Solved question paper PSYCHOLOGY for class 11 HSSC-I OLD Q PAPER 2015 SHORT QUESTIONS/ ANSWER federal Board Islam Abad PAkistan

Solved question paper PSYCHOLOGY for class 11 HSSC-I OLD Q PAPER 2015  SHORT QUESTIONS/ ANSWER federal Board Islam Abad PAkistan

QUESTION1: Which definition of psychology is the best and why?/ What is first definition of psychology?

ANSWER: The word psyachology derives from Greek words: psyche(soul ) logia, (“study of” or “research”)

I think it is the best definition  because on this base of this definition psychology is called knowledge of soul. This is the first definition of psychology.

QUESTION2: Describe the survey method of research briefly?

ANSWER: Survey research is often used to assess thoughts, opinions, and feelings. Today, survey research is used by a variety of different groups. A survey consists of a predetermined set of questions that is given to a sample. It is used  to analyze behavior, while it is also used  in evaluating political candidates, public health officialsprofessional organizations, and advertising and marketing directors.

QUESTION3: Define motivation. What do you understand by hunger motive?

ANSWER: Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.

Hunger Motive refers to the drive that living beings have to eat as a means of satisfying hunger.

QUESTION4: How is nervous system related to behaviour?

ANSWER: Nervous system plays a large role in preparing the body to rest and for digestion. It also plays a part in reproduction, crying, salvation and the release of bodily waste. Both of these behavioral responses to the environment and stimuli are part of the central nervous system.

QUESTION5: Write briefly about the parts of a neuron. Also draw its labeled diagram?

ANSWER: Neurons are nerve cells which are the functional units of the nervous system. The three main parts of a neuron are dendrite, cell body and axon.

Structure of neuron

 

Functioning of its three parts.

DENDRITE: It detect information and conducts the messages towards the cell body.

CELL BODY: It contains nucleus, mitochondria, and other cell organelles. It maintains the growth of the cell.

AXON: It conducts messages away from the cell body and pass to the next neuron.

 

QUESTION6: Briefly explain the laws of perceptual organization.

ANSWER: THE COMMON FATE PRINCIPLE states that elements tend to be perceived as grouped together if they move together.

THE SIMILARITY PRINCIPLE claims that elements tend to be integrated into groups if they are similar to each other.

CONTINUITY PRINCIPLE: The principle applies in the same way for elements arranged along lines as well as for patterns built from corresponding lines themselves.

In CLOSURE PRINCIPLE elements tend to be grouped together if they are parts of a closed figure. However, in this particular example, continuity is still relatively effective, and is in strong competition with closure.

QUESTION7: How is short term memory different from long term memory?

ANSWER: Short-term memory differs from long-term memory in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating temporal decay and capacity limits. Long-term memory however, can store vast amounts of information and is permanent.

QUESTION8: What are the differences between classical and operant conditioning?

ANSWER: Let’s start by looking at some of the most basic differences.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

  • First described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist
  • Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex
  • Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviors

 

OPERANT CONDITIONING

  • First described by B. F. Skinner, an American psychologist
  • Involves applying reinforcementor punishment after a behavior
  • Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors

 

 

QUESTION9: Differentiate among Id, Ego and Super ego.

ANSWER: ID = natural instincts and drives. The id is the primitive instinctual drives (innate). At birth we are all id – acting on instincts alone
SUPEREGO = internalised standards of society learned from our parents. (i.e., socially acceptable behaviour, what you have been taught to believe is appropriate behaviour, moral code, right from wrong, self control etc. – alcohol basically removes the effectiveness of the superego!!)
EGO = the mediator of the other two (id and superego) into conscious self and personality. It has contact with the external world of reality. it controls and regulates the personality.

 

 

 

 

QUESTION10: What do you understand by MMPI?

ANSWER: The MMPI(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) was developed in the 1930s at Minnesota University as a serious and comprehensive personality test that can be used to detect psychiatric problems.

It has ten clinical scales to indicate different psychiatric conditions, although these are not ‘pure’ and hence the scales are often referred to by their number, to avoid confusion and argument.

QUESTION11:What is meant by WAIS? What are its main sub-tests?

 ANSWER: WAIS (Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale)

The Wechsler intelligence scales were developed by Dr. David Wechsler. It was designed to measure intellectual performance by adults.

The Working Memory Index (WMI) included:

  • Arithmetic
  • Digit Span

 

 

PSYCHOLOGY HSSC-I OLD Q PAPER 2014

SHORT QUESTIONS/ ANSWER

QUESTION1: Define Language?

ANSWER: LANGUAGE is a formal system of communication which involves the combination of words and/or symbols, whether written or spoken, as well as some rules that govern them.

OR WE CAN SAY Language is a human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, and/or written symbols.

QUESTION2: Name the important parts of human ear?

ANSWER: The ear is divided into three parts:

  • OUTER EAR: The outer ear includes an ear canal that is is lined with hairs and glands that secrete wax.The auricle or pinna is the most visible part.
  • MIDDLE EAR: Three tiny bones — themalleus, incus, and stapes —It is the location of the Eustachian tube, which equalizes the air pressure between the inner and outer surfaces of the tympanic membrane (eardrum).
  • INNER EAR:(labyrinth) It is a bony casing houses a complex system of membranous cells. The cochlea, the hearing organ, is located inside the inner ear. Inside the cochlear duct is the main hearing organ, the spiral shaped organ of Corti.

QUESTION3: What do you understand by Figure and Ground in perception?

ANSWER: According to the Gestalt principles of perception

Figure Ground Relationship: Elements are perceived as either figures (distinct elements of focus) or ground (the background or landscape on which the figures rest).

QUESTION4: Explain briefly the motive of Play.

ANSWER: Motive of play is, first and foremost, an expression of freedom. It is what one wants to do as opposed to what one is obliged to do. The joy of play is the ecstatic feeling of liberty. Play is not always accompanied by smiles and laughter, nor are smiles and laughter always signs of play; but play is always accompanied by a feeling of “Yes, this is what I want to do right now.” Players are free agents, not pawns in someone else’s game.

 

 

 

QUESTION5: How do emotions affect our life?

ANSWER: Our MEMORIES are very tightly linked with our emotions.  Typically, the more emotional something is for us, the more memorable it will be.

These emotional memories are very important in helping us make future decisions.

We LEARN from our emotional memories.

Our emotions are what DRIVE us.  It’s what causes us to take action.

QUESTION6: Write briefly about Army Alpha Intelligence test?

ANSWER: The Army Alpha is a group-administered test developed by Robert Yerkes and six others in order to evaluate the many U.S. military recruits during World War I.[1] It was first introduced in 1917 due to a demand for a systematic method of evaluating the intellectual and emotional functioning of soldiers. The test measured “verbal ability, numerical ability, ability to follow directions, and knowledge of information”.

QUESTION7: Briefly write about learning by observing?

ANSWER: One of the most influential learning theories, the Social Learning Theory (SLT), was formulated by Albert Bandura. It encompasses concepts of traditional learning theory and the operant conditioning of B.F. Skinner.

The modeling process includes the following steps

Step 1: Attention

Step 2: Retention

Step 3: Reproduction

Step 4: Motivation

QUESTION8: Draw a labeled diagram of human Brain?

ANSWER:

QUESTION9: What are the factors of attention?

ANSWER: 1-Objective Factors:

a. Movement:

  1. Intensity:
  2. Novelty:
  3. Size:
  4. Change:
  5. Repetition:
  6. Clarity:
  7. Colours:
  8. Contrast:
  9. Subjective Factors:

They are:

  1. Interest:
  2. Motives:
  3. Mental set:
  4. Emotional state:
  5. Habits:

 

QUESTION10: How can we cope with stress?

ANSWER: Try to implement one or more of these ideas each day, even if you’re feeling good.

  • Go for a walk
  • Spend time in nature
  • Call a good friend
  • Play a competitive game of tennis or racquetball
  • Write in your journal
  • Take a long bath
  • Light scented candles
  • Savor a warm cup of coffee or tea
  • Play with a pet
  • Work in your garden
  • Get a massage
  • Curl up with a good book
  • Listen to music
  • Watch a comedy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSYCHOLOGY HSSC-I OLD Q PAPER 2013

SHORT QUESTIONS/ANSWER

QUESTION1: What are the main goals of Psychology?

ANSWER: Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. It is the study of thoughts, emotions, and behavior, and their interaction with each other and the world. The four key goals of psychology are:  to describe, explain, predict ,control and Improve the behavior and mental processes of others.

QUESTION2: Briefly write the main jobs of a clinical and industrial/oraganizational psychologist?

ANSWER: “Clinical psychologists assess and treat people with psychological problems. They may act as therapists for people experiencing normal psychological crises (e.g., grief) or for individuals suffering from chronic psychiatric disorders.

Industrial psychology is a field in which scientific principles are developed and applied in the workplace. Industrial psychologists focus  on the management perspective of organizational effectiveness through the proper use of human resources and people.

QUESTION3: Draw a labeled diagram of Ear?

ANSWER:

QUESTION4: Write any three laws of Gestalt perceptual organization?

ANSWER: THE COMMON FATE PRINCIPLE states that elements tend to be perceived as grouped together if they move together.

THE SIMILARITY PRINCIPLE claims that elements tend to be integrated into groups if they are similar to each other.

According to Gestalt theory, this type integration of individual components into a superordinate whole can be accounted for by the PROXIMITY PRINCIPLE

QUESTION5: Differentiate between Classical and Instrumental / operant conditioning.

ANSWER: Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while Instrumental /operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence.

In Instrumental /operant conditioning, the learner is also rewarded with incentives, while classical conditioning involves no such enticements.

QUESTION6: Briefly discuss the basic steps involved in problem solving?

ANSWER: Problem solving is the act of defining a problem; determining the cause of the problem; identifying, prioritizing and selecting alternatives for a solution; and implementing a solution.

QUESTION7: Briefly explain the James-Lange theory.

ANSWER:

The James-Lange theory states that our emotions are caused by our interpretation of bodily reactions. James and Lange both believed that, when an event occurs, our body reacts, and then we feel emotion after the brain interprets that physiological change.

(Additional part)

Rather than being the cause of physiological events, emotions happen as a result of physiological events, such as muscular tension, increased heart rate, perspiration, dry mouth, and running.

 

QUESTION8: Define illusion? Also describe any two illusions.

ANSWER: Ilusion, a misrepresentation of a “real” sensory stimulus—that is, an interpretation that contradicts objective “reality” as defined by general agreement.

AUDITORY PHENOMENA

A common phenomenon is the auditory impression that a blowing automobile horn changes its pitch as it passes an observer on a highway.

 

OPTICAL PHENOMENA

Numerous optical illusions are produced by therefraction (bending) of light as it passes through one substance to another in which the speed of light is significantly different. A ray of light passing from one transparent medium (air) to another (water) is bent as it emerges. Thus, the pencil standing in water seems broken at the surface where the air and water meet;

QUESTION9: What is the difference between Survey and Case-study method?

ANSWER: A CASE STUDY examines one case, probably a person, in detail and follows it through some period of time. A SURVEY involves many different individual things or people, not studied in as much detail or during as much time.

QUESTION10: Differentiate between Achievement and Affiliation motive?

ANSWER: ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE: An individual’s need to meet realistic goals, receive feedback and experience a sense of accomplishment.
Employees who are Achievement-Motivated feel energized and satisfied with their jobs because goals are set, they are given positive or negative feedback on past behaviors and given some type of rewards if they performed well.

AFFILIATIVE MOTIVE: concern over establishing, maintaining, or restoring a positive affective relationship with another person or group of persons (Heyns, Veroff, & Atkinson, 1958).

 

QUESTION11: Distinguish the main features of Objective and Projective techniques used for the measurement of

Personality?

ANSWER: An OBJECTIVE TEST is a psychological test that measures an individual’s characteristics independent of rater bias or the examiner’s own beliefs, usually by the administration of a bank of questions marked and compared against exacting scoring mechanisms that are completely standardized, much in the same way that examinations are administered.

Compared to the Objective techniques, PROJECTIVE TESTS are difficult to score, and questions are often raised about their degree of reliability and validity.
It involves asking subjects to interpret or fill in visual stimuli, complete sentences, or report what associations particular words bring to mind.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
PSYCHOLOGY HSSC-I OLD Q PAPER 2012

SHORT QUESTIONS/ ANSWER

QUESTION1: Define psychology as science of behavior?

ANSWER: The psychology of science is a branch of the studies of science that includes philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science or sociology of scientific knowledge. or The psychology of science is defined most simply as the scientific study of scientificthought or behavior.

QUESTION2: Write briefly the advantages of survey methods?

ANSWER: 1-Surveys provide a high level of general capability in representing a large population.

2-When conducting surveys, you only need to pay for the production of survey questionnaires.

3-Surveys can be administered to the participants through a variety of ways.

4-Because of the high representativeness brought about by the survey method, it is often easier to find statistically significant results than other data gathering methods.

QUESTION3: Briefly write the functions of Hypothalamus?

ANSWER: The HYPOTHALAMUS’ primary FUNCTION is homeostasis, which is to maintain the body’s status quo system-wide. The hypothalamus uses a set-point to regulate the body’s systems, including electrolyte and fluid balance, body temperature, blood pressure, and body weight. It receives inputs from the body, then makes the proper changes if anything differentiates from this set-point.

QUESTION4: Give examples to describe the different cues/ clues  of depth perception?

ANSWER:

There are two main binocular cues:

DISPARITY – Each eye see a slightly different image because they are about 6 cm apart (on average). Your brain puts the two images it receives together into a single three-dimensional image.

CONVERGENCE – when looking at a close-up object, your eyes angle inwards towards each other (you become slightly cross-eyed). The extra effort used by the muscles on the outside of each eye gives a clue to the brain about how far away the object is.

QUESTION5:With the help of flow chart explain how information processes from sensory memory to long term memory?

ANSWER:

 

QUESTION6: Write about any two primary motives?

ANSWER:

HUNGER

The tendency to seek and eat food is the hunger drive. Weget hungry in many circumstances. All of the following canmake us want to eat: the smell or sight of food, the sound of a dinner bell, even passing our favorite restaurant.

 

THIRST

When organisms are thirsty, they have a tendency to seek water.When they find water and drink, they are no longer thirsty, and the thirst drive is reduced.

In order to find out more about the mechanisms involved in the thirst drive, researchers have tried todetermine the conditions under which organisms drink.

 

QUESTION7: Briefly explain Freud’s personality theory?

ANSWER: Perhaps Freud’s single most enduring and important idea was that the human psyche (personality) has more than one aspect. Freud (1923) saw the psyche structured into three parts (i.e. tripartite), the id, ego and superego, all developing at different stages in our lives.

These are systems, not parts of the brain, or in any way physical.

QUESTION8: What is meant by Stanford Binet intelligence scale? Write briefly about it?

ANSWER: The Stanford-Binet (SB) – the best and most popular intelligence test is a Cognitive ability assessment used to measure intelligence (IQ). The Stanford-Binet measures five factors of cognitive ability: Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, and Working Memory. Each of these factors is tested in two separate domains, verbal and nonverbal.

QUESTION9: Draw a flow chart to explain the different phases of emotions of James-Lange theory?

ANSWER:

 QUESTION10: Is Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) a projective technique? Write briefly.

ANSWER: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective technique  because the TAT is an example of a projective instrument— that is, it asks the subject to project his or her habitual patterns of thought and emotional responses onto the pictures on the cards— many psychologists prefer not to call it a “test,” because it implies that there are “right” and “wrong” answers to the questions. They consider the term “technique” to be a more accurate description of the TAT and other projective assessments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PSYCHOLOGY HSSC-I OLD Q PAPER 2011

SHORT QUESTIONS/ ANSWER

QUESTION1: Define Psychology as a science?

ANSWER: Despite the differences in their interests, areas of study, and approaches, all psychologists have one thing in common: They rely on scientific methods. Research psychologists use scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior, whereas psychologist-practitioners, such as clinical, counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, use existing research to enhance the everyday life of others.

QUESTION2: What role does an Educational Psychologists play?

ANSWER: An educational psychologist is concerned with helping children or young people who are experiencing problems within an educational setting with the aim of enhancing their learning.

QUESTION3: Describe the Experimental method in Psychology with an example?

ANSWER: in Psychology The method of experimentation involves an experimenter changing some influence—the independent variable(IV)— on the research subjects, and studying the effects it produces on an expected aspect—the dependent variable (DV)— of the subjects behaviour or experience. Other variables researchers consider in experimentation are known as theextraneous variables, and are either controllable or confounding (more than one variable at play).

FOR EXAMPLE, the psychologist Seymour Feshbach conducted an experiment to see how violence on television (the independent variable), affected aggression in adolescent boys (the dependent variable). He published his results in a paper called Television and Aggression in 1971. The paper showed that, in some cases, the lack of violence on television made the boys more aggressive. This was due to a confounding variable, which in this case was frustration.

 

QUESTION4: Write down structure of ear?

ANSWER: This is the visible, fleshy part of the ear. The outer ear is shaped like a funnel, which helps it collect sound. Sound enters the outer ear and travels down the auditory canal to the eardrum, which is also called the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is the boundary between the outer and middle ear. Beyond the eardrum is the middle ear.

Within the middle ear are three tiny bones called ossicles, arranged in a chain. The ossicles consist of the hammer , anvil , and stirrup. The ossicles increase the force of vibrations of the tympanic membrane 20-30 times before passing them on to the inner ear. Therefore the middle ear is an amplifying system.

 

QUESTION5: Differentiate between Sensation and Perception?

ANSWER: Sensation and perception are inter-related processes that are developed throughout the lifespan. Although they have a close relationship, sensation and perception have discrete qualities that differentiate one from the other.

In sensation, the physical stimulus, together with its physical properties, is registered by sensory organs. Then, the organs decode this information, and transform them into neural impulses or signals.

QUESTION6: Write down the principles of classical conditioning?

ANSWER: EXTINCTION

If a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, then the conditioned response will disappear. This is known as extinction.

STIMULUS GENERALISATION

A dog who has been conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell of one tone, may well salivate to a similar sounding bell or a buzzer. Stimulus generalisation is the extension of the conditioned response from the original stimulus to similar stimuli.

Discrimination

An animal or person can be taught to discriminate between different stimuli.

 

QUESTION7: How is operant conditioning significant in human life?

ANSWER: With humans operant conditioning is a good intervention to use in the classroom, or in learning new behaviors of any kind such as quitting smoking, drinking less, dieting, or exercising more. When you present humans with a motivating factor followed by immediate feedback the behavior is more likely to be repeated and followed.  It is a good strategy for learning because when students receive motivation and feedback they are more able to retain information due to affect in their stimuli.

QUESTION8: How can you improve your memory?

ANSWER:

  1. Eat Right. The foods you eat
  2. Stop Multitasking. …
  3. Get a Good Night’s Sleep. …
  4. Play Brain Games. …
  5. Master a New Skill. …
  6. Try Mnemonic Devices.

 

QUESTION9: Write a short note on Power motivation/ Need for Influence

ANSWER: Power motivation (Need for Influence)People who are influence motivated strive to exercise strong, influential actions, generate strong emotions in others, and express concern for reputation or position in the world. They are usually successful mentors, trainers, or instructors of others. They seek positions of leadership, authority, and status. They are usually effective managers and rise to the top of organizations.

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