NOTES / SOLVED EXERCISES KNOW YOUR WORLD BY KHADIJA CHAGLA-BAIG OXFORD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 2018-19

NOTES / SOLVED EXERCISES KNOW YOUR WORLD BY KHADIJA CHAGLA-BAIG OXFORD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 2018-19

CONTENT

  HISTORY  
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Rise of Muslim Rule on the Subcontinent Ghaznavid Rule The Ghoris  The Delhi Sultanate The Mughal Empire Begins (1526-1858)  The Greatest Mughal Emperor The Empire at its Peak  
  GEOGRAPHY  
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Oceans and Seas: Waves, Tides, and Currents Ocean and Sea Landforms Rivers and Smaller Bodies of Water Natural Disasters Industries in Pakistan Trade Some Major Cities in Asia  
  CIVICS  
15 16 17 18 Patriotism Looking after Senior Citizens Respecting Law and Authority Respecting Friends and Peers  

CHAPTER 1

THE RISE OF MUSLIM RULE ON THE SUBCONTINENT

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 3

QUESTION:1 Why did the traditional trade routes through the Arabian Sea become unsafe?

ANSWER:1 Because of pirates who looted ships fearlessly

QUESTION:2 Why did the trade begin again?

ANSWER:2 Peace was restored on the trade route.

QUESTION:3 What attracted the Central Asians to India?

ANSWER:3 The stories of India’s wealth and the desire of Muslim Turks to spread Islam in the land

CHAPTER 2

GHAZNAVID RULE — (962-1186 CS)

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 9

QUESTION:1 Who founded Ghaznavid rule in India?

ANSWER:1 Alaptagin

QUESTION:2 What qualities helped Mahmud strengthen Muslim rule in India

ANSWER:2 He was astute, inspiring, courageous, planned with care, carried out his plans with wisdom and bravery.

QUESTION:3 Why did Mahmud invade India?

ANSWER:3 He wanted to establish Muslim rule, rid the land of idol worship and acquire the riches of India.

WORKSHEET

DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1

 FILL IN THE BLANKS:

 a) Alaptagin was a commander in the army.

b) Alaptagin became the governor of in 962.

c) Sabuktagin was Alaptagin’s .

d) Anandpal wanted to avenge his ’s death.

e) Mahmud defeated Anandpal at a place near in 1008.

f) The temple of was the most important religious site for the Hindus.

g) Mahmud’s son succeeded him as the next Ghaznavid ruler.

QUESTION:2

Give brief answers for the following questions.

a) Why did the Hindus rise against the Ghaznavid Turks?

b) Who were Anandpal and Jaipal?

c) Who were other Ghaznavid rulers after Mahmud?

d) When and why did the Ghaznavid rule come to an end?

QUESTION:3

Pretend you were a soldier in Mahmud’s army. Recount what happened during the battle of Somnath.

QUESTION:4

IN THE TABLE BELOW, MAKE A LIST OF MAHMUD’S STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES.

STRENGTHS                            WEAKNESSES
   
   
   
   

QUESTION:5

 WRITE TWO SENTENCES FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING LEADERS, HIGHLIGHTING THEIR IMPORTANCE IN THE RISE AND FALL OF THE GHAZNAVID EMPIRE.

a. Alaptagin

b. Sabuktagin

c. Mahmud Ghaznavi

d. Maudud Shah

e. Bahram Shah

QUESTION:6

 CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

a) Mahmud made raids on the subcontinent. (17, 15, 21)

b) Ayaz was Mahmud’s . (younger brother, general, slave)

c) Bahram Shah killed two brothers from the clan. (Halaku, Ghori, Khilji)

d) Mahmud died in ce. (1020, 1030, 1029)

e) Many territories were taken away from the Ghaznavids by during Maudud’s rule. (Hindus and Marathas, Sejluk Turks and Hindus, Hindu Rajputs and Uzbek Turks)

QUESTION:7

 STUDY THE CLUES AND COMPLETE THE CROSSWORD.

                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     

Across

ACROSS

1. A person or group of persons who oppose an attack; enemy

2. Gifts and valuables presented to a ruler or state, usually in exchange for favours

 4. The quality of being able to predict future problems and act wisely

6. Brief, quick fights between troops of armies

CHAPTER 3

THE GHORIS CIRCA 1186-1206 CS

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:14

QUESTION:1

 How did the Ghori rule begin in Ghazni?

ANSWER:1

Allauddin entered Ghazni and burnt it down as an act of revenge against his brothers’ murder. He became the ruler because Bairam Shah fled to Lahore.

QUESTION:2

 Who was Prithviraj?

ANSWER:2

Prithviraj was the ruler of Ajmer and Delhi. He was Mohammad Ghori’s strongest enemy who resisted his rule and challenged him to battles. Eventually he was defeated.

QUESTION:3

 Who was Qutubuddin Aibak? What role did he play in Ghori’s success?

ANSWER:3

 He was a slave in Ghori’s army who rose through the ranks to become a general. He was a brave warrior and administrator who assisted Mohammad Ghori in winning his campaigns.

QUESTION:4

 How was the second battle of Tarain significant for Muslim rule in India?

ANSWER:4

 The battle established the Ghoris as the first Muslim rulers of India. Mahmud Ghaznavi never stayed in India to consolidate his rule. Therefore, Ghori is credited with establishing the Muslim rule over India that continued for over 600 years.

WORKSHEET

 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1

FILL IN THE BLANKS:

 a) set Ghazni on fire which burnt for days.

b) Bahram Shah fled to after this attack.

c) The most powerful of the Ghori rulers was

d) Shahabuddin Ghori was the younger brother of Sultan .

e) was the most important Hindu religious city.

QUESTION:2

 GIVE BRIEF ANSWERS FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

 a) Why was Allauddin called Jahansoz? Is it a title of appreciation?

b) Name the three Ghori rulers in correct order.

c) What other names is Mohammad Ghori known by?

d) In which years did Ghori capture Multan, Sindh, and Lahore? Photocopiable material

Who was Qutubuddin Aibak?

e) What role did he play in Ghori’s success?

 f) How and when did the Ghori rule come to an end?

QUESTION:3

 Give an account of Prithviraj’s defeat at the hands of Mohammad Ghori.

QUESTION:4

 CIRCLE THE CORRECT ANSWER.

a) Ghazni was plundered by (Alauddin, Shujauddin, Karimuddin) as revenge.

b) Bahram Shah escaped to (Lahore, Delhi, Multan) to save his (empire, son, life).

c) Mohammad Ghori was also known as (Mohammad Khilji-Ghori, Alauddin Ghori, Sultan Shahabuddin Mohammad).

 d) The most important holy centre for the Hindus was the city of (Ganges, Banaras, Kolkatta) e) Ghori army (rewarded, appreciated, punished) Khusro Malik for his deeds.

QUESTION:5

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TIMELINE.

Date Event
1151  
  Arrival of Ghoris in India
  Shahabuddin captures Multan
1182  
1186  
1192  
  Ghori’s death

CHAPTER 4

THE DELHI SULTANATE

CIRCA 1186-1526 CA

CONTENT REVIEW  PAGE: 26

QUESTION:1

Which of  the Delhi Sultanate rulers do you find The most empressive? Explain your choice.

ANSWER:1

Open ended question. Mark answers with reference to correctness of content and well-justified opinion.

QUESTION:2

 Discuss the rise and fall of Razia Sultana.

ANSWER:2

 Discussion (written or oral) should include her capabilities and talent, reasons for rise to power, the court intrigues, and the opposition to her rule for being a woman, and how and where her death occurred.

QUESTION:3

 Why did Bahlpii consider himseif the rightful king?

ANSWER:3

Because he was related to Shah Alam, the last Sayyid king

QUESTION:4

 Corhpare the characters of Sikander Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi.

ANSWER:4

 Sikander Lodhi: cultured, tactful, devoted to learning, interested in welfare of the state and the people. The Sultanate flourished under him. Ibrahim Lodhi: hot-tempered, disinterested in the welfare of empire, tactless, could not keep the Sultanate in order.

QUESTION:5

 HOW did Delhi Sultanate influence India?

ANSWER:5

 Central Asian culture, Persian language, learning, architecture, customs, pluralism, diversity

WORKSHEET 1

 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1

 For each of the following statements, write True or False. Give the correct answer for all false statements.

a) The Slave Dynasty was the first of the Delhi Sultanate dynasties.

 b) Qutubuddin Aibak was known to be stingy and miserly.

c) Iltutmish was Aibak’s older brother.

d) Razia Sultana is the first Muslim ruler in history.

e) Nasiruddin was a pleasure-seeking ruler who had no time for learning the Quran.

QUESTION:2

 Read the clues and identify the personality.

a) I am Razia Sultana’s brother and successor. I was made the sultan after her death in 1426. Court intrigues saddened me and I preferred to stay away from court matters and spent time learning Ilm-e-Quran and calligraphy. I am .

b) I was once a slave but later became Mohammad Ghori’s trusted general and governor. After Ghori’s death, his empire came into my hands and I founded the first of the Delhi Sultanate dynasties. Unfortunately, I did not live long to achieve all my dreams.

c) I was against my sister Razia Sultana and her husband and gave them a lot of trouble.

d) My father-in-law was the founder of the Slave Dynasty. I had been receiving many complaints about Aram Shah, his son. I defeated him and became the next ruler.

e) Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud entrusted all his affairs to me because he did not like what went on in the court. I sorted out all the problems created by the Mongols, the Hindus and the outlaws. The Slave Dynasty passed down to the Khiljis because of my son Kaikobad’s incompetence.

QUESTION:3

 Which of the rulers of the Slave Dynasty do you think was the most competent? Give reasons to justify your answer.

 QUESTION:4

 GIVE BRIEF ANSWERS FOR THE FOLLOWING:

 a) List all the rulers of the Slave Dynasty in the correct order.

b) What are ‘Quwwat-ul-Islam’ and ‘Qutub Minar’?

c) What were the problems faced by Iltutmish on becoming king?

d) Who was Changez Khan?

e) Who were Razia Sultana and Malik Altunia? What was their fate? f) Who were Yaldiz, Qabacha, and Ali Mardan?

WORKSHEET 2 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1

 CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

a) Feroze Khilji is popularly known as i. Jalaluddin Khilji ii. Malik Jalaluddin iii. Jalaluddin Rumi

b) Mohammad was Balban’s i. son ii. daughter iii. nephew

c) The Tughlaq Dynasty was founded by i. Malik Kafur ii. Ghyasuddin Tughlaq iii. Malik Altunia

d) Malik Khizr Khan was a ruler of the i. Slave Dynasty ii. Khilji Dynasty iii. Sayyid Dynasty

e) The Lodhi Dynasty ended because of its last ruler i. Zaheeruddin Babur ii. Dolat Khan iii. Ibrahim

QUESTION:2

GIVE REASONS FOR THE FOLLOWING.

a) People loved and respected Sikandar Lodhi.

b) Mohammad Tughlaq often became harsh to his people.

c) After Allauddin’s death there were issues about who his successor would be. Photocopiable material

d) Jalaluddin Khilji’s nephew Allauddin turned against him and killed him.

QUESTION:3

Complete the table below.

   

Ruler Achievements/Successes/ Strengths Mistakes/Failures/ Weaknesses/ Mohammad bin Tughlaq Ghiyasuddin Balban Bahlol Lodhi Allauddin Khilji Nasiruddin Mehmood Firoze Shah Tughlaq Ibrahim Lodhi

QUESTION:4

 Who were the troublemakers for each of the following kings and how were they dealt with?

Ruler Troublemakers Action
 Firoze Shah Tughlaq    
Allauddin Khilji    
 Ghiyasuddin Balban    
Ibrahim Lodhi    
Jalaluddin Khilji    

CHAPTER 5

THE MUQHAL EMPIRE BEGINS

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:34

QUESTION:1

How many different aspect of Babur’s life can you identify?

ANSWER:1

 ambitious, patient, noble and refined, courageous, sensible, loved learning and arts

QUESTION:2

What would you consider Babur’s greatest assets? His skill as a general, love for literature and culture, or his love or his family values?

ANSWER:2

 Open-ended question—evaluate on justification of opinion. Most of the students will probably opt for his skill as a general because that helped him to consolidate his rule.

QUESTION:3

Why did Humayun flee to Sindh?

ANSWER:3

 He was defeated in battle by Sher Shah Suri and his brothers had refused to give him shelter. A chieftain in Umerkot provided shelter.

QUESTION:4 Who was Humayun’s main rival?

ANSWER:4

 Sher Shah Suri

WORKSHEET DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1

 FILL IN THE BLANKS:

 a) Babur inherited the kingdom of .

b) The and members of Babur’s family did not let him rule in peace.

c) Babur entered the subcontinent at ’s request for help.

d) After Babur’s death, his son became the next Mughal emperor.

e) Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi’s armies battled at .

f) Nasiruddin became king at the age of .

g) was the king of Persia.

h) A chieftain from took pity on Humayun and gave him shelter.

i) Humayun died in .

QUESTION:2

 Give brief answers for the following questions:

a) What was the outcome of the Battle of Panipat?

b) What kind of weapons were used for the first time in this battle?

c) In which year did the Battle of Panipat take place? Photocopiable material

d) What were some of the important steps taken by Babur during his rule?

e) For how many years did Babur rule?

QUESTION:2

 Read the clues. Then find and circle the names of these people in the wordsearch.

a) Humayun’s wife

b) Humayun’s sister

c) One of Humayun’s stepbrothers who attacked his caravan on the way to Kandahar

d) The king of Persia who helped Humayun

e) The Afghan leader who overthrew Humayun

 f) Humayun’s trusted general and advisor HINDALZZPEYDGLPOFET EAKEBSHERSHAHSURIH HAQBAIRAMKHANWALI ABCCHAMIDABANOSPTT HUMTEHMASPBEHMANO PWRGULBADANABSHA

QUESTION:3

 Give brief answers to the following:

a) Make a list of problems Humayun faced on his rise to power.

CHAPTER 6

The Greatest Muqhal Emperor

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:39

QUESTION:1 Who was Akbar’s guardian? Why did he need a guardian?

ANSWER:1

 Bairam Khan. Because he was too young to be king.

QUESTION:2

 What brutal practices did Akbar make illegal during his reign?

ANSWER:2

Sati and child marriage

QUESTION:3

 Why did Akbar feel the need to introduce Deen-e-Elahi?

ANSWER:3

 To promote harmony between different sections of Indian society.

WORKSHEET DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

 QUESTION:1

 FILL IN THE BLANKS:

a) Akbar ruled the Mughal Empire from to .

b) As a child, Akbar had a mind.

c) Bairam Khan was killed on his way to .

d) Deen-e-Ilahi contained tenets from and .

e) The word means nine gems.

QUESTION:2

 Give brief answers to the following:

 a) Who was Akbar’s guardian? Why did he need a guardian?

b) Who was Hamida Bano? What role did she play in Akbar’s education and grooming during his childhood?

c) Why did Akbar relieve Bairam Khan of his duties as a guardian? Photocopiable material

 d) Why do you think Akbar spared Bairam Khan’s life? What does this tell you about Akbar’s character/nature?

e) What language was introduced and adopted as the court language during Akbar’s rule?

QUESTION:4

 What clues from the text prove that Akbar was

a) a “liberal ruler who did not believe in ruling his empire on Islamic traditions alone”

 b) a wise and diplomatic ruler who took brave decisions Photocopiable material

CHAPTER 7

The Empire at its Peak

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 49

QUESTION:1

 Under which ruler was the Mughal empire (a) the strongest? (b) the weakest?

ANSWER:1

(a) Aurangzaib (largest territory)

(b) Humayun

QUESTION:2

 Which emperor had (a) the‘ longest rule? (b) the shortest rule?

ANSWER:2

 (a) Akbar—50 years (b) Babur—5 years

QUESTION:3

 Describe the contribution of Jahangir to Mughal India.

ANSWER:3

 Discussion should include his dealings with the Afghans, the Sikhs, and the British. His tolerance, justice, culture, art, and architecture, treatment of women with reference to his installing of Nur Jahan as the only Mughal queen.

QUESTION:4

 Why is the Mughal Empire considered to be one of the greatest empires of its time?

ANSWER:4

 Discussion should include boundaries, prosperity, income from taxes and tributes, trade, peace and security for people, army, architecture, art, literature.

QUESTION:5

 What was the most important feature of Shahjahan’s rule?

ANSWER:5

 Architecture

QUESTION:6

 What is your opinion of Aurangzaib as a ruler? Give reasons to support your answer.

ANSWER 6.

 Open-ended question. Discussion should include the following concepts: staunch Muslim, ruled strictly, very strong ruler, hard working, brave, and wise; Style of ruling and enforcement of strict Muslim laws caused unrest among the non-Muslim and diverse Indian population.

WORKSHEET 1 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 FILL IN THE BLANKS:

a) Jahangir’s actual name was .

b) Khusro was Raja Man Singh’s .

c) Jahangir came to power in and ruled till .

d) Khurram was Jahangir’s .

QUESTION:2 Complete the following:

a) The Sikhs did not forgive the Mughals because .

 b) Jahangir dealt with the Afghans by .

c) Jahangir was a cultured king known for .

QUESTION:3 Write a few sentences each about who the following were and what role they played during Jahangir’s reign. Raja Man Singh Khusro Mirza Nur Jahan Thomas Roe

QUESTION:4 Complete the table. Name Helped by Nature of trouble Outcome/solution Khusro Afghans of Bihar Asaf Khan Photocopiable material

WORKSHEET 2 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 FILL IN THE BLANKS:

a) Shahjahan came to power in .

b) Shahji Bhosle, a leader was the most stubborn and formidable opponent of the Mughals.

c) Shahjahan’s rule is said to be the period of India.

QUESTION:2 Complete the following:

a) Shahjahan rose to power in .

b) He had to face rebellion from .

c) Shahji Bhosle was persistent in his efforts to .

d) Some of the buildings commissioned by Shahjahan are .

QUESTION:3 Give brief answers.

a) What happened to Shahji’s mission after his death?

b) In which year did Shahjahan fall sick?

c) What happened when Shahjahan fell sick? Photocopiable material

WORKSHEET 3 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

a) Aurangzaib won the power tussle and ascended the throne in . i. 1660 ii. 1659 iii. 1657

b) Shivaji Bhosle was Shahji Bhosle’s i. brother ii. father iii. son

c) Aurangzaib had been weakened by the stress of i. constant battles ii. bribes iii. travelling

QUESTION:2 Give brief answers.

a) Write down all the ways in which Shivaji created trouble for Aurangzaib.

b) Write down all the reforms that Aurangzaib brought about during his rule.

c) What is your opinion of Aurangzaib as a ruler? Support your answer with reasons.

CHAPTER 8

Oceans and 5885

Waves, Tides, and Cl-“Tents

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:63

QUESTION:1 How are ocean and sea landforms created?

ANSWER:1 Through tectonic activity, erosion, and tidal movements

QUESTION:2 Write down the differences between:

 isthmus and strait

bay and gulf

peninsula and cape

archipelago and island

ANSWER:2 Isthmus is a strip of land, strait is a narrow waterway;

Gulf is larger than a bay;

Peninsula is larger than a cape;

Archipelago is a collection of islands.

WORKSHEET DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Give three examples for each of the following landforms. Strait: , , Peninsula: , , Cape: , , Archipelago: , , Isthmus: , , Bay: , , Gulf: , ,

QUESTION:2 Look at the pictures below and write the name of the landform.

QUESTION:3 Complete the following statements.

a) Landforms are b) Europe is one large peninsula made of

c) A cape is

d) A bay is

e) A strait is

f) An isthmus is

g) An archipelago is

QUESTION:4 Write the name for each group of landforms:

a) Balkan, Arabian, Sinai, Iberian

b) Cod, Verde, Good Hope

c) Bengal, Biscay, Hudson, Fundy

d) Persian, Aqabah, Mexico, Alaska

e) Bass, Bering, Dover, Magellan

f) Panama, Suez, Corinth

g) Japan, Philippines, New Zealand, Finland

QUESTION:5Choose the correct answer and write it in the blanks provided.

a) Soft rock is less and breaks easily. (resistant, absorbent, reactive)

b) A large piece of land extending into an ocean or sea is called a . (cod, cape, peninsula)

c) A very large bay is called a . (archipelago, giant bay, gulf)

d) The largest archipelago of the world is the archipelago. (Indian, Malay, Maldives)

e) The Aegean Sea has more than rocks and islands. (100 000, 60 000, 10 000)

QUESTION:6

a) What are landforms?

b) Name and describe the ways in which they are created.

CHAPTER 10

Rivers and Smaller Bodies of Water

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE:

QUESTION:1 Explain why rivers are an important landform

ANSWER:1 They are the most important source of fresh water for all forms of life, they form boundaries, they can be used for transport and many leisure activites. Fish from rivers and animals that come for water can be hunted and used for food.

QUESTION:2 Name some landforms created by river;

ANSWER:2 Meander, oxbow lake, waterfall, estuary, and delta

QUESTION:3 How does a glacier erode rocks?

ANSWER:3 Glaciers flow downhill and erode surrounding rocks with their weight and slow speed. They create U-shaped valley.

QUESTION:4 Name some important lakes in the world.

ANSWER:4 Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, the Dead Sea, the Caspian Sea

WORKSHEET 1 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Give one word answers.

a) The area of land that a river runs through.

b) The imaginary line along the surrounding highland, separating one drainage basin and river system from another.

c) Areas of flat land on either sides of a river. They are extended river banks created by the deposition of silt after flooding.

d) Branches of the main river, or smaller rivers that join the main river.

e) The point where two or more rivers meet.

f) Bends in rivers.

QUESTION:2 Give brief answers to the following:

a) Why are rivers known as ‘agents of erosion’ and ‘landscape shapers’?

b) In which direction do all rivers generally flow? Which river is an exception to this rule?

c) Name the sources of rivers.

d) How is a waterfall created? Photocopiable material

e) What is the ‘mouth’ of a river?

f) Why should rivers be regularly de-silted?

g) Make a web-diagram listing the uses of a river.

QUESTION:3 State whether True or False. Write the correct answer for the false statements.

a) River Indus flows from north to south.

b) Waterfalls are usually found in the lower course of a river because the river flows the fastest here.

c) No plants and animals can survive in an estuary.

d) An obstacle in a river is called a meander. Photocopiable material

e) Ox-bow lakes are meanders cut off from the main river.

QUESTION:4 Make a list of all threats faced by rivers.

QUESTION:5 Choose the correct answer:

 a) River Nile has its delta in the (Arabian, Mediterranean, Red) Sea in northeast . (Africa, Egypt, Lake Victoria)

b) The journey of a river from its source until it meets the sea is called a . (river story, river mechanism, river system)

c) Areas of flat land on either sides of a river are called . (river banks, floodplains, estuaries)

d) Bends in a river are called . (meanders, U-turns, hairpin bends)

e) Water in an oxbow lake is for drinking. (suitable, unfit, blue)

WORKSHEET 2 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Answer the following questions.

a) Name three smaller bodies of water. i) , ii) , iii)

b) Give a brief description of each. i) ii) iii)

c) Write two sentences about the importance of each. i) ii) iii) Photocopiable material

d) Name some important lakes of Pakistan.

e) What are permeable and impermeable rocks?

QUESTION:2 FILL IN THE BLANKS:

a) Artifical lakes built on dams are called .

b) Rivers of melting ice are called .

c) Bits of glaciers that have ‘calved off’ from the main glacier and are floating in the sea are called .

d) Godwin Austin, Baltoro, Biafo, Siachen, and Hispar are some important of .

e) Water comes out through cracks and in the Earth’s crust.

f) The purest form of water is water.

QUESTION:3 Complete the following phrases.

a) Caspian Sea is unusual because .

b) Water from springs is collected and bottled near its because .

c) Reservoirs are important because .

d) Water comes out through cracks in the Earth’s surface because .

QUESTION:4 CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

a) Lakes are bodies of (sweet, salty, bitter) water surrounded by (mountains, hills, land) on all sides.

b) Rivers of melting ice are called . (frozen water, icy rivers, glaciers)

c) Hidden icebergs have many ships. (rescued, hidden, destroyed)

d) Springs are natural (chunks, fountains, rivers) of water that gush forth from underground sources.

CHAPTER 11

Natural Disasters

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 87

QUESTION:1 Use your dictionary to find out what the following terms mean

i. foreshock

ii. aftershock

ANSWER:1 i. Small tremors that occur before the main quake because rocks deep inside the earth start to move ii. Small tremors that occur after the main quake because rocks deep inside the earth seek space to settle down

QUESTION:2 What causes earthquakes?

ANSWER:2 Rock movement beneath the Earth’s surface owing to plate movements/ tectonic activity.

QUESTION:3 Describe the three ways in which volcanoes are formed.

ANSWER:3 i. When convergent and divergent oceanic and continental plates move, they cause cracks or fissures to open in the crust. ii. Permanent cracks in the Earth’s crust called hot spots allow magma to come to surface. iii. Stretching and thinning of Earth’s crust.

QUESTION:4 What are dormant volcanoes?

ANSWER:4 Volcanoes that have not erupted for a very long time and there are no chances of their erupting in the future

QUESTION:5 Why does flooding occur?

ANSWER:5 Because there is more water in a river’s channel than it can hold and water overflows onto land. There are many reasons for surplus water in a river.

QUESTION: 6. Why is a flood called a disaster?

A 6. Floods cause huge damage to life and property, to individuals and countries.

QUESTION:7. What is a tsunami?

A 7. A huge wave that slams on to land because of tectonic activity/earthquake in the seabed

WORKSHEET 1 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 In your own words, explain how each of the following can worsen floods.

a) Water in the soil from earlier rains

b) Construction in drainage basins

c) Deforestation

d) Dry, impermeable soil

QUESTION:2 You have been appointed in charge of the Emergency Management Unit of your town or city. For the last three years, devastating floods have been causing great damage to the city. You have studied the situation and these are your findings: Floods occurred because of heavy rainfalls. Factors tha

c) no de-silting has been done in the last four years and the river bed has become higher. Damages caused include loss of lives, destruction of property, road closures. Task: Prepare a report on the situation. Contents should include: why these floods occur, what damage they cause, how do you plan to minimize damages and losses to life and property, what material, equipment, supplies, and other kinds of help are required Photocopiable material

WORKSHEET 2 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 FILL IN THE BLANKS:

a) The machine used to record the magnitude of an earthquake is called a .

b) A record of seismic waves is called a .

c) The strength of an earthquake is called its .

d) The point below the Earth’s surface where the rock breaks or gives way is where the waves are given out. This point is called the .

e) The is on the ground, just above the area affected by an earthquake.

QUESTION:2 Differentiate between the following pairs of words:

a) epicenter and focus

b) seismograph and seismometer

c) fault and boundary

d) Richter scale and magnitude

QUESTION:3 Make a list of damages caused during an earthquake. Use the textbook for support, but think and add some more of your own as well. Photocopiable material

QUESTION:4 If you were living in or close to an earthquake zone, what measures would you take to protect

(a) yourself, your family, and property

(b) other people and your city or town? Photocopiable material

QUESTION:5Make a labelled diagram showing how a tsunami occurs.

QUESTION:6 Why do tsunamis occur?

QUESTION:7 Make a list of damages a tsunami can cause. Photocopiable material

WORKSHEET 3 DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Mark the following on the diagram. crater, ash cloud, lava flow, throat, magma chamber, lava, magma, branch pipe, side vent

QUESTION:2 What are:

a) convergent and divergent plates

b) volcano and volcanic eruptions

c) lava and magma

QUESTION:3 Why are volcanic eruptions dangerous?

CHAPTER 12

Industries in Pakistan

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 95

QUESTION:1 What is an industry?

ANSWER:1 Industry refers to everything connected to the production of goods and services.

QUESTION:2 How many kinds of industries are there?

ANSWER:2 Three. Primary, secondary, and tertiary

QUESTION:3 Name the major industries of Pakistan and give reasons for their growth in Pakistan.

ANSWER:3 Textile: availability of raw material. Sugar: constant demand. Cement: growth of construction sector

QUESTION:4 Discuss three factors affecting the growth of industries.

ANSWER:4 Discussion of any three of the factors described on pages 92–93.

WORKSHEET DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Answer the following questions.

a) Into how many kinds can industry be classified?

b) Why is agriculture an industry? What kind of an industry is it?

c) Why is it important for a country to have a well-developed industrial sector? Make a list of reasons.

d) In your own words, explain why the following industries are important for Pakistan.

i) Automobile

 ii) Sugar

 iii) Textile

iv) Cottage industries

CHAPTER 13

TRADE

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 100

QUESTION:1 What is the difference between international trade and local trade?

ANSWER:1 International trade is between different countries, local trade (also known as domestic trade) is within a city or between different cities of the same country.

QUESTION:2 How can importing too much be a problem for a country?

ANSWER:2 Importing too much means we are spending too much. If we have the money to spend on imports, it means we are losing foreign exchange. If we don’t have the money, it means we have to borrow money to pay the seller and will be under debt.

QUESTION:3 Describe the various states of the balance of payment in your own words.

ANSWER:3 Reference on pages 97–98.

WORKSHEET DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Complete the following statements.

a) Local trade means b) Before the creation of money

c) Pakistan’s major exports include

d) Pakistan’s major imports include

e) Factors affecting trade are

QUESTION:2 Who is Pakistan’s major trading partner?

CHAPTER 14

 Some Major Cities in Asia

Content review page: 105

QUESTION:1 Which one of these urban centres is not part of the Islamic world?

ANSWER:1 Shanghai

QUESTION:2 In which city is Mughal emperor Babur’s grandfather buried?

ANSWER:2 Tashkent

QUESTION:3 Which city do you think has the closest ties to Pakistan? Give reasons

ANSWER:3 Open ended question. Students may cite any city as answer but support it with reasons. Dhaka was part of East Pakistan once; Tehran is in a neighbouring country; Shanghai is notable for Pakistan’s brotherly relations with China; Tashkent is important for our cultural heritage.

QUESTION:4 Consult your atlas and write down the map coordinates (latitude and longitude) for each of these cities.

ANSWER:4 Dhaka: 23.7W 90.4E; Tehran: 35.7W 51.4E; Shanghai: 31.2W 121.4E; Tashkent: 41.2W 69.2E

WORKSHEET DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Complete the table.

  Dhaka Shanghai Tehran Tashkent Your city
Religious building          
Library          
Museum          
Educational institution          
Leisure and entertainment          
Parks and gardens          
Monuments          
Government building          

QUESTION:2Give one word answers.

a) World’s ninth largest urban centre

b) The urban centre which is not a capital city

c) Rickshaw capital of the world

d) A tea house in one of the urban cities

e) A monument symbolizing modern Iran

QUESTION:3 Answer the following questions:

a) Why do you think Dhaka is called the rickshaw capital of the world?

b) What kind of people live in each of these urban centres? Write your answers under four brief headed paragraphs.

c) Which urban centre has two international airports? Name both the airports.

d) What are some of the titles given to Tashkent?

e) What does the word Tashkent mean? Photocopiable material

f) Comment on the historical richness of Tashkent.

CHAPTER 15

Patriotism p:107

Content review page:111

QUESTION:1 What are some advantages of patriotism?

ANSWER:1 Patriotism: • gives a sense of pride and belonging • positive feelings about one’s own country generates hope. A person with hope can work more constructively. • a feeling of national spirit binds people together to work towards a common goal, their country • encourages people to do good for their country. This brings glory to the nation and generates respect for it. • by being patriotic, you are actually safeguarding the freedom and rights of all the citizens.

QUESTION:2 in what ways can patriotism damage our country?

ANSWER:2 Sometimes people develop hatred and negative feelings for other nations, a danger which can create problems for a country instead of helping it progress. This feeling is also called nationalism. Experienced in excess, this feeling of animosity creates destructive emotions in people. Destructive emotions, as the name suggests, lead to destructive acts which give the nation a bad name and bring down the rate of progress. Individuals and communities suffer. Many immigrants don’t know which country they should feel more love for—the country from which they have migrated or the one they presently live in.

QUESTION:3 How can a student display patriotism?

ANSWER:3 Open-ended discussion.

WORKSHEET DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Make up your own statement on patriotism based on what it means to you.

QUESTION:2 Answer the following questions.

a) What does patriotism mean?

b) Do students also need to be patriotic? Why? Write down some of the ways in which students can show their patriotism.

c) Explain this quote: “He loves his country best who strives to make it best.” d) Who was Rashid Minhas? Photocopiable material

e) Who was Mati-ur-Rehman?

f) What was Rashid’s heroic feat?

g) What award was he given and why?

CHAPTER 16

LOOKING AFTER SENIOR CITIZENS

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 114

QUESTION: 1 Why do senior citizens become irritable?

ANSWER:1 They become irritated and frustrated because they have lost the energy to work and have become dependent on people to get their work done. This upsets them.

QUESTION:2 How can we benefit from the presence of a senior citizen in our, house?

ANSWER:2 They can guide us about what is right and wrong because they have seen more in life than we have. We can enjoy their company by listening to their stories. They can help us out with our chores. Some children love it when their grandparents pick them up from school.

CHAPTER 17

RESPECTING LAW and Authority

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 116

QUESTION:1 Why do some people not respect law and authority?

ANSWER:1 Self-importance, selfishness

QUESTION:2 What are the benefits of respecting law and authority?

ANSWER:2 There is peace, justice, and progress for everyone

WORKSHEET DATE:———————————-NAME:—————————————–

QUESTION:1 Explain the following quote: “It is the respect for law and authority that separates a civilized nation from an ignorant one.”

QUESTION:2 Write down three ways in which we can show respect to law and authority.

QUESTION:3 What is law? Why are laws important?

QUESTION:4 What is authority?

QUESTION:5What is the purpose of having a system of law and authority?

CHAPTER 18

RESPECTING FRIENDS AND PEERS

CONTENT REVIEW PAGE: 120

QUESTION:1 Why should we be careful while joking with our friends? Give three reasons.

ANSWER:1 To avoid: hurting the friends’ feelings, getting them into trouble, causing them damage or harm, making them angry

QUESTION:2 Why do our friends need respect from us?

ANSWER:2 Open-ended question

Answer Key Chapter 1

 a) peace, security

b) central

c) because of the fear of pirates

d) Arabs’ fair governance

e) They wanted to spread Islam and gain the fabled wealth of India

Chapter 2

QUESTION:1

a) Turk, Persian

b) Ghazni

c) son-in-law

d) father

e) Lahore

f) Somnath

g) Masud

QUESTION:2

a) They felt threatened by the rising Muslim power in their land.

b) Rajas of the Hindu Shahi dynasty; they rose against Alptagin and Sabuktagin.

c) Masud, Maudud, Bahram Shah, Khusro Shah, and Khusro Malik

d) In 1186, after Bahram Shah fled to Lahore

QUESTION:3 Open-ended question

QUESTION:4 Strengths: astute, fearless, inspired loyalty and courage, good planner, possessed wisdom and foresight, humble Weakness: over-ambitious, did not stay to consolidate his rule

QUESTION:5

a. Alaptagin: founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, brave and competent leader who managed to rule with a small but well-trained army

b. Sabuktagin: first Muslim to enter the subcontinent from the north, brave and competent, defeated Jaipal

c. Mahmud Ghaznavi: the most powerful ruler of his time, defeated the Indians, conquered Somnath, established Muslim rule in India

d. Maudud Shah: Mahmud’s son, not as capable and competent as him

e. Bahram Shah: caused the decline of the Ghaznavid empire; killed two Ghori brothers which toppled the Ghaznavid kingdom

QUESTION:6

a) 17

b) slave

c) Ghori

d) 1030

e) Sejluk Turks and Hindus

QUESTION:7 Across: 1. adversary; 2. tribute; 4. foresight; 6. skirmishes. Down: 1. astute; 2. booty; 5. artists Chapter 3

QUESTION:1

a) Alauddin, 7

b) Lahore

c) Shahabuddin Mohammad Ghori

d) Ghyasuddin e) Banaras

QUESTION:2

a) Because he set Ghazni, the most developed city of that time, on fire. It is not a title of appreciation—shows what he is remembered for, the destruction of the city

b) Alauddin, Sultan Ghyasuddin, Shahabuddin Mohammad Ghori

c) Shahabuddin

d) Multan 1175, Sindh 1182, Lahore 1186

e) Ghori’s slave, loyal general and governor, assisted Ghori in all his battles, succeeded Ghori as the next ruler

f) When Shahabuddin Ghori was assassinated by unknown men in 1206

QUESTION:3 Prithviraj, ruler of Ajmer and Delhi, was a formidable enemy for Ghori. Ghori challenged him to the first Battle of Tarain but lost because Prithvi’s army was stronger, and Ghori’s men deserted him because they assumed him dead. Ghori returned with a stronger army and defeated and killed Prithvi in the second battle in 1192.

QUESTION:4

a) Alauddin

 b) Lahore, life

c) Shahabuddin Ghori

d) Banaras

e) punished

Date Event

1151 Bahram Shah kills two Ghori brothers; Alauddin ransacks Ghazni

1175 Arrival of Ghoris in India; Shahabuddin captures Multan

1182 Shahabuddin captures Sindh

1186 Shahabuddin captures Lahore

1192 Shahabuddin wins second Battle of Tarain; Prithviraj is defeated and killed

1206 Ghori’s death

Chapter 4 WORKSHEET 1

QUESTION:1

a) True

 b) False–famous for generosity

c) False–slave and son-in-law

d) False–she was the first female Muslim ruler in history.

e) False–he was a religious man and loved reading the Quran

QUESTION:2

a) Nasiruddin Mahmud

b) Qutubuddin Aibak

c) Bahram Shah

d) Iltutmish

e) Ghyasuddin Balban

QUESTION:3 Open-ended question

QUESTION:4

a) Qutbuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultana, Nasiruddin Mahmud, Ghiyasuddin Balban b) Quwwat-ul-Islam is a mosque and Qutub Minar is a victory monument commissioned by Aibak. c) His succession was challenged by Aibak’s other generals; constant attacks by Changez Khan. d) A Mongol emperor e) Razia Sultana was Iltutmish’s daughter and the first female Muslim ruler of India. Malik Altunia was her husband. They were harassed by her brother and other nobles, and finally killed. f) Trusted generals of Aibak

WORKSHEET 2 Page 22:

QUESTION:1

a) Jalaluddin Khilji

b) son

c) Ghyasuddin Tughlaq

d) Sayyid Dynasty

e) Ibrahim Lodhi

QUESTION:2

a) He was fair and just in his dealings and a committed ruler.

b) Because his ideas often failed and that would make him angry.

c) There were conflicts and power tussles as to who would be the successor.

d) He was instigated against his uncle by court nobles.

QUESTION:3 Mohammad bin Tughlaq–

Strengths: brilliant, learned, well-versed in religion, literature and other subjects, a thinker and planner

Weaknesses: ambitious, became frustrated when his ideas failed

Ghiyasuddin Balban–

Strengths: capable ruler, courageous, prudent, problem-solving ability, confident, possessed foresight Weaknesses: cunning

Bahlol Lodhi–

Strengths: competent, pious and humble, treated people with respect, interested in welfare of people Allauddin Khilji–

Strengths: good administrator, concerned about well-being of people, remorse over wrong-doing, strict and fair ruler, self-taught and interested in education Weaknesses: reckless and impulsive Nasiruddin Mahmud–Strengths: experienced, pious Weaknesses: not interested in ruling, overly passive

Firoze Shah Tughlaq–

Strengths: interested in welfare of people, started welfare projects, fair and just, kind, generous Weaknesses: could not match Timur’s attacks

Ibrahim Lodhi–Strengths: competent ruler. Weaknesses: hot-tempered, tactless, lacked sincerity and drive to maintain an empire

QUESTION:4 Ruler Troublemakers Action Firoze Shah Tughlaq Timur could not match Timur Allauddin Khilji the Mongols repelled their attacks with the help of his brothers Ghiyasuddin Balban the Mongols they killed his son, he was heart-broken, died a year later Ibrahim Lodhi the nobles of his court defeated by Babur Jalaluddin Khilji his nephew Allauddin killed by Allauddin

Chapter 5

QUESTION:1

a) Farghana

b) nobles

c) Dolat Lodhi

d) Humayun

e) Panipat

f) 22

g) Tehmasp

 h) Umerkot

i) 1556

QUESTION:2

a) Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodhi.

b) Canon and matchlock rifles c) 1526

d) encouraged learning, organized his army, strengthened his empire

e) 4 years Q.3

a) HINDALZZPEYDGLPOFET

b) EAKEBSHERSHAHSURIH

c) HAQBAIRAMKHANWALI

d) ABCCHAMIDABANOSPTT

e) HUMTEHMASPBEHMANO

f) PWRGULBADANABSHA

QUESTION:4

a) He lacked experience in state and administration matters, his stepbrothers and court nobles created problems instead of cooperating, and attacks from the Lodhi princes and Sher Shah Suri were troublesome.

b) He had nowhere else to turn to for support and he wandered from place to place in that direction.

c) Because no one else supported him.

d) 15 years e) 5 years, 10 years

f) Sher Shah’s successors were incompetent rulers.

g) His son Jalaluddin Akbar h) Humayun’s trusted general

QUESTION:5 Open-ended question

Chapter 6

QUESTION:1

 a) 1556, 1605

b) questioning

c) Makkah

 d) Islam, Hinduism

e) Nauratan

QUESTION:2

a) Bairam Khan, because Akbar was a minor

b) Akbar’s mother. She made sure he recei ved education and training apprropriate for a king. c) Akbar had an independent mind and did not want anyone’s advice, and this turned Bairam Khan against him.

d) Because of Bairam Khan’s loyalty to him and his late father. He was a grateful man and appreciated a good deed done to him or his family.

e) Farsi

QUESTION:4

 (a) “He introduced a new system of belief………between the Muslims and Hindus.”

(b) “He was an astute………as a guardian.”

Chapter 7 WORKSHEET 1

QUESTION:1

a) Salim

b) grandson

c) 1607, 1627

d) son

QUESTION:2

 a) Jahangir killed their leader Guru Arjun Singh.

b) giving them honour and important positions in his court.

c) his wisdom, justice, and fairness

QUESTION:3

Raja Man Singh: Jahangir’s father in law and Khusro’s grandfather who wanted Khusro to be king instead of Prince Khurram

Khusro Mirza: Jahangir’s son and Raja Man Singh’s grandson who led a revolt against Jahangir and favoured the Sikhs

Nur Jahan: Jahangir’s favourite queen known for her wisdom and foresight

Thomas Roe: the first English ambassador to the Mughal court whose tact and diplomacy won Jahangir over and he gave the British the permission to trade with India

QUESTION:4

Name Helped by Nature of trouble Outcome/solution

Khusro Raja Man Singh and the Sikhs revolt against Jahangir Jahangir quelled the rebellions

Afghans of Bihar challenged to battle tactfully sorted by Jahangir by giving them honour and important positions in court

 Asaf Khan his father Aitemadud-Daulah wanted full control of the empire took Jahangir into confidence, slowly took over matters of state, married his daughter to Khurram.

WORKSHEET 2

QUESTION:1

a) 1627

b) Maratha

c) Golden

QUESTION:2

a) 1627

b) the Marathas

c) weaken the Mughal empire

d) Moti Mahal, Lal Qila, Jama Masjid, Diwan-e-Aam, Diwan-e-Khas, Shahjahani Masjid, and the Taj Mahal QUESTION:3 i. His son Shivaji continued his father’s anti-Mugal struggle. ii. 1657 iii. There was a tussle for power among his successors.

WORKSHEET 3

QUESTION:1

a) 1660

b) son

c) constant battles

QUESTION:2

a) He instigated and supported all those who were against Aurangzaib and the Mughals, resorted to plunder, provoked local rulers and the Mughal army to battles.

b) Introduced Islamic sharia, did away with the Deen-e-Ilahi and other influences in religion, worked for the welfare of all his subjects

c) Open-ended question

 Chapter 8

QUESTION:1

a) sea

b) coasts or coastal areas

c) wave

d) tsunami

e) same

f) direction

QUESTION:2

a) False–they have ridges and trenches (like hills and valleys on land.)

b) False–the shallowest parts receive most sunlight.

c) False–the weaker the wind, the smaller the waves will be.

d) True

e) False–the Moon’s pull is the strongest during high tides.

QUESTION:3

a) Inland seas are almost completely surrounded by land and coastal area is the land around the sea.

b) Spring tide is a high tide caused during full and half moons, when gravity is exerted by the Sun and the Moon in the same direction; neap tides are high tides created at quarter moons when the Sun and the Moon exert force in different directions.

c) Ridges are small hills and trenches are small valleys in the ocean bed.

d) Surface currents are currents that are on the ocean surface; deep water currents occur under water at various depths.

e) Waves are the rising and falling movement of the water as a result of strong winds; tides are the surging and retreating movements of an ocean or sea due to gravitational pull; currents are the flow of water in an ocean or a sea in a definite direction, due to uneven heating of water surfaces.

QUESTION:4 Open-ended question

QUESTION:7

a) An earthquake in the ocean bed

b) A huge wave rises and crashes on to land

c) Because of the Earth’s rotation

d) Hurl people, boats and ships over long distances and smash them against mountains and other rocky surfaces in coastal areas

e) Can drag a person or object away from the shore towards the ocean

Chapter 9

QUESTION:1 Strait: Strait of Malacca, Strait of Dover, Magellan Strait, Strait of Gibraltar, Bass Strait, Bering Strait Peninsula: Arabia, Balkan, Scandinavian, Iberian Cape: Cape Cod, Cape Verde, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Horn

Archipelago: Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, Aegean Sea, Maldives Isthmus: Panama, Suez, Bosphorus Bay: Bay of Bengal, Hudson Bay, Bay of Biscay, Fundy Bay, James Bay, Hawkes Bay Gulf: the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aqabah, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Eden

QUESTION:2 From top left: bay, gulf, archipelago From bottom left: strait, cape, isthmus, peninsula

 QUESTION:3

a) created when rocks break down

b) four smaller peninsulas c) pointed, curved, or hooked piece of land extended into the sea

d) a sheltered c-shaped landform created when the sea pushes into land

e) a narrow waterway separating two landmasses

f) a narrow strip of land connecting two land masses and separating two bodies of water

g) a group of islands clustered together in an ocean or sea

QUESTION:4

 a) peninsula

b) cape

c) bay

d) gulf

e) strait

f) isthmus

g) archipelago

QUESTION 5.

 a) resistant

b) peninsula

c) gulf

d) Malay

e) 60,000

QUESTION:6

a) Unusual features or shapes of land

b) Erosion: rocks and rock surfaces are broken down, transported, and deposited. Tectonic activity: plate movements create rifts and valleys.

Chapter 10 WORKSHEET 1

QUESTION:1

a) Drainage basin

b) Watershed

c) Floodplains

d) Tributaries

e) Confluence

f) Meanders

QUESTION:2

a) As a river flows, it erodes. Then it transports and deposits the eroded material and changes the landscape of a place.

 b) From north to south; Nile, which flows south to north

c) Glaciers, springs, lakes, rainfall

d) By the effect of water flowing over alternate layers of hard and soft rock. Soft rock is less resistant and erodes faster, creating a ledge of hard rock. Water falls quickly over this layer and drops sharply to the base, forming a plunge pool.

 e) The place where it meets or joins the sea

f) To prevent flooding, to keep the water clean, to prevent water from becoming stagnant, to prevent the clogging of outlets

g) Provide drinking water, silt from rivers is fertile, fish and other animals that come to rivers can be used as food, leisure activities, transportation, creating hydro-electric power, construction of dams

QUESTION:3

a) True

b) False–found in the upper course because water flows the fastest there

c) False–excellent habitat for flora and fauna

d) False–a turn or bend in a river is called a meander

e) True

QUESTION:4 pollution, drying up, silting, flooding

QUESTION:5

a) Mediterranean, Africa

b) river system

c) floodplains

d) meanders

e) unfit

WORKSHEET 2

QUESTION:1

a) i. Lakes ii. Glaciers iii. Springs

b) i. Lakes are bodies of fresh water surrounded by land ii. Glaciers are rivers of melting ice iii. Springs are natural fountain of water that gush or trickle out from the ground.

c) i. Natural and artificial lakes are used as reservoirs for storing water. ii. Glaciers are also freshwater sources in frozen form. Many rivers and springs begin from glaciers. iii. Springs contain the most minerals, are the purest source of water

d) Saiful Muluk, Hanna, Mahodand, Rawal, Satpara e) Permeable allows liquid or gas to pass or seep through, impermeable does not.

QUESTION:2

a) reservoirs

b) glaciers

c) icebergs

d) glaciers, Pakistan

e) fissures

f) spring

QUESTION:3

a) it is a large lake, surrounded by land and yet its water is salty.

b) source, water is the purest and contains most minerals at this stage.

c) they store water.

d) impermeable rocks will not allow it to pass any further.

QUESTION:4

a) sweet, land

b) glaciers

c) destroyed

d) fountains

Chapter 11 WORKSHEET 1

QUESTION:1

a) the land is like a wet sponge or towel, saturated with water, cannot absorb any more, causes flooding

b) Concrete impermeable, does not allow water to pass through, water runs off very fast, causing floods

c) Trees slow down the flow of water and also cause it to change direction. With no trees, water runs very fast in one channel and causes floods.

d) Impermeable, does not allow water to be absorbed

QUESTION:2 Open-ended question

WORKSHEET 2

QUESTION:1

a) seismometer

b) seismograph

c) magnitude

d) seismic, focus

e) epicenter

QUESTION:2

a) epicenter is the area above the ground over the focus of an earthquake and focus is the point below the ground exactly where the earthquake occurs.

b) seismograph is the record of seismic waves; seismometer is a machine to detect seismic waves

c) fault is a crack or break in the Earth’s crust; boundary is the edge of a plate

d) Richter scale is a scale that indicates the magnitude of an earthquake; magnitude is the strength or intensity of an earthquake

QUESTION:3 Open-ended question

QUESTION:4 Open-ended question

QUESTION:6 Because of earthquakes in the ocean or sea bed

QUESTION:7 Open-ended question

WORKSHEET 3

QUESTION:2

a) Convergent plates collide and push into each other; divergent plates move or pull away from each other.

b) Volcano is a cone-shaped mountain that emits lava and other volcanic material; volcanic eruption is when a volcano sends out lava and other volcanic material through a vent or opening.

c) Lava is the molten rock that erupts from a volcano; magma is molten rock inside a volcano.

QUESTION:3 They cause widespread destruction.

Chapter 12

QUESTION:1

a) Three: primary or extractive, secondary or manufacturing, tertiary or services

b) Produces goods for other industries as raw material. Primary industry

c) To provide employment, increase local production, improve standard of living, self-sufficiency, descrease dependence on imports, earn revenue from exports, efficient utilization of resources, progress and development, technology and expertise

d) Open-ended question

Chapter 13

QUESTION:1

 a) buying and selling within a country

b) commodities were exchanged for other commodities

c) cotton textiles, rice, leather goods, carpets, sports goods, handicrafts, fish, and fruit

d) industrial equipment and machinery, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore, edible oil, pulses and tea

e) availability of natural resources, communication network, social and trading relationships, law and order situation, government policies, regional cooperation, value of currency

QUESTION:2 European Union 15%

Chapter 14

QUESTION:1 Research-based question

QUESTION:2

a) Dhaka

b) Shanghai

c) Dhaka

d) Chaikhana

e) Azadi Tower

QUESTION:3

 a) Because of the large number of rickshaws in the city

b) Open-ended question

c) Tehran–Imam Khomeini International Airport and Meherabad International Airport

d) City of friendship, city of peace, city of bread

e) Stone city

f) Part of many historical eras especially during Persian, Mughal, and Mongol rules, witnessed Islamic conquests Civics

Chapter 15

QUESTION:1 Open-ended question

QUESTION:2

a) Loving your country and being willing to make sacrifices for it

b) Open-ended question

c) Open-ended question

Chapter 14

QUESTION:1 Research-based question

QUESTION:2

a) Dhaka

b) Shanghai

c) Dhaka

d) Chaikhana

e) Azadi Tower

QUESTION:3

a) Because of the large number of rickshaws in the city

b) Open-ended question

c) Tehran–Imam Khomeini International Airport and Meherabad International Airport

d) City of friendship, city of peace, city of bread

e) Stone city

f) Part of many historical eras especially during Persian, Mughal, and Mongol rules, witnessed Islamic conquests Civics

Chapter 15

QUESTION:1 Open-ended question

QUESTION:2

a) Loving your country and being willing to make sacrifices for it

b) Open-ended question

c) Open-ended question

d) A trained fighter pilot from Lahore, who prevented his aircraft from being hijacked by crashing it

e) A Bengali flight instructor who wanted to hijack the aircraft and take it to Bangladesh

f) He thwarted the hijack by crashing it and lost his life in the attempt.

g) Nishan-e-Haider–the highest military award for bravery

Chapter 17

QUESTION:1 Open-ended question

QUESTION:2 Following rules ourselves; encouraging others to follow them; enforce rules fairly if we are in authority

QUESTION:3 A collection of rules that all people of a society must follow; to ensure justice, security, peace, and harmony for everyone fairly

QUESTION:4 A person or group of persons who are given the task of making sure that rules are followed

QUESTION:5Gives everyone a fair chance to live in a society; offers protection, compensation and benefits, as well as punishments to wrongdoers

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.