LONG QUESTION 1:                 

      What causes the extreme temperatures on the different planets of the solar system?


Extreme temperatures on different planets in the solar system are caused by distance from the Sun, and also in some cases by speed of rotation of the planet. If one side is in the shadow (turned away from Sun), the temperatures will plummet to a point where gases (nitrogen) become liquid.

LONG QUESTION 3:                

Briefly explain how solar and lunar eclipses are caused.


Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth, and Moon come in a straight line and the light from the Sun is blocked out. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth so that the Sun is fully or partially covered.


Here are the names of the planets in the solar system jumbled together. Arrange them in order according to the distance from the Sun.

Earth, Uranus, Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Saturn, Mars, Neptune

ANSWER: (1) Mercury (2) Venus (3) Earth (4) Mars (5) Jupiter (6) Saturn (7) Uranus (8) Neptune


  1. Match the solar system bodies in column A with their features in column B.
column A column B





i.too close to the sun

ii.temp          –140   °c       to       +17    °c

iii. a star, centre of the solar system

iv. seven gigantic rings

v. no longer a planet

Answers: (a – iii), (b – v), (c – i) (d – ii) (e – iv)




  1. Choose the correct answer.

a)Light travels at the speed of—————————- per hour.

  1. i) over 5 billion km. ii) 5 million km. iii) over 1 billion km. iv) 15 million km.
  2. b) The Hubble telescope orbits at a height of ———————————— above the Earth.
  3. i) 200 km. ii) 600 km. iii) 100 km. iv) 1000 km.
  4. c) The planet nearest to Earth is————————————–.
  5. i) Mars ii) Jupiter iii) Venus iv) Neptune
  6. d) The planet furthest from the Sun is —————————–.
  7. i) Saturn ii) Uranus iii) Neptune iv) Jupiter
  8. e) The force of gravity on Jupiter is more than———————————- that on Earth.
  9. i) five times ii) twice iii) three times iv) half

ANSWERS: (a – iii) (b – ii) (c – iii) (d – iii) (e – iv)

4.State whether the following statements are true or false.

  1. a) Pluto is not a planet.     True  False
  2. b) Venus is a hot planet.                         True  False
  3. c) Chandra is a natural satellite of the Earth. True False
  4. d) Saturn can be seen with the naked eye. True False
  5. e) A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is between the Sun and the Moon. True False

ANSWERS: (a – True) (b – True) (c – False) (d – True) (e – True)


CH:2   THE EARTH    P:22

LONG QUESTION 1:                 

      What are tectonic plates? How were the continents formed?


Tectonic plates are large plates of irregularly shaped massive rocks that make up the foundation of the Earth’s crust and the shape of the continents.

There are ten major plates on the Earth and many more minor ones. These plates are most famously known for being the source of earthquakes.  The formation of continents is the result of the movements that caused the plates to move away—continental drift.


                   Explain the importance of seas and oceans to people living on islands and coastal areas.


Benefits of seas and oceans to people living on islands and coastal areas are:

(a) climate moderated—cooler in summer, warmer in winter

(b) source of food—fish

(c) easier transport and dock/harbour facilities and (d) relaxation on beaches.


                        How do oceans affect temperatures on land?    


Oceans moderate the temperatures on adjacent land—cooler in summer as the land heats up and air rises, drawing in cooler air from over the sea; warmer in winter as the oceans do not change their temperature more than a few degrees throughout the year, and though the air over the sea is warmer and rises, drawing cooler air from over the land, the proximity to the great mass of warmer water near the coast keeps the temperature moderate.


How do currents move? What effects do they have?


Currents are the great broad ‘rivers’ of water in the oceans. They move due to the temperature and saltiness in the sea.

Cold and salty water is heavy and sinks down. This water along the ocean bed moves from the polar regions towards the equator where it warms up and rises and then moves towards the poles where again it cools down and the whole process is repeated.

Use the maps on page 17 of the textbook and atlas, page 76, to explain how currents flow, their point of origin, and direction and category (hot/cold).

Currents take their temperature from where they originate; those from the Arctic or Antarctic regions are cold currents and keep the climate of the land they flow past cooler.

Examples are: Chile and the west coast of South America; the east and west coasts of North America; the western coast of South Africa, Australia and the east coast of Japan.

Currents arising in the equatorial latitudes tend to keep the coasts they touch warmer; for example,

-the western coasts of Europe, especially the UK;

 -the West Indies and the south-eastern coast of the USA;

-the eastern coast of South America;

-the eastern coast of Africa;

-the Gulf States and India;

 the East Indies;

much of New Zealand.




  2. a) Pangaea is the name given to ——————————— millions of years ago. It means————————————————————————————————————————————————- .
  3. b) Panthalassa means ———————————- in—————————- ; it was used to decribe ———————————————–
  4. c) Continental Drift is the term used to describe——————————————————————————————————————.
  5. d) The Indian Ocean earthquake in—————————————  resulted in a ——————————————————–high  which killed——————————————————————————-.
  6. e) The volcanic explosion of Krakatoa in 1883 was——————————————-  km away and the dust caused———————–


  1. a) Pangaea is the name given to the huge single land mass on Earth millions of years ago. It means ‘all land’ in Greek.
  2. b) Panthalassa means ‘all sea’ in Greek; it was used to describe the huge single volume of water that covered the Earth.
  3. c) Continental Drift is the term used to describe the drifting away of land from the mainland to form continents.
  4. d) The Indian Ocean earthquake in December 2004 resulted in a tsunami 30 metres high which killed nearly 230,000 people.
  5. e) The volcanic explosion of Krakatoa in 1883 was heard 4000 km away and the dust caused spectacular sunsets for three years.



  1. Match column A with Column B
column A column B
a. The lines on the globe going round, parallel to equator

b. The lines going to the poles from north to south

c. The equator is at

d. For longitude, the zero line is at

e. The Tropic of Cancer is at

f. The Arctic Circle is at

g. The Tropic of Capricorn is at

h. The Antarctic Circle is at

i. longitudes


ii. 23.5° North


iii. latitudes

iv. Greenwich (London)

v. 23.5° South

vi. 66.3° North

vii. zero degrees

viii. 66.3 North

Answers: a) = iii           b) = i     c) = vii       d) = iv       e) = ii       f) = vi       g) = v            h) = viii

a.The average depth of the oceans is

  1. i) 5000 metres ii) 1000 metres                                              iii) 2000 metres     iv) 4000 metres
  2. The deepest point in the ocean is
  3. i) Atlantic ocean ii) Pacific Oceans                           iii) Indian Ocean                iv) Arabian Sea
  4. The average annual rainfall for the whole world is
  5. i) 500 – 600 mm  ii) 1000 – 1500 mm                                 iii) 700 – 800 mm         iv) 200 – 300 mm
  6. The average annual rainfall for Pakistan is
  7. i) 150 mm ii) 50 mm                                   iii) 500 mm                                iv) 250 mm
  8. Easter Island (Chile) is famous for its mysterious
  9. i) stone statues (Moai) ii) whales                                  iii) valuable minerals                      iv) plankton

ANSWERS:   a) = iv       b) = ii       c) = iii        d) = iv           e) = i





LONG QUESTION 1:                 

        Why are equatorial forests so important for the world?


Equatorial forests are important because of the trees and their products e.g. timber, mahogany, and teak, and quinine. Apart from this, the equatorial forests keep the oxygen level steady in the atmosphere.

Plants in sunlight absorb carbon dioxide which then turns into sugar to supply the plant with energy, and give off oxygen. And where the forests are cleared sugar cane, rice, oil palms, mangoes, cocoa, rubber, coffee, etc. are grown.

LONG QUESTION 3:                

What are the advantages of a monsoon climate?


Advantages of a monsoon climate: brings heavy rain, the land here is usually fertile; teak, mahogany, and bamboo are grown in these regions, which are used for making many things.


                   Explain how seasons are caused.


Seasons are caused because the axis of the Earth is tilted at 23.5°. Because of this the hemisphere which is tilted towards the Sun experiences summer and it is winter in the other hemisphere.



  2. a) Temperatures are hot towards the———————————— and get cooler towards the ————————————————–.
  3. b) The climate of a region is also affected by its —————————————————————————————-above sea level.
  4. c) Monsoon winds in Asia blow from the————————————————————————————————————————- .
  5. d) Pakistan does not receive much rainfall from the monsoons because ———————————————————————–.
  6. e) The only animal life in the Antarctic is ————————————————————————————————————————.

Answers: a) the equator; the poles          b) altitude/height           c) southwest; northeast   d)  the winds change direction because of the shape of the subcontinent and lose most of their moisture. e) the penguins on the shores and seals in the coastal waters.

  1. Match the contents of column A with features in column B:
column A column B
a. Mediterranean climate

b. Alpine tundra

c. Equatorial climate

d. Temperate grasslands

e. Arctic tundra

i. on high altitudes

ii. hot, wet, and sticky

iii. mild, wet, winters

iv. extremely cold

v. warm to hot summers and cold and icy winters

Answers: a) – iii      b) – I          c) – ii          d) – v      e) – iv
  1. Write short answers to the following questions:
  2. a) What is the average temperature in the equatorial regions?

Answer: It is 28 to 32 degrees C.

  1. b) What are lemmings and where do they live?

Answer: They are small rat-like animals who live in holes under the snow.

  1. c) Why is the light low inside equatorial forests even at midday?

Answer: This is because of the heavy vegetation overhead.

  1. d) What is the main ingredient of chewing gum and where is it found?

Answer: It is called chicle and is found as sap from some trees in the Amazon forest.

  1. e) To which type of plant family do grain crops like wheat belong?

Answer: These crops are from the grass family.

  1. The grasslands have different names in different countries. Write the countries’ names and the names they give the grasslands.
  2. a)
  3. b)


  1. d)
  2. Here are some figures showing the rainfall in different climatic regions.Complete statements i) to iv)with the correct answers from a–d. a) 1,500 mm to 10,000 b) 350 – 900 mm. c) 250 mm d) 250 – 500 mm i)
  3. Temperate grasslands receive———————————rainfall.
  4. Equatorial regions receive ———————————— rainfall.
  5. Mediterranean regions receive——————————- rainfall.
  6. Tundra regions receive —————————————– rainfall.

Answers: 1) – iv)             2) – i)              3) – ii)                4) – iii)


ANSWER: Paddy fields have to be small because they have to be under water for the initial stages of germination.

This means that the plots have to be completely level and it is difficult to find large areas Which are

flat enough.


ANSWER: Basmati rice grows best in the foothills of the Himalayas in Pakistan and India. Apart from the so-called

‘wild rice’ of Canada and northern USA, it is the most expensive of all varieties of rice, costing from

i1.50 to 55 (Rs 450 to Rs 750) a kilo. lt has a long, white, fluffy grain which expands to almost double

its length when cooked. lt is highly nutrítious With a high calorie content as Well as vital vitamins (B1

especially) as well as important elements for health such as iron, thiamine, and selenium. On top of

all this, it has an excellent fragrance flavour. lt is used as an accompaniment to any dish, and in South

Asia as well as the West it is also used for puddings.


ANSWER: Animals preferred for livestock farming in Pakistan are cattle, buffalo, camel, horses, goat, sheep, and

poultry birds.


ANSWER: Students can research and find out about the annual Horse and Cattle Show in Lahore. Such

exhibitions are useful because they help in promoting the culture of a country and also provide a

means of income and recreation to many people.


ANSWER: Fish is a valued product due to its nutritive value and varied uses, such as for fertilizer, animal feed,



CH:5 INDUSTRY    P:44-53

ANSWER: Industry is classified into three levels for various reasons; some are listed below followed by definition

and examples of each.

The purpose is to group industries and categorize them according to common characteristics and

this system can help organize and compare specific statistical information such as import/export,

employment, tax revenues, and/or wage information.

Primary industry means those industries Where raw material is developed or produced, e.g. fishing,

mining, farming, etc.

Secondary industry means those Industries where raw material is used to manufacture other goods,

e.g. computer manufacture, trains, shoes, satellites, etc.

Tertiary industry does not manufacture material or obtain raw material but provides services to other

industries, e.g. banking, transport, telephone, postal services, etc.

ANSWER: importance of oil and gas to industrial development in a country:

Oil is a raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers,

pesticides, and plastics.

Gas is a very flexible fuel and can be easily transported; it is clean; does not emit fumes; it is a raw

material for fertilizers, and source of energy for making cement; and it is a cheap and convenient

domestic fuel.

ANSWER: Container transport:

Advantages: (a) Goods are packed in containers at the factory and locked; this prevents stealing which

used to be very common. (b) As the containers are all gigantic boxes of the same size (or two different

sizes), they can be packed together much more closely. (c) On arrival at the port of destination, the

containers can be unloaded by special cranes very quickly and sent on trucks or by rail directly to

their destínation, again avoiding pilfering. (d) Goods in containers are much less likely to suffer

damage because they are packed at the place of origin by men who know how to do this job in the

best way, protecting them from breakage, and getting the maximum amount of goods into each box.

(e) As the containers are made of metal, they can be left outside without any fear of the goods inside

becoming damaged by rain, etc.

Disadvantages: (a) Docks have to be equipped with specialist equipment for handling the containers,

and container ships can face problems when the ports do not have adequate facilities for berthing,

cargo handling (cranes, loading/unloading), on-land transportation, and stack height limitations.

(b) Another equally serious problem is of carrying vulnerable dock cargo, and of being lost at sea in

bad weather, causing losses worth millions. (c) A smaller and perhaps valuable item has either to be

packed into someone e|se’s container, or leave a lot of wasted space in its own container. Although

containers are large, some items, especially machinery, will not fit in them: 2.5 metres width is not

very big to transport machinery.


ANSWER: Craft work: The advantage is that individuals can create different designs and patterns, and if

necessary according to the buyers’ wishes. There is a pride in owning a handmade product as it is

unique-the only one like it.

The disadvantage is that it is slow. Different craftsmen have different skills, and some are much poorer

at Workmanship than others. Because it takes a long time generally to make, it is usually much more


Early factories: The advantage was that far more articles are made, so that prices were lower and

more people could own things; a move towards a higher standard of living.

Disadvantages: Conditions in factories were terrible with very long hours and small children having

to work. Although children had worked on peasant land, they were in the open air and getting

exercise. The factory owners would not allow even a window to be opened as the textile mills needed

a warm moist atmosphere. Factories had to be generally in towns, so that masses of the cheapest

rows of houses were thrown up for the workers. People in the past had worked at their own pace,

and had a rest when they felt like it. ln the factories they had to keep going as long as the steam

engine was running. The factory owners were often cruel about getting the maximum profit out of

their workers.

Assembly line: The advantage was that output soared so that goods became cheaper. More people

could afford furniture in their home and an improved lifestyle. There was a much wider range of

goods available to make people’s lives better. Because the output was so much more, hours of work

were steadily shortened.

Disadvantages: As each worker did just one process, work was very boring. There was no sense of

creating a good product. Workers had to keep up with the assembly line; they could not take a rest.

There were, of course, emergency buttons to stop the moving belt if there was a problem, and it was

not unknown that workers would deliberately cause an ‘accident’ and stop the line. Because there

were a number of assembly lines linked, all the others had to stop too, and it took perhaps half an

hour to reprogramme them again….during which time the workers had a rest.

Automated factories: The advantage is that production again soared so that goods were cheaper

and a much wider range was available. Virtually all chance of human error and faulty products are

eliminated. Workers could make místakes even with their one operation on the assembly line.

Machines did not make any mistakes.

Disadvantages: Far fewer workers are needed which can lead to unemployment. There is no pride in

work or craftsmanship when all one has to do is sit at a desk and watch dials and press buttons.

ANSWER: Students can work out this activity in groups.



LONG QUESTION 1:                 

       What is the importance of law enforcement and the legal profession as service industries?


               Law enforcement and the legal profession are essential for a civilized society. The government makes laws which it thinks facilitate a peaceful, profitable, and just society, and anyone who breaks these laws has to be dealt with, and punished, by society.

The law enforcement investigates wrongdoings and arrests, if possible, the people responsible: the legal profession is there to ensure these people have justice, and are not wrongly punished.

LONG QUESTION 2:                

How do education and health services support a country’s development?


Modern society is so complex that people must be literate to cope. Most of the best jobs depend not on physical labour and strength as they did in an agrarian economy, but on literacy and knowledge of often very complex activities and issues. Many jobs depend on analyzing a whole mass of data and working out a logical solution.

Do we really need education for these?  This is a problem even in the developed world, though a little less. In the West, it has been at least partly solved by immigrants from Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. But there still remains the problem of what to do with the indigenous people in any country who are not intelligent enough to read and write.

Remember that EDUCATION EMPOWERS people by making them aware of their rights, and not just about what is happening around them—information can be had from TV and radio, but being able to read and write means being able to keep records, plan for oneself and one’s family, and lead a better life. Perhaps impress on the class how fortunate they are to be able to read and write.

The health services are advanced with well-equipped private and public hospitals and qualified doctors and paramedical staff in the cities and towns. The rural areas however lack the same level of medical services and serious cases are often brought to the cities. However, life expectancy has improved and people live longer; more children survive infancy so that the population soars.


                Explain the role of communication for industrial growth.


Role of communication (transfer of information between individuals) for industrial growth:

• important      for      growth          of       business       and     industry;

• provides        a        vast    range  of       information—for      example,  international  and     local   news, stock  market,         etc.

• enables         informed       decision        making.



  2. a) Describe how a wholesale business works.

ANSWER: A wholesaler buys products in bulk, i.e. large quantities, and the sells them in smaller lots to retail buyers.

  1. b) How does a retail business work?

ANSWER: A retail business buys items in lots from wholesalers and sells them to individual customers as per need.

  1. c) Describe any two functions of banking.

ANSWER: Any two of the functions a) – e) on page 57 of the textbook.

  1. d) Explain, with example, what is meant by service industry.

ANSWER:  The service industry provides support for business and for communication and information; for example, office workers, call centres, transport, and news media.

  1. Name two historical and two scenic tourist sites of Pakistan and write briefly why they are tourist attractions.

ANSWER:Mohenjo Daro for its ancient history as an Indus Valley Civilization site; Swat for its scenic beauty and ski resort at Mingora; Taxila for its historical interest; Hunza, Shangrila, northern region for mountain climbing and tourism.

  2. a) The Stock Exchange is where stocks and shares of various companies are bought and sold.
  3. b) The people in the stock exchange are paid a share from the investors’ profits.
  4. c) Banks lend money and charge interest on the loan.
  5. d) Communication comprises only correspondence.
  6. e) Tourism is also a service industry.

ANSWERS: a) True      b) False     c) True     d) False   e) True




ANSWER: Balance of payment is the record of money payments between one country and other countries

incurred due to exports, imports, foreign investments, loans, and other cash flows. When imports are

higher than exports, the difference calculated is called trade deficit and when exports are higher than

imports and this difference calculated is called surplus.



ANSWER: Students can answer this question with reference to the tables given on pages 62 and 65.

‘Others’ would include processed/finished consumer goods such as food items, cosmetics, toys,

chemicals, medicines, etc.


Crude petroleum and its products are the largest imports, as these are needed for transport and

energy. These come mainly from the Gulf States, and especially from Arabia.

ANSWER: Students can answer this question with reference to table given on page 65.



LONG QUESTION 1:                 

      What problems does a rapidly increasing population cause for a country?


Problems caused by rapid increase in population are shortage of food, basic amenities, jobs, housing, services, resources, etc. These lead to unrest, poor living conditions, bad health, crime, etc.


                Why do you think people want to move from the countryside to the cities? What problems does this cause?  


Policing, health, education, employment and transport are all stretched as the people pouring in from the countryside usually need more public services than the resident population of the cities. This is a problem faced by many developing countries.

Increasing mechanization and automation of agriculture and industry mean that fewer workers are really needed.

Governments are desperately trying to discourage the traditional large families by providing family planning clinics in most towns and, coupled with education, there has been a dramatic fall in the birth rate in some countries.

Bangladesh, for example, has halved its birth rate and population growth between the 1970s and 1990s. Its population is growing by about 2 per cent a year in 2007, compared with more than 3.1 per cent in 1972. Pakistan’s growth rate is 2.73 per cent.
Many European countries have a growth rate of 0.2-0.5 per cent while some actually have a negative growth rate-that is, the population is steadily decreasing (Hungary, Latvia, Bulgaria, Russia,
Czech Republic, and most ex-USSR states).


            What are the (a) advantages and (b) disadvantages of living in a large city?    


(a)  Advantages of living in a city: More opportunities; more sources of interest. Shopping; transport; entertainment. More contact with others for all activities. Wider range of everything from food to amusements. Better health and educational facilities.

(b)  Disadvantages: Pollution from vehicle fumes, noise, visual pollution. Crowded, expensive; often no work. Accommodation can be poorer. Often little contact with neighbours, unlike in villages.



  2. a) The estimated world population at present is approximately:
  3. i) 7,040,000,000  ii) 5,078,000,000                                                    iii) 4,187,000,000        iv) 6,608,000,000
  4. b) is a densely populated region.
  5. i) Indonesia ii)Antarctica iii)Central Australia iv) North Africa
  6. c) is a region with low population density
  7. i) Eastern China ii) Japan iii) Northern Asia iv) Mumbai
  8. d) The lowest rates for life expectancy are found in .
  9. i) South America ii) Africa iii) Europe iv) Oceania
  10. e) Life expectancy rates are the highest in .
  11. i) Pakistan ii) Japan iii) Germany iv) China

ANSWERS: (a – i)     (b – i)     (c – iii)     (d – ii)     (e – iii)

  1. On a world outline map (political) mark and name the two countries with the highest population and two countries with the lowest population. You may use the atlas for reference.


  1. Write three reasons why people move from rural to urban areas. Reasons for rural to urban migration:
  2. i) better job opportunities
  3. ii) better living conditions

iii) better education and health facilities


ANSWER: People had to settle down When they discovered farming because they had to tend to the crops, and

harvest them at the right time. They could not carry baskets of grain With them if they travelled. lt

was also not practical moving animals every day.

ANSWER: Service industries are rapidly expanding as countries are developing industrially and economically.

Moreover, as more goods for developed countries are manufactured in low-cost developing countries,

the services’ infrastructure provides employment to many people. As the standard of living rises,

people have motorcycles and cars-these need garages for repairs and fuel; electronic items such as

computers and televlsions need a whole army of engineers to maintain and repair them; there are

shops selling all kinds of goods for leisure. Service industry also caters for entertainment-cinema,

sports, etc. lt gives more free time to people so that they can do what they want.

ANSWER: Building and construction are typical of improving economies, as office blocks, factories, schools, and

hospitals, as well as residential units are added on. Construction also provides employment to

professionally qualified and skilled workers as well as labourers. Roads, houses, factoríes, and offices

are vital in a developing economy for communication, places where manufacturing can take place,

and offices for administrative work, etc.


ANSWER: Electricity and gas industries are highly mechanized hence the Workforce is limited, though highly


ANSWER: Education, i.e. literacy, numeracy, and professional skills are vital for the progress of any country. This

can be a good topic for class discussion. Some points for discussion: Literacy is important to combat

old prejudices and ideas, to spread ideas, and to open people’s minds to the modern world. Some

people say that literacy is not necessary in the modern world with radio, and especially, television

and telephones. What is the fallacy of this argument? Television and radio pre-select the information

they give us-we are told only what the people who run the stations want us to know. This is

dangerous, particularly where the main provider of mass communication is an oppressive

government-one has only to think of the propaganda and lies spread by the Nazi and communíst

regimes. A literate person can read for himself/herself and get to know more about various topics

from various sources, without being influenced. In the West, the arrival of radio in the 19205 and, 40

years later, television were greeted with dismay in many quarters as the death of reading and books.

Yet the sale of books today is higher than ever in history, partly because they are so cheap. In the

USA, about 370 new titles are published every day of the year (2008)-it may be true that many of

them are probably not worth publishing, but they are.

ANSWER: This is a good topic for discussion



ANSWER: Some of the matter for this answer can be found in the last two chapters of this book, but students

can work on this in groups and research the answer. Obviously, life without the modern conveniences

we take for granted would be unthinkable to many children today; the advances in medicine and

science have extended lifespans and improved the quality of life, overall.

ANSWER: The advantages that have caused damage are industrialization at the cost of the environment; perhaps

the excessive and indulgent use of gas-guzzling cars, emitting fumes into the atmosphere and also

depleting fossil fuels. This question is a good topic for discussion and also debate in the classroom.

ANSWER: Basic facts: US Union Carbide plant at Bhopal was making a highly lethal pesticlde. A terrible accident

took place in which 42 tonnes of a deadly gas poured into the air in December 1984. Subsequent

investigations showed the most appalling mismanagement and cost cutting to increase profit-the

danger alarms, for example, had not worked for four years. Almost all trained staff had left at the poor

work conditions. All instructions were in English which few workers could read. More than 8000

people died within two weeks of the accident from poisoning, and since then another 8000 are

thought to have died from effects of the accident. Those who were exposed to the gas but survived

are left with blindness and other disabling handicaps and health problems. Compensation to the

affected families has been nominal. (The details can be further researched on the Internet.)

ANSWER: This has already been discussed above. Students can do further research on the Internet as well as

through old magazines, such as National Geographic, and newspaper archives-again via Internet.






LONG QUESTION 2:                 

                What role did Sir Sayyid and Allama Iqbal play in uplifting the Muslims of India?


Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan tried to establish friendly relationships between the Muslims and the British, to the advantage of the former.

He was strongly in favour of education as he saw it as the key to progress;

he set up the Anglo-Oriental School in Aligarh. He suggested that there should be separate states for the Hindus and Muslims.

Allama Iqbal, a brilliant lawyer and poet, showed the direction forward for a Muslim state in the subcontinent. He saw the dangers of a single country in which 80 per cent would be non-Muslims, and how Hindus would never let go of power.

In the Allahabad statement (1930) he put forward clearly and in practical terms, the idea of separate states for Muslims and Hindus when Britain granted independence.

Though close to Iqbal, Mr Jinnah adopted the two-nation theme two years after Iqbal’s death.

LONG QUESTION 4:                

Explain what is meant by ideoloqy, What are the main features of Pakistan’s ideology?


Ideology is a set of ideas, ideals, and beliefs that a particular group of people follow.

The Pakistan ideology is based on the Two-Nation Theory and that Pakistan should be guided by the principles of Islam, law, and justice.






  2. a) The concept of Muslim identity had been formulated by —————————————————and  ———————————————————————- as early as the 18th century.
  3. b) Sir Sayyid told the —————————————————– that Muslims should be given———————————————— when political reform and ———————————————————————————————————  came to the subcontinent.
  4. c) Quaid-e-Azam believed that Pakistan should be guided by principles of————————————————————————————————————————————————- for all.
  5. d) Quaid-e-Azam stated that all the people of Pakistan were citizens of a——————————————————————————————————————————————————– state.
  6. e) The Pakistan National Movement was formed by———————————————————————————————————–.

ANSWERS: a) Shahwaliullah, Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi       b) British, separate consideration, independence                          c) justice and fair dealing     d) equal citizens of a sovereign state e) Chaudhri Rehmat Ali

  1. a) What is the significance of the Minar-e-Pakistan?

ANSWER:It marks the spot where the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate state for the Muslims, was passed in 1940

  1. b) When was the first constitution of Pakistan framed?

ANSWER:The first constitution of Pakistan was framed in1952–54

  1. c) List the dates and names of the leaders during whose government changes were made to the constitution.

ANSWER: Ayub Khan, 1962; Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 1973

  2. ‘Now or Never’

ANSWER:  Chaudhri Rehmat Ali

  1. ‘The Reconstruction of Religious Thoughts in Islam’

ANSWER:  Allama Mohammad Iqbal



LONG QUESTION 2:                 

                 What were the policies of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president, and how did these upset some people in Pakistan?


Bhutto’s socialist ideas and the increasing rigour with which they were applied upset most levels of society.

He nationalized factories, mines, and other large industrial and commercial businesses as well as educational institutions, angering the prosperous merchant classes and upsetting the owners;

He took land from large estates to give to the peasants, which infuriated the great aristocratic families;

He strengthened the trade unions and workers’ rights, which annoyed all businessmen and industrialists; his autocratic use of the army to put down opposition annoyed everyone.

He antagonized the religious authorities by some of his reforms, though he later gave in to some of their demands.

LONG QUESTION 4:                

What are the causes of dispute between Pakistan and India? How did this become much more dangerous in the 1990s?


The bone of contention between Pakistan and India has been the question of Kashmir. The earliest conflict with India took place soon after independence, in January 1948.

The UN intervened and decided that a plebiscite should take place so that the people of Kashmir had the choice to determine their fate. However, this has not happened even after 62 years and this problem underlies the differences between the two countries and has led to open wars as well as ongoing skirmishes.

The most serious were the Siachen conflict and then the Kargil episode in the 1999; the situation is aggravated by the fact that both India and Pakistan have nuclear capability.


               How did General Musharraf come to power? What important events marked his government (1999-2008)?  


General Musharraf was out of the country and when his flight was about to land, Nawaz Sharif ordered that no airport in Pakistan should allow it to do so, although fuel was running low, and that the plane should be diverted elsewhere.

Since a preceding army chief had also been relieved of his post by Nawaz Sharif, the army command may have expected problems. Musharraf contacted his senior officers, who seized the airport.

The flight landed safely, and Musharraf dismissed Sharif. Musharraf’s tenure from 1999 to 2008 has been marked by important events within the country as well as abroad.

The most significant international event was 9/11/2001—the deadly attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington.

This event strongly impacted Pakistan and its relations with the USA as well as the western world and the Middle East. Within the country, there was already the fallout effect of the Afghan war and the ongoing Kashmir crisis.

However, the Musharraf government did manage to turn the economy around, to bring in political and social reforms giving more power to people at the grass-roots level, and more freedom to the media.

The National Assembly, for the first time, completed its term. However, 2007 saw a sharp decline as religious extremism took a militant turn; there were problems with the judiciary;

The National Reconciliation Ordinance (NRO) allowed the return of the exiled leaders and elections were announced, but tragically, Benazir Bhutto was killed during an election rally in Rawalpindi, on 27 December 2007.

Elections were held in February 2008 and the PPP came into power. Musharraf resigned in August 2008 and Asif Ali Zardari, Benazir Bhutto’s husband, was sworn in as president.


  2. a) When did Bangladesh come into being?

ANSWER: 1971

  1. b) How many times did Benazir Bhutto become the Prime Minister of Pakistan? Also give the dates.

ANSWER:  Twice; 1988 to 1990 and 1993 to 1996

  1. c) When did Zulfikar Ali Bhutto become the Prime Minister of Pakistan?

ANSWER:  1973 to 1977

  1. d) How long did General Zia ul Haq rule Pakistan? Give the dates.

ANSWER:  11 years; 1977 to 1988

  1. e) Whose government came to an end when General Pervez Musharraf took over?

ANSWER:  Nawaz Sharif

  1. f) What major international catastrophe took place in September 2001?

ANSWER:   The collapse of the Twin Towers in New York and plane attacks on the Pentagon by the Al-Qaeda. The event is known as 9/11.

  1. g) How did this event affect Pakistan?

ANSWER:  Pakistan was forced into being a US ally against Afghanistan which was then home to Al-Qaeda.

  1. h) What is the significance of 27 December 2007?

ANSWER: Benazir Bhutto was assassinated during an election rally in Rawalpindi.

  2. a) Russia invaded Afghanistan in——————————————–
  3. i) 1989 ii) 1971 iii) 1979 iv) 1975
  4. b) Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan from exile in——————–
  5. i) Abu Dhabi ii) Turkey iii) UK iv) USA
  6. c) Pakistan tested its nuclear bomb in ————————————-
  7. i) Ras Koh ii) Chaghi iii) Mastung iv) Sibi
  8. d) In the 2008 elections, the PPP won and formed the government with ————————————————– as Prime Minister.
  9. i) Raja Pervez Ashraf ii) Asif Ali Zardari                                      iii) Rehman Malik         iv) Yousuf  Raza Gilani
  10. e) The constitution of 1956 was replaced by a new constitution during A. Bhutto’s tenure in ———————————————–
  11. i) 1975 ii) 1978           iii) 1973           iv) 1976
  12. f) General Pervez Musharraf came into power in ———————-
  13. i) July 1999 ii) January 2000 iii) October 1999 iv) October 1998

ANSWERS: a) – iii    b) – i    c) – ii    d) – iv    e) – iii    f) – iii


ANSWER: The Security Council was composed of countries which had taken the major part in World War ll.

Germany and Japan as the main enemies were excluded. Since then Germany and Japan have become

the most important nations on earth after the USA, while others, especially China, India, and Argentine

have become much more powerful. What happened more than 60 years ago should not be allowed

to stand in the way of change.

ANSWER: Japan and Germany are not permanent members of the Security Council as they were the ‘enemy’ in

the war which caused the UN to be set up. These are the second and third largest economies in the

world (after the USA) and it seems unjust to bar them from seats in the Security Council.

ANSWER: Secretary Generals have been

Trygve Lie (Norway) 1946 to 1953

Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) 1953 to 1961 (He was killed in an air crash in the Congo.)

U Thant (Myanmar/Burma) 1961 to 1971

Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1971 to 1981

Javier Perez de Cuellar (Peru) 1981to 1991

Boutros Ghali (Egypt) 1991 to 1996

Kofi Annan (Ghana) 1996 to 2006

Ban Ki-moon (South Korea) 2006

ANSWER: As suggested, the details can be found from the text, the Teaching Guide and reference sources, such

as the Internet.

ANSWER: The second OIC meeting held in Lahore, in February 1974, wasjointly convened by the Pakistani prime

minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, and King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. This meeting took place after the Arab»

Israeli war of 1973, and a declaration was made, recognizing the urgent need to solve the Palestinian

problem and also to fight oppression in other parts of the world, such as South Africa and Latin




ANSWER: The three documents were:

(a) The McMahon letters (1915) in which Britain promised the Arabs, many of whom were fighting

on the British side against their overlords the Turks, that when Turkey was defeated (as it almost

was) the Arabs would have a homeland of their own in Palestine with Hussein as their king.

(b) The Sykes-Picot agreement (1916) in which Britain, France, and Russia agreed more or less to share

out the area between them.

(c) The Balfour Declaration (1917) under which the British government, under strong pressure from

the USA, proclaimed it would help in setting up a national home for Jewish people. In practice,

they did none of these when the war ended. Britain seized Palestine and Jordan as mandates

from the League of Nations and kept control of Egypt; France was given Syria and Lebanon as a

mandate. Feisal, who had led the Arabs against the Turks, was made king of Iraq, but the country

was garrisoned by British troops. His brother, Abdullah, was made king ofJordan.


Jerusalem is a city holy to the three main faiths of this area, i.e. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. For

Jews, here are the remains of Solomon’s temple. For Muslims, the Dome of the Rock is sacred as it is

the point from where the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is believed to have ascended to Paradise; and

for the Christians, it is the place of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. ldeally, it should have been an

international city, allowing free access to the followers of the three faiths, but Israel has taken

complete control, denying entry especially to Muslims living outside this territory.

ANSWER: The factors behind the Middle East conflict have been covered in adequate detail both in the textbook

and this teaching guide.

ANSWER: All four wars ended in defeat for the Arab/Palestinian forces, and the possession of Palestinian land

by lsrael.

ANSWER: Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominant majority of Muslims, but the maharaja

and the prime minister were Hindu. At partition the maharaja, Hari Singh, prevaricated when the

choice of joining either India or Pakistan was offered: he hoped Kashmir would remain a separate

state. When it was obvious he would not be allowed to do this, the prime minister urged him to join

Pakistan. There was some fighting when the Muslims of Poonch, many of them ex-soldiers of the

British army, invaded and drove the Kashmir army back. At this point, Hari Singh fled to lndia and

signed a document giving Kashmir and Jammu to India. Both India and Pakistan sent regular troops

into the country. There was a vicious war, and hundreds ofthousands more penniless refugees poured

into Pakistan. ln 1949 the UN arranged a ceasefire with a Line of Control, and promised that a

plebiscite (election) of the people as to which country they wished to join. More than 60 years later

this election has not taken place, and constant border skirmishes and invasions take place along the

Line of Control. In addition, China invaded the Indian part of Kashmir and seized about a fifth of the

country to straighten out the frontier.

ANSWER:  Kashmir and Jammu are geographically more a part of Pakistan than they are of lndia, but

predominantly, the vast majority of the population is Muslim.

Kashmir is important to Pakistan because it is through this territory that the headwaters of four out

of the five main rivers of Pakistan flow. Controlling Kashmir means controlling the Waters that support

Pakistan’s agriculture and industry, the very lifeline of the country. Secondly, maintaining a defensive

force for this region and being prepared for any untoward advances from across the eastern border

also eats away a big chunk of Pakistan’s budget which could be spent on meaningful development

of the country. Point out that for both Pakistan and India, keeping troops in the northern-most areas,

like Siachen, is very expensive, notjust in terms of money and equipment but in human terms too as

hundreds of soldiers on both sides have lost their lives in this forbidding, icy terrain.



CH:15 MIGRATION    P:125

LONG QUESTION 2:                 

                 Pakistan has one of the largest recent refugee populations in Asia: what are the causes behind this?


Pakistan has a serious problem with refugees because of various reasons:

(a) at Partition millions fled from India;

(b) successive waves of immigrants from Afghanistan when the Russians invaded, and when the Taliban took control, and now when an international force is trying to establish stability;

(c) refugees from Kashmir.

LONG QUESTION 5:                

What are the problems faced by most refugees?


Problems facing refugees

(a) No money—most depend on charitable organizations or government agencies;

(b) accommodation—finding permanent housing for the many millions is impossible so that the great majority live in temporary tents in all sorts of climatic conditions;

(c) Education—it is almost impossible to provide any serious education for the millions of children, who are left to their own devices; (d) food, clothing supplies, and health care—again charitable organizations are trying to help; health care is a major problem as poor living conditions result in disease;

(e) No employment and nothing to do all day tends to lead some people into crime or extreme behaviour and also results in psychological problems.


          Explain why people become refugees in their own country.


People may leave their homes in the face of conflict and move to safer locations;

They may be persecuted due to religious/ethnic differences;

They move from the countryside to the cities in search of better jobs, more income.







1 Match column A with column B:

column A column B
a. Economic migrants

b. Religious migrants

c. Political migrants

i. seeking asylum

ii. for a better future

iii. to escape persecuted because of religious beliefs.

Answers:  (a – ii) (b – iii) (c – i)


  2. a) One person in every in the world is a refugee.
  3. i) 100 ii) 150 iii) 50 iv) 270
  4. b) South Asia has of the world’s refugees.
  5. i) one half ii) a quarter iii) three quarter iv) 35%
  6. c) of the world’s refugees are in Africa.
  7. i) 20% ii) 50% iii) 41% iv) 75%
  8. d) Europe has of the world’s refugees.
  9. i) 15% ii) 30% iii) 21% iv) 10%3.

ANSWERS: (a – iv) (b – ii) (c – iii) (d – iii)


  1. a) Explain what is meant by ‘seeking asylum’.

ANSWER: Seeking asylum means moving to another country to escape persecution in one’s own country, on political and /or religious grounds.

  1. b) In which industries do the migrants to the Gulf States work?

ANSWER:  Migrants to the Gulf States are mostly in construction and other labour-intensive industries; a small percentage works in offices, banks, and multinational business, etc.

  1. c) What does the term ‘IDPs’ mean? Give an example.

ANSWER:  IDPs stands for Internally displaced persons; they are people who are compelled to move elsewhere because of dangerous conditions or natural disasters in their own regions, such as because of border strikes in the northwest of the country or after the earthquake in 2005.

  1. d) Why do people move from the countryside to the cities?

ANSWER: They worked as unskilled labour, and also as bus drivers and railway workers.

  1. e) What kind of work did most Caribbeans do in Britain?




LONG QUESTION 3:                 

            What qualities made Ataturk a successful leader for Turkey?


Qualities that made Ataturk a successful –leader of Turkey:



-abolished obsolete laws and customs,

-made Turkey a secular state,

– took steps to educate people, etc.

Ataturk succeeded in bringing his nation into the modern world and equipping it to survive successfully.

LONG QUESTION 5:                

Name some of the humanitarian organizations in Pakistan and write briefly about their work.


Again, this requires research by the students. Some of the organizations operating in Pakistan are

the Edhi Foundation,

Ansar Burney Trust,


The Citizens’ Foundation,

The Jinnah Foundation,

 Infaq Foundation, and

several local as well as international NGOs.



  2. a) Who defined democracy as the “Government of the people, for the people and by the people?

ANSWER: Abraham Lincoln

  1. b) Which are the two Greek words from which the word ‘democracy’ is derived?

ANSWER:Demos (people) and kratos (government/rule)

  1. c) Write down the first five important aspects of democracy.

ANSWER: i) Government chosen by the people through voting  ii) Equal rights  iii) Rule of law and order  iv) Justice for everyone  v) Separation of judiciary from the executive

  1. d) Write very briefly about the four conditions essential for democracy to flourish.

ANSWER: i) Stability i.e. free from infighting and strife  ii) Free from class difference due to good economy and facilities  iii) Education, as it it gives awareness and empowers people  iv) Exercise of democratic rights—freedom of expression, respect for law and for people.

  2. a) ———————————brought independence to South Africa.
  3. b) Apartheid means ————————————————————-.
  4. c) ANC stands for —————————————————————.
  5. d) Klerk abolished the apartheid laws in ———————————– and became the ———————————————————————————————————- of South Africa.
  6. e) Aung San Suu Kyi is a ——————————————————.
  7. f) Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the——————————————————————— in ————————————-.
  8. g) The man who modernized his country ———————————- was—————————- .
  9. h) The ———————————————– movement in the USA was  led by———————————- .
  10. i) ———————————————————–was killed in ———————————————————- in 1968.
  11. j) Yasser Arafat’s name is synonymous with——————————.

k)PLO stands for —————————————————————.

  1. l) The Oslo Peace Accord was signed by ————————————- and ———————————— in————————————-.

ANSWERS: a) Nelson Mandela                  b) ‘setting apart’ on basis of colour and race or separate development on these grounds c) African National Congress                         d) 1992            e) political activist and leader in Myanmar      f) Nobel Peace Prize in 1991    g) Kemal Ataturk of Turkey    h) Civil rights movement, Dr Martin Luther King    i) Dr Martin Luther King, Memphis, Tennessee         j) Palestine (he led the Al-Fatah and the PLO         k)Palestine Liberation Organization    l) Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin, 1993


ANSWER: 1. This opened up new routes and brought new countries and their riches within reach

of the Europeans.

ANSWER: 2. Having reached the American continent, Vespucci may have realized that the lands

were not India or China perhaps because the people were totally different with a

totally different lifestyle. The difference in flora, fauna, and people may have

convinced him that this was not Asia or India, but a new land mass.

ANSWER: 3. They introduced Europeans to completely new products e.g. tobacco from America,

and fragile items such as pottery and furniture from Asia; increased supply offabrics

and spices, so that the prices ofthese fell in Europe, and stimulated conflict among

European nations-Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, Britain-to get the lands as


ANSWER: 4. Students to do this task with teachers’ guidance.



LONG QUESTION 1:                 

           What did people learn from Livingstone’s travels in Afirca?


Although Livingstone failed in his great ambition to discover the source of the Nile, he did discover a number of other geographical features. His main achievement was to open up the centre of Africa (then totally unknown to the West) to later explorers.

LONG QUESTION 4:                

                  How has the jet engine revolutionized aircraft and air transport?


The jet engine has revolutionized air transport

(a) by making it much faster—propeller-driven planes can fly at about 400 kph, while jets can fly at more than 800 kph, which means shorter travelling times;

(b) ALTITUDES :propeller-driven aircraft can fly only at relatively low altitudes—about 1500 metres—because the propellers need air to ‘get a grip on’; jet planes fly at 10,000 metres where the air is very thin so that they can travel much faster and use less fuel;

(c) a jet airliner can travel from  London to Hong Kong non-stop in 13 hours: a propeller plane would take several days and have to stop several times to refuel.



  2. a) A Scottish, medical missionary, discovered the great Victoria Falls.
  3. b) An American Arctic explorer, made seven journeys to the North Pole (or Arctic).
  4. c) A Norwegian explorer, the first man to reach the South Pole.
  5. d) A New Zealander, the first man to reach the highest point on Earth along with his Nepalese
  6. e) A Russian woman, the first to fly in space.
  7. f) A Scottish engineer who invented the television
  8. g) A German rocket scientist who designed the giant V2 rocket.
  9. h) A German engineer who invented the diesel engine.
  10. i) A British aeronautical engineer who invented the jet engine.
  11. j) A Pakistani who was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1979.
  12. k) A Scottish doctor who discovered penicillin.
  13. l) A German scientist, father of modern germ (bacteria) technology.
  14. m) A South African surgeon, the first to transplant a human heart.
  15. n) A pioneer of scientific research in Pakistan; also a poet, writer, musician, and an artist.

ANSWERS: a) David Living Stone             b) Edwin Robert Peary  c) Roald Amundsen   d) Sir Edmund Hillary e) Valentina Tereshkova   f) John Logie Baird   g) Wernher von Braun              h) Rudolf Diesel    i) Sir Frank Whittle    j) Dr Abdus Salam              k) Sir Alexander Fleming   l) Robert Koch                                      m) Christiaan Neethling Barnard      n) Dr Salimuzzaman Siddiqui

  2. a) Where are the Victoria Falls?
  3. i) Kashmir ii) America iii) Africa iv) Canada
  4. b) The 50th anniversary of the scaling of Mt Everest by Hillary and Norgay was celebrated in
  5. i) 1995 ii) 2000 iii) 2003 iv) 2010
  6. c) Who was the guide with Sir Edmund Hillary?
  7. i) Morton Stanley ii) Sir John Franklin iii) Henry Bessemer iv) Tenzing Norgay
  8. d) How many orbits did Valentine Tereshkova make around the Earth?
  9. i) 50 ii) 48 iii) 45 iv) 36

ANSWERS: a) – iii)     b) – iii)      c) – ii)    d) – ii)

3.Name three institutions established by Dr Abdus Salam.

ANSWER: SUPARCO; World Academy for Sciences; International Centre for Theoretical Physics (in Trieste, Italy)

  1. Name two institutions established by Dr Salimuzzaman Siddiqui in Pakistan.

ANSWER:  PCSIR; HEJ Institute for Higher Chemistry

  1. When was the first television service launched and who launched it?

ANSWER:  In 1922 by the BBC, London

  1. Who discovered an easy way of melting steel?

ANSWER:Sir Henry Bessemer



  • Love your website but sir plz give short answers some answers are too big.
    Otherwise your website is awesome.

    • KNow Cliff


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