NOTES/SOLVED EXERCISES : KNOW YOUR WORLD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 4 FARHAT MANSOOB OXFORD 2020

Notes/ solved Exercises: KNOW YOUR WORLD SOCIAL STUDIES FOR PAKISTAN 4 (FOUR)FARHAT MANSOOB OXFORD 2020

Contents Pages 3,8,13,22,29, need for scan

UNIT 1: THE EARTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Our country and the world ……………………………………… .. 1-3

The physical features of Pakistan and their importance… 4-8

Population………………………………………………………………  9-13

The land and people of Pakistan ………………………….14-19

UNIT 2: MAP-READING SKILLS

Globes and maps………………………………………… . 20-22

Real places on maps ………………………………………….. .. 23-24

Features of maps………………………………………………….  25-29

UNIT 3: OUR PAST AND OUR PRESENT

Long, long …………………………………………………. 30-34

Early civilizations in Pakistan ………………………………. .. 35-38

Our past………………………………………………………………  39-39

The coming of Islam to Sindh ……………………………40-41

Muslim rule in the subcontinent…………………………..42-47

Addendum: p:48-50

UNIT 4: CITIZENSHIP

Being a hero or heroine…………………………………..51-53

Hakim Mohammad Said…………………………………………54-55

The rights and responsibilities of citizens ………………56-58

Allama lqbal………………………………………………………….59-60

Getting along with others …………………………………61-63

UNIT 5: LIFESTYLES

It is all about choices and decisions…………………………64-66

Choosing goods and services…………………………………67-68

Communication ………………………………………………… ..69-72

 

UNIT 1 THE EARTH & THE ENVIRONMENT PAGE: 1-19

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 3)

 Answer key

QUESTION:1  fill in the blanks:

ANSWER: 1. a. four, Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa b. Sindh c. Balochistan d. Punjab e. north-west f. west g. The Arabian Sea h. Asia i. Asia j. 193 k. borders

QUESTION:2 WHICH COUNTRIES SHARE BORDER WITH PAKISTAN?

ANSWER: 2. Afghanistan, Iran, China, and India share borders with Pakistan.

QUESTION:3 WHAT IS THE LOCATION OF PAKISTAN WITHIN THE CONTINENT OF ASIA?

ANSWER: 3. Pakistan is located in the southern part of Asia.

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 8)

 Answer key

QUESTION:1 NAME THE VARIOUS PHYSICAL FEATURES OF YOUR PROVINCE?

ANSWER: 1. The physical features of

SINDH are: hills, lakes, rivers, delta, desert, plains, mangrove swamps, and the sea.

PUNJAB: hills, plateau, rivers, desert, delta, and plain

BALOCHISTAN: mountains, plains, streams, rivers, desert, sea

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: mountains, lakes, streams, rivers, plains

QUESTION:2 NAME THE TRIBUTARIES OF THE RIVER INDUS?

ANSWER: 2. The tributaries of the River Indus are: Jhelum, Ravi, Sutlej, and Chenab.

QUESTION:3 WRITE THE FOLLOWING WORDS IN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMNSS BELOW?

 

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 13)

Answer key

QUESTION: 1 WHY IS THE POPULATION DENSITY NOT SAME IN ALLTHE PROVINCES OF PAKISTAN?

ANSWER: 1. Population density is not the same in all the provinces of Pakistan because of the following reasons: a. tough weather conditions at some places b. unequal job opportunities c. physical features of the area

QUESTION:2 COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN YOUR NOTEBOOK?

ANSWER: 2. a. the total number of people living in a particular area

  1. when people move their residence from one place to another
  2. the total headcount of the population in a particular area, carried out by the government
  3. it helps the government to plan development work for the country; densely populated areas have different and more urgent requirements than places where the population is sparse
  4. most people like to have large families; marrying at a young age is common; people keep on having children until they have a son, and, generally, people live longer due to better medical facilities
  5. the density of population is low per square km; the density of population is high per square km
  6. the number of people per square km

CONTENT REVIEW: P:19

QUESTION: 1. NAME THE NATURAL RESOURCES FOUND IN THE AREAS NAMED ABOVE.

ANSWER:

 AREAS ——————— NATURAL RESOURCES

GILGIT-BALTISTAN

water, forests, fertile land, and minerals

PLATEAUS

water, oil, gas, minerals

THE INDUS PLAIN

water, fertile land

DESERT

coal, gas, oil

COASTAL AREAS

water, fish

DELTA

water, fish

QUESTION: 2. LIST THE MOST COMMON PROFESSIONS PRACTISED IN THE DIFFERENT AREAS.

ANSWER:

MOUNTAINOUS

agriculture, cattle farming, and tourism

PLATEAUS

mining and industry

THE INDUS PLAIN

agriculture and industry desert small-scale agriculture, cattle farming, and cottage industry

 COASTAL AREAS

fishing, small-scale agriculture, ship-breaking, and other industry

DELTA

agriculture and fishing

QUESTION: 3:- THINK ABOUT THE FIVE DIFFERENT REGIONS THAT YOU HAVE READ ABOUT.

ANSWER: Arrange them in order according to which would be the easiest to live in (1) and which would be most difficult (5). Give reasons for your decisions.

QUESTION: 4:- MAKE A LIST OF THE ECONOMIC REASONS THAT HAVE CAUSED PEOPLE IN PAKISTAN TO CHANGE LANDFORMS.

GOING FURTHER:

UNIT 2 MAP-READING SKILLS PAGE:20-29

GLOBES AND MAPS

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 22)

Answer key

QUESTION: HOW IS GLOBE DIFFERENT FROM A MAP?

ANSWER: The Earth is spherical like a ball. A globe is a model of the Earth whereas a map is a flat drawing of places on the Earth. Maps are not round like globes.

REAL PLACES ON MAPS

FEATURES OF MAPS

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 29)

 Answer key

QUESTION: LOOK AT THE TITLE OF THE MAP. WHAT DOES IT TELL YOU ABOUT THE MAP?

LOOK AT THE KEY. WHAT DO THE SYMBOLS USED ON THIS MAP REPRESENT?

ANSWER: The title of the map tells us that the map shows important locations of Sindh. The symbols on the map represent international boundary, provincial boundary, barrage, ruins, crops, desert, lake, river, road, railway, railway station, mosque, airport, marsh, and harbour.

UNIT 3 OUR PAST AND OUR PRESENT PAGE: 30-46

LONG, LONG AGO

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 34)

CONTENT REVIEW: p34

QUESTION: 1:- EXPLAIN THE USE OF THE LETTERS AH, BC, AND AD.

ANSWER:

AH represents the number of years after the Hijra (migration) of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) from Makkah to Madina and is used in the Islamic lunar calendar.

BC (Before Christ) is used in the Gregorian (solar) calendar. It is used to indicate the number of years before the birth of Jesus Christ.

AD represents the number of years since the birth of Jesus Christ and is used in the Gregorian (solar) calendar.

QUESTION: 2:- WHAT DO ARCHAEOLOGISTS DO? HOW DOES THEIR WORK HELP HISTORIANS?

ANSWER:

Archaeologists study the remains of old civilizations to learn about them. Sometimes these get buried under soil over a period of thousands of years and are accidentally discovered while digging. These are our only means of learning about ancient history. It is on the basis of the findings of archaeologists who determine the time period the relics belong to, that the historians write history.

QUESTION: 3:- WHAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM ‘PREHISTORIC’? WHICH TERMS ARE USED TO DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENT PREHISTORIC PERIODS?

ANSWER:

Prehistoric means the primitive and unrecorded time in history. Terms like the Stone Age and the Iron Age are used to describe the different prehistoric times.

QUESTION: 4:- DRAW A TIME LINE FROM THE STONE AGE UNTIL THE PRESENT SHOWING THE WAYS IN WHICH MAN HAS ACQUIRED FOOD.

ANSWER:

Timeline showing how man acquired food starting from the Stone Age to the present: Man hunted animals (Stone Age) He learnt to grow some basic crops using crude tools (Bronze Age) He learnt to harness cattle to plough his fields and grow better crops (Iron Age) He invented modern machinery and implements for developing agriculture (Modern Age)

EARLY CIVILIZATIONS IN PAKISTAN

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 38)

P: 38

CONTENT REVIEW:

QUESTION: 1:- IN WHICH PROVINCE WAS EACH OF THESE CIVILIZATIONS LOCATED?

  1. MEHRGARH
  2. SOAN VALLEY
  3. HARAPPA
  4. MOHENJO-DARO

ANSWER:

  1. a) Balochistan
  2. b) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
  3. c) Punjab
  4. d) Sindh

QUESTION: 2:- WHAT LED TO THE DISCOVERY OF MOHENJO-DARO AND WHEN WAS IT DISCOVERED?

ANSWER:

A British archaeologist, Mortimer Wheeler, discovered Mohenjo-Daro in 1922, when people living near Larkana found some old coins and bricks.

OUR PAST

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 39)

P:39

CONTENT REVIEW:

QUESTION: 1:- MAKE A TIME LINE SHOWING THE DIFFERENT INVASIONS OF THE SUBCONTINENT

ANSWER:

The Aryans (1700BC)

The Persians (515BC)

The Greeks (326BC)

The Parthians Mauryan Empire (32BC)

The Kushans (AD2)

The Huns (AD5)

QUESTION: 2:- WHY DID THE ‘PEOPLE OF THE REGION ADOPT DIFFERENT RELIGIONS?

ANSWER:

The subcontinent has been invaded many times by armies practising different religions. For a period of time, these soldiers made the subcontinent their home and lived with the local population. By the time they left, much of the local population had adopted their religion and culture.

THE COMING OF ISLAM TO SINDH

P:41

CONTENT REVIEW:

QUESTION: 1:- IN YOUR OWN WARDS, EXPLAIN WHY MOHAMMAD BIN QASIM ATTACKED SINDH.

ANSWER:

In AD712, Hajjaj bin Yousuf, the governor of Iraq, sent Mohammad bin Qasim to rescue and recover the looted ships which had come under attack by pirates. The pirates had the support of the Hindu king of Sindh, Dahir

QUESTION: 2:- WHO WAS RULING SINDH AT THAT TIME?

ANSWER:

Sindh was being ruled by Raja Dahir at that time.

QUESTION: 3:- WHAT WAS THE RESULT OF THIS ATTACK ON SINDH?

ANSWER:

Mohammad bin Qasim defeated the pirates and brought Sindh and parts of Punjab as far as Multan under his control. This whole area remained under Arab control for the next 300 years.

QUESTION: 4:- DESCRIBE TWO RESULTS OF THE ARAB INVASION OF SINDH.

ANSWER:

Islam spread in these lands and there was justice, peace, and harmony as a result of the Arab invasion of Sindh.

MUSLIM RULE IN THE SUBCONTINENT

CONTENT REVIEW (PAGE 47)

Answer key

QUESTION :1 DRAW A TIME LINE SHOWING THE DYNASTIES THAT RULED THE SUBCONTINENT BEFORE THE MUGHALS?

ANSWER: 1. The Ghaznavids (977–1157) Slave Dynasty (1206–87) Khilji Dynasty (1290–1316) Tughlaq Dynasty (1320–1413) Sayyid Dynasty (1414–51) Lodhi Dynasty (1451–1526)

QUESTION :2  DRAW A TIME LINE THE MUGHAL EMPERORS?

ANSWER: 2. Babar (1526–30) Humayun (1530–56) Akbar (1556–1605) Jahangir (1605–27) Shah Jahan (1627–58) Aurangzeb (1658–1707)

QUESTION :3 CHOOSE THE CORRECT WORD TO FILL IN THE BLANKS:

ANSWER: 3. a) 1000 b) family c) 30 d) 200 e) Mahmud Ghaznavi f) promoted g) Iltutmish

UNIT 4 CITIZENSHIP PAGE:51-72

BEING A HERO OR HEROINE

P:53

QUESTION: what qualities do you think a person heroic?

ANSWER: A hero or heroine is a person of very good character. He has such qualities as;

  • Courage
  • Devotion
  • Honesty
  • Sincerity &

P:55 HAKIM MUHAMMAD SAID (1920-98)

CONTENT REVIEW: 55

QUESTION: 1:- HOW ARE THE FOLLOWING CONNECTED TO THE LIFE OF HAKIM MUHAMMAD SAID?

HAMDARD DAWAKHANA

HAMDARD LABORATORY

HAMDARD NOUNEHAL

MADINA-TUT-HIKMAT

ANSWER:

  1. Hamdard Dawakhana, Delhi, was opened by Hakim Mohammad Said’s father in 190
  2. In 1948 Hakim Mohammad Said founded Hamdard Laboratory in a small room in Karachi.
  3. Hakim Mohammad Said started to publish Hamdard Naunehal with a view to inculcate good moral values and ethical standards among children, as well as to educate them.
  4. He established Madina-tul-Hikmat, (the City of Wisdom) in Karachi to promote education in Pakistan.

P: 58 THE RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF  CITIZENS

CONTENT REVIEW:

QUESTION: 1:- HOW DO PEOPLE OBTAIN CITIZENSHIP AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?

ANSWER:

Birth and naturalization are the two ways by which a person becomes the citizen of any country. Citizenship is important because it develops a link and relationship between people and the government.

QUESTION: 2:- STATE ANY THREE RIGHTS WHICH YOU ENJOY AS A CITIZEN OF PAKISTAN

ANSWER:

We enjoy the right to life and liberty, the right to education, the right to practise our religion, among many other rights.

QUESTION: 3:- WHAT ARE YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES AS A CITIZEN OF PAKISTAN?

ANSWER:

Our responsibilities as citizens of Pakistan include showing loyalty to Pakistan and obeying its laws; respecting the rights of others and treating everyone as equals; helping others and taking care of the environment around us.

QUESTION: 4:- IN WHAT WAGS WAS HAKIM MOHAMMED SAID A GOOD CITIZEN OF PAKISTAN?

ANSWER:

Hakim Mohammad Said fulfilled his responsibilities as a citizen of Pakistan. Realizing that he was in the position to help his fellow Pakistanis, he took up various projects for their benefit. He promoted education as a cause, without ethnic, religious, or gender discrimination; he treated everyone equally; he worked in the health sector to help prevent disease and suffering.

P:60 ALLAMA IQBAL

P:63 GETTING ALONE WITH OTHERS

CONTENT REVIEW:

QUESTION: 1:- WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY PEACE AND CONFLICT?

ANSWER:

Conflict is a situation where people disagree with each other. In the presence of a conflict, there can be no peace as peace occurs only when we learn to compromise and adjust to others.

QUESTION: 2:- WHAT BEHAVIOURS AND STRATEGIES CAN HELP US TO AVOID CONFLICT?

ANSWER:

To avoid conflict we should be considerate towards others, show them respect, appreciate their good work, deal with them with fairness and justice, be open to suggestions, and be willing to resolve conflicts if they do arise.

QUESTION: 3:- WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF A CONFLICT SITUATION?

ANSWER:

A conflict situation causes unhappiness and discomfort.

UNIT 5 LIFESTYLES PAGE:60-68

P:66 IT IS ALL ABOUT CHOICES AND DICISIONS

CONTENT REVIEW:

QUESTION: 1:- WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY ECONOMIC CHOICE AND OPPORTUNITY COST’?

ANSWER:

When we choose to buy one thing instead of another for economic reasons, we make an economic choice and when we prefer something for its usefulness, we call it the opportunity cost.

QUESTION: 2:- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEEDS AND WANTS IN OUR DAILY LIVES? GIVE SOME EXAMPLES FROM YOUR OWN EXPERIENCE.

ANSWER:

A need is something necessary for our survival. This includes things such as clothing, food, and water. A want is basically something we have a strong desire for but it is not necessary for maintaining life. Wants include entertainment, extra food beyond what we need, and more clothing than we need.

QUESTION: 3:- WHY DO GOVERNMENTS MAKE ECONOMIC CHOICES?

ANSWER:

Governments make economic choices when they choose to spend their resources on the goods and services that can best satisfy the needs and wants of their people.

P:68 CHOOSING GOODS AND SERVICES

CONTENT REVIEW:

QUESTION: 1:- LOOK AT THE LIST BELOW OF THINGS TO CONSIDER WHEN CHOOSING AND ITEM FROM A RANGE IN A SHOP. RANK THEM IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE AND THEN COMPARE YOUR RANKING WITH THOSE OF YOUR FRIENDS.

  1. A SCHOOL BAG
  2. A TOG CAR
  3. A BOOK
  4. AN ICE CREAM

ANSWER:

QUESTION: 2:- IN THE EXAMPLE OF THE DOCTOR’S WAITING ROOM ABOVE,

  1. DO YOU THINK THE BETTER CONDITIONS ARE MORE IMPORTANT TO THE DOCTOR OR TO THE PATIENT?
  2. WOULD YOU PREFER TO SEE A GOOD DOCTOR WITH A BASIC CLINIC AND EQUIPMENT OR A LESS GOOD DOCTOR WITH A LOT OF MODERN EQUIPMENT AND A LUXURIOUS CLINIC? EXPLAIN YOUR DECISION.

ANSWER:

  1. The better conditions are more important to the patients.
  2. I would prefer a good doctor with a basic clinic and equipment. A doctor’s expertise is more important than the equipment he uses. A good doctor knows how to handle even basic equipment in an effective manner.

P: 72 COMMUNICATION

CONTENT REVIEW:

QUESTION: 1:- WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY COMMUNICATION? GIVE EXAMPLES OF SOME METHODS OF COMMUNICATION.

ANSWER:

Communication is the exchange of information between people. Letters, signalling, radio, television, fax, telephone, and email are some of the examples of communication.

QUESTION: 2:- LIST SOME OF THE WAYS IN WHICH COMPUTERS HAVE MADE COMMUNICATION EASIER.

ANSWER:

Email, online chatting, and the use of webcam are some of the ways in which computers have made communication much easier than before.

====================The End==================

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