Chapter I

Mughal Empire: The Foundation

Chapter 2

Mughal Empire: Consolidation

Chapter 3 

Mughal Empire: Socio-Cultural Conditions

Chapter 4

Mughal Empire: Disintegration 

Chapter 5

Mughal Empire: Ascendancy of the British































CHAPTER 1: Mughal Empire The Foundation

  1. There a for each option. TICK THE CORRECT ONE.

(i) Battle of Panipat was fought in which years?

(a) 1426 AD (b) 1416AD

(c) 1526 AD (d) 1564 AD

(ii) The first person who used the technology Of fringe gunpowder through canon.

(a) Zaheeruddin Babe

(b) Naseeruddin Humayun

(c) Sher Shah Suri

(d) Ibrahim Lodhi

(iii) After facing defeat in the battle of Kanauj, Humayun reached:

(a) Siradh

(b) Bengal

(c) Bihar

(d) Agra

(iv) in 1545 AD, Sher Shah Suri attacked at:

(a) Kalinjar  (b) Lahore

(c) Peshawar (d) Kabul

(v) ln 1545 AD, after the death of Sher Shah Suri, who was enthroned?

(a) Feroz Shah Suri  (b) Sikander Suri

(c) Adil Shah E Islam Shah Suri

  2. In the history of india, how Humayun regained his lost kingdom?

ANSWER: At Saleem Shah’s death country was

engulfed in schism. This situation was favorable to Humayun. In 1554AD he captured Peshawar and after strengthening his. position there, he

advanced toward Lahore. Humayun captured Lahore in 1555AD and then took Delhi. Thus Humayun revived his lost kingdom.

  1. Write down two reasons of Babar’s

invasion on lndia.

ANSWER: Two Reasons of Babar’s invasion on India: 1. Babar wanted to get information about geo-political situation of the India.

  1. ibrahim Lodhi who had caused some serious problems for himself througth his personal attitude and political ambitions. His emirs and officials were annoyed because of his obstinated

behaiour and governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi got so. much irritated that he invited Babar to attack and promised his help.

iii. How Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battle of Kanauj?

ANSWER: When Sher Shah heard about Humayun’s preparations for war, he immediately went to Kanauj and in advance comped at his favourite spot. Humayun was forced to camp his troops in a downgrade place. Meanwhile rainfall started and Humayun’s camp came under water. While this soldiers were busy in changing their campaing site, Sher Shah suddenly attacked and

Humayun‘s soldiers left the battlefield without any fight. Thus Sher Shah won this battle easily.

  1. ln the reign of Sher Shah Suri which two basic officials were appointed to run official affairs?

ANSWER: There were mainly two officials appointed to run the affairs of the government: Head Shiqdar and Head Munsif.

  1. Which social welfare institutions were established by Sher Shah Surf?

ANSWER: He established many institutions of public welfare where free food was provided for poor and destitute all the time. He also constructed hospitals and schools to educate his people.

  2. 1525 AD Zaheer-ud-din Muhammad Babar defeated Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi in the battle of panipat and founded the Mughal Empire.
  3. Saleem Shah Suri died in 1553.

iii. Sher Shah used to transfer his officials after every two or three years.

  1. Kanwaha Humayun lead a great

expedition afghans.

  1. Sher Shah started rom a humble status and through his capabilities became the rule of subcontinent.
  2. Mark the right answer with (True) and wrong answer wit (False).
  3. Muslim rule in the Subcontinent began

in 633 AD from Makran. True

  1. Zaheeruddin Babar was born in Kabul in 1508 AD. False

iii. Sher Shah Suri directly supervised his

army. True

  1. In 1545 AD, on the death of Sher Shah

Suri, his son Saleem Shah Suri was

enthroned. True

  1. Head of the province was called Munsif. False




Column A Column B Column C
Muhammad Bin Qasim entered Sindh 1545 AD


712 AD
Battle of Kanwaha in 1556 AD 1527 AD
Death of Humayun In 712 AD 1556 AD
Death of Sher Shah Suri in 1526 AD 1545 AD
First battle of Panipat in 1527 AD 1526 AD





  1. In what circumstance and why Zaheeruddin Babar came to India?


During his stay in Kabul, Babar marched upon Indian Subcontinent. Firstly, he made small attacks between 1516-24AD to get information. At that time, northern areas of the Subcontinent were under the control of Ibrahim Lodhi who had caused some serious problems for himself through his personal attitude and political ambitions. His officials were annoyed because of his bad behavious.




1- The governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodhi got so much irritated by Ibrahim Lodhi that he invited Babar to attack and promised his help. Babar accepted this invitation of Daulat Khan Lodhi and marched against Lahore.


2-  After the departure of Babar, Daulat Khan Lodhi once again got hold of all Punjab. ln these circumstances, Babar decided to launch an attack on India himself.


  1. Write down the situation of battles with Rajputs and Afghans.



  • Ruler of Mewar, Rana Sanga was one of the person who invited Babar to run over India. Rana Sanga thought that he would be able to establish a Rajput state after his departure.
  • But Babar decided to stay in India. Rana Sanga confronted each other in the battlefield of Kanwaha near Agra.
  • Army of Rana Sanga was 10000000.
  • Astrologer told that stars were not in favour of Babar. In this situation, Babar gave a Stirring speech which gave new energy in the army.
  • Preparations for the war were completed. His army caused a great disorder in Rana Sanga’s army.
  • Rana Sanga tried one final try but failed.
  • Eventually he was caught and was afterwards put to death.








  1. How Humayun encountered the Afghan challenge? And discuss his banishment and return.



In 1539 AD, Sher Shah attacked Humayun‘s army from three sides. Humayun’s troops could not bear this attack. This battle was fought at Chausa. Humayun lost about 8,000 soldiers.

Humayun fell down in water and Sakka saved him.


After winning the battle of Chausa, Sher Shah was held in high esteem.


Exle of Humayun:

  • AGRA : Humayun reached Agra in a very bad condition. Sher Shah was following him and Sher Shah captured Agra.
  • DELHI: Humayun turned towards Delhi to escape arrest.
  • LAHORE: He considered it best to take the direction of Lahore.
  • SINDH :Humayun went from Lahore to Sindh.
  • KANDHAR :In those days his brother Mirza Askari was governor of Kandhar. He gave him no help.
  • IRAN :Humayun saved his life and went to Iran. Iran had a strong kingdom at that time.

When Shah heard about hardships of Humayun, he ordered the governor of Sewistan to give him a warm welcome.

On reaching the capital Humayun was given a warm reception.

Return of Humayun:

              It is rare in the history of the Subcontinent that a king could get back his kingdom after losing.

  • Humayun kept away from India for fifteen years.
  • During this period India was ruled by a powerful and truly just king Sher Shah Suri and his family and his successor Saleem Shah Suri.
  • At Saleem Shah’s death country situation was favorable to Humayun.
  • In 1554 AD he captured Peshawar and after strengthening his position there, he advanced toward Lahore.
  • Humayun captured Lahore in l555 AD and then took Delhi.
  • Thus Humayun revived his lost-kingdom.










  1. How her Shah Suri got the throne and strengthened his rule?


Sher Shah Suri Coming to Power:


After the banishment of Humayun, Sher Shah was the sole ruler of Bengal, Bihar Jaunpur, Delhi and Agra. But he was feeling the need for more conquests to make his kingdom safe and free of dangers.

GAKHARS: First of all, he conquered the Punjab.  Gakhars were living across Jhelum and they had sympathies for Mughals. Sher Shah built a great fort on the bank of river Jhelum to control the Gakhars. He set  the fort with 50,000 soldiers.


There the raja of Marwar was conquering neighboring states through expansionist strategy.

Sher Shah encountered the raja’s army near Ajmer.

At one point in this battle his defeat was almost certain. But using his military experience, he took control of the situation and defeated the Rajputs.

After that he conquered nearby areas and returned to his capital.

Sher Shah’s Administrative Reforms:

  1. Sher Shah laid down an administrative structure for the common people welfare.
  2. He tried to build the best welfare state.
  3. He was able to enforce that a government should have popular base and without this political an economical stability is imposible.
  4. Sher Shah managed his local affairs very intelligently. This created a environment progress and well-being, and his government prospered administratively politically and economically.
  5. All military and civil power was in the hands of Sher Shah himself, and he used both for the public welfare.
  6. His ministers were his assistants. He frequently consulated these ministers but decided everything himself.
  7. Write down the details of Sher Shah Suri‘s administrative structure, communication system and welfare institutions.


  1. Administration of the empire:

Empire was administratively divided into province, sarkar, pargana, tehsil and village.

  1. Governor: Head of the province was called Subahdar (governor).
  2. Head Shiqdar: There were mainly two officials appointed to run the affairs of. The government: Head Shiqdar and Head Munsif. Head Shiqdar was incharge of administrative matters. He was ressponsibble for law and order. Ameen was incharge of finacial matters abd regulate the enforcement and collection of revenue. The most important function of Shiqdar was to enforce the edicts of the king.

iii. Head Munif: Head Munif was responsible for settling the lawsuits. These two officials had some subordinate staff . In each pargana, there were one Shiqdar, a treasurer and two scribes.

One of these scribes was for keeping the records in Hindi and other in Persian. Patwaris, chaudhries, and muqaddam were a direct link between people and the government.

  1. Appointments o officials: Sher Shah used to transfer his officials after ever two_ or three years so that they could not exercise undue influence and misuse their powers by working in same area for a long period.
  2. Pinchayat (community) system:

Sher Shah kept the pinchayat system of villages intact. Pinechayat was a council or institution in which community leaders or whole village decided their collective or individual matters.

  1. Policing System: Sher Shah Suri the responsibility of law and order to muqassam or chaudhry of the respective area. They were responsible for the investigation of any murder of robbery and theft within their jurisdiction.
  2. lntellingence System: To enhance the effectiveness of administration, Sher Shah Suri reformed the intelligence system to monitor the local influential people and chaudharies as well as lay men. This institution was also responsible for monitoring that whether oficcials are teasing the cultivators and their attitude is not fetting contrary to the interests of the government.
  3. Military Reforms: Sher Shah Suri directlysupervised his army. He himself was in-charge of recruitment of al soldiers. The soldiers were paid according to their abilities. Cantonments were established in different parts of the country.

Strict measures were taken to ensure discipline in the army. No negligence was acceptable. Marauding and killing was not allowed after any victory. It was held unlawful to ruin crops during marc, and if it was unavoidable, the farmers

were paid appropriate compensation. Generally speaking, her Shah’s army was capable of tackling any kind of situation.

  1. Financial System: Sher Shah took following measures in his financial system:
  2. The yard of Sikander Lodhi s time was made a standard for measuring the land and renamed as Yard of Sikander. Ell cultivatable land was measured and recorded. A piece of 3600 Sq yd of land was nominated as one bigah
  3. A rate was levied on every bigah which was approximately one third of gross produce. Remaining two third belonged cultivator and held ree of any taxes.
  4. Tax and Currency System:

Sher Shah Suri paid special attention towards is streamlining the currency system to solve the Problems o payment in import and exports. He linked currency with gold. ln the beginning he issued new copper coins and named them Rupaya in place of Takka. Moreover he minted coins of silver and gold which were used for foreign trade.

  1. System of Justice: Sher Shah Suri used to say that maintaining justice is an obligation equally recognized bty all Muslim or non Muslim rulers. He was also of the view_ that on governmental and social level individual and, collective happiness and properity can be. guranteed only by maintaining justice. He tried to

fulfill the demads of justice in every matter of life without any discrimination.

Means of Communitcations:

Sher Shah Suri constructed a highway from  Bengal to Khyber (now called Grand Trunk; Road ) for making travelling easy and safe. He joined Agra with Banaras through a road and if another was extended to Chitaur and jaudhpur. He planted trees along _these road and constructed wells at regular intervals to provide shade and water to travelers.

Instructions of Social Well-fare: Sher Shah  started from a humble status and through his capabilities became the ‘ruler of the Subcontinent. Most of his policies are proof of his caring for common people. He established many institutions of public welfare where free food was provided for poor and destitute all the time. He also constructed hospitals and schools to educate his people.


  1. Describe the successors of Sher Shah it Suri and their downfall.

ANSWER: Successors of Shar Shah and their

Downfall: ln 1545AD, on the death of Sher  Shah Suri, his elder son lslam Shah Suri was enthroned. He carried on the works initiated by his father during his eight year period. He was a good administrator an experience general. He successfully put oof the rebellions. Islam Shah Suri died in 1553AD and his twelve year old son Feroz Shah Suri was declared a king, but his Maternal uncle kiled him, usurped the throne and started his rule under the title of Adil Shah. This Adil Shah was a timid person and incapable of running official business of the state. During this period, Subcontinent was disintegranting administratively and politically. Adil Shah could not control the rebel ions. In Punjab, Sikander Suri Declared himself a ruler. Internal disintegration of the government gave Humayun some courage. He first defeated Sikander Suri in Punjab, an then advanced to capture Delhi and Agra. After the death of Humayun his son Akhbar was enthroned.



CHAPTER 2: Mughal Empire Consolidation

PART 1   

  1. There are four options for each question. Tick the correct one.
  2. Form 1682 AD to 1707 AD, Aurangzeb was fully absorbed in:

(a) Kabul (b) Deccan (c) Bengal (d) Agra

  1. After the death of Nasiruddin Humayun in 1556 AD, who was crowned as king?

(a) Sher Shah Suri (b) Jahangir (c) Zaheeruddin Babar’s (d) Akbar

iii. Second battle of Panipat was fought in:

(a)1556AD (b)1526AD (c)1456AD (d)1446AD

  1. Prince Saleem was crowned as king under the title of Nuruddin Muhammad

Jahangir in:

(a) 1655AD (b) 1625AD (c) 1605AD      (d) 1555AD

  1. The son of Shah Jahan, Jahangir became king in:

(a) al628AD (b) 1638AD (c) 1648AD (d) 1658AD

  1. Write down short answers of following question.
  2. Second battle of Panipat was fought between which opponents?

ANSWER: Second battle of panipat was fought between Afghan general Hemun and Akbar.

  1. What is meant by Mansabdari System?

ANSWER: Akbar replaced old system with Mansabdari. According to this new system every official, whether civil or military, was assigned a special mansab. Holder of this mansab (mansabdar) was sometimes employed in civil and sometime in military department. There was no recognized difference in these two departments.

iii .When Akbar conquered Bengal?

ANSWER: Akbar conquered Bengal in 1576.

  1. In the times of Jahangir, Ustad Mansur was a master of which art?

ANSWER: Ustad Mansur was a master of painting.

  1. Write down the names of important buildings as representative of the culture

and architecture of Shah Jahan’s reign?


  1. Taj Mahal
  2. Red Fort of Delhi
  3. Mosque in Delhi
  4. Shalamar Garden
  5. Jahangir’s tomb
  6. Tomb’s of Asif Jah
  7. Noor Jahan’s tomb
  8. Sheesh Mahal
  9. Wazir Khan Mosque
  10. Nolakha Baradari
  12. Jahangir was born in 1569 at Fatehpur
  13. Aurangzeb banned all kind of music in royal court.

iii. Ancestors of Noor Jahn came from Persia Iran.

  1. Mughal Emperor Akbar took control Amber (Jaipur) in 1562.
  2. Shah Jahan died in 1666.
  3. Mark the right answer with (True) and wrong answer with (False).
  4. Aurangzeb lived a very simple life. T
  5. Shah Jahan had appointed Shuja his heir apparent while he was alive. F

iii. Noor Jahan died in 1655 AD. F

  1. Reign of Shah Jahan is considered the golden period of Mughal rule. T
  2. Second battle o Panipat was fought in 1556 AD. T


  1. Match column A with B and write down the correct answer in column C. .




Part II

Write down detail answer in the light of the original text.

  1. Describe the role of Jalaluddin Akbar in

the expansion and consolidation of Mughal



  1. Amber (Jaipur): Akbar took control of this area is 1562 AD. Local Rajput ruler Raja Bihari mal accepted his obedience.
  2. Gondwana: State of Gondwana was ruled

by a Rajput woman Rani Durgawati who was known for her bravery and abilities. She resisted the attact with courage, but after losing she burned herself according to local custom. This area was conquered in 1564 AD.

  1. Chittor: Rajput rule of this area used to

hate all those Rajput chieftains who established relations with Akbar adn accepted his obedience. Akbar conquered this area in 1567 AD to end the

power of this raja and get access to Gujrat.

  1. Bihar: Raja of Bihar had showed his

allegiance with Akbar in.1568 AD, however after his death, his on rebelled. Akbar captured this area in 1572 AD.

  1. Ranthambore: Akbar conquered the

important areas of Ranthambore and Kalinjar after a prolonged struggle. In 1570 AD, the rules of Bikanir, jaisalmer and Jodhpur accepted his obedience.

  1. Marwar: ln 1570 AD, Akbar conquered Marwar.
  2. Gujrat: At that time, Gujrat was of a centre of Portuguese trade. Because of unworthy ruler, this area was in great trouble and disorder. Akbar tamed him into obedience, but soon after his death a revolt occurred. Consequently Akbar conquered Gujrat in 1572 AD. From here his

relations with Portuguese were established.

  1. Bengal: Bengal was subject to constant

rebellions because of its distance from capital. In 1576 AD, Akbar annexed Bengal.

  1. Kabul: ln 1585 AD, Akbar captured Kabul. He had also annexed Kashmir, Sindh, Kandaher, Deccan and Orissa to this kingdom. Thus, Akbar power was thoroughtly consolidated.
  2. Review the administrative measure

and reforms by Akbar.




Administrative initiatives and reforms of Akbar are described below:


Before Akbar, there was feudal system in teh country. Kings used to grant jagir to cieftains and in return they” were bound to pay annual revenue. They also keep horses for providing them to king in the time of war. After taking full feudal system. He found many flaws in this system and considered it necessary to fix them.

However, when it was pointed out that soldiers sent by feudals were more loyal to their lords than to the king, Akbar was greatly exasperated. Akbar could not bear such trend in his rule, because he was committed to keep the ulimate power in his own hands. More ever, loyalty of

soldiers with some feudal lord Could be

unacceptable or any king. In those day feudal lords started conspiracies against Akbar.


Akbar spent his childhood in religous

environment. ln his young age, he was a staunch Muslim and use to say his five time prayers in congregation. He work up at dawn and chanted holder words every morning. Akbar was specially attached to his elders. He used to pay visits to the tomb of Hazarat Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer. He had special regard for Sheikh Saleem Chishti.


RAJPUTS: Akbar desired to establish such an administrative structure, which concentrate all powers in his own hands. Administrative, economical, social and religious interventions were included in this scheme. Akbar thought that this people belong to different faiths, so it is politically inappropriate to preference to one faith at the cost of other. He was of the view that

in this way neglected group will never feel good about the emperor. They will be discontented which will weaken the state. Akbar recognized this conception as a basic factor in his policies and acted in the same perspective. He was a conceivable politician and understood well that an extensive and strong kingdom is impossible until his people and important political groups

are not his supporting him. At that time three quarter of the total population of lndia was comprised of Hindus, and among them Rajput in were most active political group who were always at odds with rulers. Akbar planned to establish better relations with Hindus and Rajput in India.

  1. Write about succession of Akbar?



In 1605 AD, Akbar died. Just before dying he had appointed prince Saleem as his heir apparent.

  1. Give an analysis of culture in the times

of Jahangir and Noor Jahan.


  1. POETRY: Jahangir was fond of Persion literature and poetry. He was famous for his understanding of natural sciences. His book “Tuzk-i-Jahangir” is valued ii

very in Persion literature.

  1. PAINTING: Art of painting in the age of

Jahangir prospered so much that there were separate specialists for painting the faces, dress and background. These painting were marvelous and as fantastic as some camera work. Noor Jahan also introduced various jewelry and dresses in the Subcontinent.

  1. ARCHITECTURE: Jahangir was more

interested in painting than architecture. Even then some beautiful buildings were built during his age, for example Begum Shahi mosque inside Masti gate, Lahore. He constructed a dormitory in Lahore fort which is nor being used as museum. Anakali’s tomb is also a beautiful it

building of that age where Jahangir’s favourite wife Sahib-e-Jamal was laid to rest.

  1. MUSIC: ln the time of Jahangir many

musicians were attached to the court and these include not only Indians, but also Persian and Kashmiri musiciams. Jahagir was their great patron. In his Tuzk, he extols many artists.

  1. Explain why the reign of hah Jahan is

considered the golden period fo Mughal rule.

ANSWER: Reign of hah Jahan is considered the golden period of Mughal rule because he received an entensive and prospering state from

his father. There was complete peace and order in the state. Shah Jahan was learned and. civilized person, as well as a dutiful and hard working ruler. He was better than other rulers in respect of administration and provision of justice. Trade and commerce, architecture and literature

prospered during the reign of Shah Jahan. He eradicated non-Islamic rites and customes of the court and also prevented from prostration of respect. He introduced lunar calendar, and made special arrangements for the celebration of

Islamic fastivals and rites.

  1. Describe the culture and architecture i

the time of Shah Jahan.


A short description of culture and architecture in the age of Shah Jahan in given as under:

  1. Age of Shah Jahan was the culmination of

Mughal culture and architecture. He build Taj Mahal for the tomb of his beloved wide Mumtaz Mahal which is among the Seven Wonders of the world it is entirely built with white marble stone. Dome of Taj Mahal is very beautiful. Waters of Yamuna River washes the side of Taj Mahal. There is an extensive and exquisite garden around tomb. This building is worth

seeing again and again.

  1. he Red Fort of Delhi was also built by

Shah Jahan. The buildings of Rang Mahal,


Diwan-e-Khas and Diwan-e-Aam inside are

worth seeing which were built with red marble stone. Shah Jahan also constructed

congregation mosque in Delhi.

  1. Shah Jahan built Shalamar garden in

Lahore which is considered one of the most

beautiful garden of the world. There are canals and boulevards in this garden. Jahangir’s

tomb with four towers on four corners, was also completed in Lahore during the same period. An exquisite garden is planted around this tomb.

  1. Very near to a Jahangir tomb lies the tomb of Noor Jahan’s brother Asif Jah. its dome is in bulb shape. Noor Jahan’s tomb is also situated in a ore an is a very airy pace.
  2. In the age of Shah Jahan, Sheesh Mahal

was built in Lahore. Small pieces of mirror used in this buildings makes it a masterpiece. Near Sheesh Mahal lies the building of Nolakha Baradari where marble stone is engraved and studden with precious stones and decorated with

flowers and petals.

  1. ln the same period, Wazir Khan Mosque awas constructed in Lahore which presents a fine example of mosaic work. Minerets of trig mosque are unique in their shape and design. Influence of Persion architecture is evident in this building.
  2. Shah Jahan constructed a beautiful

mosquein Thatha whose inside of dome is

decorated with finely painted green borders.

  1. Jahan Ara, daughter of shah Jahan built a

congregation mosque in Agra. Roof of this

mosque is covered with three domes.

  1. Write down the detail of war of

succession among Shah Jahan’s sons.



Shuja lead his army against Agra and reached Benares without facing any resistance. Dara Shikoh sent his elder son to confront him. This Battle was fought in february 1658AD near Benares. Shuja was defeated and fled to Bengal.



When Dara Shikog got the news that combined armies of Aurangzeb and Murad are advancing him, he sent his army to stop them. A battle was fought near Ujjain. Dara Shikoh‘s army was routed and he

Himself led from the battlefield. The results of this

battle confirmed the military power of Aurangzeb.




After defeating Dara Shikoh, Aurangzeb and

Murad reached Gwalior and the headed toward

Agra. Just outside Agra, the two armies once

again confronted each other. Dara Shikoh opend

artillery fire. However, Aurangzeb’s army kept their

ground and fought bravely. When battle was on its

peak, Dara Shikoh got severely wounded and fled

to Agra. His ‘soldiers thought that he is killed and


Shikoh fled to Delhi.


Finding Aurangzeb busy with Dara Shikoh Shuja

decided to try is luck once again. With his army

and artillery, he left Bengal and reached

Allahabad and then marched toward Agra.

Aurangzeb decided to leave the pursuit of Dara

Shikoh and deal with Shuja first. ln January

1659AD, the two brother fought and Shuja fled to

East Bengal after defeat.


Because of friction between Aurangzeb and

Shuja, Dara Shikoh got enough time to make through preparations. He was in Multan, from where he went to Sindh and then to Ajmer. He

appealed many rulers for help. Some of them assured their cooperation, but turned their faces away right at the tie of fight; Dara shikoh

suffered a defeat and fled from the battlefield.

He was arrested while struggling to seek help. Dara Shikoh was tried and afterwards killed. After the murder of Dara Shikoh, his son Suleiman Shikoh tried to take revenge but he was also arrested and then murdered. Thus, after eradicated all completing claimants of the throne, Aurangzeb established himself as sole

emperor of the Subcontinent.

  1. Describe Aurangzeb’s Decca

expedition for the chastening of Marathas.

ANSWER: Deccan Expedition and Maraths:

Maraths try to consolidate their political power in

southern India. Shivaji (born in 1627AD) helped

to organize Marathas. He formed a close knit group of Marathas and started causing unrest. ln

1649AD he was powerful enough to defeat the

royal troops of Bijapur and capture a fort. A large

treasury found in this fort also helped him to

enhance his military power. After this success,

shivaji captured other forts. Ruler of Bhjapur

strikes a powerful blow and arrested the father of

Shivaji. To save his father, Shivaji relinquished

two orts as ransom and promised to live

peacefully in future.

Aurangzeb honored Shivags wishes by offering

him many high positions. But he ran away and

reached Deccan. During next three years he

quietly consolidated his power and then

proclaimed himself as king in Rai Garh. After this

he seized control of the vast Karnatake territory.

Shivaji ruled there for six years, and died in

168OAD at the age of 53.

Shivaji transformed unorganized Marathas into

disciplined political force who in future played a

important role in Indian politics.

After Shivaji his son Sambhaji assumed the

leadership of Marathas. He sought help from the

Deccan states of Bijapur an Golconda and

started damaging Mughal interests and political-

effectiveness in this area. In 1682AD, Aurangzeb

himself visited Deccan. He was well aware that

Marathas power will not end until their helping

started losing. Aurangzeb captured Agra and Dara states of Bijapur and Golconda are not defeated.

Therefore he annexed these states and confronted

the Marathas will full force. In 1689AD, a general of

Aurangzeb, Muqarab Khan arrested Sambhaji and

who was then killed.

After the death of Sambhaji, his step brother

Raja Ram took the power. Aurangzeb ordered to

attack Maratha stronghold, Rai Garh. Ram fled

from there in disguise. Aurangzeb’s army laid a

siege of the place. Meanwhile, Raja Ram died

an his widow Tara Bal assumed the leadership.

She tried to make peace with Aurangezeb who

refused. In 1705AD, Aurangzeb defeated her and

conquered the territory.

  1. Analyze the status of Aurangzeb in the

history o the Subcontinent.




Aurangzeb has an important position in the

history of the Subcontinent. Since childhood, he was very intelligent, faithful and virtuous person. He was hardworking and dutiful ruler. He had learnt the Quran by heart and develop a deep knowledge of Islamic sciences .He appointed

-leading religious scholars to compile at

voluminous book on Hanfi jurisprudence and adopted this book as a manual of government. Aurangzeb paid full attention to his administration.

He held the kingship as an endowment from God and believed that if a king is negligent in the fulfillment of his duties, Allah will question him at the Day of Judgement. He was too cautions in the matter of justice. Oppressed people and petitioners were allowed to come in his court without any hindrance. Aurangzeb was the emperor of India but lived a very simple life. He never took anything from official treasury for his personal expenditure. He earned his living by preparing handwritten copies

of the Holy Quran and sewing caps. Aurangzeb was a follower of Hazrat Mujaddid Alif Sani and enforced his reforms under influence.


































  2. Founder of earliest Islamic movement in the Subcontinent, Mujaddid Alif Sani was born in the famous historical city of:

(a) Delhi (b) MuItan (c) Agra (d) Sirhind

  1. Who had central position Mughal administrative system?

(a) Emperor (b) Prime Minister (c) Diwan (d) Wakeel-e-Saltanat

iii. For administrative purposes, provinces were further divide into:

(a) Towns (b) Parganas (c) Villages (d) Sarkars

  1. Function of historiographer was:

(a) Monitoring of treasury (b) Sending report from provinces to centre

(c) Preforming Hajj rites . (d) Collecting revenue from cultivators.

  1. Basic book of word recognition for children was compiled by:

(a) Akbar (b) Jahangir (c) Aurangzeb (d) Shah Jahan

  2. Who was the founder of Sikhism?

ANSWER: Baba Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism.

  1. How Mughal emperors won the loyalties of their subjects?

ANSWER: Religious policy of Mughal emperors won the heart and souls of all their subjects.

iii. What were the functions Sadr-al-Sudur?

ANSWER: Sadar: Sadr-al-Sudur appointed a Sadr in each province who was incharge of religious affairs. His functions included appointment of lmams and mu‘azans, management of pensions for teachers and students, financial help of religious scholars, seminaries, eradicating any anti-faith elements was also  superintendent of the department.


  2. Babar sent his sons to collect good and valuable books from anywhere.
  3. Chief officer of Pargana was called Aamil

iii. Function of Diwan-e-Bureed was to collect and deliver official letters.

  1. All the expenses of many seminaries were paid from Shah Jahan’s personal account.
  2. Bakhshi was head troops stationed in his province.
  4. Founder of earliest Islamic movement in the Subcontinent, Mujadid Alif Sani (R.A) was born in the famous historical city of Sirhind. (T)
  5. Founder of Sikhism, Baba Guru Nanak was born in 1469 AD, at Nankana Sahib

(District Lahore) in Punjab. (F)

iii. An officer of treasuryin each province  was called Fota Dar. (T)

  1. For administrative purposes, provinces were further divided into Subas. (F)
  2. Qanungo Maintained to records of cultivatable ands. (T)


Column A Column B Column C
Aaanil Sending reports from provinces to centre Chief officer of parganan
Fauj Dar Head of police Commander of troops
Fata Dar Commander of troops Incharge of treasury
Historiogapher Chief officer of parganan Sending reports from provinces to centre
Kotwal Incharge of treasury Head of police




  1. Highlight the role of Hazrat Mujadid Alif Sani (R.A) ?n diffusing the influence of Bhakti movement and Din-e-llahi?


Hindus like Ramanija, Ramanand and Bhagat Kabir adopted the monotheism of Muslims and initiated a movement which ridiculted the fake piety of pundits and mullahs: They forged a middle path between lslam and Hinduism by preaching that Ram and Raheem are two different names of lone and same deity. Religious leaders had created this division to cause discontent among people. Din-e-llamhi of Akbar was also colored by this movement.

Bhakti movement was very powerful in the time of Hazrat Mujadid ln a letter to a Hindu named Hirday, he condemned and refuted these ideas in clear terms.

Opposition of Akbar’s Din-e-llahi:

Hazrat Mujadid Alif confronted the unorthodox iseas and apostasy of Akbar. Through written letters, he advised the court officials to follows Islamic Shariah. He also sent letters to appreciate efforts of any faithful for Islam. Nawab Qaleech Khan constructed a mosque in Lahore where-he himself taught and preached.

Hazrat Mujadid was please with him. On his prompting, court officils became passionate to serve the religion more and more. The negative propaganda a by the fellows. of Akbar that lslam is an od religion and now there is a need of some new religion, Hazrat Mujadid and his companions demonstrated a practical example of abiding the Shariah. They reiterated that Islam is as fresh and beneficial as it was centuries ago.




Founder of Sikhism, Baba Gurtu Nanak was born in 1496AD, at Nanakana Sahib in Punjab. Hsis father Mehta Kalu was a Hindu. Teachings of Hinduuism could not impress BabaGuru Nanak. He founded a new religion


His teachings are recorded in sacred book of the Sikhs, Guru Garanth Sahib. He was deeply impressed by Muslim mystics. He intructed his followers to forget all racial biases, believe on oneness of God and follow the principles of equality.

In mid 18th century, when Mughal rule started declining, Sikhs got powerful in north western provinces and Punjab. They got hold of entirePunjab. Sikhs ruled Punjab from 1804 to 1849A).

Famous raga during Sikh rule was maharaja Singh who died in 139AD. After him the Sikh power declined sharply, and at last in 1849AD, British invades defeated them and annexed Punjab in British territory.





Mughal emperors gave an impetus to architecture.

Building constructed by Mughal emperors gave an impetus to architecture. Building constructed by Mughal emperors gave an impetus archieture.

Building constructed by Mughal emperors are a proof of their originality. They constructed vast and windy building Inner walls were decorated with intricate and subtle patterns. Many building constructed by Mughal emperors are a masterpiece of are like

  • Taj Mahal Agra;
  • Red fort Delhi;
  • congregation mosque Delhi;
  • Shalamar Garden Lahore;
  • Badshahi mosque Lahore;
  • Wazir Khan mosque Lahore, etc.

All these building are unique in their style and design. Tourists from at over the world visit these wonders.







Every Mughal emperor considered education as his religious obligation. Many emperors established schools in different parts where free education was imparted and prominent scholars were appointed to spread the light of knowledge.

Emperors had fixed their remunerations, along with scholarships for students. Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Allahabad, Ambala, etc. were centres of Islamic learning and education during Mughal period. Paternal aunt of Akbar, Gulbadan

Begun built a vast. Education is establishment for girls education. ln the reign of Akbar through the efforts of Mullah Abudl- NabI and Maulana Abdullah Sultanpuri, seminaries were established and means of subsistence were provided to scholars. Abu Al-Fazal was himself a historian and critique. ln the same age, Akbar compiled a book a instruct Children. His method was very similar to basic education of our time.

According to Abu Al-Fazal, in past children had to spend months to learn the letter, but this method enabled them to i read with in some weeks. Schools were built at Lahore, Agra, Fatehpur Sikri and other cities. Jahangir was considered an authority in natural sciences. In his time, Jahangir reopened abandoned schools. Shah Jahan too had very good taste for knowledge and scholarship.

His handwriting can be seen on some books of court library. Aurangzeb was a grammarian. His writings are a wonderful piece of Persian language and letters.


  1. Explain the central government system of Mughal Empire.


Details of administrative system of Mughal Empire are as under:

  1. King/Emperor:

King or emperor had a central place in the administrative system of the Mughals and he was source of authority. His powers were unlimited. His every word was law. Mughal rulers considered kingship a grant from God. Name of the king was mentioned in Jummah address and engraved in coins. it was a sign of his sovereignty and independence.  Duties of king included providing safety to his

subsets. maintaining law and order safeguarding the faith. providing justice, helping. the oppressed. defending his country and overseeing the


administrative affairs. He also had the powers to appoint and dismiss any officials.

  1. Wakeel-e-Saltanat:

 Wakeel-e-Saltanat was considered second to emperor. He had full powers to run the affairs of the state. Being head of army arir also prime minister, his powers were

unlimited. At the time of Humaguns premature

death, Akbar was still a‘ child. 0, Beram khan

was appointed as Wakeel~eSa|tanat and all

affairs of the state were given under his

authority. Baram Kahri was succeeded by

Mun‘arn Khan, -Mirza Aziz and Asif.Jah as

Wakeel-eSaltanat. _ _

  1. Vizier (Minister): Word “vizier” mean one

who bearthe burden. Vizier takes overflmany

responsibilites on his own shoulders, that is why

he is called a miniter. A minister was able to carry

the affairs of the state. Abu Ai~Fazal, Asif Jah,

Allama Sa’adullah_and Asad khan were some of the

able ministers during Mughai period.

  1. Diwanrln the central system of government

underlvlughals, diwan was an important Eost. l_-ie

was second to only prime minister. He ept the

records or income and expenditure of the








government. in modern terms, he was of income;

and expenditure of the government. in modern

terms, he was finance minister, but somewhat

more poerful. His’ functions were to advice the

emperor in financial affairs, reform and review the

revenue system and ensure the state income. His

approval was needed for any expenditure. ‘

  1. Mir Bakhshi: Akbar created the post of Mir

Bakhshi to iessen the powers of

Wakeei-e-Saltanat. A ivlir Bakhshi was head of

armed forced department. Hisfunctions included

the following: payirig‘ salary ro soldiers,

recruitment, prese_nting)t_ e troops and cavalry of

emperorfs inspection, ringing he army officers

fromfprovinces to emperor. Presenting the

reports received from province tor emperor’s

review and consideration. He was very close to

the emperor. Hewouid accompany the emperor

on any tour or inspection. Apgoin rnent of royal

guards was also his responsi ility. He was a so

e SL’.a)_6l’VlS0l’ of military excursions.

  1. ir Saman: This post was a administrative

nture. He was responsible for monitoring

governmental worshops and warehouses. His

subordinate Diwan-e~eBatab would maintain financial

records. Treasurg and stores were under the care of

a Tehweel Dar. ifferent Daroghas under Mir saman

were h_e_a_ds of different efiartments. Their

rescponsibilies were tooversee t e work of artisans

an monitor their performance. _

  1. Sadr-at-Sudoor: Sardr~al~Sudoor was

















i i













1 1





“”)>1‘ Kilsrnnv rfl

S I u n 0 0

V“ Q I _ 0 I Jr

lsubordinate to Mir Saman. ln a sense, he was

{minister of religious affairs. Knowledgeable and

,1 piouspersons were appointed as Sadr»-al~Sudoor.

‘F hey were representatives of religious scholars and

lcergy and contact peroris betweenemperor and

ylaity. He was responsible of superintending the

lseminaries, fixing h_e_allowances and scholarships”

lof intellectuals, religious scholars and studen s.

,l Eradicatlng anti faith elements was also his duty.

ll He could ban any subjects in schools which were in

ll his view injurious to faith. _ _

.~ Chief Qazi: Head ‘of justice department

, as called Qazi-ul~.Quzrat or chief Qa_zi. He was

lincharge of provincial Qazi. His functions were:

idecideirig the cases, preparing oaths, taking

:l measures according to deceased will, act as

iprotector. in widows’ marriage agreements,

lgetting testaments, managing ownerless

El roperty of monitor and insane indivituals.

llfilsually some scholar of Shriah and pious

lperson was appointed as Qazi so that people

l could not criticize his character. V _

*9. Ombudsman: ombudsman is aresponsible

iofficial in lslamic society. According to Holy

Quran. accountability is a necessary task. So,

‘Muslim rulers of any age appointed ombudsmen

1ll’l their realms. In Mug, al era, ombudsman was

ll responsible for insuring ethical behaviour of

; common people and monitoring the price and

[measuring systems. Y _

10.Mir Atish: lnlvlughal army, l\/lir Atish was the

incharge of artillery. He was responsible for the

,i movement of cannons and manufacturing new

,§cannons. During siegezs of forts he would

y personally monitor the artillery attack. Supply of

iigunpowder and canrionballs was also his

lresponsibility/1._ ln_l\/lughal periods, the Truck

  • ‘8XC€”ll8d in t is field. Mir Atish of Humayun,

4 _Rumi Khan was also a Truck.

ill. Diwan Bureed: _DlVlI8fl Bureed was

responsible for the deliveryand collection of

_ official letters. posts were established along

ymain roads at regular distances where speedy

lrnessengers were ,alwafys_ready for the service.

lThey used_to deliver 0 ioial let ers to next post.

‘King ‘received newsfrorn all far flung areas

through postal system. Surveillance system was

i also based on this. .

  1. Mint: Mints were ‘established _in every part of

lthe copuntry where coins of gold, silver and copper

iwere minted. Honest officers were appointed as

rl superintendents of these mints. Holy Kalima and

lriames of four rightly Pl.lld8Cl calllghs were

lembossed on one side 0 the coins w ile king‘s

, name, year of enthronement and name of mint was

l’l’l8l’ltlOl‘|€dhOl’l the other side. King used to take a

ll réortable mint with him during trave.

ll . Describe the system of provincial

‘ government of Nlughal Emgire.


For adi’fill’ll_St_f€i‘llV6 purposes, the Nlughal

emperors divided their realm into provinces.

;i Extension of kingdom caused an increse in the

g number of provinces. Provincial system of the

iMughals l described belo\.v:‘u¢ ~ ,





Illlllllnl IIY Lil! 2 II I II In ‘may;


  1. Subedar or Governor: In every province

one Subedar was appointed who was incharge

of civil as well as army matters. Usually some

prince or emperor’s confidant was made

Subedar. His functions included the following:

maintaining law and order in hisprovince,

punitive ac ion against rebels, helping famine

affected population, ?fOVidlfig~ troops _to the

em eror in the time o need, providing justice

ancgasupervising his subordinates. His tenture

was subject to willof the emperor._ _

  1. Diwan: A Diwan was appointed in every

rovince on behalf of centre. He was incharge of

financial matters, maintain the records of income

and expenditure, and report to emperor or central

Diwan about financial situations of tie province; . _

  1. Sadar: Sadr-at-Sudur appointed a Sadr in

each province who was incharge of religious

affairs. His functions included appointment of

lmams and mu‘azans, management of pensions

for teachers and students, financial help of religious

scholars, supercvisihg seminaries, eradicating any

anti-faith elements e was also superintendent of

justice department. ‘

  1. Bakhshi: Bakhshi was held of troops

stationed in his province. Payment of salaries to

troops, recruitment of soldiers and supervision of

militaR/ expeditions were also his duties. _

  1. otwal: A Kotwal was appointed in each

city that was held of police force. His functions

and responsibilities include: maintaining law and

order in his city and monitoring the crirninals,

guarding theprison, elernination of brothels,

_aking action against drug _’trafficking

implementing the decisions of Q8Zl._

  1. His_toriogi_’aphy:_Historiograpger-was

responsible for dispatching important reports and

n_ews_ to centre, informiofg about law and order

situation, monitoring the 0 icials and reporting thei

atrocities and deciance to emperor. _

_7. Fota Dar: An officer of resury was a%pointed

in each province that was called Fota ar. He

collected revenue from cultivators and issue them

receipts, as well as maintain the records of income

and expenditure. He was not authorized to spend

any amount WlthOUt‘pflOl” approval from Diwan.

  1. Faujdar: Fauidar was an army official, who

was also the commander of troops in his area


His function“was to take action against rebelsh,

and control the crimes. i g

  1. Aamil: Chief officer of Pargana wascalled

Aamil. His function include collection of

cultivators from cultivators, deciding about

administrative affairs of Pargana, measuring

cultivatable lands, examining the registers o

land record holders(§Patwari) and revenue

officer facilitator &\Muqa dam).

  1. Butuqchi: amil of each Pargana had a

countergart named Butuqchi. He was

responsi le for preparing annual accounts

statements of revenue and maintaining regular

of the lands. Qanungo, lvluqaddam an Patwari

were his subordinated.

  1. _Sasrkar: For administratieve purpose,

provinces were further divided into Sar ars. This




‘ .





, l















l .









,.. ..-.-_ nu f\ _-pan




“”‘//\’.)(.’/3,1 ‘ 4) t>\ “”‘ ‘._..,.”‘ ‘ \ /<11

lmeasure was taken to deter any insurrection in

the provinces. ‘

,, Two main officers in Sarkar were:

  1. Shiqdar-Shiqdaran: This official was

{i responsible for law and order in the province and

i’ for this purpose aesmall troop was dedicated

ii under him. He was to control the rebels in his

i, area, enforce official orders and monotoring the

‘J Shiqdar of Paragana.

‘ ii. Munsif-e-Munsifan: He performed his

iduties in Sarkar as judge. Hearing civil suits,

(appointment of Munsifs in Parganas and

monitoring their work was his responsibilities.

His additional function was to settle any dispute

among Paraganas regarding boundaries.

  1. Pargana: Each Sarkar was subdivided into

;Parganas. Each Pargana consists of many

ivillages. Follwowing five officer were appointed

l in each Pargana to administer local affairs:

  1. Shiqdar: Maintained law and order in pargana. .

‘ii. Munsif: Performed the duties of judge in Pargana.

,m.Muqaddam (Amin): Collected revenue

‘5; collector in Pargana.

Li‘) iv. Fora Dar: Functioned as revenue collector in Pargan.

*,,v. Qanungo: Maintained the records of

1) cultivatable lands.

  1. Villages: One Chaukidaar (watchman),

‘Patwari (land records assistant) and Muqaddam

(facilitator). was appointed in every village.

Watchman was responsible for keeping an eye

‘ on thieves. He served as night watchman for his

l,village. Patwari maintained the recors of land

Eand prepare and estimate of revenue demand,

(‘whereas Muqaddam collected the revenue and

i deposit it in treasury.

  1. Discuss the contribution of Mughal

emperors in the field of historigraphy.

ANSWER: Tuzak-e-eBabari is a famous book of

history founder of Mughal Empire. He described

lconditions and observations of his own times.

iThis book infrorms us about the events,

situations and history of his period. it is counted

E among authentic history books.

,1. TUZAK-E-JAHANGIRI: Renowned Mughal

iemperor Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir wrote

his autobiography, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, which is

now considered one of the authentic sources

about that period. Other Mughal rulers also

ll chronicled their age. .


it Other important history books of Mughal period

are Humayun Nama, Akbar Nama and Badshah

Nama. These books provide us valuable

information from royal palaces to the events of

,battlefiel.d. in these sources of history, we find

the description of emperors personal life, royal

customs and relation with other countries. There

ialso a good deal of knwoledge about culture,

i geography and officials of their age.

:.=<n<nm (D-‘-“JD:-I-l¢,L&,U)I_u u.\u_awu.. —;—1u..v.

GT \v




I CHAPTER 4: Mughal:Empir‘e._ F

|”Qun|u.|u| I-l’lIIIIi ullllll \i’ii‘si>7

Disintegration _. ‘


l PART 1 I

There are ouro ion or each uestion.

1- P q .


  1. Bahadur Shah lwas born in:

(a) 1593 AD 1643 AD

,(c) 1707 AD _ (d) 1713 AD .

  1. Who wasenthroned in 1713 AD?

@Farukhsiyar (b) Bahadur Shah l ‘

c Muhammad Shah (d) Rafi-ud- Daulah

  1. ln 1739 AD, Nadir Shah Durrani led and

attact against:

W Delhi (b) Agra

c Lahere (d) Bengal A


  1. Who was the army chief of Siraj-ul

7 .

(c) Meeran Mir Jaffer

  1. Who was Vasco da ama?

(a) Employee of East lndia ‘Company j

b A British General ‘ y,

Q/Portuguese sailor (d) Arab trader l

  1. rite down short answers of following ii

(a) Mir Qasim E Ahmad Shah i

questions. ‘

  1. How Muhammad Shah dgot rid of Syed brothers?

ANSWER: When Muhamma Shah decided to get rid i;

of Syed brothers, Nizam-ul~Mu|k (who was in 1

Malwa) contacted them. On his behalf. it

Nizam-ul-Mulk started advance toward Deccan. ii

Syed Hassan Ali di not want that Nizam-ui-Mulk i;

would capture the throne, so he sent a large ‘i

army to counter him. But Nizam-ul-Mulk.

defeated this army. Syed Hussain A_li wasi

murdered in 1719AD. I_n th_e beginning of.

1_720AD, Syed Hassan Ali resisted adgainst they

king but was defeated and arreste . He was ii

murder after an arrest of two J/ears. Thus king J‘

Muhammaf Shah got rid of Sye brother. iv

The contributing factors of the fall of Syedf

brothers were lenient attitude toward enemies of;

Mughal rule, favoritism for Hindus and plunder of

economic resources.

  1. How local Indians resisted against

foreiggi occupation?

ANSWER: esistance to Foreign Occupation: –

_British_ interference in ubcontinent was

increasing. Local Muslim rulers opposed them

severly and hastened their efforts o expel the

British from their homeland. Muslims were sure

that they are planning to capture this country.

Muslim rulers could not achieve their objectives, i _

but sternly resisted against the British. these; 1

rulers included Sll’8j—U|-D8U|8l’l, Mir Qasim,

3- :9-_.9_-4 I; 4..4 ___,__








>IUM)% . 1 .. .

[ll ljiaider Ali and Tipu Sultan among others.

i m. What were the reasons of economic

=5 crisis in the last yearsof Mughal Empire?


in the final phases of Mughal rule, the economic

i crisis was evident. On some eoccasions, emirs

1 of financial constraints. Center was losing its grip

‘ion provinces and consequently income was

1» reduced. Anarchy, rapid change of monarchs

-“ and maraudin had severly affected trade and

iagriculture W%lCh in turn affected financial

isystem. ln spite of this, emperors had ample

lwealth to ‘carry on their reveiry, but they were not

1 ready to finance the military.ex[peditions.. <

il iv. How important state li e Bengal, Oudh

l and Hlyderabead were established?

,‘ANSWER: ndependent Governments in Bengalm

,Oudh and Hyderabad: g

After the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir, many

13iMué;hal rulers came in quick succession whic

ll un ermined the central authority. Covernors of

it some provinves announced their soverrignty.

1Among such provinces, Bengal, Oudh and

Hyderabad were very important. l\_/lurshid Quli

,K an in Bengal, Sa’adat Ali Khan in Oudh and

‘Qamar-ul-Din in Hyderabad Deccan estabished

, their independent states. Conseiwently, central

ii authority of Delhi was weakened _ ecau_s_e these

V provinces _had a special geographic, political and

ii economic importance.

ii v. How Kalhoras and Talgursdgot power in Sindh?

, ANSWER: Kalhoras rules Sind an adjOll’ilflQ areas from

,1701AD to 1’/8_3AD. Kalhora rulers were called

I (Kalhora Abbasi or Kalhora Nawab. A prominent

,‘ ruler from Kalhora family was Ghulam Shah Kalhora

who in 1716AD helped.Ahmad Shah Abdali in the

third battle of Pan(ijpat against Hindu Matathas.

Many Kalhoras rule Sind. Abdul Nabi Khan was

ythe ast ruler of Kalhora family. They played an

i important role in art, literature and deve opment of

,; irrigation system of Sindh.

l After the battle of Halani in 1783AD, the Talpurs

ended Kalhora rule and carptured their powers. hey

l belonged to Biloch tribes w o migrated 0 Sindh.

l3._ ill in the blanks according to the

” original text.

A . After the death of Muhammad Shah

, _Rangeela, his son Ahmad Shah was enthroned.

*,ii. Nadir Shah catptured the throne in 1738 AD

and assumed the ti le of Nadir Shah Durrani.

i‘ m. After the death of Ai_.irangze5 Alamgir, many

f Mughal Emgorers came in quick succession.

g IV. arru siyar had acquired throne with the

,* help of Syed brothers.

vi After ivar I Khan, his grandson

Sirai-ud-Daulah wahs made the l’l8¥’Va3Of Bengal.

t d

. ar e rig tanswer wi ( ) an

iwronig answer with (X).

  1. eal name of Bahadur Shah I was

,‘Muazzam Khan. . /

‘m. _ Mughal Emperor Jahangir banned East

ilndia Company’s trade in the Subcontinent. X

1 m. After the murder of Alamgir ll, minister_

tlmad-ul-Mulk enthroned a Mughal prince

‘E werenot able to tale efficient measures because


  2. In 1761 AD, Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India and defeated:
  3. a) the Sikhs. b) the Marathas. c) the British. d) the Rajputs.
  4. In l849AD, the British defeated the Sikhs and captured:
  5. a) Punjab. b) Bengal. c) Sindh. d) Mysore.

iii. In 1764jAD, which battle was fought?

  1. a) Kamataka. b) Independence. c) Plassey. d) Buxar.
  2. Hazrat Shah Waliullah was born in 1703AD, in:
  3. a) Multan. b) Calcutta. c) Delhi. d) Lahore.
  4. War of Independence was fought in:
  5. a) 1757AD. b) 1764AD. c) l857AD. d) 1767AD.
  7. When Hazrat Shah Waliullah died?

Ans: Hazrat Shah Waliullah [RA] died in 1762 AD.

  1. Who was the last ruler of the Mughal Empire?

Ans: The last ruler of the Mughal Empire was Bahadur Shah Zafar.

iii. What was the immediate reason of the war of independence?

Ans: The immediate reason of the war of independence was the use of tallow-greased cartridges and misbehaving with Indian soldiers.

  1. How Sikh rule was established in Punjab?

Ans: ln the mid 18th century, when central Mughal power was weakened, Sikhs started to consolidate themselves in Punjab. Then they prevailed over whole Punjab. A famous and powerful Sikh leader was Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Sikh rule in Punjab was extended from 1801 AD to l849AD. Then Sikh rule declined and in l849AD the British annexed Punjab after defeating them.

  1. How Tipu Sultan earned the honour of martyrdom?

Ans: In l799AD, forces of Tipu Sultan and the British fought a severe battle at

Seringapatam. Because of some traitors, Tipu Sultan was defeated and won the

honour of a martyr.


  2. In l835AD, the official status of Persian was abolished and English was adopted as official language.
  3. Syed Ahmad Shaheed was bom in l786AD in the Indian city of Bareli.

iii. The great and brave general of the Subcontinent, Tipu Sultan died in l799AD.

  1. Rohillas belonged to different Pashtun (Pathan) tribes of Afghanistan.
  2. Shah Waliullah [RA] translated the Holy Quran into Persion language.


  2. Nawab of Oudh state, Shuja-ud-Daulah had sided with Mir Qasim in the battle of Buxar in l764AD. True
  3. Ahmad Shah Abdali was a general of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah. False

iii. Bahadur Shah Zafar was a good poet and Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah patronized a number of poets. True

  1. In 1767AD, joined forces of the British, Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad attacked. False
  2. Prior to British arrival in the Subcontinent, Baluchistan was an autonomous state. True
  3. Match column A with B and write down the correct answer in Column A Column B Column C.
Column A Column B Column C
Shah Alam ii 1849AD 1728AD
Tipu Sultan 1858AD 1750AD
Akbar Shah ii 1760AD 1760AD
Annexation of Punjab 1728AD 1849AD
Conclusion of the war of independence 1750AD 1858AD








Write down detailed answers in the light in the original text.

  1. Describe the attacks of Ahmad Shah Abdali against India.

Ans: Ahmad Shah Abdali’s Attacks against


Ahmad Shah Abdali was a general of Nadir Shah Durrani. In l747AD, when Persian emirs killed Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah ‘Abdali announced himself as king in Kandahar area of Afghanistan: As a heir of Nadir Shah, he claimed the ownership of Punjab and led an attack on Punjab in 1748AD to take Punjab. After defeating the governor of Punjab, he marched forward but Mughal emperor Ahmad Shah defeated him near Sirhind. He was forced to retum to Afghanistan. Next year he led a fresh attack against Punjab and this time Mughal emperor Ahmad Shah accepted his claim on Punjab and Multan. In l757AD, when Ahmad Shah took back Lahore, Abdali attacked on Delhi, Agra and Oudh, but soon returned back.

Third Battle of Panipat (1761 AD):

After the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir, Subcontinent was facing severe

administrative problems. Marathas and Sikhs were at arms against Muslims and

their empire. Mughal Empire was becoming weak and lawlessness was prevalent. Riots and disorder were widespread. Shah Waliullah [RA] considered this state of affairs dangerous for Islam and Muslims. So he convinced Ahmad Shah Abdali to fight against Marathas. To curb the rising force of Marathas, Ahmad Shah Abdali once more attacked on India in 1761 AD. He forced the Marathas to leave Punjab, and then led his army toward the battlefield of Panipat. Marathas were waiting him. Ahmad Shah blocked all roads leading to battlefield and cut off the supplies of Marathas. In the ensuing battle, Marathas were vanquished completely and Muslims got anew strength. Ahmad Shah Abdali appointed Shah Alam II (who was in Bihar) as the emperor of Delhi and returned.

  1. Analyze the Battle of Buxar.

Ans: Battle of Buxar (1 764AD):

After the battle of Plassey, Mir Jaffer’s treasury was badly affected by giving undue privileges to British. Demands of British were increasing which he could not fulfill and as a result relations between British and Mir Jaffer were strained.

At last British deposed him and appointed his son-in-law Mir Qasim as governor of

Bengal. Financial situation of Bengal was already perilous. Mir Qasim increased the number of tax collecting posts to ensure the proper handling of merchandise. Moreover he implemented some extra restrictions on company officers which were considered an insult by the British. Having serious reservations against Mir Qasim, they called Mir Jaffer back and reappointed him as governor of Bengal.

Mir Qasim forged an alliance with Shah Alam II and Nawab of Oudh, and declared a war against the British. They also prepared themselves and reached at Buxar under the command of General Lord Clive. ln the ensuing battle, Mir Qasim was defeated and escaped to Delhi. He died in oblivion in l778AD. After capturing Bengal, British were in high spirits. Now they started political maneuvering to conquer other, provinces.

  1. Describe the situation of Mughal Empire during the reign of last two emperors: Akbar II and Bahadur Shah Zafar.

Ans: Akbar Shah II (1806-l837AD):

Akbar Shah II was born in 176OAD. He was son of Shah Alam II and father of last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. He is also known as Mirza Akbar. His powers were practically confined within Red Fort of Delhi. We find cultural flowering during his rule. He was also a pensioner of the British. He died in l837AD after ruling for 31 years.

Bahadur Shah II [Bahadur Shah Zafar] (1 837AD-1858AD)

Last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II also known as Bahadur Shah Zafar, was son of Akbar Shah ll. He was also a nominal emperor and pensioner of the British.

People chose him as their emperor at the time of 1857 war of independence, but he was incapable of running the state. War of independence concluded in May 1858AD.British sent him to Rangoon as prisoner. Thus the flickering lamp of Mughal Empire was blown off forever. He died in Rangoon in l858AD, and is buried there. Bahadur Shah Zafar is also famous for his literary aspect. He was a good poet and patronized a number of poets. Poets like Ghalib and Zauq were attached to his court. Momin Khan Momin, Mustafa Khan Shefta and Sadr-ul-Din Khan Azurdah were also prominent poets of his literary gatherings.

Discuss the establishment of Sikh rule in Punjab, ascendance of Rohillas in Rohilkhand and Maratha consolidation in Deccan.

Ans: Sikh Rule in Punjab ( 1801AD-1849AD)

ln the mid 18th century, when central Mughal power was weakened, Sikhs started

to consolidate themselves in Punjab. Then they prevailed over whole Punjab.

A famous and powerful Sikh leader was Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Sikh rule in Punjab

was extended from 1801 AD to l849AD. Then Sikh rule declined and in 1849AD the British annexed Punjab after defeating them.

Prevalence of Rohillas in Rohilkhand and Consolidation of Marathas in Deccan: Rohillas belonged to different Pashtun (Pathan) tribes of Afghanistan. These

people came to Rohilkhand during 17th and 18th centuries. Daud Khan and his foster son Ali Muhammad Khan were the founders of Pashtun state in Rohilkhand. After the death of Daud Khan in 1721 AD, Ali Muhammad Khan became the ruler of Rohilkhand. At that time Mughal emperor

Muhammad Shah was emperor. Ali Muhammad Khan refused to pay taxes to

central government. Emperor Muhammad Shah sent his force to punish him. He was arrested and brought to Delhi. He asked forgiveness for his rebellion and was made the governor of Sirhind. He reached his territory Rohilkhand in l748AD and

recaptured his lost lands. After the death of Ali Muhammad Khan, many Pashtun

Rohilla chiefs ruled over Rohilkhand. In 1857AD war of independence they fought

zealously against the British. After the failure of war of independence, Rohilkhand

was annexed by the British. After the death of Aurangzeb, Marathas

consolidated themselves in Deccan and were dreaming to rule lndia. They caused a great loss to Mughal government. Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated them in the battlefield of Panipat and destroyed their power for even.

  1. Describe the efforts of Hyder Ali against foreign domination.

Ans: Hyder Ali (1761 AD-l782AD) and his efforts against foreign domination:

Famous Muslim general Hyder Ali was born in 1720AD. He started his practical life as a soldier but got immediate promotion and reached to the rank of general. State of Mysore was ruled by a Hindu raja. His minister was Nand Raj.

They both started confrontation and situation became worse.

Hyder Ali suggested Nand Raj to go back to his lands because it is now dangerous for him to stay as a minister. When he went back, Hyder Ali deposed the raja and

captured the control of the state.

British Attack on Mysore State:

Marathas were brave people, but they were fearful of Hyder Ali. In l767AD, joined

forces of the British, Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad attacked the state of Mysore. Through his personal ability and prudence, Hyder Ali succeeded in breaking the alliance of Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad with the British. Now British forces were alone in the battlefield and Hyder Ali vanquished them. After this defeat British were very angry and started plotting against Hyder Ali. Now they were fully aware that Hyder Ali is a formidable and brave person. British managed to break Hyder Ali’s alliance with Marathas and Nizam of

Hyderabad. Now Hyder Ali was without any aid and support. ln spite of all these

problems, he fought single handedly against the British. Moreover, a contingent was sent from Bombay (Mumbai) to capture Malabar, whom Hyder Ali repelled

successfully. Most of his life was spent in fighting and struggling against the British. He showed exemplary courage and remained steadfast. This great and brave general of the Subcontinent died in l782AD.

  1. Describe the objectives of Tipu Sultan and his battle with the British in

Seringapatam (l799AD).

ANSWER. Tipu Sultan’s objectives and his battle with the British:

Tipu Sultan was born in 1750AD. He was a brave soldier, able politician and competent administrator. He was fully convinced that the British are arch enemies of the Muslims and wanted to destroy them and get hold of the Subcontinent. So he decided to carry on the mission of his father Hyder Ali, and

fought against the British zealously. Tipu Sultan also contacted with other

countries to tackle the British. He sent an embassy to France and ruler of Afghanistan Zaman Shah, but they rejected the request

to help. A dissident prince of Persia came to him. Tipu treated him respectfully. When conditions in Persia were favorable, he sent him back with precious gifts. The prince promised to help him. On learning about this, the British sent Mehdi Ali Khan as their ambassador to Persia. He compelled and pressed the Persian king so much that he did not come to Tipu Sultan’s assistance. In another move, the British managed to forge an alliance with Marathas and Nizam

of Hyderabad, because the British wanted to kill Tipu Sultan and capture the

Subcontinent at any cost. Moreover, the British bribed many officials of Tipu Sultan who were working on important projects. They became British

aides and supporters. Tipu Sultan decided to fight against the British. Marathas,

Nizam of Hyderabad and many important people were on the British side

In l799AD, forces of Tipu Sultan and the British fought a severe battle at

Seringapatam. Because of some traitors, Tipu Sultan was defeated and won the honour of a martyr. His two sons were held as hostage. With his fall, the independence of the Subcontinent came to an end. In last moments of his life, a British general suggested him to surrender. But Tipu Sultan replied: “To live like a lion for a day is far better than to live like a jackal for a hundred years”. After the martyrdom of Tipu Sultan and end of the Islamic state of Mysore, the British annexed Punjab. Sindh and other territories.

  1. Discuss the role of movements initiated by Shah Waliullah [RA], Syed Ahmad

Shaheed and Haji Shariatullah.

ANSWER: Hazrat Shah Waliullah [RA]:

Hazrat Shah Waliullah [RA] was born in 1703AD in Delhi. His name was Ahmad

and title Shah Waliullah. His father Abd-ul-Rahim was respected for his

knowledge and piety. He founded the seminary of Rahimiya Hazrat Shah

Waliullah [RA] received his basic education from his father and learnt the Holy Quran by heart at the age of seven. He was a teacher par excellence, and had a deep knowledge of Quran and Hadith. He penned 50 books. His most famous book is Hujatullah-al- Baligha. He adopted Quranic education and preaching as his mission. For this purpose, he translated the Holy Quran into Persian, which enabled a great number of people to understand and disseminate the

meaning of Holy book. Shah Waliullah [RA] started his movement

at such a time when disappointment and hopelessness was widespread. He visited foreign lands and tried to strengthen the Muslim rule. He was well aware that Sikhs and Marathas are worst enemies of the Muslims. He persuaded Ahmad Shah Abdali to attack on lndia. He invited the Muslims toward fight of

Allah almighty, because they were engulfed in anarchy and conspiracies. He encouraged the Muslims to join Islamic army. He also carried on his services on religious front, as well as uniting the Muslims politically. His translation of the Holy Quran in known under the title of ”                                                                            He was famous for his knowledge of Hadith. He wrote exegesis of                             in Persian and Arabic, under the titles of ”                     ” and ”                  “. Along

with his political and religious services, Shah Waliullah [RA] also tried to eradicate

social evils. Consequently many reformist movements were started from seminary of Rahimiya. Sectarian rifts were common in his age. False cults and ideologies were muddled with Islamic teachings. He united the

Muslims and tried his best to make them conscious of Islamic values. Through his

teachings, the Muslims rejected non-Islamic customs and became true followers of Islam. He passed away in 1762AD. Then his son Shah Abdul Aziz furthered his mission. syed Ahmad Shaheed and Jihad Movement l786AD-l83lAD)

Syed Ahmad Shaheed was bom in l786AD

in the Indian city of Bareli. He was a

disciple of Shah Waliullah’s son Shah

Abdul Aziz. He received his basic

education from Rahimiya religious school

of Delhi. He visited many places to guide

the Muslims and preaching of Islam. At that

time Punjab and NWFP (KPK) were ruled

by Sikhsfwho became a nuisance for

Muslim community. Syed Ahmad Shaheed

resolved to take sword against them. He

gathered and prepared an army of faithful

warriors. He conquered Peshawar in

l830AD, enforced Islamic law and banned

all types of intoxicants. Local chiefs

became his enemy. Faithful warriors

(Mujahidins) defeated the Sikhs at Akora

and Hazro. After this victory, Syed Ahmad

Shaheed announced his caliphate (Khilafat).

Islamic warriors carried on their incursions.

In l83lAD, these pious warriors fought a

final battle against Sikhs at Balakot. Syed

Ahmad and Syed Ismail eamed the honour

r 1


















”  $91

of martyrdom. Aft_er his death Maulvi

Naseeruddin Dehlavi and Maulvi Sadiq Ali

carried on his mission. .

Haji Shariatullah and Faraizi Movement

(l78lAD-l840AD): A

Faraizi Movement, founded by Haji

Shariatullah, was most effective and

popular movement of Muslim Bengal. lts

main purpose was to -encourage the

eMuslims to follow basic obligations of

faith, like prayer, fasting, zakat and hajj. He

tried to eliminate heresies and supported the

farmers against suppressive behavior of

Hindu landlords. After him, his son Haji

Muhammad Hassan (also known as Dudhu

Mian) carried on this objective. He

popularized the Faraizi movement. Along

with insistence on following of basic

obligations, this movement also paid

special attention toward cultivators’

problems. Empowering effect of this

movement encouraged the Muslims to,

voice against the exploitation of Hindu


Describe the main point of British policy

in Hyderabad Deccan, Sindh,

Baluchistan, Punjab and Oudh at the

end of 19th century.

Ans.British Policy in Hyderabad Deccan,

Sindh, Baluchistan Punjab and Oudh at

the end of 19th Century: ‘

Hyderabad Deccan:

After the death of Mughal Emperor

Aurangzeb Alamgir, the Mughal Empire

was declining. Ruler of many states

separated themselves and established the

own independent govemments. Hyderabad

Deccan was an affluent state. In l724AD

Mir Qamaruddin Khan established his rule

in Hyderabad Deccan under the title of

Nizam-ul-Mulk. Ruler of Hyderabad

Deccan was called Nizam. The British

counted him among his friends because he

had refused to join the l857AD war of

independence. So they kept Hyderabad state

intact after l857AD. Seven rulers came to

power in this state from l724AD to

l948AD. ln l948AD, Nizam surrendered to








of martyrdom. Aft_er his death Maulvi

Naseeruddin Dehlavi and Maulvi Sadiq Ali

carried on his mission. .

Haji Shariatullah and Faraizi Movement

(l78lAD-l840AD): A

Faraizi Movement, founded by Haji

Shariatullah, was most effective and

popular movement of Muslim Bengal. lts

main purpose was to -encourage the

Muslims to follow basic obligations of

faith, like prayer, fasting, zakat and hajj. He

tried to eliminate heresies and supported the

farmers against suppressive behavior of

Hindu landlords. After him, his son Haji

Muhammad Hassan (also known as Dudhu

Mian) carried on this objective. He

popularized the Faraizi movement. Along

with insistence on following of basic

obligations, this movement also paid

special attention toward cultivators’

problems. Empowering effect of this

movement encouraged the Muslims to,

voice against the exploitation of Hindu


Describe the main point of British policy

in Hyderabad Deccan, Sindh,

Baluchistan, Punjab and Oudh at the

end of 19th century.

Ans.British Policy in Hyderabad Deccan,

Sindh, Baluchistan Punjab and Oudh at

the end of 19th Century: ‘

Hyderabad Deccan:

After the death of Mughal Emperor

Aurangzeb Alamgir, the Mughal Empire

was declining. Ruler of many states

separated themselves and established the

own independent govemments. Hyderabad

Deccan was an affluent state. In l724AD

Mir Qamaruddin Khan established his rule

in Hyderabad Deccan under the title of

Nizam-ul-Mulk. Ruler of Hyderabad

Deccan was called Nizam. The British

counted him among his friends because he

had refused to join the l857AD war of

independence. So they kept Hyderabad state

intact after l857AD. Seven rulers came to

power in this state from l724AD to

l948AD. ln l948AD, Nizam surrendered to




  • ——-v 4/

Indian army. Therefore Hyderabad Deccan

became a part of Indian Union.


The British captured Sindh after deposing

Talpur family. They made Sindh a part of

Bombay (Mumbai). Charles Napier was the

first govemor of British Raj. 40% of lands

of Muslims were allotted to Hindus.

Muslim leaders continued their efforts to

separate Sindh from Bombay.

Quaid-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in

his I4 ‘points, also demanded this

separation. At last in I935, the British

government acceded to this demand and

separated Sindh from Bombay. Railway

system was established in Sindh in British

period. Printing press was introduced. The

British also laid down irrigation system and

built many bridges. In the same age Mirza

Qaleech Beg done a great deal of research

work and compiled the history of Sindh.


Prior to British arrival in the Subcontinent,

Baluchistan was an autonomous state. The

ruler was Khan of Qalat Mir Mehrab Khan.

The British killed him in I839AD and then

divided Baluchistan in two parts: British

Baluchistan and State Baluchistan. Former

part was consisted of Quetta. Sibbi, Chaghi,

Naseerabad, Lora Lai, Zhob, Pashin, Qila

Abdullah, Qila Saifullah, Dera Bugti,

Noshki, Kohlu, Barkhan, Dhadar and Bolan

areas; while in State Baluchistan Qalat,

Makran, Kharan and Lasbela states were

included. The British purposely kept

Baluchistan backward. Baluch people took

active part in independence movement.


In l849AD, the British defeated the Sikhs

and annexed Punjab with their empire.

Punjab had a special status during British

era, because it was not only famous for

good agricultural yield, but became a

political and cultural centre. In l857AD

war of independence all nations living in

Punjab had rebelled against the British

govemment but failed to achieve any goals

due to lack of unity and planning‘. The last




{F-~ I

Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was

deposed and sent to Rangoon (Burma),

whereas safety of loyal rulers was assured.

Until then British East lndia Company was

ruling the Subcontinent. British government

used to issue a charter to the company after

every 20 years. According to specific

conditions of this charter, the company was

given the right to rule and patronization of

British government. After the war of

independence, the charter was cancelled and

a new law was passed in l858AD.

According to this law, whole ofthe

Subcontinent including Punjab became

subject to Queen Victoria.


Nawab of Oudh state, Shuja-ud—Daulah had

sided with Mir Qasim in the battle of Buxar

in l764AD. After the defeat, Nawab was

arrested by the British. Nawab acceded

some areas to the British. ln l765AD, the

British captured some more areas of Oudh.

Nawab of Oudh Shuja-ud—Daulah died in

  1. The British ignored his able and

intelligent son and enthroned his

incompetent brother as ruler of Oudh. This

was the beginning of line of British

supported puppet rulers of Oudh state. The

British increased their interference in

administrative matters step by step. ln

l856AD, they captured the whole state.

Discuss the reasons, main events and

consequences of l857AD war of

independence. _

Ans. War of Independence (l857AD-l858AD):

The British came td‘ Subcontinent for

trading purposes. With the passage of time

they fought several battles with local rulers

and started capturing their states. l857AD

war of independence was a crucial point in

the history of the Subcontinent, because in

this war the population of this region

struggled as a united nation. After the

failure of this war, there remained no

challenge for British rule. Secondly, the

Mughal Empire founded by Babar came to

an end. One more result of this war was

also significant: at the end of war, the











i ‘/

British adopted a policy of uneven

treatment against Muslim population. But

failure ofthe Muslims in l857AD became a

foundation for their success in 1947.

Reasons of War of Independence:

Every event or revolutionary action has

some immediate and other secondary basis

in the history. In the same way, the

immediate reason of the war of

independence was the use of tallow-greased

cartridges and misbehaving with lndian

soldiers but most reasons were of social,

religious and economic nature. Lava

suddenly erupted with fall force.

By l857AD the British rule was established

over most of lndian territories. The British

maintained their colonies through force and

suppression. Such British policieswere a

nuisance for the people of the Subcontinent.

Their dislike for British imperial

domination was natural. People of the

Subcontinent started their efforts to get rid

of this colonial yoke. Role of the Muslims

was prominent in this struggle. After the

battles of Plassey, Buxar and Mysore, the

war of independence was a proof of their


Muslims and Hindus were annoyed by

interference ofthe British in their faith

matters. British preachers also showed

non-respectful attitude for sacred

personalities of other religions.

Use of tallow-greased cartridges was a

result of a new type of gun. The cartridges

for such guns were greased with fat and it

was thought that this is cow andpig fat

which was contrary to religious principles

of the Muslims and Hindus. Sepoys had to

bite the cartridge open to release the

powder. They refused to do this and

rebelled. In March l857AD. soldiers in

Calcutta cantonment protested, against this.

Wajid Ali. Shah, ruler of Oudh, was forced

to abdicate the thrown and 80,000 soldiers

were dismissed. This unemployment

increased the level of unrest.

East lndia Company’s trade policies (e.g

non payment of taxes, import and export of





goods without paying customs) affected the

econbmy badly and treasury was exhausted.

Moreover, because of East India Company’s

financial exploitation, forced collection of

land revenue and imposition of several

taxes a large part of society had become an

enemy of the British.

In l835AD, the official status of Persian

was abolished and English was adopted as

official language. This affected the Muslim

population more severely as compared to

Hindus. The whole fabric of Muslim

society was destroyed, and consequently

they reacted with rage.

British government encouraged the culture

of feudalism and created a privileged class.

This helped them to govern effectively but

also engendered hate among common

people. Local rulers of the Subcontinent

had treated them good and provided basic

facilities to people. The British abolished

these facilities, confiscated the lands of the

feudal and grants of land for mosques and

temples were also cancelled. Moreover, the

rate of revenue was increased. In this

situation, the Subcontinent was engulfed in

poverty and helplessness. lndians were

deprived of government jobs.

Unemployment and other problems

compelled the local people to revolt. 7

A British army colonel ordered the soldiers

of Meerut to gather in parade ground and

tried to teach them the way to use tallow

greased cartridges. Nearly. all Hindu,

Muslim and Sikh soldiers refused to use the

cartridges. Colonel punished them with one

year prison with hard labour. Consequently,

soldiers became more aroused and angry.

Important Events of War of Independence: y

On 6 May l857AD, soldiers in Meerut

cantonment were punished for refusing to

accept tallow greased cartridges.

Imprisonment of these soldiers instigated

others. When British officers were busy in

their religious service in church, soldiers

attacked on prison and released their

colleagues. They killed many white officers

and looted the ammunition. After declaring












a war against foreign rulers, they marched

toward Delhi to reinstate former Mughal


Fire of revolt spread to Delhi and Ambala

cantonments. Then thousands of lndian

soldiers captured Delhi, announced

Bahadur Shah Zafar as emperor and

constituted an administrative council under

general Bakht Khan.

The British left Uttar Pardesh, Madhya

Pardesh and Bihar, and enclosed themselves

in the forts of Agra and Allahabad.

Freedom fighters also took control of Shah

Jahanpur and Badayun. Flag of freedom

was also unfurled in Azamgarh and


In Kanpur, religious leader Nana Sahib and

Azimullah Khan expelled the British.

Meanwhile, Rani of Jhansi Lakhshami Bai

rebelled against British Raj. ln Oudh

Ahamad Allah Shah and Nawab Mahal

Begum caused the British to run for their

lives. British forces tried to take back Delhi

under the command of General Bernard, but

defeated and died with grief. Then General

Reed took the command, but he was

defeated too and resigned.

Now the British realized that it was

impossible to defeat General Bakht Khan

and recapture Delhi by force. So the

resorted to usually tactics of dividing, bribe

and causing rift. A traitor blasted away the

ammunition depot of General Bakht Khan.

Freedom fighters started showing suspicion

against each other. Some

misunderstandings emerged between Bakht

Khan and last Mughal Emperor Bahadur

Shah Zafar. Bakht Khan left Delhi and

disappeared in the mountains of Nepal, and

was never seen again.

The British killed and destroyed on a large

scale after recapturing Delhi. Then they

took back Jhansi, Lakhnow and Bareli.

Thus partly through intrigues and partly

through traitors, the dream of freedom was

postponed for one hundred years.

Consequences of War of Independence:

1 War of independence was fought without





  1. Quota of govemment job for the Muslims 5



any formal planning, without any 5

prominent leader and with little resources. §

However, the zeal and fervor of freedom §

fighters was exemplary. Treason of local §

people caused its failure, which had §

permanent and long lasting consequences. §

  1. After the conclusion of war of?

independence, East India Company’s rule Z

was abolished and India passed under §

British crown. A British viceroy was E

appointed who had all administrative §

powers. §

Muslims played a prominent role in the Wang

of independence. So, they were the main 5

target of vengeance by the British. Lay

people and Islamic scholars as we-ll as

freedom fighters were killed. Their ;

properties were confiscated and dismissed §

from jobs. The Muslims suffered badly and

their economy was destroyed. They were

engulfed in poverty and deprivation. §

Hindus left them behind in government §

jobs, trade and education. ‘ E




was minimized. They were denied any §

opportunities, no matter how capable» they

are. Land revenue was increased and tenant ;

lost all of his rights. The British levied 3

many new taxes and duties.

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