Note: some questions statements are not 100% same according to text book but questions & answers are same.

(Chapter 1)




Q.1:  (a)   What is a map? Why maps are made?

Ans: MAP

A representation of the features of an area of the earth or whole of the earth on at flat surface according to a scale is called a Map.

Maps are made to show the physical features distribution of agricultural production, population distribution or political administrative divisions of any region, for example Physical feature maps or weather maps etc.

(b)     Discuss the Importance of maps

Ans:   Maps not only identify the exact location of a place, but can also highlight its physical and economic significance.


With the help of political maps exact location and boundaries of different countries can be identified.


Physical maps tell us about the physical features like mountains, plateaus, streams and plains of any region.


Weather map tells about the weather conditions of a country. It not only tells us about the current weather but also helps in forecasting the coming weather conditions. Maps also help in a determining the directions of different places. Aeroplanes and ships move to their destinations with the help of maps.

(c)     Explain Different Types of Maps.

Ans:   Types of Maps:

There are many types of maps.

  1. Atlas Maps
  2. Topographical Maps
  3. Cadastral Maps
  4. Distribution Maps

Atlas maps are prepared for countries, continents and world with less details and general information. These maps provide important information about larger areas, for example, distribution of rainfall, temperature, forests,  minerals and climatic conditions at continental level.


Topographical maps are prepared for smaller areas with all the details, for example, low lying and elevated areas, rivers, streams, forests, railways, roads,  footpaths, canals and wells etc. present in that area.


Cadastral maps are large scale maps. These maps contain more details as compared to topographical maps. These maps provide information at village level about ownership of farms and houses. Similarly cadastral maps of cities provide detailed information about every house, block, street, road, parks and markets etc.


Distribution maps are prepared to show and compare distribution of different phenomenon, for example, population of areas, number of cattle, mineral reserves etc. Every phenomenon is shown at its real location keeping topography of the area in view. Area of a region is also considered while showing distribution of a particular phenomenon. There are two types of distribution maps, i.e., Qualitative and Quantitative.


Q.2:  (a) Discuss the types of Distribution maps.

Types of Distribution Maps:

There are two types of distribution maps, i.e. Qualitative and Quantitative.

Qualitative Maps

Qualitative maps only show production and not the quantity (comparison of areas growing wheat)

Quantitative Maps

Quantitative maps show variations in the production or numbers (comparison of per care yield of wheat).


Quantitative maps can be prepared by two methods that are:

  • DOT Method
  • SHADE Method

(b)       Describe the use of Dot Method in Distribution Maps. Also write its merits and demerits.

Ans:   Dot Method

A dot distribution map is a-map type that uses a dot symbol to show the presence, quantity or value of a feature or variable in a specific area. Dot maps rely on a visual scatter to show distribution pattern. To prepare such distribution maps, area is divided into smaller units (province, divisions, districts, tehsils or towns.

According -to the data; number of dots is determined according to a scale in such a manner that number of dots-should not be too high or too low. In case of large number of dots, there may be inadequate or little space available.

On the-other hand, fewer dots in a large unit may distort the correct visual concept of the map. Scale for dots must be set very carefully. Before placing the dots on map, physical map of the region must be consulted to know that where most of the dots should be placed and where the dots are not required.


Dot method is usually considered suitable for display of absolute data or total amounts. Any variation in production can be estimated from the number of dots.


By Distribution maps, the production or distribution of population of an area can easily be estimated.


  1. Sometimes people live temporarily in a region or a country, and after sometimes, due to economic or political conditions move to other countries. Therefore, it becomes difficult to show such mobile population on distribution maps.
  2. Often data used in producing distribution maps, changes yearly. So it becomes mandatory to make changes in these maps according to the latest changes in the data.

(c)     Write a note on Shading Method in Distribution Maps, Also name methods of showing statistical data.

Ans: Shading Method:

Sometimes to show a country’s population or the production of various goods on the map, different colours or light or dark shades of one colour are used.

Drawback of Shading Method:

The major drawback of this method is that the division of anything seems uniformly distributed everywhere. Whereas depending on the time and place variations may take place.

Sometimes to show agricultural production in different regions, it becomes difficult to ignore non-productive areas i.e. mountains, rivers and lakes etc.

Methods of Showing Statistical Data:

In geography, diagrams are those conceptual sketches through which geographic information and data is transferred to the paper. These are called Statistical Diagrams. These are:

►        Line Graph                ►      Bar Graph               ►     Pie Graph

(d)    Describe disadvantages of Distribution Maps:


  1. The maps showing the distribution of the population in general are developed on the basis of the census. Most countries of the world have a census every ten years. Sometimes people live temporarily in a region or a country, and after sometime, due to economic or apolitical conditions move to other countries. Therefore it becomes difficult to show such mobile population on distribution maps. Within a country or a region, population, density;(persons per square kilometre) is usually displayed with the help of colours or shades of a colour which do not provide complete information about the region. It is difficult to differentiate between areas of dense population through shades of colours.
  2. By distribution maps; the production or distribution of population of area can easily be estimated. Often data used in producing these maps, changes yearly. So it becomes mandatory to make changes in these maps according to the latest changes in the data. It is beneficial if distribution maps are produced by averaging the previous years because in doing so, variations in production of various years can be compensated.


Q.3:  (a) Describe line graph to show-statistical data. Also write its merits and demerits.

Ans. Line Graph

In line graph, statistical data is displayed with the help of a line on the graph, therefore it is called Line Graph.

In this graph two variables are shown, one as a variable quantity and other as constant. To construct a line graph, two lines are drawn meeting each other at 90 degrees. Horizontal line is called X-Axis and Vertical line is called Y-Axis. Constant variable is placed on X-Axis (Days, Months, Years, Distances etc.) and measurable variable is placed on Y-Axis (Rain, Temperature, Air Pressure, Production .etc.)

To measure the values at Y-‘Axis, an appropriate scale is determined. With the help of scale, values are marked in the form of dots for each constant variable. Then these dots are joined by a line to prepare a Line Graph.


  1. With the help of line graph more than one variables can be compared easily, i.e. we can compare the annual temperatures and rainfall values of Karachi and Lahore, which is not possible on Barrand Pie graph. Due tot this property of line graph, it is preferred over bar graph.
  2. Line graph is the best way to show decrease or increase in annual, monthly and daily productions of various items. Besides this, line graph is also used to show weather conditions, population, animal distribution, exports and imports of a country. All these statistics are related to time, so these are better illustrated on a line graph.
  3. On line graph, we can easily understand the fluctuations as well as the production of items.


  1. Although we can show average quantities and production on line graph, but we cannot show percentages on it. Percentages are better shown on pie graph.
  2. Although we can show fluctuations in productions, but we cannot show total production of any item on the line graphs, i.e. total annual rainfall of a place or total population of a country.

(b)     Explain Bat Graph to show statistical data. Also write its merits and demerits.


In bar graph, we show quantities in the form of bars of equal width on equal intervals. The height of the bar varies with quantity. Bars can be drawn both vertically and horizontally. This method is very useful for comparison of different quantities, i.e. population of big cities of Pakistan, length of canals, marks of students in a subject, imports and exports of a country, areas and productions etc. We can also shade and colour the bars.


  1. We can show total quantity of production on the bar graph.
  2. We can also compare different quantities of the same item.
  3. It is easy to show quantities on bar graph.


  1. To show more than one item or quantity, we have to draw multiple bars or a compound bar.
  2. It is possible to show value of only one item on the bar graph.
  3. We cannot show percentages on bar graph.






(c)     Discuss Pie Graph to Show Statistical Data. Also write its merits and demerits.


Sometimes geographical data is displayed in circles or sectors of circle, i.e. population or areas of a country or cities, imports or exports, trade and production of petroleum or electricity. This is called Pie Graph. We can show percentages on it. When we have to show quantities of same type in percentages, the circle is supposed to be divided in 100 parts and sectors are created with the help of following formula:

Given Quantity  x 100

Total Quantity

We can calculate the specific angle (sector of the circle) of the given percentage by following formula:

Percentage Value  x 360




  1. Pie graph covers less space as compared to line and bar graph. It presents a better comparison between different quantities.
  2. We can show the total quantity on this graph.
  3. It shows the areas of different countries in a better way which is not possible on line and bar graph.
  4. It is preferred to show production of power resources. i.e. electricity or gas.


  1. Pie graph is not suitable to show weather data, i.e., distribution of temperature, rain and wind pressure.
  2. In pie graph method calculations of percentages and division of circle into sectors is comparatively difficult and time consuming.


(Chapter 2)

Agents of Landforms Change


Q.1:  What do you mean by Landforms? Explain.

Ans: Landforms:

Different types of landforms are found Lon our earth, because its surface is uneven, these landforms came into existence due to the internal and external forces of the earth.


Huge landforms that were formed by the internal forces of the earth are mountains plains, plateaus etc.


In the external forces of the earth different agents are included which cause destruction to the earths crust and form different landforms under different environmental circumstances.


These agents are glaciers, rivers, wind and sea Waves etc.


Q.2:  Describe different landforms made by River.


The river is the most important agent to bring a change in the earth landforms.


Permanent rivers are found in such areas where there is ample rainfall. The presence of mountains provides initial slope for the flow of surface Water where due to the mergence of big and small lakes, water ways a river is created.

  1. Erosion

After a river is created it performs three types of functions. The river breaks the rocks that come in its path, this process is called erosion.


  1. Process of transfer

The debris of rocks caused floats away with the flow of the river. The process is called the transfer process. The third and last process of the river is to dump the eroded material at some place, this is called Transportation.

iii.        Very slow speed of the river

The transfer process takes place at a time when the flow of the river is very slow, this act is called deposition.


Q.3:  What are the different landforms caused by river erosion?


The following landforms come into existence by river erosion:


In hilly area due to the destruction caused by the river the slope on the river pathway starts deepening by which the valley takes on the shape of the English word.

Areas of V-Shaped Valleys

These types of valleys are formed in the northern areas of Pakistan.


These are very deep and narrow valleys are often called ‘Gorges or Canyons’. Such valleys are found in northern areas of Pakistan.


The riverbed consists of hard and soft rocks. Sometimes under the hard riverbed a chain of soft rocks is present to a great depth. When the hard rocks on the river bed break then the river breaks the soft rocks under the river bed to a great depth, due to which the water falls down in a cascade.

iii.        POT HOLES

Sometimes the swirling action of stones in the water develop holes in the riverbed. These are called Pot Holes.



There are hard and soft rocks in the rivers channel. The river breaks the soft rocks and creates a winding path due to uneven erosion of the river meanders are formed.

Ox-Bow Lake

Sometimes these Meanders come so close that the river breaks these meanders and starts flowing in a straight position. By this a crescent shaped lake comes into existence. This lake is called an Ox-Bow lake for example Kalri, the lakeon the river Indus is an Ox-Bow lake.


Q.4:  Explain the rivers depositional landforms.


Rivers Depositional Landforms are as under:

(i)  Flood Plains        (ii)   Natural Levees           (iii) Delta


In a flood plain the river overflows its bank and. spreads far and wide. When it recedes it leaves behind sediments in its wake. In this way a smooth plain emerges which is called Flood Plain.


Silt and sand accumulate on the river bank making the river bank higher than the  flood plains; this is called a natural embankments or Natural Levees.

iii.        DELTA

When the river enters the sea, the speed of the river flow reduces bringing with it all types of sediments. It divides into many branches and the plane thus formed is called delta.

Q.5:  Explain the Landforms made by Glaciers.


In the high mountain ranges of the world the areas of the far northern polar areas are very old. There is intense snowfall due to which layers of snow form and lower part of these layers turn solid like glass, on which the upper portion of snow starts sliding down the slope. The volume of this sliding snow is called a glaciers.


Like river glacier is also an important agent in bringing change in the earth’s landforms but its process is limited to the mountainous and polar regions.


There are two types of glacier that form in particular areas.

(i)    Valley Glacier                (ii) Continental Glacier


Glacier found on mountain areas are either called Valley glaciers or Alpine glaciers. These glaciers due to more slope slide down more quickly as compared to continental glaciers, but this movement is not more than a few feet per day. But soon as they come down to the lower areas they start melting quickly, and they bring with them eroded material which is deposed into different areas.

Due to this breakage the earth’s landforms come into existence as under mentioned.


Due to the breakage of glaciers and their deposition, earths landforms come into existence as mentioned under.

  1. Cirque

In high attitude areas where the glacier valley comes into (existence a bowl shaped depression comes into existence, it is called a Cirque.

  1. Cirque Lake/Tarn

When a glacier comes out of a Cirque and starts’ sliding down towards the slope, the water starts collecting in this bowl shaped crater, natural lakes are formed these are called Cirque lakes or Tarn.

Examples of Cirque Lakes

In Pakistan lake Saif-ul-Maluk and Satpara lake Etc are such examples.

iii.        U-Shaped Valley

A glacier causes erosion in its downward as well as side wards path due to which the path becomes wide and takes on the shape of the English word “U’’, therefore it is called a “U” shaped valley.


We can find such valleys like Kaghan, Naran and Hunza in the areas of Pakistan are examples of such valleys.

(iv)      Hanging Valley

Like small streams join a big river likewise small glaciers join large glaciers whose glacier valleys are at a height comparatively, such type of glacier is called Hanging valleys.

(v)       Fiord Valley

Many mountains ranges that are situated beside a coast the glacier valley goes straight into the sea afterwards the sea water enters into these valley such a valley is called a Fiord (drowned valleys).



Glaciers deposit eroded materials which they deposit in huge piles, which are called Moraines.


(i)         Lateral Moraine

To widen its valley the glacier widens by lateral cutting. The broken rocky material of the glacier is deposited on the banks of a glacier in the form of piles in a continuous ridges; this ia called a Lateral Moraine.

(ii)        Medial Moraine

Due to the joining of lateral-moraines of two glaciers a medial moraine comes into existence.

(iii)       Terminal Moraine

The arc shaped material deposited at ‘itsrter1ninus deposited in an arch like heap it joins the lateral moraine this is called a terminal moraine or end moraine.

Q.6:  Explain the earth landforms made by continental glaciers?


Glaciers found in the polar areas are called continental glaciers.  Far away from the equator in the polar areas like Greenland and Antarctica are engulfed in a thick blanket of ice. These are continental glaciers they’ are many thousand feet in thickness and are spread out in millions of square kilometers. Due to lack of slope and vast area of the glacier their sliding speed is very slow.

For this reason the continental glaciers destruction is less as compared to the deposition process of small glaciers.

Landforms formed by Continental Glaciers Deposition

Landforms made by the continental deposition are as under.

(i)         Marginal lakes and Delta Kames              (ii)        Eskers

(iii)       Outwash plains                                            (iv)       Drulmlins

(v)        Terminal Moraine

(i)         Marginal lakes and delta Kames

Sometimes in between the end of a glacier and the rising surface natural lakes are formed in which the melted water from the glacier starts collecting in streams and lakes and sometimes the finely eroded material coming from the lakes and streams dry surface. are formed which are called Delta Kames.

(ii)        Eskers

The streams formed by the melting glacier often make tunnels in the glacier. These streams bring with them sand, soil and small pebbles with them and make a winding permanent long winding plains piles which comes into existence with the melting of a glacier these are called Eskers.

(iii)       Out Wash Plain

Often melt water streams deposit fine material aver a vast area of land ahead of glacier. This smooth plain is called Out Wash Plains.

(iv)      Drumlins

The material deposited by glaciers in the form of oval shaped hills which resemble inverted spoons or eggs is called drumlins.

(v)       Terminal Moraine

The material deposited at the terminus of a glacier is called a Terminal Moraine.

Q.7:  Describe the landforms made by wind?


There is very little rainfall in the desert areas and there are no permanent rivers and vegetation is very less. That is why the wind is an important agent that brings change in the landform plains in the desert. Wind also plays an important part like the breaking of glaciers and rivers and their deposition in forming new earth landforms, modification.



The wind causes two types of destruction first of all the wind blows away the finely ground rock particles, this process is called Deflation.


The wind again uses these rock particles as a tool for further erosion and deposition. This process is called “Abrasion”

Erosional Landforms

The erosional landforms that come into existence are as under:

  1. Zeugen

Sometimes on soft rocks there is a  layer of hard rock’s present on the surface of the earth. In the lower portion of soft rocks the process of erosion is greater by which its volume decreases, whereas the hard rock on top due to its resistance stays like a slab such a carving is called “Zeugen”.

  1. Mushroom Rock

Sometimes by the erosion of wind and friction the rock assume the shape of a mushroom. On such type of rocks the process of erosion is more on the thinner rocks. Due to the destruction of the wind such type of land forms formed are found on the surface of the Potohar, Plateaus and Baluchistan in Pakistan.

(c)       Deflation Basin and Lakes

When the wind blows away the fine rock particles sediments due to which shallow depressions are formed these are called Deflation Basins.


Sometimes the rain water gathers in these craters and assumes the shape of a lake. Later on these lakes become dry due to evaporation in time.

(d)       Yardang

Different types of rocks are present on the earth’s surface. Sometimes hard and soft rocks are present in each other’s lap. The uneven process of wind does not effect equally on these rocks and they assume irregular shapes. These are called “Yardang”. We can observe the erosional landforms of wind in Potohar and Balochistan Plateau in Pakistan.

(e)       Inselberg

When soft rocks are completely eroded the hard rock’s remain in the shape of distinctive mounds. These are called “Inselbergs’

(ii)        Depositional Landforms


Due to the depositional process of the wind on sand the mounds that are formed are called “Dunes”.

These mounds are of different shapes.


There are five types of sand dunes as under

(a)       Longitudinal Dunes                                                (b)       Transverse Dunes

(c)        Crescent Shaped Dunes / Barkhans                   (d)       Star-shaped Dunes

(e)       Coastal Dunes


Q.8:  Discuss the Landforms Made by Sea-Waves?


Like the river waves cause corrosion on land in the same way sea waves cause erosion and through deposition they form new earth land forms.



There are four types of landforms caused by erosion as under:

(i)         Caves                                     (ii)        Head Land and Bay

(iii)       Sea Arch and Stacks                      (iv)       Sea Cliffs

(i)         Caves

Continuous wave attacks at the bottom of cliffs create cavities. These cavities by further erosion transform into caves.

(ii)        Head Land and Bay

Sometimes the sea water enters  the in land to at great distance, it is called a bay.

Head Land

When a dry portion of land around the sea enters it to a great distance in water it is called a Headland.

(iii)       Sea Arch and Stacks

When sea waves keep on colliding with the coastal head land fro in both sides. Sometimes this continues erosion results in creating an opening in the headland. These are called “Sea Arch”. When the sea arch is detached from the headland by further erosion the remaining column like structures are called Stacks.


When these waves separate from the headland they look standing in the shape of individual dunes.

(iv)      Sea Cliffs

On mountains coasts, seaward the slopes due to the breakage caused by sea waves they became perpendicular. The breakage caused by sea waves depends upon the type of rocks. Hard rocks turn in to steep slopes after years of breakage whereas the soft rocks break up early.



Due to the deposition of sand brought by sea waves an even region comes into existence adjacent to the sea it is called a coast.


Sand on the coast due to waves assume the shape of different dunes or mounds. These are called a bar.

Types of Bar

There are types of bar as under mentioned.

(i)         Spit Bar

On a straight coast waves keeps on depositing sand. Sometimes a bay comes beside the straight coast and the sand is deposited a long way ahead of the bay. It is called a Spit bar.

(ii)        Timbolo

While increasing in size the spit bar joins a nearby island, this forms a bridge between the coast and the island. It is called a Timbolo.

(iii)       Bay mount bar and Cuspate bar

While increasing the spit bar reaches the other bank of the bay and separates the seawater form the bay it is called the Bay Mouth Bar.





(Chapter 3)

Oceans and Seas


Q.1:  What is difference between an ocean and a sea? Discuss the characteristics of some important oceans.

Ans: Ocean:

A vast area of the earth which is covered with water is called an “Ocean”.


Small regions attached to them are called seas. An ocean separates a continent from another.


There are five oceans in the world, their detail is given below

Oceans and Seas

The Pacific Ocean is the biggest ocean in the world.


Its area is approximately l55 million square kilometers.

Average depth

Its average depth is 4000 metres.

Border Areas

Its border areas consist of deep trenches and volcanoes. The Panama Canal which joins the Pacific Ocean with the Atlantic Ocean is among important sea trade routes of the world.


The second biggest ocean is the Atlantic Ocean.

Area:  Its area is 76 million square kilometer.

Average depth:

Its average depth is 3900 metres. .

Mountain Range:

The particular characteristics of this ocean is the mountain range which is present in its middle, which due to the opposite movement of fishery plates and the emergence of magma comes into existence.


Length of the long mountain range

This a lengthy mountain range which spreads from the Atlantic ocean to the pacific ocean, Indian ocean to” the South Antarctic approximately 60,000 kms in length, this is also considered to be the most important area with reference to volcanoes

Busiest Trade Route

The Atlantic Ocean is the most important and the busiest trade routes of the world.


This is the third biggest ocean of the world.


Its area is 68 million square kilometers. This triangular shaped ocean is spread up to the half of the Southern Hemisphere.

Average Depth

Its average depth is 3900 kilometers.

Mountain range

The mountain range coming from the middle of the Atlantic ocean bisects the Indian Ocean floor east to west like the Pacific ocean, trenches can also be found-in the Indian Ocean.


The Jawa Trench is ‘also present in the Indian Ocean which is 7400 kilometers in depth. The importance of trade through the Indian Ocean has increased.

Important Trade Route

This is an important trade route between the East and the West. The Suez

Canal emerges from it which enjoins the Red sea with the Barents Sea.


The Area of Antarctic Ocean

Its area is 20 million square kilometers.

Average depth

Its average depth is 4000 metres.

Characteristics of the Antarctic Sea

In comparison to the other seas it is difficult to assess the borders of the Antarctic sea because in this part the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean are enjoined. Extremely cold water, big ice bergs are the characteristics of this sea.


It is situated around the South polar sea.


Its area is l4 million square-kilometers.

Average Depth

It average depth is 1200 kilometers.

Characteristics of the Artie Ocean

Shallow water, due to the mixing of fresh river water, less salt and frozen ice on the surface are the distinctive characteristics of this ocean.

Landforms made by the distribution of water

Q.2:  Explain some important landforms made by the distribution of water?


(i)         Sea

The continental sea is part of the border of the adjoining ocean for example, the Arabian Sea and the Red sea etc.

(ii)        Gulf

A large and vast part of an ocean which penetrates deep into the in Land is called a gulf for example the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Mexico. .

(iii)       Bay

As compared to the gulf a vast region of the ocean which comes inland to a great distance is called a bay for example, the Bay of Bengal, the Hudson Bay etc.

(iv)      Bight

If the gulf is very wide and extended is called a Bight for example in the south of Australia the great Australian Bight.


(v)       Strait

A narrow passage of seawater which enjoins the two oceans is called a strait for example the strait of Gibraltar which connects the Atlantic ocean with the Mediterranean sea.

(vi)      Peninsula

The dry region of land which “is covered on three sides by the sea is called a peninsula, It 1s attached to dry land-from one side for example the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian Peninsula.

(vii)     Island

Such a region of dry land which is surrounded by water from all sides is called an Island for example Sri Lanka, Indonesia and the Islands of the West.

(viii)    Isthmus

A narrow strip of land which enjoins two big dry regions is called an Isthmus, for example when a peninsula enjoins a continent or continents like the Panama strips which enjoins the South and North American continents and the Suez Strip which enjoins the Asian and African continents.


Configuration of Ocean Floor

Q.3:  Analyse different landforms, found on the ocean floor?


Like the earths surface the sea floor is also uneven, up gradients and down gradients can also be found.

Types of Ocean floors

The ocean floor can be divided into four parts as under:

(i)         Continental Shelf

The edges of the continentals are covered with shallow waters adjacent to the sea is called the Continental Shelf. The ocean floors are not deep. The importance of this place from a geographical political and economic view point is much more than places.

Minerals, fishing rights, sea-trade routes and defense strategy depend upon this continental shelf.


(ii)        Continental Slope

The continental slope, whether narrow or broad at last dips steeply to the bed of the ocean. The steep slope beyond the 600 feet mark is known as the continental slope.

(iii)       Canyons/Submarine Trenches

A range oceanic trenches starts at the end of a continental slope instead of a level ocean floor. These “V” shaped narrow and deep trenches can be found in the deepest places of the ocean and. their depth can be up to 10 kilometers, If there is no trench before a continental slope then this slope very slowly converges with the ocean floor which is even and this covers most of the sea area. The depth of this place is between 4500 metres to 6000 metres. Volcanoes can also be found in these parts.

(iv)      Ocean Basin and Mid-Oceanic Ridges

Like big mountain ridges or ranges are found on the earth surface likewise mountain ridges can be found. on the ocean floor. These underwater mountains and rocks. When the Teutonic plates move in the opposite direction then the magma from under the seas, Teutonic plates deposits its self on the ocean floor. Due to the presence of these mountain regions in the middle of the seas it is called central oceanic mountain ranges.

Q.4:  What do you mean by waves? Also explain the reason for waves.


Ocean water is not motionless more or less movement remains. The reasons for this are currents, waves and tides.

Their reason and types are as under

(i)         WAVES

The movement of water on the surface is called a wave. Due to the different natural elements in the sea waves are formed, in which the water movement can be seen up and down, forward and backwards. In reality it is the movement of energy which water particles transfer to each other.


The peak of a wave is called a crest.


The downward portion of a wave is called a trough.

Wave Height

The vertical distance between a crest and the vertical distance between a trough and trough is called a wave length.

Causes of Waves

Wind an Important Factor in producing Waves

Wind is the most important factor in producing waves. Often whirlpools and tornadoes are formed on the sea surface and while traveling on the seas they become the cause for producing huge waves.

Earthquake, the cause for producing huge waves

Due to the earthquake on the sea floor or near the coastal areas high waves are formed in the sea. Just as the waves come towards the shallow waters of the coast they loose their strength.


The peak of the wave becomes narrow and pointed it is called a breaker.


The peak of the wave goes ahead of its lower portion and when it breaks it turns into foam it is called surf.



Q.5:  Write down the causes of circulation of ocean currents.


Ocean Current

Like a river that flows on land in the same way the sea water flows permanently in a particular direction, it is called an ocean current.

Warm Water Current

The ocean current flows away from the equator towards the polar areas, these are called warm water current’s. They increase the temperature of the coastal areas. For example the current in the Atlantic Ocean on the East Coast of South American continent which flows towards the equator and the bay current is called warm water current.

Cold Water Currents

The ocean currents which flow from the polar areas towards the equator are called cold water currents. They decrease the temperature of the coastal areas, for example in the Atlantic Ocean the Labrador Current flowing from the North towards the South and the Kamchatka current of the Pacific Ocean are called water currents.

Circle of Currents

In-half of the northern Hemisphere the ocean currents move clock-wise and complete their circle, whereas in the half of the southern hemisphere they move anti-clockwise.


When currents meet a large current is formed it is called a drift.

Warm and cold water currents

In the areas where the Warm and cold currents meet with each other, a strong mist prevails which is hazardous to shipping.


Q.6:  Write a note on spring and Neap Tides.



The rise and fall of seawater on the surface is sequential. On the sea coast the water level rises and falls twice, it is called a tide.

The basic reason of tides

Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon on the earth. This reality was proved by Newton in the 17th century as the “Law of Gravity”. According to Newton both the sun and the moon poses mutual gravity.

The important method of producing

As the moon is the nearest earths neighbour its gravitational pull is greater than the sun even though being smaller then the sun. Therefore it is the most important source for creating tides.

The distance of sun from the earth

The sun is present at 390 time’s greater distance from the earth; this is why the gravitational ratio of the sun is 46 percent of the moon.

Types of Tides

There are “two-types of tides Daily tides and Monthly tides.

Daily Tides

In the daily high and low tide the water level rises and falls at an interval of I2 hours and 45 minutes. The greatest effect of the (moons gravity occurs in that area which is in front during its gravitational rotation.

Monthly Tides

On the other hand its effect is every less, but on the other side the centrifugal forces keep it parallel to its front part in this way the effect of the tide is equal on both sides.

Types of Monthly Tides

There are two types of monthly tides

(i)         Spring Tide

At new moon and full moon, the sun the moon and the earth are practically in a straight line. The attractive force of the sun adds to the pull of the moon. The result is two flood tides much higher than the average. As a natural result the low tides are lower than the average. Such high tides are called spring tides. They occur twice in a lunar month.

(ii)        Neap Tides

In the lunar month the moon and the sun are at an angle of 90° with the earth on the 7th and 21st days of a lunar month. The two bodies are opposed to each other. The tide rising force of the moon is lessened. The result in a high tide much below the average height and a low tide that does not recede so far. There is less differences between high and low waters. Such lesser tides are called “Neap Tides”.

Causes of Ocean Currents

Q.7:  Write down the causes of waves.

Ans:   The following are the reasons for ocean currents.

(i)         Permanent Winds

Winds are the most biggest and important factor for the movement of sea water. The sea water starts moving in the direction of the wind.

Trade Winds

Trade winds move from the north east in the half of the North Hemisphere and South Easter direction, therefore the seawater starts flowing from the east to the west.

Western Winds

In the same manner the sea water under the influence of western winds starts moving from west to east.

(ii)        Salinity of Ocean Water

Another reason for the movement of sea water is salinity.

Salinity in the seas enclosed by land

The seas enclosed by land contain more salinity due to this reason the water contains more densities.

Salinity in the open seas

In the open and big seas due to less salinity the density of water is less this difference in salinity becomes the reason for the movement of water.

Temperature of Oceanic Water

The important factor for the movement of water is the difference in temperature.

Temperature on the equator

Due to high temperature-on the equator the density is less in the sea water.

Temperature in the Polar Regions

Due to less temperature in the polar areas the density is more.

The cause for the flow of Oceanic Currents

The Water rises in the equator but the water keeps on coming down in the polar regions, this becomes the reason for the flow of the ocean currents.

The difference between waves, Ocean Currents and Tides Waves

The upward, downward, forward and backward movement of water is called a wave. Winds, whirlwinds and earthquakes are the cause for bringing storms on the surface of the calm waters, these are the most important reasons for causing waves.

Ocean Current

When wind makes the sea water of a particular area move in a particular direction this movement is called a current.



Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon on the earth.


(Chapter 4)



Q.1:  What are natural disasters?

Ans: Natural Disasters

When a natural phenomenon becomes the cause of human and economic destruction it is called a natural disaster.


Volcanic, landside, desertification, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, forest fires, these are natural phenomena’s for the destruction for mankind.


Q.2:  What do you mean by Volcanism? Also write down its causes.


The eruption of molten rock (Magma) from the earth’s core is called volcanism.



Due to volcanism very hot magma erupts from the earths core and starts flowing on the earths surface and it -bums everything that comes in its path.

Causes for earthquakes

Sometimes due to volcanism the magma erupts with an explosion and becomes the cause for an earthquake.

Causes for Environmental Pollution

Due to the eruption from a volcanic mountain of hot gases, besides the magma hot volcanic ash also comes out, which goes up many kilometers into the atmosphere becoming the cause for environmental pollution.

Volcanism in Pakistan

Pakistan is the luckiest country in the hemisphere even being located in the most active region, it has no dangerous or Live volcanoes.


Volcanism in Pakistan

Whereas you can find the-presence of volcanic activities somewhere in the North West Mountain ranges of the Hindu Kush Mountains in Pakistan.

Protective measures

Keeping in view the safety measures to human lives and properties measures have been taken to introduce an effective surveillance system to monitor the volcanism in the entire world.


In the case of emergency a warning is issued to that area where danger is imminent. The people are warned to be ready to face the circumstances in an emergency.


Q.3:  What do you mean by land sliding? Explain its losses and protective measures.


The soil and the rocks on the slopes become dilapidated under the influence of the earth’s gravity, start moving outwards in a sliding manner, it is called land sliding.

Losses due to land sliding

Land sliding can occur in many ways. It can cause loss to property and human lives.

(i)         Danger to property or construction

Landslides can cause heavy losses to buildings and constructions.

(ii)        Closure of roads

The falling matter from a land slide can cause the closure of roads.

(iii)       Communications

Landslides can cause damage to communication lines or cables.

(iv)      Stoppage of river flow

Landslides can cause the stoppage of the flow of river. Such as the stoppage of flow of the Gilgit River by which the Atta-abad lake came into existence.

(v)       Effects on production capabilities

Land slides can decrease the agricultural activities in the effected areas.


Land Slides in Pakistan

The northern areas of Pakistan during /rainfalls come across the dangers of land slide. When hilly areas are cut to build roads for connecting far way areas with each other the mountains slopes become weak and due to rainfall become the victim of landslides.

Karakoram Highway

The Karakorum high way is an important trade route between Pakistan and China. It is often closed due to landslides.

Cutting of forests

The cutting of forests in Pakistan without any hindrance is also the cause for landslides.

Level of water under the earth

By stopping the under surface water, level increases, the land sliding can be controlled.

To develop the irrigation system

By making the irrigation system of the effected areas land sliding can be Controlled.

No Construction

Construction should not be carried out in the land sliding areas as it is dangerous.

To grow forests

Arrangements should be made -to stop the unnecessary cutting of forests and new trees should be planted for the growth of a new forest.



Q.4:  Analyze the impacts of desertification.


The turning of fertile land into a desert land or arid land increases the process of desertification.

Increase in the process of desertification

Although the seasonal changes have always effected the desert, but due to the human activities after the industrial revolution the process of desertification has greatly increased.

Decrease in agricultural production

It is causing a great decrease in the agricultural production as well as in the water reserves.

Emigration of People

People and animals emigrating from the effected region is increasing.

Increase in poverty

Decrease in daily food intake, famine’ and the increase in poverty on the local scale.

The seasonal desert conditions

80 percent of Pakistanis Land is effected by desert or semi-desert seasonal conditions.

Improper method of cultivation

The major role of desertification process in Pakistan is due to the improper methods of cultivation, erosion, poor quality of soil, unnecessary cutting of forests and vegetation therefore we are facing a gradual decline in these things.

Safety Measures

To increase the area of forests

By increasing the area of forests we can decrease the intensity of the effects of desertification made by the intense seasonal changes.

To make barriers by trees

By making the barrier of trees we can stop the deserts from spreading towards the cultivable areas.

Use of fertilizer

Richness of soil (land) can be increased by the use of fertilizer.

Awareness program campaigns

An awareness program campaign should be launched among the people about desertification and they should be advised by local method is for stopping desertification.

Undue cutting of Plants and Vegetation

People should be legally discouraged from cutting any plants shrubs or vegetation.


Q.5:  Describe the impacts of Floods in Pakistan.


An overflow of river water out of its channel, which may cause damage to the nearby settlements, is called Flood.

Flood is a Natural Disaster

It is considered a natural disaster because it may be a cause of social and environmental degradation.


It can-damage any constructional frame work, uncommented housing and buildings without deep foundations. Destroy Bridges, Roads and Communication.  It may destroy bridges, roads, communication lines, crops, farms monuments as well.  Loss of lives especially of women, children and aged can occur, along with the spread of diseases and epidemics.

At the termination of the floods, different diseases and viruses spread out.

Causes of floods in Pakistan


There is a natural system of rivers present in Pakistan. The source of this river system emerges from the Northern mountain ranges. In these high and mighty mountain ranges the biggest ice reserves are present in the form of a glacier after the Polar Regions. By the melting of these glaciers the water flows in the river all at the year round.

Region of Monsoon Rains

The monsoon rainy region is situated in the rivers of the upper plain areas in the centre of the Northern mountain regions, therefore when the snow starts melting in the summer reason the central and plain areas the monsoon season is at its peak the rain pours down with full force.

Causes of flood or overflow

The rain water and the water coming from the glacier mix with each other and becomes the cause for flood and overflow.



Safety Measures.

Campaign for the awareness of danger from floods awareness should be developed among the people of the flood affected areas in their conscious about the” approaching danger of flood. An evacuation plan should be prepared to evacuate the people from the danger area safely to ensure the safe evacuation process. People should be evacuated from the flood affected areas. The gas and electricity should be disconnected to avoid further accidents.

Camps should be established in safe areas without hurting their ego to evacuate them to as safe place and provide them with food, to provided facilities to the affectees to make their return home safe .

For the construction of damaged houses the government and NGO’s should help the owners of these damaged houses.


Q.6:  Write a note on Cyclones?


Cyclone is such a natural system of stormy winds in which the pressure is less in the center.

The wind goes towards the center in a rotating manner by this we have heavy rain with lightning. The speed of the wind exceeds more than 200kmh. These winds destroy everything in their path.

Cyclones become the cause for heavy rainfall due to which floods occur and cause damage to human lives and properties.

Most of the devastation is caused on coastal areas of Pakistan, where the stormy sea waves rising from the sea due to cyclone cause devastation on a vast scale to human lives and property.


The importance for the creation of cyclones

The Arabian Sea is situated in the South of Pakistan which is a part of the Indian Ocean. This is the most important area in the world for the creation of cyclones these are called torrid cyclones.


Effects on coastal areas

Cyclones effect the coastal areas of Pakistan for example Thatta in the Sindh province and Badin Whereas the areas of Jeewani, Gwadar and Lasbela in Balochistan are greatly effected by the destruction caused by cyclones.

Important causes of cyclones

In appropriate method of construction sub-standard material for construction and the absence of laws for the proper use of land un-awareness to the people of the approaching danger of the storm, less literacy rate, poverty‘ etc are the important reasons for the destruction caused by cyclones.

Safety Measures

A compact system for the warning of the impending danger should be established. As soon as the warning is received about the cyclone, cattle and household goods should be transferred to a safe area.

A compact evacuation plan and system should be enforced. Volunteers should be activated in the danger area. In case of evacuation from the houses the gas and electricity supply should be disconnected.

Evaluation of a calamity

A map should be prepared about the impending danger of a calamity evaluation of the disaster in order to contain the disaster, its danger and intensity. It’s possible in this way to assess the possible damage caused to the affected persons, crops and basic structure.

Construction of houses

Reconstruction of houses affected by the cyclone, drinkable water, food, radio candles, matchboxes etc should be stored.

First Aid

A suitable arrangement should be made for first aid in the effected areas. A report should be submitted to the emergency centers established by the government.





Q.7:  What do you mean by an earthquake? Analyze the damages caused by earthquake and Safety Measures.

Ans: Earthquakes

The sudden and intense quivering of the earth’s Tectonic plates is called an earthquake.

Sudden, quivering appears due to the movement of the earth’s Tectonic plates. No pre hand warning sign is left before an earthquake that is why no advance information or prediction can be made about an earthquake.

Losses Due to the Earthquake

Damage to human colonies, buildings, under construction buildings, basic necessities infrastructure are usually changes by earthquakes. Buildings, road, railway lines, water tanks, pipe lines and communication system etc are damaged particularly.

Earthquakes cause irreparable loss to human lives, other indirect losses are fires to loss of water reserves and the sliding of the earth etc are included.

Safety Measures

To keep the losses to a minimum in the effected areas the primary factor is to infuse awareness among the concerned people.

The following three preventive actions should be acted upon.

  • If you feel a slight jerk, in that case sit down.
  • Cover your head.
  • Hold on to something strong.
  • Other Safety Measures
  • In the area where there is danger about earthquakes weighty things should be kept near the earth and light things should be kept up.
  • Learn to disconnect the household gas and electricity connection in the case of an emergency.
  • If you are out of your residence then try to stay away from electric wires, high rise buildings or anything that can fall upon you.
  • Keep your radio set on and act on the government instructions being issued.
  • Try to put out the small fires, check your -house for any damages or cracks that appear on you walls or construction framework and do not enter such premises.
  • If you feel the smell or sound of the gas immediately switch of the supply line and vacate of the house.
  • Stay aware from the aftershocks after the earthquake and do not enter the house until these shocks completely stop.


Q.8:  What do you mean by forest fire? Explain its losses and protective measures.


It is such an idiom that is used for uncontrollable forest fire, which burns the forests, vegetation or any type of organic growth into ashes, side y side it damages wild animal life forms present in that area.

There are many reasons for forest fires which can be divided into natural and human causes. The biggest reason for forest fire is said to be natural lightning.

The biggest reason for forest fire is man himself in the human cause, accidents, carelessness and criminal acts are important.

Losses from Forest Fire

Ecosystem becomes upset

By the forest fire the ecosystem of the forest becomes greatly effected.

Loss of human lives and financial loss

Loss to people in dwellings

Loss of lives and financial loss and loss to properties in dwellings near the jungle.

Agricultural production

Loss to agricultural production for example wood, fruit and crops is caused by jungle fire.

Environmental pollution

The temperature increases in the areas surrounding the forest fire, the environmental pollution increases.



Negative effects on human health

Negative effects on human lives and economic activities are caused. The catchment areas are also effected.

Safety Measures

  • More than 52% of the forest fires incidents occur due to human negligence either they should be criminal or unintentional accidents.
  • The responsibility is also fixed on humans to save the forest from fires.
  • In the area vulnerable to forest fire the development work should be limited, particularly such areas should not be selected for residential purposes. Fire proof material should be used for construction work.
  • Besides bushes small trees, dry leaves broken dry branches, twigs garbage dumps should be cleared because these can become the cause for providing fuel to the forest fire.
  • Explosive material for example gas, petrol etc. should not be hoarded near the forest.
  • Such trees should be planted which cannot be effected by fire or there are chances of catching fire for example such trees that can store water and such trees that have a thick stern and are made of hard wood that cannot catch fire easily.
  • New constructions should be erected in those areas where there are less chances of fire. A plain-surface is much safer than a sloppy one in this way the lower part of a slope is comparatively safer than the upper level.
  • Experts should give training of extinguishing fire to the people living near the forest.
  • An effective surveillance system should be established particularly in the hot and dry season to stop such incidents from taking place. A constant vigil should be enforced for the prevention of forest fires.
  • In the case of a forest fire the houses should be immediately evacuated and the occupants be shifted to safe areas and they should not return to that area until the fire is extinguished.

(Chapter 5)



Q.1:  What do you mean by environmental pollution? Also write down its reasons and types.

Ans: Environmental Pollution

The entry of a material in a disproportionate quantity of unwanted substance into the environment which can become harmful for human life it is called an Environmental pollution.

Types of environmental pollution

According to environmental experts the environmental pollution which can be harmful for health are the following;

(i)         Air Pollution                          (ii)        Water Po1lution

(iii)       Soil Pollution                                    (iv)       Noise Pollution

Reasons for Environmental pollution

The material which is being emitted from the industries, factories vehicles, trains aeroplanes etc is polluting the natural environment.

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution” is caused by traffic and the running of industries and factories.

Air Pollution

The smoke emitted -from the traffic and industries is the cause of air pollution.

Water Pollution

Pollution is also caused by garbage, dirty water from the houses and the inclusion of garbage into the water causes water pollution.


Q.2:  Explain the causes and impacts for Air Pollution.


The atmosphere is composed of different gases which have enveloped the earth from all sides like a shell.



This atmosphere which contains the ozone layer protects us from the suns radiation and keeps the temperature of the earth normal.

Presence of life on earth

Life is possible on earth due to the presence of air in the atmosphere.

The presence of poisonous gases in the air

There are many types of poisonous gases present in the atmosphere dust, smoke dust particles, water vapours, chemical matter and radiation which are present due to human and natural elements and they pollute the atmosphere.

Reasons for atmospheric pollution

In our surrounding environment the reasons for air pollution are the following.

  • The occurrence of Tsunami in the sea etc, volcanism out of control forest fires, storms, the establishing of industries, communication cutting of forests, destroying. garbage without protective measures, the use of pesticides in the agricultural profession and the use of chemical fertilizers, wars and the accidents of oil carrying sea tankers etc.
  • Due to increase in air pollution in the world man has to face different types of problems.

Ordinary Diseases

According to experts the effects are as under:

Acidic rain due to the weakness in the ozone layer, prevalence of common diseases. Which include short period diseases like the burning sensation in the eyes, ear and throat diseases, pain in the head, allergy, asthma and difficulty in breathing.

Life taking disease

Life taking diseases that continue for a prolonged period which include respiratory diseases, cancer, cardiac diseases, defect in the brain (neuro) system, liver problem, kidney and lung diseases.

Negative effect on agricultural production

The negative effects on agricultural production etc


Q.3:  Describe the causes and impacts of Water Pollution?


The unwanted changes in the physical and chemical components are called water pollution.

Negative Effects on Humans

Water pollution not only produces negative effects on humans but side by sides it produces negative effects on earth’s animal and plant life.

Water Reserves

Our water reserves are being polluted rapidly due to human activities.

Causes of water Pollution

  • The use of different fertilizers and sprays for cultivation of crops and its untimely use, water from the houses and factories falling in the drains and streams and then falling‘ into the rivers.
  • Water also becomes polluted due to floods.
  • Acidic rain also pollutes the water.
  • Garbage is also dumped in the seas on a large scale. This garbage reaches the different parts of the seas through sea waves causing pollution.
  • In the case of an accident of a sea oil tanker the oil mixes with the water which becomes the cause for -water pollution.
  • According to the environmental experts there are many reasons for Water pollution for example the water coming out of the hospitals, schools and factories etc.

Effects of Water Pollution

Effects on humans and marine life

Water pollution besides human life, effects vegetation and marine life and causes losses to them for example the scarcity and termination of marine life.

Reasons for noxious diseases

Poisonous chemicals present in the water are transferred from one life form to another becoming the cause for noxious diseases for example malaria is becoming a common disease, diseases of the stomach, hepatitis, cancer and other stomach and kidney diseases etc are included.

Use of Polluted Water

Almost half of the earth’s population use polluted water. Due to the use of polluted water many people die of different diseases.


Q.4:  Write the causes and impact of Soil Pollution?

Ans: Soil Pollution

The inappropriate changes in the physical and chemical properties of the soil which become the cause for negative effects on earth life is called soil pollution.

Reasons for soil pollution

According to the experts the most important reasons for soil pollution are as under:

  • Waste and garbage from houses, industries and hospitals is disposed off without protective measures.
  • The undue and untimely use of fertilizers and pesticides becomes the cause of soil pollution.
  • The cutting down of forests the construction of roads and buildings, proper planning and the absence of environmental principles.
  • Mining, the burning of garbage extra matter being emitted from oil refineries is also the cause for soil pollution.

Effects of soil pollution

  • Effects of earths pollution are being felt clearly now, in the densely populated areas.
  • Our earth is polluted due to natural and -human activities, which include garbage, dangerous chemicals being used in the industry, industrial accidents, pesticides, different type of fertilizers mining and atomic energy etc.
  • The natural reasons for earths pollution includes the eruption of volcano, earthquakes, water logging and salinity and the earths erosion.
  • Due to the garbage dumps or mounds a human being becomes infected by many diseases, also there is an-impending danger of noxious diseases for example lung infection, breathing problem, skin diseases and cancer etc. When the earth is polluted its water becomes polluted also.
  • Dangerous gases emit from the burning garbage and mix with air becoming the reason for air pollution.

Noise Pollution

Q.5:  Describe the impacts of Noise Pollution.


We hear different type of noises everyday. Some of the noises are according td our liking but when the noises exceed the limit we feel them very badly; Such noises are called noise pollution.

  • Noise pollution is also a type of environmental pollution. Such sounds are disliked and affect our mental and physical life.
  • Different noises come from vehicles, aeroplanes, pressure horns, factories etc. not only humans are effected by noise pollution but wild life and marine life are also effected by noise pollution.
  • Wild life is also effected by the noise produced by the cutting of forests.
  • The noise produced by the running engines of boats and sea ships sailing on the seas effect marine life.

Reasons for noise pollution

  • The daily used commodities in homes become the reason for noise these include speakers grinder machines, washing machines, air coolers and TV’s etc. Due to the use of all these things noise pollution is created inside the homes.
  • Different type of social activities for example marriage ceremonies, meetings and processions are the reasons for noise pollution.
  • In trade and industrial areas where printing press and factories are located which prepare different commodities cause noise pollution. Large construction projects are also becoming the reason for noise pollution.
  • The noise produced by the running of vehicles motorcycles, rickshaws, aeroplanes train etc. is called noise pollution.


Effects of Noise Pollution

  • Noise pollution causes negative effects on human health.
  • It impairs the hearing capabilities.
  • Untimely noise effects the sleep.
  • In some circumstances the hearing capability is finished totally.
  • To become angry increase in blood pressure or severe pain in the head are also included in the noise pollution.
  • Mans mental capability is greatly effected.


Q.6:  What is global warming? Also describe the causes and impacts of Global Warming.


Nature has created a natural protective cover around the planet earth, human  activities create a difference in this protective cover and its properties due to this effect the earths temperature is increasing. The gradual overall increase in the planet earth’s temperature is called global Warming.

Reasons for global warming

  • Smoke emitted from, vehicles, factories, aeroplanes, trains – etc becomes the reason for global warming.
  • Due to the burning of oil, diesel and coal on a large scale the carbon dioxide thus emitted is entering the atmosphere which is the reason for the increase in temperature.
  • The unnecessary cutting of trees and air pollution becomes the cause for global Warming.
  • Due to global warming a change its occurring in the environment of the whole world.
  • Due to global Warming the sea level is rising gradually and its effects are appearing.
  • The rapid melting of glaciers due to global warming, excessive untimely floods, increase in temperature on a global scales and drought are the reasons for the rapid melting of glaciers.
  • Diseases are spreading on a vast scale and we are facing droughts due to global Warming.
  • Due to global warming production of “cattle and crops has decreased to a great extent.
  • Inconsistency in‘ the natural rain system, unavailability of drinkable water for example there is much rain in some areas, whereas there is no rain in some areas.
  • Natural resources for example forests pastures etc  their productivity potential is gradually decreasing.
  • Due to absorption of carbon dioxide; dust particles water vapours the energy being emitted from the earth and its absorption in it, the temperature of the lower atmosphere increases, this is called the Greenhouse Effect.
  • Which keeps the earths temperature balanced. The average temperature of the earth is 15° centigrade.
  • The increase of carbon dioxide, water vapours, dust particles methane chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) and other gases present in the atmosphere the earths temperature is increasing, besides it is also damaging the ozone layer.
  • The presence of carbon-di-oxide in the atmosphere is increasing to a great extent after the industrial revolution.
  • The burning of coal, oil, gas and other fuels on a large scale are the basic reasons. The green house effect is becoming the reason for global warming.


The strategies for reducing environmental pollution

  1. Abstain from throwing garbage out of the houses in the streets, roads streams and drains.
  2. Use water according to your needs.
  • Keep your home your community and your city clean. Don’t throw usable things into the garbage.
  1. Do not burn the garbage without protective measures.
  2. Minimize the use of plastic bags.
  3. Grow more and more trees.


(Chapter 6)



Q.1:  What do mean by a region? Explain.

Ans: Region

Such environment or geographical areas which have identical physical and cultural homogeneity is called a region. It can consist of any -area or areas in competition with the earth. It is not necessary that the areas” included in the region should be joined geographically.

Concept of region

The level of the earth’s surface is not uniform everywhere due to this difference the atmosphere of the worlds different parts is not uniform and also this environment.

Economic Activities

Due to the reason the economic conditions and living life style differs in the whole parts of the World due to this plant and animal life also differ from each other.

Physical and cultural difference in the world

Besides the physical and culture differences, uniformity can also be formed. If we can divide the world into different parts on the basis of differences we join the different parts of the world together and form a region.

Examples of regions

Region of rocky areas, the desert region of forests and the region of Muslim countries.

Region a unit of an area

A region is a unit of an area, every region contains a specific area, every area has its own geographical borders and every region has its own location, which can be described by longitudes and latitudes or by any other reference.

Linked geographically or culturally

All regions are mutually joined geographically and culturally together




Major Regions of the World

Q.2:  Explain the division of three major regions of the world.

Ans: The division of three major regions

The World can be divided into three major regions on the basis of  horizontal distribution of temperature.

These regions are as follows:

(i)         Tropical zone                        (ii) Temperate Region

(iii)       Cold Region


It is situated on the both sides of the equator in between 23.5° on the Tropic of Cancer (north) and 23.5° on the Tropic of Capricom (south). The countries areas of continent Asia, the Southern parts of North America and South America, Africa and Northern areas of Australia. The sun rays fall vertically ‘on the areas around the equator and surrounding areas the whole year that is why these equatorial regions have a high degree of temperature. More rain on the Eastern Coasts of the continents. There is abundant rainfall on the eastern coasts of the continents. Going towards the West the quantity of rain becomes very less. For this reason in this region deserts are found in the interior of the continents towards the western coasts big deserts can be found.


This region is located on both sides of equator from the Tropical Capricorn at 66.5° in the North polar circle and 66.5° in the Tropic of Capricorn to the South polar circle.  The countries included in this region are Continent Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa and areas of Australia. In this region the sunrays fall slantingly, for this reason the temperature is less therefore it is called the temperate region. Summer reason and winter season can be both found in this region. There is abundant rainfall in this region.  The quantity of rainfall is more on the western coasts as you go towards the east the quantity of rain fall decreases. Therefore large deserts are found in the middle “of these continents.



iii.        COLD REGIONS

This is situated from the Tropic of Cancer 66.5o in the circle of the North Polar Region and 66.5° from the Tropic of Capricorn towards the circle of the South Polar Region in between these two regions. The countries include continent Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa and the areas‘ of Australia. In this region sunrays fall obliquely for this reason according to the temperature it is called a temperature region. The summer and winter seasons can both be found in this region and there is more rain fall in this region. The quantity of rainfall is more in abundance on the west coasts of the continents as you go towards the east the quantity of rainfall keeps on decreasing.  Therefore in this region deserts are found in the middle of the continents.


This region is located from the North Pole towards the South Pole at 90° and from the circle of the South Pole to, the South Pole 90° in between these Po1ar Regions.

It includes continent Asia, Europe, North America, Northern areas of North America and continent Antarctica.  In this region the sunrays fall obliquely on the earth therefore it is an extremely cold region. The season is not formed in this region due to intense cold in the polar region the wind (air) pressure remains ‘more due to which the winds become weighty and come down. Therefore there is very less rainfall in this region but snow storms often occur.

Important Natural Regions:

Due to the natural likeness found in the under mentioned large regions more regions can be formed.

(a)       The Rainforest region                                 (b)       The Monsoon Region

(c)        The Mediterranean Region                        (d)       The Steppe Region

(e)       The Tundra Region                         (f)        The Desert Region







Rain Forest Region

Q.3:  Discuss the rain forest region in detail.


This region is situated on both sides of the equator 5o north towards 5o south longitude and latitude in the tropical region.

In this region (continent Asia) we have to countries for example Indonesian Island, Malaysia, Thailand and Sri-Lank. The countries of the African Continent are Kenya, Uganda, Congo and Gabon.

In the equator and the areas almost situated near it the sunrays fall almost vertically the whole year therefore the average temperature remains almost 27° centigrade the whole year. Due to high temperature the wind pressure remains less in the equator when the wind becomes lighter it goes up therefore the wind temperature drops.

The process of condensation becomes the cause for rainfall, such rain is called conducive rain. In this region of the world the rainfall is more than any other region its average rainfall exceeds 200 millimeters.

Densely populated forests are found in this region of the world. These regions are called the rain forests. Food, dress, existence and economic activities of the people of this region mostly depend on the products obtained from the forests. People living in the forests still cover their bodies with leaves and live on safe places at the top of trees. Wood obtained from the forest is most suitable for furniture building and construction work. The most important economic activity of this region is tree plantation obtaining natural rubber, coco, coffee, tea, bananas, coconut are the important products of this region.

The other agricultural products of this region are sweet potatoes, root vegetables, cassava, arum and yam.  When the region of a forests is cleared for cultivation such type of agriculture is called the slash and burn cultivation. Such agriculture is restricted to this region only.

This region is -famous for its wood, natural rubber and coconut oil industry.




Monsoon Region

Q.4:  Write-a note on monsoon region.

Ans:   Location and Countries

This region is located in the tropic on both sides of the equator 5° to 25° longitude and latitude in between the continents on the eastern shores of the continents.

Continent Asia

The distinctive countries of continent Asia are India Pakistan, Bangladesh Myanmar, Vietnam, Philippines and South China.

Continent Africa

The African continent consists of Madagascar and South eastern Australia.

Continent South America

South Brazil is-included in the South American continent.

In this region on the 21st of June sunrays fall vertically on the Tropic of Cancer and obliquely on the tropic. of Capricorn, therefore the average temperature on the tropic of Cancer exceeds 27° centigrade this situation becomes exactly opposite on the 22nd December.

This characteristic separates it from the rain forest region; due to the difference in temperature the situation of rain fall is also different from the rainfall of the rain forests region.

In the summer season the winds blow from the sea towards the dry land, these winds are full of humidity which result in heavy rainfall. These winds are called the monsoon winds of the summer season.

In the winter season the monsoon winds blow from the dry land towards the seas therefore they do not produce rain. This is the briefest period of the dry season of these regions.

Human Activities

In the dense forest present in this region it produces wood and through agricultural plantation rubber, tea, coffee, banana and coconut are the important production of this region.

The important economic activity of this region is rice cultivation for which the quantity of rainfall is very beneficial. In this region besides the plain areas rice is also cultivated on rocky slopes.

Suitable climate and ample natural resources are the reason for the dense population of this region. This region is rapidly on the way to success in industrial development.


Mediterranean Region

Q.5:  Explain, the climate and location of the Mediterranean region?

Ans: Location and Countries

This region is situated on both sides of the equator between 30° to 45° longitude and latitude north and south on the west banks of the continents in the temperate region.

Continent North America

In this region of north continent of America, Southern California and the coastal areas around the Mediterranean Sea are located.

Continent Asia

Countries like Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Israel are located in this continent.

Continent Europe

The countries of Spain, Italy and Greece are located in this continent.

Continent Africa

The countries of Egypt, Tunis Algeria and Morocco are located in this continent.

Continent South America

The western coastal area of Chile the coastal areas of western and southern. Australia is located in the South American Continent.


Located near the sea in the temperate zone the average temperature of this region is 20° centigrade and it never goes below 10° centigrade.

There is more rain fall in the winter season as compared to the monsoon region. Whereas the summer season remains dry. More rain falls on the coastal western banks of the continents.

Q.6:  Describe the human activities of the Mediterranean Region?

Ans: Human Activities

The Mediterranean region is recognized throughout the world for its pleasant and moderate climate. For this season the region is densely populated.

The important economic activity of this region is agriculture. The summer season is very suitable for agriculture. This region is recognized throughout the world for its production of wheat, barley, grapes, olives and orange. In the pastures (grassy plains) cattle rearing are the important profession of these people.

This region is famous for its wheat products woolen clothes, drinks industry and agricultural production throughout the whole World.


Steppe Region

Q.7:  Describe the location and human activities of the Steppe region.

Ans: Location and Countries

The steppe region is located 35° to 55° longitude and latitude on the borders of the plain desert areas.

African Continent

The countries of Mali, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan Namibia and South Australia are located in the African Continent.

North American Continent

The central part of continent North America, the Northern parts of Argentine in South America New South Wales-and Victoria in Australia and the Middle East states are included in this region.


Since this region consists of the borders areas located on the margins of the deserts regions therefore the climate is better than the desert areas.

Average Annual Rainfall

The average quantity of the annual rainfall is 100 to 300 millimeters.



Human Activities

Large Habitat for grass eating animals

Due to the large quantity of rainfall this region consists of grass plains. This is the largest habitat for grass eating animals in the whole world. Cattle rearing are an important economic activity of this region.

In the temperature region the sole large crop is wheat which is cultivated in all the countries of this region in the vast plains.

The North American prairie and the South American plain of Pampas are worth mentioning in Europe and central Asia these plains are called Steppe plains.


Tundra Region

Q.8:  Write the location of the Tundra region. Also explain the climate of Tundra Region.


Countries and Location

The tundra region is located in the north of the equator in between 60° to 75° longitude and latitude around the Artic Ocean. In the South of the equator a very short part of the Antarctica is included in this region.

Continent Asia

In this region of Continent Asia the Siberian plains of‘ Russia are located, Norway, Finland and Sweden the countries of Europe are located.

Continent North America

The Northern area of Canada and Alaska are located in the North American continent


Intense Cold Winter

The climate of this region is intensely cold. The winter is quite cold and lengthy which remains for a period of eight months in which the temperature remains below freezing.



Summer Season

The summer, season is of a short duration in which the average temperature stays below 10° centigrade. In summer season that is July and August the ice starts melting due to the increase in temperature.

Cause of Rainfall

Due to increase in temperature the quantity of humidity in the air increases which becomes the cause for a very less rainfall.

Quantity of Annual Rainfall

The quantity of annual rainfall in this region is less than 25 millimeters.


Desert Region

Q.9:  Write the location and human activities of the desert region.

Ans: Location and Countries.

The desert region is located in both sides of the temperate regions and tropical regions. They are located on both sides of the equator in between bearing 15° to 25° longitude and latitude between the wests of the continents.

Biggest Deserts

The biggest deserts of the world are located in the tropical region.

Continent Africa

This includes the African continents Sahara Desertin which Mauritanian, Mali, Algeria, Chad, Sudan and ninecountries are included the Calahari desert and Angola etc.

Continent Asia

In continent Asia of the area of Thar, Saudi Arabia, Iran and India upto the area of Rajasthan and Mongolia and China in the Gobi desert in China

Continent South America

The western countries of South American continent include besides Peru, Chile and the central part of Australia.

Climate of Tropical Regions

The desert located in the tropical region is the hottest desert of the world. The average temperature exceeds 32° centigrade. A lot of difference can be found between the day and night temperature. ‘

Annual Average Rain Falls

Desert-found in the tropical regions are the driest areas of the world, where

the average rain fall is even lesser than 30 millimeters.

Human Activities

  • Due to the scarcity of rain in the desert areas and the intense temperature human activities are limited.
  • The vegetation in desert areas is such that it cannot be benefitted from.
  • In such desert areas where water is present under the earth, oasis is present and by the Help of fountains and wells cultivation can be done on a limited scale which is called dry farming.
  • In the desert region mostly people live the life of a nomad in search of water. This is a backward area in the field of industry.


(Chapter 7)



Q.1:  What do you mean by seasons? Also write the names of the seasons of Pakistan.

Ans: Seasons

According to the climate a particular period or duration in a year is called climate.

Seasons of Pakistan

Pakistan is located in the Warm Temperate region in which the under mentioned seasons are found.

(i)         Winter Season                    (ii)        Spring Season .

(ii)        Summer Season                  (iv)       Autumn Season


Q.2:  Describe the characteristics, features of winter season in Pakistan.

Ans. Start of the winter

In Pakistan the winter season starts from December and continues till the end of February.

The average temperature of the country

The average temperature remains below 18° centigrade in this season in most parts of the country. While going from South towards the North the temperature gradually lessens. The intensity of cold increases in the plain areas.

Temperature in the hilly areas

In the hilly areas the temperature falls below 0° centigrade causing heavy snowfall. In this season the rain fall is less as compared to the summer season.

Cyclones an important cause for rain

The important causes for rain are cyclones which enter Pakistan from the west side.




Spring Season

Q.3:  Describe the characteristics features of spring season in Pakistan?

Ans:   Start of the Spring Season

At the start of March till the end of April the season is neither very hot nor very cold most of the time horizons or sky remains clear. Although there is slight rainfall with thunder in the Northem areas. In this season new leaves spring out on trees and plants and different varieties of flowers come into bloom, this is called the spring season.


Summer Season

Q.4:  Explain the characteristics of the summer season in Pakistan.

Ans.    Start of the Summer Season

At the end of the winter season the summer season commences from May which continues till mid September. The temperature increases in this season. In most part of the bountiy the temperature remains above 18° centigrade. In plain areas particularly in deserts the intensity of the heat increases to a great extent. In coastal areas the temperature remains moderate due to the effects of the sea, whereas the heat is not much in the hilly areas.

Due to the increase in heat the wind pressure decreases in Pakistan, for which the monsoon winds coming from -the Arabian sea and the bay of Bengal start flowing towards Pakistan these winds are full of humidity

In this season the duration of rain starts from mid July and remains till mid September. In this season there is ample rain fall therefore it is called the rainy season.

Most rainfall occurs in the North Eastern Punjab and the rocky areas attached to it. Whereas the rain gradually lessens in the North,” South and West areas of Pakistan.






Autumn Season

Q.5:  Describe the characteristics of the autumn season in Pakistan?

Ans:   Start of the Autumn Season

Once again in October and November the weather is neither very hot nor very cold.  In the autumn season the quantity of rain becomes very less. In South Punjab and North East Sindh, wind full of dust starts blowing. In the Autumn season of the Northern Areas slight rainfalls with thunder occur. In this season plants and trees shed their leaves; this is called the autumn season.

The surface level of Pakistan is not uniform due to this difference the temperature and the quantity of rainfall is not alike.

Keeping in view the difference in surface level and climates Pakistan’s famous geographical scientist Qazi Saeed ud Din Ahmad in 1951 divided Pakistan into four large regions according to the climate as mentioned under:

  1. Sub Tropical Continental High Land Climate Region
  2. Sub Tropical Continental Plateau Climate Region
  3. Sub Tropical Continental Low Land Climate Region
  4. Tropical Coast Land Climate Region


Q.6:  Discuss the sub-tropical continental high land climate of Pakistan.

Ans:   Sub-Tropical Continental High Land Climate of Pakistan

This climate region consists of Pakistan’s North and Western mountain ranges besides these Balochistan mountain ranges due to its distance from the sea and its height it has bad effects in this region which are distinctive. The height of these Northern Mountain Ranges is more than 5000 meters. In the winter the temperature remains below 0° centigrade and the average temperature in the summer season remains between 10° to 20° centigrade. The Himalaya Mountain the Karakoram Mountain and the Hindukush are the highest mountain ranges.

In the mountain areas fast winds blow with thunder and lightening and besides the rain there is heavy snow fall. There is also snow fall in western mountain ranges and in some parts of Balochistan. The quantity of rain fall is less in these mountain ranges.


Sub Tropical Continent Plateau Climate Region

Q.7:  Explain the Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau Climate Regions in Pakistan?

Ans:   Sub-Tropical Continent Plateau Climate Region

This climate region is located in the western part of the plateau in Balochistan climate region being far from the sea it creates a bad effect on the climate of this region. Areas like Chaghi, Kharan, Nokundi and Noshki are included in this region.

The average temperature remains between 0° centigrade and 9° centigrade.  The average temperature remains above 32° centigrade in the summer season. The quantity of rain remains less in this region. Rain is usually  caused by cyclones coming from the west.


Q.8:  Explain the Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland Climate in Pakistan.

Ans:   Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland Climate Region in Pakistan

This climate region consists of the plain areas of  Sindh and Balochistan and deserts. Due to the increase in distance from the sea the bad effects on the climate of the region can be seen.

Due to the bad effects on this region intense hot temperature is found here. The average temperature in winter season remains between 1° to 20° centigrade. Average Temperature in Summer Season remains above 32° centigrade.

In this region the quantity of rainfall is very less. But in the summer season the winds coming from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal cause very heavy rainfall.


Tropical Coast and Climate Region

Q.9:  Explain the Tropical Coast Land Climate in Pakistan.

Ans:   Tropical Coast and Climate in Pakistan

Pakistan Western areas are located near the torrid zones in the north tropic of Capricom. The coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan are included. The effects of the Arabian sea can be clearly seen on the climate of this region.

Due to the effects of the sea the temperature of this region remains moderate. The average temperature remains between 10° to 20° centigrade in the winter season. The average temperature remains between 21° to 31° centigrade in the summer season.

The distinctive characteristic of this region is the continuous flow of land breeze. These winds due to the difference in temperature the sea breeze blows from the sea towards the land and at night the land breeze blows from the dry land towards the sea.

Although humidity remains high in the air due to the effects of the sea the amount of rainfall remains low. Average amount of rainfall remains between 125 to 250 millimeters which varies seasonally.


A Impact of Climate on Vegetation and Human Life

Q.10:          Describe the impact of climate on Natural Vegetation.

Ans:   Effects of Climate on Vegetation

Variation of climate in different parts of Pakistan has a great impact on vegetation and human activities.

Alpine Forests

The forests found in the mountains areas of Pakistan above 4000 meters are called Alpine forests.

Reduction in the plantation of trees

However they do not grow to their full height because of extreme snowfall and a short summer season.

The Areas Consisting Dense Forests

However the forests which are found below 4000 metres are comparatively dense. Here trees attain there full height because of adequate rainfall, temperature and duration of summer season.

Areas of Forests

These are found in northern areas Mansehra, Abottabad in KPK and Galliat in Northern Punjab and Quetta and Kalat in Balochistan.

Favourable areas for the growth of forests

The climate of Balochistan plateau and Piedmont areas favours the growth of scattered dry forests and grasslands.

Forests of Bela

The climate of plains favours the growth of broad leaved forests along the river banks. These are called Bela forests.

Vegetation found in faraway areas of river

Away from the rivers in open plain-areas is found thorn bush type of vegetation.

Extremely dry and hot climate

In desert areas of Pakistan where the climate is extremely dry and hot thorn scrubs and date palms are found.

Coastal Areas

The moderate climate of the coastal areas favours the growth of Mangrove forests in the deltaic region of river Indus and Hub.


Impact on Human Activities

Q.11:          Analyse the impact of climate on human activities.

Ans: Impact of climate on human life

The mountains areas of Pakistan are not densely populated. There is severe snowfall in winters which tends to keep the human activities limited. People store -food items.

Live Stock

These people, who have live stock, shift their cattle to the piedmont areas.

Life becomes paralyzed

Life becomes paralyzed and the region remains disconnected by road blockages due to snow fall while the air transport remains disturbed too.

Summer Season

However the summers are pleasant in this region. People re-shift their cattle in the grassy meadows upland.


Agriculture is also practiced on a limited scale and com is the most important crop of this region in summers.



Fruits and trees of the mountain areas

Apples, plums, apricots, peaches almonds and walnuts also grow well in this climatic region.

Hindrance the promotion of tourism 

Rainfall is frequent which often results in the occurrence of landsides and floods. These hazards are a hurdle in the development of tourism in the region.

Plain areas are favourable for human activities

The plains of Pakistan are densely populated due to favorable climatic conditions for different types of activities.


Agriculture is important economic activity wheat and grain are major Rabi crops while rice corn, cotton and sugarcane are major Kharif crops.

Favourable Climate

The climate is also favourable for different type of industries.

Winter Season

In winters the fog disturbs the schedule of road traffic, railways and air ways in this region.

Desert Areas of Pakistan

The desert areas of Pakistan are not densely populated, Life remains tough due to hot and dry climatic conditions, population is scattered due to scarcity of water.

Agriculture on a limited scale

Hot wind known as “Loo” blows during the day which paralyses the life. Limited farming is practiced in those areas, where water is available.

Important Profession

Rearing of goats and sheep is also an important economic activity.

(Chapter 8)




Ans: Discuss the characteristics of South Asian countries.

Ans:   Pakistan’s Foreign Policy

In present time due to the global economic circumstances, energy needs and the unfortunate threat of terrorism the countries of this region (which were once apart) are trying rapidly to improve their bilateral relations for financial and economic development is due to the above circumstances Pakistan is also trying to develop peaceful and friendly bilateral relations with its neighbouring countries through its foreign policy.

Relation with Neighbouring Countries

The foreign policy of Pakistan with its neighbouring regions like South Asia, Central Asia, Middle East Central Asian countries has always been to establish friendly, peaceful and bilateral relations this foreign policy has been given great importance.

A View of the neighbouring countries

Geographically South Asia is an important region of the World in terms of population and area. It is a densely populated region accommodating almost 25 percent of the World population.

Countries of South Asia

Countries included in this region are Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal and Maldives.


Colonialism has accepted all South Asian countries inthe past.

Ample Natural Resources

This region has not progressed economically inspite of the presence of a lot of natural resources. The impacts are very much obvious on the everyday life of individuals and community as a whole in these countries.



Agricultural System

Per capita and gross national income is dependent upon agricultural system. Efforts are being made to improve this system by rapidly implementing the use of modern technology.

Increase in per capita income

The results of these efforts have started to appear in the form of increase in per capita income and gross national income.

Worlds densely Populated Region

This region is included among the most densely populated regions of the world.

Social and Economic Conditions

But unfortunately the population of this region because of different socio-economic conditions is proving to -be a burden on the financial and economic development of this region.

Manpower Development

To improve this situation, special attention is being given to manpower development in these countries and it is hoped that soon the population of these countries would prove to be an economic resource rather than a burden.

Facilities of Health and Education

Inadequate facilities and low standard of education and health was a hurdle in the way of economic development of this region any how these are gradually diminishing with increase in literacy rate.

(SAARC) South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation

There is a lack of mutual trust and cooperation among South Asian Countries. To overcome-these problem positive steps were taken from the platform of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) and it is hoped that improvement in bilateral relations among the countries of this region would result enormously in boosting economic activities in the region.

Late Start of Industrial Activities

Although late industrialization is also an important reason of under development of this important region but in the global economic circumstances the results in the form of valuable increase in industrial activities and production of this region have started appearing.


Q.2:  Discuss Pakistan’s relation with South Asian countries.

Ans:   India and Afghanistan

At the time of the creation of Pakistan two important countries of South Asia i.e. Afghanistan andlndia because of their short-sightedness did not accept the existence of Pakistan.

Global Circumstances

Due to Pakistan continuous efforts and global circumstances the gulf between South Asian Countries is narrowing with the passage of time.

SAARC Very Important role of the organization in the area

SAARC established in 1985 played an important role. Initially Afghanistan was not the part of this association but through the efforts of Pakistan, Afghanistan also becomes the member of SAARC in 2007.

Social Regional Issues

Limited economic resources along with complicated and political and social regional issues stopped this regional association SAARC to play its full role.

Wave of Terrorism

In present time the unfortunate threat of terrorism prevailing in these countries is a great hindrance in their development.

Improvement between relations of these countries

The countries of this region which were once apart are trying rapidly to improve their bilateral relations for financial and economic development.


Middle East

Q.3:  Describe the economic characteristics of the Middle East. Also write Pakistan’s relations with these countries.

Ans.    Location of Middle East

Blessed with the wealth of petroleum the geographical region of Middle East is situated in the South West of Asia.


Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Emirates and Yemen are the main countries of this region.

Economic Characteristics

Being a part of the Arabian Desert has remained a victim of under development on the economic front.

Wealth of oil

The discovery of petroleum in this region has changed the way of life. The financial and economic development of Middle East is almost dependent upon petroleum wealth and mineral resources.

Manpower Shortage

This region has been forced with the shortage of manpower needed for economic development.

Agricultural Activities

Agricultural activities are limited to river valleys and some oasis which are insufficient to meet the food requirements of the region.

Industrial Activities

Industrial activities started quite late in this region and most of the industries are associated with the production of petroleum.

Focal Point of the Muslim World

Historically and from the religious point of view this region has always been the focal point of the Muslim world.

Pakistan Relations with Middle East Countries Peaceful Bilateral Relations

Because of being the centre of Islam and the Muslims peaceful bilateral relations with this region have always been the basis of foreign policy of Pakistan.

Preference of Pakistan Manpower

When the discovery of petroleum opened way of economic activities in this religion all countries of’ the Middle East preferred Pakistan for the required manpower for these activities.



Improvement in Pakistan

This resulted in further strengthening of economic ties between Pakistan and Middle East Countries which helped Pakistan to overcome the problems.

Help in Natural Disasters

The Middle East countries with the passion of Islam and Muslim brotherhood have always helped Pakistan at the time of natural disasters and regional issues in response.

Favouring Middle East Countries

The people and government of Pakistan have never stepped back in helping Middle East countries on every front in their war against Israel.


Central Asia

Q.4:  Describe the characteristics of Central Asian states. Also write Pakistan’s relations with these countries.


Location of Central Asia

Stretching over a vast area the geographical region of Central Asia is situated in the North and North West of Pakistan.


It has an area of about 4 million square kilometers.


The five countries included in this region are Kazakhstan, Kirghiestan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

Pakistan Social Historical and Cultural Bondages

Karakoram highway links Pakistan with this region which has historical social and cultural bondages with Pakistan for thousand of years.

Natural Resources

The presence of unaccountable natural resources made central Asian states the focal point of world after their independence from the soviet union in the last decade of the previous century.



Importance of the Geographical Region

Due to the nearness of Pakistan ports to this region it is said that the resources of this region can be proved fruitful if only the countries of this regions are linked with the outside world via Pakistan.


Due to limited regional needs these resources have the capacity to fulfill the rapidly growing energy needs of the world.


Historically the central Asian States also hold an important position in agriculture especially Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are well known for the production and supreme quality of their cotton in the world.

Defence Industries

The defence industries which were established in the times of soviet union have gained importance in this region especially Kazakhstan is earning valuable foreign exchange through its defence production.

Attractive Market

After the breakup of Soviet Union, the human sources of this region have also become an attractive market not only for the neighbouring countries but also for the regional and international economic powers.

Important role of Saints

Historically the saints arriving from Central Asia have played a vital role in the advent and spread of Islam in Pakistan the memories of which are still alive in the hearts of people here.

Supply of Natural Resources

The most convenient economic and workable passage for petroleum and natural gas resources of Central Asia to the international markets is only possible via the territory of Pakistan. The results of this situation make Pakistan and central Asian States as natural partners.




Role of ECO

Pakistan and Central Asian States are getting closer together as both are trying to solve their economic problems from the platform of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Through strong economic and social bilateral relations Pakistan and Central Asian States can move forward on the path of financial and economic development by using their resources efficiently.



Q.5:  Describe the Economic characteristics of china.

Ans:   Location

Peoples republic of China is situated in the North and Northeast of Pakistan. It stretches from Central Asian States to the Pacific Ocean in the east.

Pak-China Friendship

Pak-China friendship which is higher than the Himalayas and deeper than the Pacific Ocean is based on strong bilateral, strategic, social, political and foreign relations has become an example for the rest of the world.

Important Role in the development

Pak-China friendship has not only played a vital role in the mutual development but has also contributed appreciably for regional and global peace and development.

Pakistan’s Role

Pakistan was the first country which started to play a positive role to draw China in the global streamline after its independence. Due to Pakistan’s efforts Chine came out of international isolation and entered the streamline of world nations.

Cooperation of Chinese Government.

The people and government of China cooperated whole heartedly to compensate changes whenever Pakistan was faced with a natural disaster.

Economic Characteristics

Chinas Stable Economy

Due to its stable economy energetic man power along with natural land human resources China has attained a pivotal position in the world. .


Worlds Development on Economic Development

According to economists the economic development of the world will rely upon the economic behaviour and economic role played by China in the coming times. The economic development of China is based on a strong industrial infra structure which is dependent upon industries.

Agricultural Development

China has a policy of promoting agriculture on scientific and industrial basis which enabled china not only to meet the domestic food requirement but the surplus food grains are also being sent to the world markets.

Industrial Development

Keeping in view its immense industrial development China has also focused on promoting alternative energy resources i.e. wind, solar and hydel power along with the conventional power resources i.e petroleum, gas and coal etc.

Valuable Foreign Exchange

After facilities the massive population with education and technical skills China is sending it as an economic resource to the international market and earning valuable resource foreign exchange.


Pak-China Relations

Q.6:     Discuss Pak-China relation.

Ans:   Pak-China Relations

Pak-China relations need no introduction. Chinese government and people have always stood with Pakistan at the time of difficulty as well as they have tried their level best to strengthen Pakistan“ economically and strategically.

Pakistan’s Energy Projects .

Various power projects are in process, like Neelam-Jhelum and Chashma are important examples in this regard.

Pakistan Defence Projects

Pakistan defence projects like heavy mechanical complex Taxila, Pakistan, Aeronautical complex Kamra and Pakistan ordinance factory Hegelian and Sanjwal are proof of this everlasting Pak-China friendship.

Karakoram Highway

Karakoram highway which connects Pakistan with western China and central Asian states is also a magnificent example of Chinese skill and cooperation.

Importance of Gwadar -Sea Port

In present times the development of Pakistan, Central Asia and Afghanistan is not possible without developing the port of Gwadar.

Pakistan Limited Financial Resources

Due to limited resources of Pakistan this project was under delay but now the peoples Republic of China has agreed to promote this great development project. Now this greats development project has become the life line in the economic development of Pakistan.


Location of Pakistan

Q.7:  Explain the importance of geographical location of Pakistan.

Ans: Location

Pakistan has an area of 7,96,096 square kilometersin Asia in between 23.5 to 37-° north latitudes and 61° to’77° east longitudes.

Neighbouring Countries

India lies in its east Afghanistan in the North West Iran in the South West, China in the North and Northeast and Arabian Sea lies in the South.


The 20 kilometers wide “Wakhan Strip” of Afghanistan separates Pakistan from the Central Asian States.

Geographical Situation and Strategic Importance of Pakistan

Pakistan enjoys a unique position in terms of its location. Due to this location Pakistan is a centre of interest for all the big powers of the world Russia, United States of America and China always keep trying to enhance their influence in Pakistan.

Central Asian States

Central Asian States blessed with the wealth of petroleum are situated in the neighbouring areas of Pakistan and all the big powers have special interest in these oil reserves.

Importance of the Sea Part of Karachi

Pakistan is also source of providing a sea route to the land locked countries of Central Asia and Afghanistan. Karachi is an important sea port in the region and without the help and cooperation of Pakistan all these countries cannot trade through sea.


Q.8:  Write a note on Economic development of South Asia.

Ans:   Location

The Southern countries of Asia from the region of South Africa.


Its total area is 4.5 million square kilometers.


Myanmar lies in the east of South Asia Afghanistan in the west, china in the north and the bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean lie in the South.


This region has a vital importance on the map of the world. It accommodates ‘almost one fourth population in this region.

Pakistan and India

Pakistani and India are the countries with larger populations in this region.

The geographical importance of South Asia

The presence of big powers like Russia and China in the North enhances the geographical importance of South Asia.

Rich in Natural Resources

The Central Asian states have to rely .on South Asia for a passage to the sea, South Asia is also equipped with the wealth of natural resources.

High Mountains

In the north are the mountains ranges of Himalayas, Karakoram and  Hindukush which are the highest .mountains in the world. Indian ocean in the South has remained an important area during the cold war.

Unique Position

This region enjoys a unique position in terms of its geographic boundaries and location.

Geographical situation and Strategic Importance of  Middle East

Q.9:  Describe the Geographical Situation and Strategic Importance of Middle East.

ans:  Location

The region comprising South West of Asia and some parts of Africa is referred as Middle East. It is situated at the junction of Asia and Africa. Russian Black sea and the Caspian Sea are situated in its North.


Central Asian States in the North East Pakistan in the east, northern Africa and Mediterranean Sea in the west and Africanecountries in the southwest.

Rich in Natural Resources

The region of Middle East-is equipped with the wealth of petroleum and mineral resources and all the big powers have an eye on these resources.

Muslim Region 

It is mostly inhabited by Muslims so it is called a Muslim region. It is also inhabited by adherents of other religions i.e. Christians and Jews and their Holy places are also situated in this region therefore it is considered as a sacred place for Christians and Jews in addition to the Muslims.

Important Region from the Trading View Point

Mediterranean Sea along with Red sea, Black sea and Persian Gulf are situated in this region which are important trade routes.

Important Industrial Trade Centers of the World

Due to the mineral wealth important industrial centers of the world are also concentrated in this region. This region is also known for the maximum scale and purchase of foreign goods in the world.







Geographical situation and Strategic Importance of Central Asia

Q.10:          Describe the Geographical situation and Strategic Importance of Central Asia.

Ans:   Location

The region is situated in the -centre of Asia is called Central Asia, Mangolia and China are situated in its east, Russia and Georgia in the northwest and Afghanistan along with Pakistan are situated in the South of this region. .

Importance of Location

Although it is a land locked region but its geographical location has its own importance. These five states were a part of Russia in the past before separation from these States; Russia had a chance to approach the Middle East via Afghanistan. But now Russia needs to pass through these states to reach the Middle East.

Region of Minerals

The sea in the north of Russia remains frozen for six months and it is not possible to trade from there. Central Asia is also known for its mineral resources especially gold which is found in abundance here.

Importance of the Central Asian Region.

The location of two big powers China and Russia in the intermediate neighbourhood also enhances the importance of this region. Besides the region it is also a gateway to Europe.


Geographical Situation and Strategic Importance of China

Q.11:          Explain the Geographical Situation and Strategic importance of China.

Ans:   Location

China is located in the east of Asia. Geographically it is situated in between 18° to 50° north and 70° to 135° east longitudes.


Its total area is 9.6 million square kilometers.




North and South Korea along with Japan and Taiwan are situated in its east, Kazakhstan,. Tajikistan and Kirghizstan in the west Mangolia and Russia in the north, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bhutan in the south and Myanmar (former Burma), Laos and Vietnam are situated in the south east.

Density Populated Country According to Population

China is the third largest by area and the largest country by population in the world. Economically it is_ considered among. the bigger economic countries of the world.

Natural Resources

China is equipped with the wealth of natural resources it is the only country of the world which has to defend its boundaries against 14 to 16 .

Financial and Agricultural Development

Due to its financial and agricultural development China is considered an importance country in the world and is included in the developed countries of Asia.


(Chapter 9)



  1. What do you mean by developed and underdeveloped countries?

Ans: Developed Countries

The developed countries are economically stable nations and have a high literacy rate.

National Income

High gross national and per capita income and universal availability of facilities are the salient characteristics of these countries. The developed countries rely on industrial production.

Population Planning

The industrial activities of these nations are distributed across the country. The developed nations plan to balance their population and national resources.


These nations also give importance to agriculture of production and use modem agriculture practices.


The most famous countries of the world are Japan, Unites States of  America, Germany, France and England etc.

Under Developed Counties

The underdeveloped nations are those nations which are financially, economically and technologically weak.

Industrial Development

The basic cause for their underdevelopment is the unavailability of modern  agriculture machinery and mismanagement.


The over population, scarcity of water and poor literacy rate are the other main obstacles in the way of their development, therefore the subsistence agriculture is the main source of survival.



Foreign Loans

Political stability, financial corruption and foreign loans are the major causes of their under development.


Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Congo etc.


Comparison Between Developed and Underdeveloped Countries

Q.2:  Compare the developed and underdeveloped countries.

Ans:   Standard of Developed and Under Developed Countries

The experts divide ‘the world in two groups developed and under developed countries on the basis of the following reasons:

Annual per Capita income of developed Countries

Annual per capita income of developed countries is much more than the underdeveloped countries.

Literacy Rate

The level of literacy rate in developed countries is very high while the literacy rate is low in underdeveloped countries.

The lavish life of developed countries

The majority of population in developed nations enjoys the facilities required for lavish living.

Poverty in underdeveloped countries

The majorities in underdeveloped nations are forced to survive in poverty.

Population growth

Population growth rate is very high in under developed World as compared to the developed world.







Geographical facts which promote development

Q.3:  Describe economic problems of underdeveloped countries.

Ans:   Natural and Human Resources

According to experts, the development of any country depends upon natural resources availability and human resources development. Physical geography informs us about natural resource availability. While human geography guides us about the human resources development.

Development of Geographical Region

The development of a geographical region is impossible without proper planning of these resources.

Natural Resources

Natural resources are those resources which are created by the nature e.g. location, geology, water resources, forest resources, soil fertility, power and mineral resources etc.

Human Resources

In present times, the economic and financial development of a region is considered a product of human efforts. In this connection population and population growth,‘ literacy rate, the level of scientific and technological development play an important role.


Q.4:  Describe problems of underdeveloped countries. .

Ans:   Problems of Underdeveloped Countries

In underdeveloped countries, the majority of population is forced to live below the poverty line.

Very Less Income

All the families members of a household are forced to work the children of these households go to a work place instead of schools, yet the families fail to meet their expenditure.

Basic needs of life

The basic needs of life are not available to these families. Therefore these  poor nations are forced to live in poverty.

Riddance from Economic Problems

The experts say that if these nations want to get rid of their underdevelopment, they‘ must solve their present economic, social and political problems.


Q.5:  Describe the Economic problems of underdeveloped Countries.

Ans:   Economic Problems

In underdeveloped countries the low per capita income forces the people to survive below the poverty line.

Dependence on Rich Countries

These I countries are not developing due to their low economic development but depend upon the rich and developed nations.

The following are the basic reasons for dependence on developed countries of the underdeveloped. countries

  1. Lack of Capital

Lack of capital, foreign debts and unbearable markup on these loans.

  1. Unemployment

Population pressure which is beyond the capacity of their national resources and growing unemployment.

iii.        Primitive Agriculture Practices

Primitive agriculture practices and the dependence of economy on agriculture sector.

  1. Limited Resources

Unplanned use of limited resources and role of direct or indirect foreign interventions.

  1. Poor Infrastructure

Poor infrastructure limited national market and intrusion of foreign trade for national resources.

Low National Income

Low national and per capita income.

Energy Crisis

Energy crisis and lack of technical know-how.

Q.6:  Describe the Social problems of underdeveloped countries.

Ans:   Law and order situation  

The peaceful atmosphere of a country positively contributes towards its economy while the law and order situation negatively impacts the national life.

New Inventions

If a society accepts and adopts the new technology and emerging ideas according to its social setting in a changing world then the outcomes will be positive and far reaching.

Bad Economic Circumstances

The under developed world is the victim of different economic and social problems due to bad governance in these countries.

Social Problems

The experts identify the following reasons for social problems of these underdeveloped countries.

  1. Lack of Modern Education
  2. Outdated social and societal traditions

iii.        Society and Societal Corruption

  1. Social and Economical Corruption
  2. Prevailing tribal culture and way of life
  3. Difference-between Rich and Poor

vii.       Outdated Social Traditions


Q.7:  Describe the political problems of underdeveloped countries.

Ans:   Political Problems

The unpredictable political circumstances also adversely affect the economic and social life of these underdeveloped countries.

The experts present the following reasons of political instability in the underdeveloped countries.

  1. lack of political stability
  2. The influence of foreign countries in the domestic affairs of these countries.

iii.        The lack of consistency of government policies.

  1. Tribalism and control of unelected people on political power.
  2. The outdated judicial system is a major obstacle for social political and economic progress.


Q.8:  Discuss the problems obstructing the path of economic development of Pakistan.

Ans:   Pakistan and Underdeveloped Countries

Pakistan is considered an underdeveloped country the basic reasons of its under development are the lack of health and educational facilities. Poor planning, unemployment and over population. These problems are the major causes of poverty in Pakistan. Pakistan cannot economically develop without-removing these obstacles.

The reasons for -Pakistan’s underdevelopment are as under: .

Energy Crises

Pakistan is in a serious grip of energy crises.

Natural Resources

Lack of natural resources management and underdevelopment of industrial sector.

Foreign Loans

Foreign loans and unbelievable markup on these loans.

International Trade

Lack of capital and the lack of confidence in international trade with Pakistan.

Outdated Agriculture System

Dependence on outdated agriculture system and over population.

Lack of Technical Human Resources

The lacks. of technical human resources are a hindrance to Pakistan economic development.

(Chapter 10)



Q.1:  Describe the importance of the Geographical Information system (G.I.S)?

Ans:   Geographical Information system (G.I.S)

In the present age, study and modern research in geography is incomplete without the aid of Geographic Information system, Remote sensing and Global positioning system.

Geographical Study:

The need of this modern technique was felt when the scope of geographical studies extended with time.

Study of Geographical Science:

The development of science particularly in the field of computer opened the usage of modern techniques in scientific research.

Study of Modern Geographical Techniques:

Let’ us have a look on the use of these modern techniques in the field of geography.

  1. Remote Sensing                                  ii. Geographical Information system

iii. Global Positioning System        iv. Computer Based Models

Remote Sensing:

Remote sensing is the scienceor technology of detecting, measuring and analyzing the characteristics or attributes of remote objects without having physical contact with them; we can gather information about earth while staying away from the earth.

Study of the earth

If helps in studying and portraying the ‘earth on local, regional and global


Ways of studying the earth

We can study the earth in two ways:

  1. Aerial photography ii. Satellite imaging

Q.2:  Differentiate between Active and Passive Remote Sensing.

Ans: Basic Principles of Remote Sensing

Remote sensing works in two ways

  1. Active Remote Sensing
  2. Passive Remote Sensing
  3. Active Remote Sensing:

In active remote sensing, radar waves from a satellite are sent to earth. There waves are recorded on earth on an instrument known as Remote Sensor.

  1. Passive Remote Sensing:

Passive Remote sensing depends upon electromagnetic radiation of the sun.

Heat Waves

The electromagnetic waves tend to reflect from the earth’s surface or transfer to the atmosphere in the form of heat waves from the earth.

Recording of heat waves

These waves are recorded on a remote sensor fixed on the satellite.

Satellites images

The information achieved from these waves are transformed into Digital Satellite images.


The satellite on which the remote sensor is fixed is called a platform.


Badar-I   &   Badar-II

Pakistan in recent years has successfully experimented the launching of Badar – I and Badar – II satellites in space.

PakSat -I

These days PakSat – I in space is promoting telecommunication developments in Pakistan.



Geographic Information System

Q.3:  Discuss the Primary methods of Remote Sensing.

Ans: (GIS) computerized system

The Geographic information system (GIS) is an integrated computer system by which geographical information is systematically collected stored analyzed and displayed in the form of maps. .

Complete Geographical Information System

GIS performs these different tasks conveniently with the help of these tasks we can find answers too many questions like location, specific conditions, trends, patterns and modeling etc.

Figures and Statistics

GIS enters the information regarding these questions in the data base in two forms by which we can have comparative analysis.


  1. Information regarding location is entered in the form of point line or polygons.
  2. From these geographic entities GIS organizes the information in the form of layers. These layers are analyzed separately or collectively to get the answers to questions.


Global Positioning system (GPS)

Q.4:  Explain the Global Positioning System (GPS)

Ans: Correct Location

The Satellites in this modern age are used not only for remote sensing but we can also find the correct location of anyplace on the surface of the earth with the help of satellite system.

(GPS) Global Positioning .System

To find the correct location of any place on the surface of earth through a satellite is called (GPS) Global Positioning System.


(GPS) Satellites

These are twenty four satellites in this system.

The speed of satellites

These satellites transmit radio waves to earth at the speed of light i.e 3,00,000 km/sec.

GPS receiver

On the basis of time consumed by these waves to reach GPS receivers on the earth, we can calculate the satellites position in space and the distance between the satellite and the receiver on earth.

Place of GPS receiver on earth

When the position and distance to the satellites are known the position of the receiver is calculated as the point of intersection between the rotation circles around the satellites.

GPS Instruments

The GPS instruments show the location of the receiver’s position in terms of latitude, longitude and height above the sea-level on the GPS receiver screen. This is the exact location of the person using the GPS receiver.

The use of GPS on a large scale

Global Positioning System is being used on a large scale in every developed country especially for navigation purposes on land, air and maritime transportation.

GPS use in traffic control

This system is also used for navigation on land air, and maritime traffic.

Use of GPS for tourism

This system is very helpful in tourism for determining the location of places.

Modern warfare Strategy

The modern warfare is totally dependent upon the system.


Q.5:  Write a note on computer modeling.

Ans: Computer Based Models

A computer model can easily produce a duplicate of the internal process of any complex scientific matter and displays the result as well.

Definition of a computer

We can define computer based models as “A practical method or a way designed with the help of a computer technology to perform a specific task.”

Computer Modeling Science

Computer modeling Science Computer based model about population Computer modeling is a science a technique or a workable ideas by which answers to complex scientific matters are seeked. If such a question is raised at any stage. If a scientific procedure that if it happened what would be the consequences. The answer to that or a specific condition can be found with the help of computer modeling. For example the population of the world is increasing at a fast pace and as a result the natural resources are depleting rapidly so what would be the consequences after ten years if we do not turn towards the alternative resources.

The use of computer in geography

Cartography, the art of map making has a vital importance in the field of geography. The maps are considered as the tools of cartographers. The use of computer has eased the art of making maps and statistical diagrams in geography.

Geographical information and Computer technology .

In this modern era the basis of computer in geography, map making figures and statistics diagram making has been made very easy. On the other hand GIS and GPS system is completely dependent on computer technology.

The utility of modern tools in geography

Remote sensing in the field of geography started by fixing cameras on birds and balloons. The advent of aeroplanes paved the way for aerial photography of the earth.

Information gained from satellites

Nowadays information is transmitted by satellites and is received on sensors and receivers on earth. The results are displayed in the form of maps and diagrams with the help of computer technology.

Location of Place with accuracy by modern tools

It has become possible to locate any place on the surface of the earth with accuracy. The use of modern tools has reduced the chances of mistakes and increased the possibilities of obtaining accurate results.

The scope of the use of modern tools

In the beginning geography was just considered to describe or remember facts and figures. In the present age remote sensing, global positioning system and computer modeling have eased many tasks i.e cartography, determining absolute location of places, hazard forecasting and mitigations understanding causes of environmental pollution and methods to reduce its impacts.

Natural Disasters

Forecasting of natural disasters causes of environmental pollution and methods to reduce its impact, the depletion of power resources and use of alternative resources etc.

Agricultural Production

A better awareness of environmental and climatic conditions to enhance agricultural productivity.

Solution of Problems

All the issues have enhanced the scope of modern tools and it can be expected that use of modern tools would be trustful in tackling certain problems associated with increase in population.

















  1. When was east lndia company established?


ln 1600 the British traders, after getting royal permission from the Queen of England, established East lndia Company for the purpose of trade.


  1. How many castes were there in Hindu society? Write their names.


Hindu Society was divided in Brahman, Khashtari , Wesh and Shudars.


iii. What is Separate Electorate?


Election of representatives on the basis of religion is called ‘Separate Electorate’.

According to Separate Electorate, in sub-continent during British reign

Muslims, Hindu, Sikh and Christians had right to choose their representatives.


  1. Who proposed the British Government to include the native people into legislative councils?


The great leader of Muslims Sir Syed Ahmed Khan proposed the British Government to include the native people of India into legislative councils.


  1. Which was the official language before British rule?


Persian was the official language before British rule.












              Establishment of East India Company Before the arrival of British in India, Arab traders used to visit India for the purpose of trade. They pursued trade with India and earned huge profit. They began to take Indian goods to Europe for trade purpose and developed good relationship with European people. The European traders also wished to do the trade with India at their own.

First of all Portuguese traders came to India and earned huge profit, followed by British and French traders .The British traders superseded other European nations in trade with India. In 1600 the British traders, after getting royal permission from the Queen of England, established East India Company for the purpose of trade.


The Mughal Emperor Jahangir facilitated the company and exempted it from the various trade taxes, which made British happy and they built many trade centers in India. When Shahjahan became emperor, the company got more trade facilities and concessions. After the death of Aurangzeb the later Mughal kings were weak and lost control as a central authorities due to internal intrigues and weak political condition of India.

The last Mughal king proved very weak and could not stand against the British. After the

war of independence of 1857, the company took over the reign of India.




The British government implemented the act of 1861 to include the local people in government affairs.

Indian Councils Act of 1861 The act was passed by the British Parliament.

  1. Under this act the Indian people were included in Governor General Council for the first time in the history of India and the process of transfer of powers to grass root level started.
  2. Provincial governments of Bombay and Madras were partially allowed to legislate:

Viceroy would approve the laws of Provincial Legislative Assemblies. Bill on religious practices of any community or foreign affairs were to be presented with prior approval of president of Provincial Legislative Council.

  1. The Governor General was given power to nominate at least six (6) or maximum (12) members to his council with half of the members as non-official.




Economic Policy of British Government:

The British government had taken the following steps to implement their economic policy:

  1. The British introduced new system of taxes, measurement and weigh and introduced new currency.
  2. A proper system of railway and roads was established, developed canal system and constructed bridges over canals.
  3. A law of ownership of properties was introduced. Free trade was encouraged and the import duty on clothes was reduced.
  4. The government improved the system of civil services. The British government pursued the colonial economic policy. They adopted such economic policy under which the sub-continent became a main resource of raw material for British industry. They used to purchase cotton on lower price from lndia and the imported items were sold on high price to the natives. They were exporting richness to Britain and were importing poverty to India.-The industries of India were being destroyed and. unemployment began to increase day by day.

The British government, instead of solving the problems of the people, began to introduce harsh laws by suppressing the public opinion which caused severe reaction among the nation. Even the British Parliament started criticizing the laws discriminating the local people. However, the Liberal Party of England tried to lessen this discrimination.





British government developed following communication system during its rule.

  1. Postage and Telecom: The postal department was organized on modern lines as the British government was in need of efficient postage system to send orders throughout the country. New post-offices were opened and trained people were appointed. in 1887, General Post Office (GPO) was established in Lahore. A close coordination was developed among the different departments for the success of this system. The British Government also improved the telegraph system, apart from the post offices. The British government had established the communication system for its own benefit however, the people of subcontinent also got benefit from it. The increased interaction exchange among the people resulted in trade development. The post and telecom systems had positive effects on the people.
  2. Railways and Roads: Means of communication are very important for the economic development and stability of a country. During the British period, railway was the fastest mean of communication, therefore, railway lines were spread all over the sub-continent. Railway stations were established in important cities and towns.

Railway gates were constructed on railway crossing to facilitate the citizens. The British

government arranged the time table of railways and introduced the ticketing system.

Through these steps the confidence of the people increased in railway and they preferred to travel through train as they thought it safe.

The British government improved the existing roads and constructed new roads throughout the sub-continent. They also constructed bridges over canals and rivers on the ways of roads. They developed bus stands and trained the staff to facilitate the passengers. The steps taken by the

government made the journeys easier and faster. Some historians say that British did it for themselves but the common man also got benefited from these steps.





The British government took the following steps to reform the society.


There was a caste system in the Indian society. Hindu Society was divided in        Brahman, Khashtari ,Wesh and Shudars. They were assigned with different jobs. Brahman was the highest caste, while Shudar was the lowest caste.

British government provided equal opportunities to all through the education and other reforms by which caste system was discouraged, pacified and sardari system was shaken. Women education also brought in social changes and reforms.

  1. Prohibition of Sati (Burning of Hindu Widow): Women were looked down upon in the Indian society. In Hinduism, a widow burning herself on the funeral of her husband was known as Sati. Sati was prohibited in Sikh religion but it was practiced in some Sikh families.

In 1829, Lord William Bentick had prohibited Sati in Bengal and declared it unlawful. The British government allowed the widows to remarry. However, Sati continued religiously and culturally in some factors of Hindu Society. The government also prohibited the killing of new born babies or burying them alive.

  1. Under Age Marriage:

Under age marriage of girls was a common practice in India as they were seen to be an economic burden. But the British government made a law, under which age of marriage was fixed at 14 years for girls and 15 years for boys.

  1. Payment of Marriage:

There was a tradition in India to pay a fixed amount to boys by the parents of girls on the occasion of marriage. These practices created unrest, feuds and other problems in the Indian society as the parents were worried about their daughters. The British government had abolished this cruel and inhuman tradition.





  1. Under the Act of 1919, the central legislative was enlarged and reformed. It became a bicameral legislature for all Indian. The lower house was the Legislative Council of 144 members, out of which 104 were elected and 40 were nominated for the tenure of three years.

The upper house was the Council of States consisting of 34 elected and 26 nominated members for the tenure of 5 years.

  1. The executive council of Governor General was consisting of 8 members including 3 Indians the provinces In each province, were transferred and reserved |lSt8, transferred list included local government
  2. The act introduced a diarchy system control of councils of ministers reserved list included defense, for

health and education, which were affairs and communication, remained under control of Viceroy. ”

  1. There will be direct election ant extension of communal franchise to community.









ln 1866, a weekly journal under the title of “Aligarh institute Gazette” was published with main effort of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and continued until the Sir Syed’s death. It was divided into Urdu and English section. In English section, there was translation of Urdu section. Lt published all kinds of articles e.g. social, ethical, scientific and political.




Names of two books of Sir Syed are following:

  1. Tabian-ul-Kalam
  2. Khutbat-e-Ahmdia



Syed Mohammad Ali Kanpuri was founder of Nadva-tul-Ulema?




  1. In 1859, in Muradabad Sir Syed established a Persian institute. In which English and Persian were taught.
  2. In 1862, in Ghazipur a school was opened.

3., ln 1863, Sir Syed established a scientific society; in which English books were translated into Urdu.

  1. On 24 May 1875, Sir Syed founded MAO High School.
  2. On 8 January 1877, MAO High School was made a college.




Sir Syed Ahmad Khan also put efforts for religious education. He established orphan house and a school for Muslims in Muradabad, so that orphan Muslim children could be educated.
















Although Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs have participated in the War of Independence but Hindus succeeded in realizing the British that Hindus were their loyal and friends. On the other hand Muslims were established as rebels against the British. Therefore, the British Government was struggling to damage Muslims so that they could not revive their status.

The native people were defeated in the war of independence due to their disunity and superior technology and modern knowledge of the British. After the war the British were revengful against the natives.

They declared the last Mughal King as rebel and put him in prison in exile by expelling him from the country. In this way, Mughal Empire came to an end. Both of the Muslim groups, anti British and pro British, who participated in the 1857 war had aim to get rid of British rule. So, both of these were respected in the movement of independence.

ln spite of the fact the British had destroyed the Muslims and had brought the major portion of India under their control yet they were afraid of the Muslims. They considered Muslims as the permanent rival to their government; therefore, they tried to spoil the Muslims position in the fields of

education, social, economic and politics. A brief detail of Muslims condition after the 1857 war is as under:

No Government Jobs for the Muslims Up to the end of the 19th century, the British government took every step against Muslims. Muslim were not offered civil services. Serving Muslims were compelled to

leave the service. In every advertisement for the service, there was a condition that Muslims could not apply or the Muslims were not eligible for the post. So all the civil sen/ices were offered to Hindus. The main purpose of this act was to deprive the Muslims of and boost up the Hindus. The British government suppressed the Muslims in every field so, that they might not compete Hindus.

Banishment of Muslims from Land Besides government service, agriculture was another source of income of Muslims for the last many centuries. Most of the Muslims used to work in agriculture lands. British government banished the Muslims from land and conficated it. In this way, landlords and farm workers, both became victims of adversity. They imposed a lot of new taxes.

The taxes which were waived of, were again levied. Resultantly Muslims fell into worst economic conditions.

Educational Backwardness Muslims educational and religious one language by other for them. But Muslims institutions were also mal-treated. Earlier, the income of religious institutions were spent on

education of Muslims, now was being used in other persuits as per British Government desire.

Most of the Muslim institutions were closed. ln this way Britishers plundered the religious institutions Muslims who were educated from the remaining institutions, cound not given any job. It was a big shock for religious factions.


The British government declared English as official language in place of Persian. lt did not make any difference for Hindus because it was only replacement of were shocked by this change because it was meant not only the change of language but the change of lslamic culture and civilization.

Moreover, Muslim children were not ready to get education in English, so they became deprived of modern education. On the other hand, Hindus established superiority over Muslims in educational field by learning English. So the fields of judiciary, medicine, engineering and others were open for the Hindus. Consequently, Hindus started getting high positions in every walk of life.

After the war of independence the conditions of Muslims in social, economic and educational sectors were disappointing.

ln this situation Sir Syed Ahmad Khan came forward to rescue Muslims and tried to create

consciousness among the Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan said that it is a reality that Muslims were not rulers but they were being ruled. Therefore, he introduced a principle of dignified life to Muslims that they should respectably compromise with British Government and move forward.




Efforts of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan for Reconciliation between Muslims and British Government Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born on October 17, 1817 at Delhi in a noble family.

On his father side, he descended from Hazrat imam Hussain (R.A). Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wanted that Muslims should educate themselves with Western Education and should regain their lost prestige and status. He loved his nation very much. He could not see the bad condition of Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan believed that Muslims could not be able to remove British from power; Therefore, the Muslims should reconcile with the British and should educate themselves.

He believed in the trinity of ideas

(i) loyalty to British,

(ii) devotion to education and

(iii) aloofness from politics.

ln this way, he showed the Muslims the path of progress.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wanted to remove misunderstanding between Muslims and British and to create reconciliation among them. He had written a pamphlet, “Reasons of Mutiny in lndia” in which he tried his best to tell the British the real cause of war of 1857 was the unawareness of British with the native ideas and traditions. Natives, especially Muslims were hurt by some steps of British Government. The British had exploited religion of Muslims and their maltreatment with Muslims added fuel to the fire.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan said that Hindus were equally responsible for the mutiny but Hindus were not being accused. However, all the Muslims did not participate the mutiny, even some Muslims protected the British. In this ways he made realized the British that their harsh treatments with Muslims was against the principle of equity and justice. He agreed that Muslims and Christian had the commonality as both had the Holy books.

Therefore, they should be close with each other than the fact the British were closed to Hindus. These arguments created soft corner in hearts of British towards Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmad, Khan negated the accusation that Muslims were against British. In this connection he wrote, “Loyal Mohammadan’s of India”. In which he explained the conditions of Muslims who had served Britishers with loyalty during the War of Independance.

The efforts of reconciliation of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan proved effective and he succeeded in bringing the two nations closer to each other. When he started the efforts, the conditions of Muslims were very bad and they were helpless. They were backward in the fields of religion, education, social,

economic and politics. After Sir Syed’s efforts their conditions began to improve and they started to regain their due place in the society.




Anjuman Hamaiat-e-Islam Lahore: The activities of Anjuman Hamaiat-e-lslam Lahore were the series of struggles for protection of Muslim rights. It was formed in Lahore in 1884. Its founder and/first president was Khalifa Muhammad Hameed-Uddin. Its main objectives were the protection of lslamic traditions, imparting of lslamic education to children and struggling for the, promotion of Muslim culture. Lt established various educational institutions and opened orphans houses. Many educational institutions have been working since the establishment of Pakistan, including Middle and high schools and peace houses. It published Quran and Sunnah books and various other books of history and



M Hassan Ali Afindi, under supervision of Sindh Muhammadan Association, established Sindh Madrsa-tul-Islam on 1st September 1885 in Karachi. Hassan Ali Afindi toured through the whole country to collect funds for Madrasa. Nawab of Khairpur provided a grant of 12 thousand rupees and

promised to pay wages and salary to the Principal. Mr. Percy Hide an Englishman was appointed first principal of the Madrsa.

Among graduates of the college were Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Sir Ghulam Hussain

Hadiatullah and A.K. Bruhi. ln 1943, the administrative board upgraded the Madrsa to the college level, whose foundation stone was laid by Quaid-e-Azam. Quaid-e-Azam donated a part of his property to this college.

Now the college has been upgraded to the standard of a university.


Anjuman Hamiat-e-Islam established lslamia College in 1892. It started. its work in a building of Sheranwala Gate. It was an historical college which provided higher education to the children of Muslims. The students of the college participated in Pakistan Movement. Quaid-e-Azam visited

this college for many times and addressed the students. Habibia Hall of this college was renowned because many seminars, regarding Pakistan Movement were held and many Muslim leaders addressed the students in this hall. Quaid-e-Azam donated a part of his property to this college.


Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan had established lslamia College, Peshawar (NWFP) now Khyber Pukhtunkhwa on the pattern of Aligarh College. It started imparting education to the Muslims. Students from all over the province used to attend the college. Among the renowned students of the college were Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar and Dr. Abdul Jabbar Khan. The college played a very important role in creating national consciousness among the Muslims.

Therefore Sahibzada  Abdul Qayyum was known as the Sir Syed of NWFP.




Muhammadan Educational Conference Sir Syed Ahmad Khan established Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886 to develop devotion for education. Sir Syed was its Finance Secretary. Its annual meetings were held in different cities, wherever its need was felt or was demanded by Muslim leaders to consider the education proposal. Muhammadan Educational  Conference provided political platform for the Muslims of lndia. Muslims of India had no political party, therefore, whenever the meetings of Muhammadan Educational Conference were held, the delegates used to discuss all problems including political to seek their solution.

ln this connection Nawab Mohsin ul Mulk, Nazir Ahmad, Shibli Nomani and Maulana Altaf Hussain Hall were the leading figures. They protected the Muslim rights. By and by they suggested to provide military training to Muslims.

lt was the annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference held on December 30,1906 at Dacca, in which All India Muslim League was formed by providing political platform for Muslims. It  was the Muslim League which passed Lahore Resolution in 1940 and ultimately achieved an independent Muslim state of Pakistan in the sub-continent.





Sir Syed ‘Ahmad Khan thought that Muslims ‘could regain their status through modern education. Thus he devoted all of his life to impart western education to Muslims.

Therefore, he opened a Persian school at Muradabad in 1859, in which the education of English and Persian was imparted to the students. Another school was also opened in Ghazipur in 1862. In 1863, Sir Syed established Scientific Society; in which English books were translated into Urdu.

Hindus supported the efforts of Sir Syed, among them Raja Je Kishin was a prominent name.

A weekly journal under the title of “Aligarh institute Gazette” was published with main effort of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and continued untill Sir Syed’s death. It was divided into Urdu and English section. In English section, there was translation of Urdu section. It published all kinds of articles e.g. social, ethical, scientific and political. Among the readers of the journal were both English and Urdu knowing. The paper was always been a valuable instrument for social reforms in the country and the acceptance of western education.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded MAO High School on May 24, 1875 and Maulvi Saleem Ullah Khan was appointed its administrator. After two years, the school was upgraded at college level.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan retired from service in July 1876 and took the responsibility of the college. The British government granted 74 acres land for the construction of building. The college became most popular among the Muslims. Following this college many educational institutions were established in Punjab, Sindh and NWFP. The college was upgraded to the standard of university in 1920.





Sir Syed as social reformer, took many useful steps. He succeeded to reconcile British government with Indian Muslims by removing many hurdles and misunderstandings.

Sir Syed emphasized on adopting the western civilization and advised Muslims to use spoons. He created the feelings of national sympathy and national welfare among the Muslims of India.

Sir Syed in his book “Loyal Muhammadan of lndia” enumerate various services of Muslims for the British government and asked the government to change its attitude towards Muslims.

Chrisitian missionaries opened a front against Muslims. He emphasised to choose compromising attitudes to both nations. He claimed Islam and Christianity as two issues of the one message. He also faced the activities of Christian missionaries. He replied the book “Life of Muhammad” by William Moor, which was later on printed in book shape under title, “Khutbat-e- Ahmdia”. Later on Sir Syed also got translated this book in English. In his book “Tabian-ul-Kalam” he

compared Holy Quran and Holy Bible and proved that both are devine books and have many things in common.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan also put efforts for religious education. He established orphan house and a school for Muslims in Muradabad.

Sir Syed wanted to bring Muslims closer to British. So he adopted the policy of comprise. He advocated the cause of Muslims in pamphlet, “Asbab-e- Bagawat-e-Hind”. In 1885, a Britisher A O Hume established a political party, Indian National Congress. Hindus fully joined it. Sir Syed was

also offered membership. He flately refused.

As per circumstances he wanted to keep Muslims away from politics. Because in this way there was risk of confrontation with British. So he advised Muslims to stay away from politics.











During the World War-l, Turkey joined war in favour of Germany. But Germany and Turkey lost the war. The Allied forces decided that the territories of Turkey may be divided amongst them. The Indian Muslims were very disturbed on the situation because they had a deep rooted respect for Holy places. They were disturbed that British can damage their Holy places during war affairs. So Muslims of sub-continent started a movement to support Turkish people.

This movement is called Khilafat movement.




 British government had introduced for the first time system of dyarchy in provinces under the Indian Act of 1919.




According to the resolution the following basic objectives of Muslim League were approved. R To promote among the Muslims of India the feelings of loyalty to the British government and to remove misconception.

To promote and advance the political rights and interests of Muslims of lndia and to represent respectfully the needs and requirements to the government.

To prevent the rise among the Muslims of India of any feeling of hostility towards other communities without prejudice to the other aforementioned objectives of Muslim League.




During the Khilafat movement all Muslim leaders were sent behind the bar.

Hindus under the leadership of Mohin Das Karam Chand, Gandhi took steps forward to help Muslims. Gandhi was a clever leader, who wanted to compel British government to fulfill his demands. So Gandhi started civil disobedience movement and announced to boycott the English products and civil departments. He directed all Indians to leave civil service, boycott the courts and the students to leave their educational institutions. He also announced not to pay taxes to government, to return all

government titles and to boycott the coming elections. Gandhi also said, if all Indian remained united and struggled in such unity, they would get the right of self government with in one year.















A representative meeting of Muslims leaders was held in October, 1901 at Lukhnow, in which it was decided that an organization for the protection of political and social rights of Muslims, may be formed. Thus a committee was constituted with the responsibility to convene a meeting of

Muslim leadership of all provinces at an appropriate time. but the meeting could not be convened. However, at the success of Simla Deputation, the Muslims felt the acute need to form Muslim political party to protect the interests of Muslims at national level.

In December 1906, an annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference was held at Dacca. All important Muslim leaders of sub-continent attended the meeting and they discussed educational problems and considered about the formation of a political party for Muslims of sub-continent. At the end of the conference, a special meeting under chairmanship of Nawab Waqqar-ul-Malik was held on December 30, 1906; in which a resolution for the establishment of All India Muslim League, was presented, by Nawab Saleem-Ullah Khan ad was adopted unanimously.




The main articles of Lukhnow Pact are as under:

  1. Congress accepted the principle of separate electorate for Muslims.
  2. Congress agreed to give 1/3 representation to Muslims in central legislative council.
  3. Both parties agreed on the weightage formula under which the Muslims would get less representation than their population in the legislative council in those provinces, where they were in

majority but more in the provinces, where they were in minority.

  1. No bill nor any clause thereof nor a resolution introduced by.a non-official member affecting one or other community, shall be presented in the assembly without the approval of the concerned community. Nor shall be approved without the approval of ¾ members of the community.




The outlook of Muslim politics changed after Khilafat Movement. The entrance of religious people in politics and the betrayal of Hindu, the wisdom of Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) dominated political environment of the sub-continent. Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) re-organized Muslim League and started effort for the unity of Hindu-Muslim in sub-continent. Congress and Muslim League constituted a reform committee under leadership of Quaid-e-Azam (R.A), which was assigned to resolve constitutional

problems in the way of Hindu-Muslim unity.

The committee held its many sessions at Calcutta and Lukhnow and approved many proposals. Quaid-e-Azam played a very important role in it. Therefore, Mrs. Sarojini Naidu called Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) as

ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) convinced the Muslims to abandon the separate electorate for the Hindu Muslim unity. He presented Delhi proposals on March 20, 1927, for the purpose of unity. In the beginning Congress appreciated the effort, but later published Nehru’s report, which spoiled the effort of unity. In fact Quaid-e-Azam continued to work for the unity between Hindus and Muslims, until he was convinced early in 1940 that Hindu leaders were not at all

prepared for any kind of understanding. He became disappointed and had to say that we had different and separate ways from Hindus. Thus, both the nations parted their ways.





Ottoman caliphate was a Muslim empire which included Holy places of Makkah and

Madina. The caliph was extremely respected by the Muslims. During the World War-l, Turkey joined war in favour of Germany. But Germany and Turkey lost the war. Istanbul Accord was concluded between the Allied Forces on 3rd November 1918. According to this pact the territories of Turkey were to be divided among the Allies.

The Indian Muslims were very disturbed on the situation because they had a deep rooted respect for holy places. The Muslims supported the British government subject to the safeguard and protection of holy places of Turkey. The British government could not fulfill its promise and treaty of 1920 was

imposed on Turkey. Thus, the Indian Muslims rose against the British government and started Khilafat Movement. Muslims leaders like Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Maulana Muhammad Ali Joher, Maulana

Shaukat Ali and others reacted against British government policy and were put behind the bar.

In December‘ 1919, Khilafat Committee was constituted. A delegation of the committee under the leadership of Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar was sent to England but he returned disappointed. When the leaders of Khilafat Movement announced to launch a non-cooperation movement, Congress extended full support to the Khilafat Movement and Gandhi assumed the leadership of the movement, as all Muslim leaders were behind the bars. He used all the energies of Muslims for his personal repute and the benefits of Hindus. The agitation against the British government became violent. Under this pretext, Gandhi suddenly announced to stop the movement in 1924. The Muslims were surprised on the announcement of Gandhi on the other hand; Kamal Ataturk the military head of Turkey abolished the Khilafat. During the Khilafat Movement, the unity between Hindus and

Muslims was exemplary. Slogan of Hindu-Muslim Bhai Bhai was heard. Members of both nations began to drink water in the same glass. But on the end of the movement both nations reverted to





Civil Disobedience Movement During the Khilafat Movement all Muslims leaders were sent behind the bar. Hindus under the leadership of Mohin Das Karam Chand, Gandhi took steps forward to help Muslims. Gandhi was a clever leader, who wanted to compel British government to fulfill his demands. So Gandhi started civil disobedience movement and announced to boycott the English products and civil departments. He directed all Indians to leave civil service, boycott the courts and the students to leave their educational institutions- He also announced not to pay taxes to government, to return all government titles and to boycott the coming elections. Gandhi also said, if all Indian remained united and struggled in such unity, they would get the right of self government with in one year.

Gandhi agitated the feelings of the Hindus whereas Muslims were already at the top in agitation due to Khilafat Movement. On the other hand Congress had expressed its confidence on non-cooperation idea of Gandhi. Again in its meeting of Nagpur of December 1920, Congress reiterated its confidence on Gandhi. Muslims of the sub-continent participated vigorously in the disobedience movement. They boycotted the elections and got withdraw their nomination papers. The Muslims boycotted the court,

withdrew their children from schools and colleges, returned their titles and left the civil services. So in the movement thousands of Muslims were sent to jails. However, Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) was against these activities of Muslims. He advised Muslim to avoid violence and not become tools in the hands of Hindus.





Mr. Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British civil servant formed lndian National Congress. When Hume was in service, he thought that increasing political unrest, economic difficulties of the masses and

increasing conspiracies might create the situation like that of war of independence of 1857. Therefore, he thought that there was a need of an organization through which they might express their grievances. Therefore, he established lndian National Congress in 1885. Its first meeting was held on

December 28,1885 in which 70 delegates participated the meeting out of which only two were Muslims. The lndian National Congress had determined its objectives, which were:

  1. To evolve a sense of nationhood along the India:
  2. To address the grievances of the lndian people.
  3. To re-organize the people in the fields of culture, politics and morality.
  4. To work for the welfare of lndian people.




Partition of Bengal (1905) Background: By the beginning of 20th century, Bengal was the biggest province of subcontinent with regard to population and territory. The areas of Bihar, Orisa and

Assam were included in Bengal. But Bengal was not granted the status of full province.

On many occasions, the officials proposed to cut its area. In 1874, these districts of Assam

i.e. Slhat, Gopara and Kuchar were separated from Bengal, but its population remained uncontrollable. in 1892, the commissioner of Chittagong proposed separate East Bengal, but the proposal could not be implemented. However, on the arrival of Lord Curzon, the issue was highlighted

again and Lord Curzon wanted to solve it.


The province of Bengal hold an area of 189000 miles and a population of nearby 8 crores. lt included the Hindus speaking regions of Bihar. The Oriya speaking regions of Orissa as well as Assamese speaking region of Assam, making it a huge administrative entity.

Moreover the capital Calcutta was the capital of entire British lndia. Thus Lord Curzon decided to address this problem by partitioning Bengal into two entities; which resulted in Hindu majority in western half and Muslims majority in the eastern ‘half.

According to Lord Curzon, it would reduce the administrative pressure and ensure uplift of the eastern part. Hindu’s Reaction: Hindus opposed the partition. They boycotted and held protest rallies everywhere in India. Muslims’ Reaction: Muslims of India were very happy over the partition.





British government had introduced for the first time system of dyarchy in provinces under the Indian Act of 1919. Dyarchy means the dual system of government in which two heads are responsible for administration. The first was the Executive Council appointed by the Crown and the second was council of ministers appointed by the governor from the elected members of provincial legislators. All departments of the provinces were divided into “reserved” and “transferred”.

The reserved departments consisting of police, law and order, justice and irrigation were under the control of Executive Council.

Councillors were answerable to the goverripr. The transferred departments included local governments, health, education, agriculture and cooperative and were controlled by the council of Ministers. Each minister was lncharge of more than one department and were responsible before

governor and provincial council. There were two major provinces of Punjab and Bengal.


Dyarchy system was not successful in the provinces. lt hardly affected Punjab and Bengal because both were big provinces, where Muslims were in majority. The system badly affected Bengal and its administration began to deteriorate day by day. lt also badly affected administrative machinery of the province; which increased the problems of the people. It was a complex system, which adversely affected the funtions of institution and the public execution.





ANSWERS: (I-1929)(II-1930)(III-1932)(IV-1939)





After Khilafat Movement, struggle for constitutional reforms was speeded up.

Muslims considered the separate electorate necessary for their political survival. They demanded for

representation more than their numerical strength while Congress was opposing their demand. However, there were some leaders, who wanted unity between both nations. Quaid-e-Azam (RA) was

prominent among them, who wanted to remove differences among them, so they could struggle jointly to achieve independence. Congress was demanding from Muslims, if they withdrew from

separate electorate, their all other demands would be accepted. To consider their offer, Quaid-e-Azam (RA) convened a meeting of Muslim leaders in 1927 at Delhi. The conference prepared few

proposals after considering the problems of the Muslims, which are known as Delhi Proposals.




Four amendments were presented by Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) as answer to Nehru Report.




At the end of Congress ministries Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) advised the Muslims to celebrate the day of Deliverance on December 22,1939.




At the time of introducing the government India Act of 1919, the British government declared ‘that the commissions would be sent ‘to India after every ten years to examine the effect and operations of constitutional reforms for India.

In November 1927, the British government appointed a commission under the chairman-ship of Sir John Simon, to report on India’s constitutional progress for introducing reforms. No Indian was included in the commission, therefore, Congress and Muslim League boycotted the commission.




18 representatives of Muslims including

Quaid-e-Azam (R.A). Sir Agha Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Muhammad Shafi and ,Moulvi

Fazal-ul-Haq attended the conference.








ANSWERS: (I-MARCH 4 1939)(II-DEC22, 1939)(III-NOVEMBER15, 1938)(IV-1937)(V-ACT OF 1935)






These points were as follows:-

  1. The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers vested in the provinces.

Uniform measures of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.

All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on a definite principles of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province, without reducing majority

in any province to minority of even equality.

In Central Legislative Council, Muslim representation shall not be less than one-third.

  1. Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate as at present; it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favour of


  1. Any territorial distribution that mightgat any time be necessary shall not in any way effect Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and NWFP provinces.
  2. Full religious liberty shall be granted to all communities.
  3. No bill or resolution shall be passed in any legislature if three fourth of the members of that community opposed the bill.
  4. Sindh should be separated from Bombay Presidency.

10.Reforms should be introduced in NWFP and Balochistan on the same ifootings as in the other provinces.

11.Muslims would be given adequate share in all services having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.

12.There shall be complete protection of Muslim culture and religion.

13.0ne-third representation to Muslims shall be given in Central or any provincial cabinets.

14.No change in constitution shall be made without the consent of the provinces.





In 1930, an annual meeting of Muslim League was held at Allahabad. The meeting was presided over by Allama Muhammad lqbal (R.A). He delivered the presidential address, which is known as Allahabad Address in lndian history. in the address, Allama Muhammad lqbal explained the two nation theory and proved that there were living two separate nations in India. They were separate nations on the basis of their religion and culture.

lslam is a complete code of life; which provides politics, economics and culture. Muslims cannot leave their religion. If Hindus wanted to get rid of dominance of British and lead independent lives, in the same manner, Muslims are justified to demand their independent identity. In these circumstances, there is only one solution of constitutional problems of sub-continent and that is to separate Muslims Majority areas and make it an independent state. As the solution to Muslim-Hindi problem frontier provinces (NWFP), Baluchistan and Sindh should be converted into one state. He expressed that the North Western part of the country should beiestablished as self-governed unit within or without the British Empire. He said that the “formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim state appears to me the final destiny of atleast North-West- lndia.” importance of Allahabad address:

Allahabad address had a great importance for the struggle of independence of Pakistan. It showed the destination to the lndian Muslims. It removed all political confusions from the minds of Muslims, thus

enabling them to determine their new destination.

The national spirit that Allama Iqbal (RA) infused amongst the Muslims of lndia, later on, developed into ideological basis of Pakistan. The failure of Simmon Commission and criticism of Muslim League on Nehru Report created hurdles for constitutional reforms. Therefore, British government arranged Round Table Conference from 1930 to 1932 for the leaders of Sub-continent but no solution came out.





After Khilafat Movement, struggle for constitutional reforms was speeded up. Muslims considered the separate electorate necessary for their political survival. They demanded for representation more than their numerical strength while Congress was opposing their demand. However, there were some leaders, who wanted unity between both nations. Quaid-e-Azam (RA) was prominent among them, who wanted to remove differences among them, so they could struggle jointly to achieve independence. Congress was demanding from Muslims, if they withdrew from separate electorate, their all other demands would be accepted. To consider their offer, Quaid-e-Azam (RA) convened a meeting of Muslim leaders in 1927 at Delhi The conference prepared few proposals after considering the problems of the Muslims, which are known as Delhi ‘Proposals.

Quaid-e-Azam (RA) announced that if Hindus were ready to give the political protection to Muslims, then Muslims could withdraw from their demand of separate electorate. Following are some provisions of Delhi Proposals.

  1. To separate Sindh from Bombay.
  2. To implement constitutional reforms in NWFP (now Khyber Pakhtunkhawa) and Balochistan like the other provinces.
  3. To give representation to Muslims according to the ratio of their population.
  4. To give one third representation to Muslims in Central Legislative Council.





lndian accepted the challenge and called an All Parties Conference at Delhi in February 1928; but no agreed formula came out. So the meeting was postponed to give chance to every party to rethink about their version. Again All Parties Conference was held at Bombay, in which a committee was

constituted under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to prepare a report on the constitutional reforms in India. Only two Muslim members, Sir Ali lmran and Shoaib Qureshi were included. The proposals of committee was known as “Nehru Report.”

Following are its main proposals:

It did not provide the separate electorate for any community.

lt did not preserve seats for Muslims in legislative council.

It did not provide the principle of weightage for Muslims minority. Lt provided 1/4 seats for Muslim instead of 1/3 in Central Legislative Council.

Reaction of the Muslim League: Hindus‘ mentality was exposed as they were not ready to accommodate Muslims. These recommendations were totally against the Muslims. lf they were accepted, it was complete dominance of Hindus over Muslims. So Muslims became united against

Nehru Report. All Parties Conference of Muslim parties was held in December 31, 1928 to 1st January 1929 at Delhi in which Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) proposed four amendments in Nehru report but Congress

refused to accept those amendments. Thus, Quaid-e-Azam(R.A) concluded that Hindus and Muslims could not work together and they had to go on separate ways.



Elections of provincial assemblies were held in February – March 1937 under the

Indian Act of 1935.

After establishing governments in the provinces, Congress planned to eliminate the identity of Muslims. Congress put the restrictions on religion of Islam.

Construction of new mosques was banned and Muslims were harassed while they were offering prayers. Employment for Muslims were banned. Hindi became the national language in place of Urdu.

Educational reforms were introduced that were purely anti-Muslim in spirit. Warda Scheme and Vidya Mander Scheme were introduced in the schools. Muslim children were compelled to worship Gandhi’s statue.

Band-e-Matram, was started in schools and Muslim students were compelled to recite it.

Muslims were kept back in ,.economic circle. They were expelled from government services and career opportunities, were closed for them.

I Twenty-seven months of Congress rule” were characterized by rising of political Hinduism and crimes against the Muslims community.




ANSWERS: (I-)(II-)(III-)(IV-)(V-)




Quaid-e-Azam” presided over the meeting, in which Lahore Resolution was passed.



With the departure of Cripps, Quit India Movement was started by Gandhi and Congress. The Quit India was meant the withdrawal of British from India and handing over the powers to Hindus.



Jinnah and Gandhi talks were held on September 9 to 27,1944 to solve the political problems of India regarding independence. Gandhi was not ready to accept the two nation-theory and division of India on its basis; whereas Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) was not ready for the independence of India before its

division‘ Thus the talks failed after two weeks of negotiations.



Quaid-e-Azam” represented Muslim League in Simla Conference.



Liaqat Ali Khan was Finance Minister.



ANSWERS: (I-)(II-)(III-)(IV-)(V-)


ANSWERS: (I-)(II-)(III-)(IV-)(V-)


ANSWERS: (I-)(II-)(III-)(IV-)(V-)




The annual session of All India Muslim League was held from 22nd March to 24th March, 1940 under the president ship of Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) at Minto Park, Lahore, in which a large number of Muslims


His own solution: On first day of the session Quaid-e-Azam (R.A) narrated the events of the last few months. ln an extempore speech, he presented his own solution of the Muslim problems. He said that

the problem of India was not of an inter-communal nature but manifestly an international one and must be treated as such. To him differences between Hindus and Muslims were so great and so sharp that their union under one central government was full of serious risks. They belonged to two separate and distinct nations and therefore, the only chance open was to allow them to have separate states.

Words of Quaid-e-Azam”: in the words of Quaid-e-Azam (R.A), “Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature.

They neither intermarry nor inter-dine and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. To yoke together two suchvnationslunderta single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that ma-y be so built for the government of such a state.”

Lahore resolution:

On the basis of above mentioned ideas of Quaid-e-Azam (R.A), A.K Fazalul-Haq, the then Chief Minister of Bengal moved the historical resolution, which has since come to be known as Lahore

Resolution or Pakistan Resolution.

The resolution declared, “No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demacrated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustment as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of lndia should be grouped to constitute units

shall be autonomous and sovereign.

That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in the units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights of the minorities with their consultation.

Arrangement, thus, should be made for the security of Muslims where in minority.”

The resolution rejected the concept of united India and recommended for the creation of Muslim independent state, consisting of Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan in the North-West and Bengali and Assam in the North-East.

The resolution was endorsed by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from NWFP, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh and Qazi Esa from Balochistan along with many others.

The resolution waspassed on March 24, 1940. it laid down only the ‘principles with details left to be worked out at a future date.

was made a part of All India Muslim Leagues constitution in 1941. It was on the basis of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to go for one state for the Muslims instead of two.

Having passed the Pakistan resolution, the Muslims of India changed their ultimate goal. Instead of seeking alliance with Hindu Community, they set out on a path, whose destination was a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.



During the Second World War, the position of British was weak and were alarmed at the successive victories of Japan.

In these circumstances, British government sent a mission to India in 1942 under Sir Stafford Cripps, in order to achieve Hindu-Muslim consensus on some constituent arrangements.

Cripps arrived in Delhi on March 22 1942 and started series of meetings with leading Indian politicians including Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad and Quaid-e- Azam (R.A).

In the meeting he tried to convince them to accept his proposals.

  1. During war, the British would retain their hold on India. A constituent assembly would be set up at the end of war.
  2. There will be federal type of constitution, in which provinces and states will be included. I
  3. There will be a provision in constitution that provinces may separate themselves after 10 years. In this way the separate provinces may establish their independent federation.

Reaction of Congress and Muslim League Both Congress and Muslim League rejected the proposals. Muslim League rejected that there was no clear-cut proposal for the division of India and establishment of Pakistan.




Muslim League announced to take part in elections of 1945-46 for the cause of Pakistan. Vast majority of Muslims supported Muslim League. ln December, 1945 the elections of central legislative council was held in which all Muslim League’s candidates were successful against the Muslims seats.

Next month i.e. January 1946 elections for provincial assemblies were held, in which a large majority of Muslim League’s candidates were successful. Muslim League also gained majority of the seats in Punjab, Bengal and Sindh. Congress could win 17 seats in NWFP. Muslim League also performed well in Hindu majority provinces and it occupied most of the seats by defeating its opponents.

Election of 1945-46 (Result of Central Council)

Party’s Name Seats Won

All India Muslim League 30

Indian National Congress 59

Akali Dal 02

European 02 .

independents 03

Total Seats 102

The result of elections had proved that Muslims were with Muslim League and they wanted the establishment of Pakistan.

Therefore, it was the right of Muslim League to represent Muslims. lnspite of this fact,

Congress did not recognise Muslim League as representative of Muslims. After elections,

Muslim League formed its governments in Bengal and Sindh while Congress formed coalition government in NWFP and Unionist Party in Punjab.

The elections of 1945-46 proved that Pakistan was the popular and democratic demand of the Muslim masses. The opponent forces of Pakistan did not allow Muslim League to form government in Punjab. However, Muslim League achieved a strategic victory in provinces. Even though the Congress won the election but Muslim League had united the Muslim votes and as such it gained the negotiating power to seek a separate Muslim homeland, and it became clear that the united India would prove highly unstable.




Important points of June 3rd plan are as under:

  1. British government would divide. India into two separate states.
  2. Dominion status would be given to the successor governments of two states.
  3. A Boundary Commission would be appointed to demarcate the boundaries, if any of the communal group decides in favour of dividing the provinces of Punjab and Bengal.
  4. The Sindh Legislative Assembly would be authorised to opt out, whether it desires to join the current Constituent Assembly or the New Constituent Assembly.
  5. A referendum would be conducted in the North West Frontier Province to know the public opinion on the question of joining the new state of Pakistan. The Electoral College for the referendum would be the same as was in 1946 elections.
  6. Balochistan would be granted freedom of choice to be exercised by Shahi Jirgga or Municipal Committee.
  7. A referendum would be conducted in Sylhet to decide whether it wants to join East Bengal or stay as a part of Assam.

According to the plan, the British government transferred the power to the governments of the two new states of Pakistan and India.




Quaid-e-Azam” was born on December 25, 1876 in Karachi. He got primary education at Karachi. He went England for the higher education of Law in 1892. On return in 1896, he started law practices at Bombay. After a short time, he became a renowned lawyer.

Joining Indian Congress: He started his political career by joining All India Congress in 1906. At that time, he was working as private secretary of Dada Bhai Nuroje, the president of Congress.

Became member of Central Legislative Council: In 1909, he was elected the member of Central Legislative Council from Bombay in absentia. He remained at this position for ten years.

Joined Muslim League: ln 1913, Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League and he presided over the meeting of Muslim League. He played very important role in Hindu-Muslim Unity and constitutional


Became President of Muslim League: After four years, he became the president of Muslim League and in the same year, he resigned from Congress and fully devoted himself to Muslim League. He- was elected thrice member of Central Legislative Council from 1923 to 1931.


ln 1929, Quaid-e-Azam” presented his 14-point formula in response to Nehru Report. ‘ 9 3

Participated in First Round Table Conference: He participated in First Round Table Conference at London and decided to stay in England for his personal reason; but he kept himself informed about Indian politics.

Became member of Central Legislative Council: ln 1934, Muslims of Bombay elected him the member of Central Legislative Council in his absence. Returned home: In 1935, he returned to sub-continent and re-organized Muslim League and re-activated the Muslims of India.

Participation of Muslim League in Elections: Muslim League was divided into factions and was very weak. He contacted the Muslim leadership and revived the effective role of Muslim League. He invited

Muslims at large to contest provincial elections of 1937. Muslim League participated, first time, in elections under the guidance of Quaid-e-Azam.” ln 1937, he contacted the Chief Minister Punjab, the

president of Punjab Unionist Party and convinced him to join Muslim League.

ln the annual session of Muslim League of Lukhnow, held in 1937, the chief ministers of Punjab, Bengal and Assam attended.


For his courageous role as protecter of rights of Muslims, he became real leader and hero of Muslim

nation. He played important role to expose the cruelties committed by Hindus during the Congress ministries. Muslim League under his leadership passed various resolutions to condemn Congress ministries and their activities, which created consciousness and unity among the Muslims.

Resolution of Separate State: ln 1938 meeting, Sindh Muslim League passed a resolution for a separate Muslim state, which was presided over by Quaid-e-Azam.” In 1940, Muslim League, under his presidentship passed the Pakistan Resolution. After the passing of resolution he devoted his all energies for Pakistan.


Quaid-e-Azam” tried his level best and invited students and women to work for Pakistan. He toured

throughout country, addressed numerous meetings, written various letters and attended many conferences to mobilize the people for the cause of Pakistan. Due to his mobilization of Muslim masses, Muslim League was able to emerge as victorious party at the elections of 1945-46, which

resulted in the establishment of Pakistan as first big Islamic state of the world.

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