NOTES/SOLVED EXERCISES : KNOW YOUR WORLD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 5 FARHAT MANSOOB OXFORD 2018-19

 

NOTES/SOLVED EXERCISES : KNOW YOUR WORLD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 5 FARHAT MANSOOB OXFORD 2018-19

Contents

unit 1 THE EARTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

unit 2 MAP- READING SKILLS

unit 3 MAP- READING SKILLS

unit 4 CITIZENSHIP

unit 5 LIFE STYLES

UNIT 1 THE EARTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT PAGE: 1-21

P:6

CONTENT REVIEW:

GOING FURTHER:

1- what is a region? Give an example.

ANSWER:

 

2- list the different regions of Pakistan based on physical characteristics and for each of them name a similar region in a different part of world. 

ANSWER:

 

3- how do the people  living in the different physical regions of Pakistan and similar regions of the World make a living?

ANSWER:

 

P:14

CONTENT REVIEW:

1- WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Weather and climate?

ANSWER:

Weather is the conditions in the atmosphere such as wind, rain, or temperature, at a particular time in a particular area.

Climate is the general weather conditions found at a particular place for at least 30 years.

  1. What are the different factors that affect weather and how are they measured?

ANSWER:

The different factors that affect weather are

temperature,

precipitation,

humidity,

wind, and

air pressure.

They are measured by thermometer, rain gauge, hygrometer, wind vane, and anemometer respectively

  1. WHY do different parts of the world have different climates‘?

ANSWER:

There are three reasons for different climates in the world.

ONE is latitude: at the Equator, the distance between the Earth and the Sun is the least, therefore, the areas closest to the Equator experience a hot climate. The further the region is from the Equator, the cooler its climate.

SECOND is sea level: the higher a place, the cooler it is because temperature decreases by 1°C with every 200 metres of altitude.

The THIRD reason is distance from the sea: in summer the sea is cooler than the land and so the cool breezes blowing across the sea keep the coastal regions cooler than regions lying inland.

In winter, the reverse happens and the warm sea breezes keep the temperature mild in the regions near the sea.

  1. Name the different climatic regions of the world and say where they are located.

ANSWER:

There are SIX main climatic regions of the world:

Climatic regions Location

POLAR coldest parts of the world

MOUNTAIN high altitude mountains

TEMPERATE areas with moderate temperature

TROPICAL hot and humid areas with heavy rainfall

DESERT hot temperature in the day and freezing at night

EQUATORIAL areas which are hot and humid throughout the year and receive violent thunderstorms

  1. Describe the climates of the different physical regions of Pakistan and say how they affect the lives of people living there.

ANSWER:

There are five climatic regions in Pakistan:

THE MOUNTAINOUS REGION: In these areas winters are long and extremely cold. The temperature often stays below 0°C. These areas receive heavy snowfall in winter and heavy rainfall in summer. Because of this, the people who live here have a hard life.

THE PLAINS REGION: In these areas summers are long and hot. People have to abandon outdoor work during the hottest part of the day. As there is not enough rainfall, farmers have to irrigate their fields.

THE DESERT REGION: Summers and winters are both extreme in these areas and it rarely rains. People have a hard life.

THE COASTAL REGION: Moderate temperature in both summer and winter. Winters are mild but short. There is little rainfall in these areas. People living in these areas find the weather most pleasant.

THE PLATEAU REGION: These areas enjoy hot summers and mild winters and receive considerable rainfall in summer. People are engaged in agriculture, but they have to bear the hot weather. GO

 

GOING FURTHER:

Can people affect climate?

P:17

CONTENT REVIEW:

Question No. 1. Explain the term ‘greenhouse effect’ and how it affects the Earth’s climate.

 

ANSWER:

  1. The heat from the Sun heats up the Earth. This heat is radiated back into space but is blocked by the envelope of greenhouse gases around the Earth. Normally, this is good for us; if this did not happen and all the heat was radiated out, the temperature of the Earth would be 15° cooler. However, the problem that has now arisen is because of the reckless burning of fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases. With the increase in carbon emissions, the temperature on Earth is beginning to rise. Even a small increase in the global temperature leads to significant climate and weather changes, affecting rainfall, wind patterns, the frequency and severity of storms, and the duration of seasons.

Question No. 2. Sag what steps people can take to limit their contribution to the greenhouse effect.

ANSWER:

  1. People should reduce their use of fossil fuels, and stop wastage of natural resources. They should buy and use products made from recycled material. Reduce, reuse, and recycle. Tell family and friends that energy efficiency is good for their homes and good for the environment because it lowers greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.

GOING FURTHER:

Natural disasters

P:21

CONTENT REVIEW:

Question No: 1 List some types of natural disasters and sag how they occur

ANSWER:

  1. Cyclones: Cyclones develop when the sea is heated by the Sun and the air above the water warms up and rises. Upon reaching height it cools down, becomes loaded with moisture, and takes the form of very thick thunder clouds. These clouds can develop into a cyclone. Floods: When rainfall is so heavy that the soil’s rate of absorption is not fast enough, water starts to collect on the surface and this results in flooding. Sometimes a river overflows its banks when, because of heavy rainfall, there is more water than it can hold. Avalanche: An avalanche occurs when masses of snow and ice slide down mountain slopes.

Question No:2 Describe how an earthquake occurs.

ANSWER:

  1. The Earth’s interior is semi-solid on which float the huge plates which form the Earth’s crust. These plates move very slowly in different directions. When they rub against each other, they cause the surface of the Earth to shake. This causes earthquakes.

Question No:3 What safety measures should be taken during a strong earthquake?

ANSWER:

  1. In case of an earthquake, we should take cover under anything strong like a table or a desk which would protect us from falling objects. When the quake stops, we should immediately move outside to an open area away from buildings.

GOING FURTHER:

UNIT 2 MAP- READING SKILLS PAGE:22-32

The globe and maps (Part I)

CONTENT REVIEW: P : 27

QUESTION No. 1. Look at the grid references given below. Using an atlas, find which places are located at each of them.

33 degree N, 73 degree E

32 degree N, 74 degreeE

1 degree N, 104 degree E

21 degree N, 39 degree E

40 degree N, 73 degree W

ANSWER:

  1. The Equator is a line of latitude across the middle of the Earth that divides a world map into the Northern and Southern hemispheres; the Prime Meridian is a line of longitude that runs North to South and divides the Earth into the Eastern and Western hemispheres.

QUESTION No. l be select a line of latitude that

  1. On a map of the world or a g o rea of land mass Write down the na goes through an .e of the cities or towns found on or near that line of some of latitude. Find out about the climate of those places and comment on any similarities or differences.

ANSWER:

  1. Lines of latitude: These are imaginary lines which run from east to west on the globe, parallel to the Equator. Lines of longitude: these are the imaginary lines that run from north to south on the globe and meet at the North and South Poles. 3. An index in an atlas helps us to find a country, a city, or a landform on a map by referring to the latitude and longitude of its location.

GOING FURTHER:

The globe and maps (Part II)

CONTENT REVIEW: P : 32

QUESTION No. 1 Determine the direction of Singapore from Lahore using like and longitudes on the world map.

 

ANSWER:

  1. 105° East and 1° North

QUESTION No. 2. Describe the relationship between time zones and lines of longitude.

 

ANSWER:

  1. Longitude is used to divide the world into 24 time zones, each covering an area of 15 degrees of longitude. The number of time zones corresponds with the 24 hours of the day.

QUESTION No. 3. What times are shown in the time zone given in your book for Being, London, Moscow, and Washington D.C.?

 

ANSWER:

  1. (Students will have to refer to a world map to do this question in order to determine the location of these cities.) Beijing: 9 a.m; London: 12 midnight; Moscow: 3 a.m; Washington D.C: 8 p.m.

QUESTION No. 4. Wild kind at a map would you use if you wanted to find

  1. a road in a city?
  2. We neighbouring countries of Pakistan?
  3. different Landforms of Pakistan‘?
  4. the number of people Living in Pakistan’s four different provinces?
  5. the climate of area?
  6. What is scale shown on a map?

 

ANSWER:

  1. a) a city guide b) political map of Pakistan
  2. c) physical map of Pakistan
  3. d) population map of Pakistan
  4. e) climate map
  5. Scales are shown on maps because it is impossible to draw a life-size map, therefore the actual size of an area is reduced by a constant factor. For example, a small area may be shown on the map as 1000 times smaller than it really is.

 

GOING FURTHER:

UNIT 3 OUR PAST AND OUR PRESENT  PAGE: 33-56

Calendars

CONTENT REVIEW: P : 35

QUESTION No. 1. Explain the basis of the solar and lunar calendars.

 

ANSWER:

  1. The lunar calendar is based on the movement of the moon around the Earth and the solar calendar is based on the orbit of the Earth around the Sun.

QUESTION No. 2. Why are the solar and lunar calendars important for us?

 

ANSWER:

  1. The lunar calendar is important for us as it is used for confirming the days for religious celebrations and observances. Since almost all countries of the world follow the solar calendar, it is important for us to use it too so that we follow a common schedule of events.

QUESTION No. 3. Explain the difference in the number of days in the solar and lunar gears.

  1. How long is each of the following: a decade, a century, a millennium?

ANSWER:

3.

Solar Calendar Lunar Calendar
The year is based on the number of days the Earth takes to make a complete revolution around the Sun The year is based on the number of days the moon takes to make one complete revolution around the Earth, added up for 12 months
365 full days and an extra quarter day each year (The quarter days are added up to make 366 days in the Leap Year.) 354 days

4.

QUESTION No. 3. Explain the difference in the number of days in the solar and lunar gears.

  1. How long is each of the following: a decade, a century, a millennium?

ANSWER:

A decade ten years

A century one hundred years

A millennium one thousand years

GOING FURTHER:

 

The struggle for independence

CONTENT REVIEW: P : 39

QUESTION No. 1. Why did the British originally come to India?

ANSWER:

  1. The British originally came to India to trade.

QUESTION No. 2- List the problems that led to the War of Independence.

ANSWER:

  1. The problems that led to the War of Independence were:
  2. taxes imposed by the British were very heavy and ruthless.
  3. poverty and famine were becoming widespread in India due to the wrong policies of the British.

iii. the official language was English.

  1. good jobs were only for English people. v. The medium of instruction in good schools was English. The native people wanted it to be Urdu or Hindi.
  2. the new gun cartridges which the Indian soldiers used were said to be greased with cow and pig fat. Cows are sacred to Hindus and Muslims consider pigs to be unclean animals. Even though both Hindus and Muslims refused to bite the greased cartridges, the British believed that the war had been provoked by the Muslims, who were intentionally excluded from many areas of life, and hundreds were executed. Education and employment opportunities became virtually non-existent for them.

GOING FURTHER:

The journey towards Pakistan

CONTENT REVIEW: P :42

QUESTION No. 1. Why did Quaid-i-Azam issue his fourteen points?

 

ANSWER:

  1. In the Nehru Report of 1928 not a single demand of the Muslims was upheld. This report demanded dominion status for India. Separate electorates were refused and the reservation of seats for the Muslims of Bengal and Punjab was rejected. Therefore, Quaid-i-Azam drafted these demands which were fourteen in number; they came to be known popularly as Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.

QUESTION No. 2. What was the role of the Pakistan Resolution in the creation of Pakistan?

ANSWER:

  1. The Pakistan Resolution is a landmark in the history of the Muslims of India. This famous resolution led to the creation of Pakistan. The acceptance of the Pakistan Resolution strengthened the Two Nation Theory which was the basis of the Muslim struggle for independence.

GOING FURTHER:

The great leaders of Pakistan

CONTENT REVIEW: P : 46

QUESTION No. 1. What problems did the Indian Muslims face after the War of Independence?

ANSWER:

  1. After the War of Independence, the Indian Muslims were treated very badly by the British as they were thought to be responsible for starting the war. Hundreds of them were put to death. The others were completely ignored when it came to new jobs and granting social status.

QUESTION No. 2. What prompted Quaid-i-Azam to ask for on independent country for Indian Muslims?

ANSWER:

  1. Quaid-i-Azam was initially fighting for independence along with Hindus from the platform of the Indian National Congress. It became very clear to him that the Hindus had no sympathy for the Muslims and if the British left after giving freedom to India, it would simply mean a change of masters for Muslims. He therefore decided to ask for a separate country for Indian Muslims.

GOING FURTHER:

The life of young Pakistan

CONTENT REVIEW: P : 48

QUESTION No. 1. List the problems facing the government and people of the new Pakistan.

ANSWER:

  1. The problems facing the government and people of the new Pakistan were:
  2. a) settlement of refugees b) early death of Quaid-i-Azam
  3. c) sudden death of Liaquat Ali Khan
  4. d) not being given a seat on the UN Security Council e) financial problems f) not many industries g) lack of infrastructure

QUESTION No. 2. What progress has Pakistan made in different areas over the last 60 years?

ANSWER:

  1. Pakistan has progressed in all areas over the last 61 years. The following can be listed as the most important.
  2. a) Starting from scratch, Pakistan now has a strong industrial base.
  3. b) The standard of living has improved. c) The administrative infrastructure has developed.
  4. d) There has been a boom in the telecommunications sector.
  5. e) A lot of construction has taken place.
  6. f) Life expectancy has gone up.
  7. g) Infant mortality rate has gone down significantly.
  8. h) There has been considerable progress in the output of hydroelectricity, natural gas, and the oil refineries.
  9. i) Many renowned educational institutions have been established.

GOING FURTHER:

Important world events

CONTENT REVIEW: P : 51

QUESTION No. 1. What were the immediate causes of World Wars I and ll?

ANSWER:

  1. World War I began in August 1914. At that time, Germany considered itself to be a very strong nation and wanted to dominate the world, especially in Europe. Britain and France were not happy about this. Britain also felt threatened that it might be overtaken by Germany as an industrial power. When Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed by a Serbian student, Austria declared war on Serbia in retaliation. Both countries formed alliances and this way the war escalated into a world war. In 1939 Germany invaded Poland and refused to pull out. It had also previously committed a number of aggressive acts in other parts of Europe. Britain and France declared war on Germany to counter this. These events led to World War II.

QUESTION No. 2. Why are these wars known as ‘world’ wars?

ANSWER:

  1. These wars are called World Wars because they affected the majority of the world’s most powerful and populous nations. The World Wars affected several continents and lasted for many years.

GOING FURTHER:

Famous explorers

CONTENT REVIEW: P : 56

QUESTION No.

ANSWER:

  1. Searching and discovering new areas is called exploration and one who does this is called an explorer.
EXPLORERS PURPOSES RESULTS
MARCO POLO travelling first European to cross Asia and to leave a written record of it
IBN-E-BATUTA travelling 29 years of travelling, visited all Muslim states and met sixty different rulers; left a written record
NEIL ARMSTRONG scientific exploration first human to land on the moon

 

GOING FURTHER:

UNIT 4 CITIZENSHIP PAGE: 57-69

Our government

CONTENT REVIEW: P :61

QUESTION No. 1. What are the responsibilities of the federal government‘?

ANSWER:

  1. The responsibilities of the federal government are to look after the finance, defence, communication, and foreign affairs of our country. It draws up plans for improving the condition of the country and decides priorities for spending public money.

QUESTION No. 2. How is federal government structured?

ANSWER:

  1. The structure of the federal government consists of National Assembly (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). Together they form the Parliament.

QUESTION No. 3. What are the responsibilities of each of the three branches  of the federal government‘?

ANSWER:

  1. The provincial and federal governments have three branches namely, the Legislature, the Executive, and the Judiciary. The job of the Legislature is to make and amend laws. The Executive implements the laws and supervises the work of the ministers. The Judiciary provides justice through the Supreme Court, High Courts, and Session Courts.

QUESTION No. 4 Describe the five steps in making a new law.

ANSWER:

  1. The following steps are taken to make a new law:
  2. A bill is drawn up to make a new law or for amending an existing one.
  3. The bill is reviewed by committees.

iii. Debate takes place on the bill in the National Assembly. If the majority of members agree to it, it is sent to the Senate.

  1. The bill is debated in the Senate. A vote is taken and if the majority of members agree to it, it is sent to the President for final approval.
  2. If the President signs it, the bill becomes law. The President has the power to reject or approve the bill.

QUESTION No. 5. Why is it important far a nation to have a constitution?

ANSWER:

  1. It is important for a nation to have a constitution because:
  2. it serves as a social contract between the government and the people;
  3. it helps to keep checks and balances on the people in authority;

iii. it protects the rights of all the citizens;

  1. it helps to curb misuse of power by people in authority.

GOING FURTHER:

Our culture

CONTENT REVIEW: P :69

QUESTION No. Which aspects of our lives make up our culture?

 

ANSWER:

  1. Culture includes the languages we speak, the way we dress, the way we celebrate our festivals, and the religion we follow.

QUESTION No. Describe some of the differences and similarities between the regional cultures of Pakistan?

ANSWER:

  1. Similarities and differences in the regional cultures of Pakistan: Similarities Differences
Similarities Differences
Urdu is the national language regional dresses
Islam is the religion of 97% population regional food
shalwar qameez is the national dress regional folk dances, poetry, and music
common values like respect for elders and peers regional art and handicraft

 

QUESTION No.

List some of the distinct features of the Chinese culture.

ANSWER:

  1. Some distinct features of the Chinese culture are:
  2. use of chopsticks instead of knives, spoons, and forks
  3. drinking tea with meals
  4. the dragon dance d. the use of red colour to ward off evil spirits
  5. respect for elders
  6. living in a joint-family system
  7. simple living
  8. doll making as a craft

GOING FURTHER:

UNIT 5 LIFE STYLES PAGE: 70-88

We depend on others

CONTENT REVIEW: P :72

QUESTION No. 1. 1. Why are countries interdependent?

ANSWER:

  1. Countries have to be interdependent because it is not possible for them to produce everything themselves. They only produce those items which can be produced cheaply and easily. They import the rest from other countries.

QUESTION No. 2. List six items for which you are dependent on others?

 

ANSWER:

2.

  • supply of water, gas, and electricity in our homes
  • our clothes
  • the furniture in our homes
  • petrol for our cars

GOING FURTHER:

Goods and services

CONTENT REVIEW: P :75

QUESTION No. 1- list the difference between public and private goods and services?

  1. How can the government afford to provide goods and services to its citizens?

ANSWER:

  1. Private goods and services are provided by business people but are available only to those who are willing to pay a price for them, e.g. furniture, ice cream, cloth, services of a cook, plumber, cobbler, etc. Public goods and services are made available to everyone by the government for their benefit, e.g. bridges, traffic lights, roads, services of policemen, public transport, etc. These are available to everyone, mostly free of cost though sometimes a nominal amount may be paid, e.g. buying tickets when travelling by public transport.

QUESTION No.

ANSWER:

  1. The government collects money through taxes in order to pay for the goods and services it provides to its citizens.

GOING FURTHER:

Money

CONTENT REVIEW: P :78

QUESTION No. 1. Make a timeline showing developments in the history of money.

ANSWER:

  1. 1200bc

In China, cowrie shell became the first medium of exchange.

500bc

Pieces of silver were used as coins in many countries.

118 bc First banknotes were produced in China.

ad  806 Paper money was invented in China.

Present Paper notes, coins, and plastic money are used in almost all countries.

QUESTION No. 2. What different forms of payment can we use today?

 

ANSWER:

  1. We can use credit and debit cards along with paper money and coins as different forms of payment today.

GOING FURTHER:

Trade

CONTENT REVIEW: P :81

QUESTION No. 1. Give a definition for each

a- trade

international trade

ANSWER:

1.

  1. a) Trade is the activity of buying and selling, or exchanging goods or services between people or countries.
  2. b) International trade involves import and export.

QUESTION No. 2. How does international trade  contribute to the developmem Pakistan?

ANSWER:

  1. International trade contributes to the development of Pakistan as it brings in foreign exchange which is a valuable resource. This foreign exchange is used for development work in the country and also for increasing exports.

QUESTION No.

  1. What is meant by the terms imports and exports ? Name main import and export items of Pakistan

ANSWER:

  1. An import is any good or service which is brought into our country from another country. An export is any goods or service which is sold by Pakistan to a foreign country. The major imports of Pakistan are: machinery, electrical goods, cars, petroleum and its by-products, edible oil, tea, etc. The major exports of Pakistan are: cotton yarn, textiles, rice, leather, and sport goods.

GOING FURTHER:

Banks

CONTENT REVIEW: P :84

QUESTION No. 1. Describe briefly the earliest kinds of banks.

 

ANSWER:

  1. Historically, moneylenders did the job that banks do today. They accepted other people’s money for safe keeping, invested this money in profitable businesses and gave depositors their share of the profit. They also lent out money to those asking for a loan. The loan was returned along with an extra amount which was known as interest and which the moneylenders considered to be their profit. The present-day banking system is an extension of that individual moneylender’s practice.

QUESTION No. 2. What facilities does o bunk provide to its customers?

 

ANSWER:

  1. Banks benefit their customers in many ways, such as the safe deposit facility, processing of the safe transfer of money, credit/debit/ATM cards, electronic transfer of money, payment of utility bills and loans.

QUESTION No. 3. How do business people benefit from bunks?

ANSWER:

  1. Businessmen need money to set up or expand their businesses. They can get this money from the banks in the form of a loan.

GOING FURTHER:

Sources of information

CONTENT REVIEW: P :88

QUESTION No.

  1. Name the different information media.

ANSWER:

  1. Radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books, and the Internet are all information media.

QUESTION No.

  1. Define mass media. Give two examples elaborate your answer. What other forms of media serve smaller sections of the population?

ANSWER:

  1. Mass media is that source of information which influences a large number of people, e.g. TV, radio, and newspapers. These three sources can reach thousands of people at one time. Local media influences a small area or a limited number of people, e.g. local newspapers, leaflets, local radio stations, school magazine.

GOING FURTHER:

====================THE END==================

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.