 24 25 26||Visiting public places Gratitude Teamwork and spirit The national Anthem of Pakistan|
CHAPTER 1 Civilizations and Empires of South Asia
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 3
QUESTION:1 – Which modern countries make up the subcontinent
ANSWER: 1. Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan
QUESTION: 2- Why was the subcontinent a suitable place for settlement?
ANSWER: 2. Because basic resources for survival were available in abundance–water, flat land for farming; natural resources like coastlines, mountains, etc.
QUESTION:3 How does studying different peoples living on the subcontinent help us today?
ANSWER: 3. It helps us to:
i. understand how people, countries, and systems have evolved.
ii. know about the past of our own nation.
iii. find out how culture and traditions have developed.
iv. plan our future by learning from history.
CHAPTER 2 The Indus valley civilization and Aryans
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 10
ANSWER: 1. Mehergarh
ANSWER: 2. No weapons or drawings of battle scenes have been found.
ANSWER: 3. What the writing means and how the civilization ended.
ANSWER: 4. Where they came from, what they introduced to the IVC, how they treated the locals, what ANSWER: the modern Hindu religion owes to them.
ANSWER: 5. Through their religious literature
ANSWER: 6. Farming
CHAPTER 3 Buddha and Buddhism
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:14
QUESTION: 1- What was Buddha’s name?
ANSWER: 1. Siddharth
QUESTION: 2- In your own words, write about the event that changed Prince Siddharth’s life.
ANSWER: 2. Answer should mention Siddharth’s lineage, events at his birth, and early life in brief; this ANSWER: should link to what happened when he went outside the palace.
QUESTION: 3- Explain the difference between dharma and karma.
ANSWER: 3. Dharma means the eternal law which the universe follows. Good actions which support the universal law are also known as Dharma.
Karma means all those actions of a person which affect his fate in this life and the next
CHAPTER 4 Persian Rule under the Achaemenid Dynasty
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 17
ANSWER: 1. Taxila, Peshawar, Charsadda.
QUESTION: 1- Name the three main cities of Gandhara under Persian rule.
ANSWER: 2. Key words: center for trade and learning; on the trade route; university; part of the postal ANSWER: system.
QUESTION: 2- What made Gandhara an important state?
ANSWER: 3. They were conquered by the Greeks.
QUESTION: 3- How did Persian rule on the subcontinent come to an end?
II. FILL IN THE BLANKS TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES BELOW.
1- The Achaemenid Dynasty was founded by—————————
2- The capital of Gandhara was called —————————
3- darius divided his empire in provinces called————————
1. The Achaemenid Dynasty was founded by Cyrus the Great.
2. The capital of Gandhara was Taxila.
3. Darius divided his empire into provinces called satrapies.
CHAPTER 5 Alexander the Great
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 21
QUESTION: 1- Who were Alexander’s (i) father (ii) tutor?
ANSWER: 1. (i) King Philip, (ii) Aristotle
QUESTION: 2- What did Alexander inherit from his father?
ANSWER: 2. His kingdom and dream to be the king of the world
QUESTION: 3- Why was Alexander unable to conquer the subcontinent?
ANSWER: 3. He met resistance from local tribes and his army was tired and weakened.
QUESTION: 4- What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death?
ANSWER: 4. It was divided among his generals.
QUESTION: 5. Which of these three options is the best definition of ‘Hellenization’?
i. become influenced by Greek culture and customs
ii. become Persian and follow Ahura Mazda’s teachings
iii. become Indian and adopt Indian Culture
ANSWER: 5. (i) become influenced by Greek culture and customs
CHAPTER 6 Seleucus and Mauryans
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 28
QUESTION: 1- Who was Chandragupta’s inspiration?
ANSWER: 1. Alexander the Great
QUESTION: 2- What is the new name of Pataliputra?
ANSWER: 2. Patna
3- Who was Kautilya and what role did he Play in the creation of Mauryan Empire?
ANSWER: 3. Initially, Kautilya was a member of the Nanda court; he left after being insulted. He was Chandragupta’s tutor at the university of Taxila. He guided Chandragupta on how to overthrow the Nandas and takeover Magadha. Without his help, the Mauryan Empire may never have been founded.
QUESTION: QUESTION: 4- What happened to Ashoka’s empire after his death?
ANSWER: 4. It went into a decline because his successors could not look after it.
QUESTION: Complete the following table.
|Religion||Hinduism||Hinduism—later converted to Buddhism. Encouraged the spread of Buddhism|
|Attitude towards people||Strict, laws were harsh but fair; Killed or tortured anyone who went or spoke against him. People were made to work hard.||Was kind to his people; wanted to give them the best; Did a lot of good for his people.|
|Development in the empire||Lived a luxurious life, spent a lot on himself; Kept a huge army.||Welfare projects; lived a simple life; well trained army and navy|
|Taxes||Taxed people heavily||Kept the rate of taxes very low|
|Name of successor||Died in 278 bce and kingdom passed down to his son Bindusara.||Died circa 240 bce and kingdom passed on to his grandson Dasaratha Maurya|
CHAPTER 7 The Kushans
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 31
QUESTION: 1- Where did the Kushans come from?
ANSWER: 1. Central Asia
QUESTION: 2- For how many years did they rule the subcontinent?
ANSWER: 2. 200 years
QUESTION: 3- Make a list of Kanishka’s contribution to the development and of the subcontinent.
ANSWER: 3. Trade, art and architecture, new form of art: Greco-Buddhist, tolerance towards all religions, peace
QUESTION: 4- Why was the Kushan Empire short-lived?
ANSWER: 4. Kanishka did not have capable successors
CHAPTER 8 The Guptas
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 36
QUESTION: 1- Name the modern countries that carne
under the Gupta rule.
ANSWER: 1. Pakistan, India, Nepal, Myanmar, and Bangladesh
QUESTION: 2- Who founded the Gupta rule in the subcontinent?
ANSWER: 2. Chandragupta Gupta I
QUESTION: 3- Who was Fa Hien? How many years did he spend on the subcontinent?
ANSWER: 3. A Chinese traveler; ten years
QUESTION: 4- What were the challenges faced by the later Gupta rulers?
ANSWER: 4. Attacks by two major enemies—the Malwas and the Huns
CHAPTER 9 The subcontinent in the Eighth century
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 39
QUESTION: 1- Why is Harsha considered to be an important ruler?
ANSWER: 1. Because of his good governance.
QUESTION: 2- For how many years did he rule?
ANSWER: 2. 41 years
QUESTION: 3- What happened to his kingdom after his death?
ANSWER: 3. It broke into several small kingdoms.
QUESTION: 4- Why were the Brahmin rulers unpopular?
ANSWER: 4. They were cruel and they patronized criminals.
CHAPTER 10 The Arrival of Islam- Muhammad bin Qasim
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 43
QUESTION: 1- Who ruled the subcontinent initially in the eighth century?
ANSWER: 1. Hindu rulers, the Brahmin dynasty, Raja Dahir
QUESTION: 2- Why were the pirates not scared of being captured and punished?
ANSWER: 2. They were protected by Raja Dahir.
QUESTION: 3- Write a few lines about the role each of these people played in the Muslim conquest of Sindh.
i. Hajjaj bin Yousuf
ii. Raja Dahir
iii. Mohammad bin Qasirn
ANSWER: 3. The roles of the following people in the Muslim conquest of Sindh
i. Hajjaj bin Yousuf—he was the governor of the eastern provinces of Arabia. He sent the expedition to punish Raja Dahir and establish peace and security in the region. This led to the arrival of Mohammad bin Qasim and the Muslim rule.
ii. Raja Dahir—he protected pirates and refused to cooperate with Hajjaj in restraining them. This resulted in Hajjaj sending his men to India to punish him. Had Raja Dahir cooperated, maybe Hajjaj wouldn’t have had the need to send his men.
iii. Mohammad bin Qasim—his capability and wise policies encouraged people to enter into the folds of Islam and spread Muslim rule.
QUESTION: 4- Do you think things would have been different had any of these men not been there? How?
CHAPTER 11 From rise to fall: the success and collapse of Empires
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 46
CHAPTER 12 The Universe, the Solar System and the Earth
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 52
I. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
QUESTION:a. When did Pluto cease to be called a planet and why?
ANSWER a) 2006; because it does not fulfill the conditions for being classified as a planet
QUESTION:b. How many kilometres does light travel in one year?
b) 9 trillion km
QUESTION:c. What is a galaxy?
c) A cluster of stars
II. EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING TERMS
a) Light year—distance travelled by light in a year
b) Meteoroid—rocky or metallic objects from space that collide with the Earth’s outer layer of gas
c) Comet—small, icy celestial bodies
d) The Solar System—the Sun with its group of planets
III. EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN:
a) a planet and a satellite—
PLANET: orbits around a star;
SATELLITE: smaller body that orbits around a planet
b) a meteorite and a shooting star—
METEORITE: meteoroids that reach the Earth;
SHOOTING STAR: a briefly lit up path of a meteorite just before it hits the ground
IV. GIVE ONE-WORD ANSWERS FOR THE FOLLOWING:
a) A dwarf planet–Pluto
b) A snowball-like celestial body with a “head and tail”—comet
c) Another name for our galaxy—The Milky Way
d) The force that pulls objects away from the centre—centrifugal
CHAPTER 13 Features and Movements of the Earth and Their Effects
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 57
I. GIVE SHORT ANSWERS:
QUESTION: i- Name the three characteristics of Earth that are responsible for varying amounts of sunlight.
ANSWER: i. Tilt, bulge, movements
QUESTION: ii- On which imaginary line does the Earth rotate?
ANSWER: ii. Axis
QUESTION: iii- How long does the Earth take to complete one rotation?
ANSWER: iii. 24 hours
QUESTION: iv- What is the Earth’s circling around the Sun called? How long does it take to complete one such circle?
ANSWER: iv. Revolution—365 days
QUESTION: v- On which date does the southern hemisphere have the shortest day?
ANSWER: v. 21st /22nd June
2. FILL IN THE BLANKS.
i. In summer, we have long days and short nights.
ii. The equator is the hottest region of the Earth.
iii. The word equinox means equal night.
iv. When the North Pole is leaning towards the Sun, the South Pole is tilted away from it.
v. The northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons at any given time.
3. STATE WHETHER THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE. CORRECT THOSE THAT ARE FALSE.
ii. False. It rotates and revolves.
iii. False. They have opposite seasons
v. False. It gives us seasons. Rotation gives us day and night.
vi. False. It experiences day.
4. IN YOUR NOTEBOOK, DRAW AND LABEL A DIAGRAM SHOWING THE SOLSTICES AND EQUINOXES.
CHAPTER 14 Layers of the Earth
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 61
QUESTION: 1- Why do plates move?
ANSWER: 1. Plates move because they are floating on a molten layer of rock.
QUESTION: 2- How were the Himalayas formed?
ANSWER: 2. By the collision of two convergent plates that pushed into each other, forming folds on the surface.
CHAPTER 15 Weathering and Erosion
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 65
QUESTION: 1- What is the difference between weathering and erosion?
ANSWER: 1. Weathering is the natural wearing down of rock. Erosion means transportation and deposition of rock, debris and other material from one place to another.
QUESTION: 2- Name and describe the three ways in which weathering takes place.
ANSWER: 2. Physical, chemical, and biological weathering. See page 62 for details.
QUESTION: 3- Name the agents of erosion.
ANSWER: 3. Wind, moving water, ice
CHAPTER 16 Landforms- mountains and other land features
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 71
1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.
QUESTION: i- On what basis are plateaus classified?
ANSWER i. Plateaus are classified by their surroundings and the method of formation: Intermontanne, piedmont, volcanic, continental, wind, and water erosion.
QUESTION: ii- Make a list of all the plateaus.
ANSWER ii. Some major plateaus of the world are the Tibetan Plateau, the Antarctic Plateau, the Andes Plateau in South America, the Colorado Plateau in North America, the Columbia Plateau in the USA, and the Deccan Plateau of west-central India.
QUESTION: iii Give three reasons why water is scarce in deserts?
ANSWER iii. High temperature, little or no rainfall, sandy, and rocky landscape
4- Why is an oasis important for desert dwellers?
ANSWER iv. It provides water in a hot, barren, dry place.
2. LOOK AT THE PHYSICAL MAP OF THE WORLD IN YOUR ATLAS. ON THE MAP GIVEN BELOW, ACTIVITY-BASED QUESTION. CONSULT ATLAS FOR ANSWERS.
CHAPTER 17 Weather and climate
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:75
QUESTION: 1- What is the difference between weather and climate?
ANSWER: 1. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere for any day including the temperature, winds, clouds, and rainfall. The weather can be sunny, windy, rainy, or stormy in one day. Climate is the average condition of the weather in a place over a longer period, usually thirty years.
QUESTION: 2- What is temperature?
ANSWER: 2. The degree of heat in the atmosphere
QUESTION: 3- What are the factors that affect the temperature of a place?
ANSWER: 3. Distance from the Equator, distance from the sea, rainfall, wind direction and altitude.
CHAPTER 18 Agriculture and livestock
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 81
1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.
QUESTION: 1- Why is agriculture important?
ANSWER: 1. For food and raw material
2- Why is flat land suitable for farming?
ANSWER: 2. Water does not run down slopes, absorption is easier
3- What are some of the sources of water?
ANSWER: 3. Rainfall, glaciers, springs, rivers
4-What are the dangers of using pesticides?
ANSWER : 4. May cause poisoning or other damages to human, animal, and plant lives
5- Why is it important to replace nutrients in the soil before planting new crops?
ANSWER : 5. So that new crops are not deprived of nutrients
2. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER.
i. Natural or artificial lakes which store fresh water are called reservoirs.
ii. Chemicals used to kill disease-causing organisms in plants are called pesticides.
iii. The most suitable place for growing crops is the flood plains.
CHAPTER 19 Agriculture in Pakistan
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 88
What is the difference between food crops and cash crops?
Answer: Food crops are grown for food. Cash crops are grown to be sold in local and international markets to earn money.
CHAPTER 20 Minerals and Natural Energy Resources
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 91
QUESTION: 1- What is the difference between a mine and a quarry?
ANSWER: 1. A mine can be above or below the ground, whereas a quarry is always above the ground.
QUESTION: 2- Name some:
i. metallic minerals
ii. non-metallic minerals
iii. natural energy resources
ANSWER: 2. i. metallic minerals—gold, silver, uranium, zinc, copper
ii. non-metallic minerals—chromite, dolomite, gypsum, limestone
iii. natural energy resources—coal, crude oil, natural gas
QUESTION: 3- Why are minerals and other natural resources important for a country?
ANSWER: 3. For industrial and commercial purposes, economic development, self-sufficiency
QUESTION: 4- Why are natural energy deposits important for a developing country like Pakistan?
ANSWER: 4. Cut down on imports, bring in foreign exchange, economic development, and prosperity
CHAPTER 21 Electricity and power plants
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 96
QUESTION: 1- Which city is known as the fruit basket and why?
ANSWER: 1. Quetta—has the most variety and abundance of fruit
QUESTION: 2- Which urban center of Pakistan is coastal city?
ANSWER: 2. Karachi
CHAPTER 22 Cities: the jewels of Pakistan
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 100
QUESTION: Which power plants produce clean energy?
ANSWER: 1. Hydel, nuclear, solar, wind
CHAPTER 23 Visiting public places
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 108
QUESTION: 1- Write down three advantages of following proper rules of etiquette in public places.
Answer: Earning respect from others, creating a good social environment, having fewer problems from people.
2- (a) How are schools and other educational institutions a different kind of public place? Do we need to follow proper rules here too?
(b) In your notebook, write down some behaviour rules that you follow in your school
(a) They are a different kind of public place because only those who are associated with educational institutions, like teachers, staff, and students, can enter here and we meet the same people daily. Yes, we need to follow rules of behavior in schools too.
(b) being punctual, queuing up, asking for teacher’s permission before entering or leaving class, avoid making noise, obeying the teacher.
3- Unwillingness to cooperate, arguing, and breaking rules: why are these considered bad behaviour in public?
They cause chaos, confusion, unpopularity, damage, embarrassment to oneself and one’s parents.
CHAPTER 24 Gratitude
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 111
QUESTION: What is gratitude?
ANSWER: 1. Being thankful and appreciative.
QUESTION: 2- Make a list of all the people you should be grateful to and say why.
ANSWER: 2. Make a list of all the people you should be grateful to and say why. Open-ended
QUESTION: 3- Complete the table below by adding your own experiences. Some have been done for you.
ANSWER: 3. Complete the table below by adding your own experiences. Some have been done for you.
|My reaction||Gratitude/ Ingratitude||What I gained/ lost||What I should have done|
|I sulked because my mother could not take me to my friend’s house.||Ingratitude||My mother’s sympathy||I should have tried to understand her point of view, and be supportive of her in her problems.|
|My aunt sent me some chocolates and I shared them with my siblings.||Gratitude||Siblings’ respect and gratitude. Aunt and elders’ appreciation. An image of being a responsible and caring young adult|
CHAPTER 25 Teamwork and spirit
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 116
QUESTION: Describe in your own words your idea of a team.
ANSWER: 1. Open-ended question. Answer will vary from student to student. Must include ideas of togetherness, harmony, mutual respect, helping, sharing, and common goals.
QUESTION:2- Study each of these cases/ issues and complete the table in your notebook
ANSWER: 2. Open-ended question.
|Issue||How you felt about it||How you dealt with it|
|Your teammate made fun of your suggestion in public.|
|You have done research for a group project and two members from your group do not have any knowledge of the topic.|
|Your leader scolded you for being late even though it was your team mate’s fault.|
|You were playing with your pencil while instructions were being given out and missed some important details.|
|You forgot to bring what you were asked to and because of that, your team lost points.|
|Your team has lost all its matches in the last two years and your best friend suggests that you join a different team|
CHAPTER 26 The national Anthem of Pakistan
CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 119
QUESTION: 1- What is a national anthem?
ANSWER: 1. Patriotic song adopted by a country as its identity
QUESTION: 2- Name the composer and the writer of the national anthem of Pakistan
ANSWER: 2. Ahmed G. Chagla, Abdul Hafeez Jallundhri
QUESTION: 3- In what year did Pakistan formally adopt its anthem?
ANSWER: 3. New national anthem was broadcast publicly for the first time on Radio Pakistan on 13 August 1954, sung by Hafeez Jullundhri himself.
Official approval was announced by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting on 16 August 1954.
4- What language is used in the lyrics of our anthem?
ANSWER: 4 Persian words, Urdu language