Long Question No.1:                 

      (a) Where are most Islamic countries located? Why are they in this part of the world?

(b) In which parts of the world are there no Islamic countries?


a)    Most Islamic countries are in;

– the Middle East,

-Southern Asia, and

-Northern Africa.

The home of Islam is in Saudi Arabia and it spread outwards from here. Its progress was halted:

-By the solid barriers of Christianity in Europe and western Russia;

-By the virtually empty steppes of central Asia;

-By the firmly established society in China; and

-By the deserts of North Africa.


b)    There are no Islamic countries in

-the Americas,

-Europe, and

– in Australia.

L Q2:                

In which parts of Pakistan are the deserts located?


In Pakistan, deserts (hot) are located in

– the east and south-east,

– in the centre, and in the west.

Cold deserts are found in the high mountains of the north.

L Q3:

            Why, do you think, does the Punjab have the highest population in the country?        


Punjab is the most populous as it is generally the most fertile.

It has a very extensive system of canals supplying water for agriculture, which is the main occupation of the people.

L Q4:

     Locate in your atlas the places in the cross sections on page 5 and make a list of all the mountain ranges in Pakistan and northern India.          






  1. Complete this statement: Pakistan’s location is strategic


  1. Name any ten countries of the Islamic bloc.



  1. Match these countries with their locations from Pakistan.











  2. a) The natural route through a mountain range is called a —————————————.
  3. b) An area of high flat land is known as a————————————.
  4. c) Mountains with sharp peaks are————————————————
  5. d) The————————- and————————— passes connect Pakistan with China.
  6. e) The——————————- Pass is also historically important.
  7. f) Mountains are usually above————————- to—————————- metres or more in height.


  1. The areas of South Asian countries are given below. Rearrange them in the right-hand column in descending order, from the biggest to smallest.


Country area ( ’000 sq km) Country area ( ’000 sq km)






Sri Lanka










  2. a) Mountains are the

(flat, sandy, highest)

  1. Hills are not as as the mountains. (dry, high, sharp)
  2. An makes a good harbour for ships. (lake, estuary, delta)

d.Areas of flat land at sea level are called . (valleys, deserts, plains)

  1. e) A hot, dry place with hardly any plants is called a ——————————-. (plain, desert, plateau)
  2. f) Lakes are bodies of water, surrounded by. (land, rivers, seas)
  3. g) Rivers are bodies of                    (frozen, flowing, salty)
  4. h) Where a river splits into smaller streams before falling into the sea, it is known as———————-.(an estuary, a lake, a delta)
  5. i) A tundra is a cold, dry desert found in (damp, polar, low-lying)



1. Pakistan’s location is strategic because it is like a hinge or link that connects Western and Central

Asia to South and South-east Asia.


2. Select any ten from the countries shaded green in the map on page 1. E.g. Yemen, Egypt, Bahrain,

UAE, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Uzbekistan, etc.


3. Afghanistan—North-west; China—North-east; India—East; Iran—West


4. a) pass b) plateau c) young d) Khunjerab, Karakoram e) Khyber                      f) 2000 to 3000


5. India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Maldives


6. a) highest b) sharp c) estuary d) plains e) desert f) land g) flowing              h) delta i) polar



L Q1:

          Why is the amount of rainfall so important for the climate?                    


Rainfall is important in determining the climate of a place as;

Less rainfall can make a land dry and more rain affects the temperature of that place.

1.     Crops and plants are also grown according to temperature of a place

—rice, bananas, pineapples grown in hot countries, and wheat, maize, and barley in cooler ones. But in the absence of water, either natural precipitation or irrigation, nothing will grow at all.

2.     Some crops need more water than others—rice and sugar cane need large amounts, while grass barley, and oats need less.

L Q2:                     

How high would the rainfall in Cherrapunji reach in your school, if it all stayed on the ground?


The rainfall in Cherrapunji was nearly 23 metres, enough to go over the tops of some buildings.

L Q3:

         Can you think of any other factors that might affect climate?            


1.LOCATION; Location on the lee side of high ground, i.e. in the rain shadow;

2. URBAN/RURAL AREAS; Urban areas (towns, cities) have higher temperature (1–3 degrees) as compared to rural areas which have open spaces and more vegetation;

3. SIZE OF A PLACE; a small island has a different climate as compared to a land mass.

L Q5:

              What differences would you expect to find between the home, dress, and food of a family living in Gilgit, and that of one in Singapore? Find these places in your atlas to help you Answer this question. Why is there such a difference in their lifestyles?              




  1. Choose the correct Answer.
  2. Climate is the average of the weather condition of
  • any one day (ii) few weeks (iii) whole year
  1. The closer we are to the——————————– the warmer and wetter it will be
  • mountains (ii) equator (iii) desert
  1. ——————————–shows the height of a place from the sea level.
  • Latitude (ii) Altitude (iii) A mountain
  1. Places near the sea are—————————in summar and—————————- in winter.
  • hotter, wetter (ii) cooler, milder (iii) warmer, drier
  1. Lahore is hotter than Karachi in summer because—————————–
  • it has mountains (ii) it is near the equator (iii) it is very far from the sea
  1. When the air pressure is high the weather is usually———————— and dry.
  • hot (ii) wet (iii) fine


  1. Define ocean currents.


  1. Give an example to show that ocean currents affect climate.


  1. Briefly explain how climate affects agriculture.


  1. Which is the driest place on Earth and where is it located?


  1. Where is Cherrapunji? What is so special about this place?


  1. Why are winds that blow from the north cold?


  1. Why do winds blowing across a large area of sea bring rainfall?




1.Choose the correct answer.

a) = iii) the whole year b) = ii) equator c) = i) Altitude

d) = ii) cooler, milder e) = iii) it is very far from the sea f) = iii) fine


2. Currents are movements of water in the oceans.


3. The cold Humboldt Current brings low temperature to the west coast of South America; the warm Gulf Stream Current brings higher temperature to the east coast of North America.

4. Crops generally need good soil and a sunny climate with adequate rainfall to grow well.

Agriculture cannot be successfully practised in places that are too dry, too wet, too hot or too cold.

For example, rice cannot be grown in Pakistan’s north or west as the climate is not suitable for it.


5. Atacama Desert is in Chile on the western coast of South America.


6. Cherrapunji is in Assam, India. It 1861 it had 22,990 mm (22.9 metres) of rain which is a world record to this day.


7. It is so because the North winds blow in from Arctic or colder regions.

CH: 3   WINDS & CYCLONES    P:14

L Q1:                      

Work in small groups to collect and present information about cyclones in South Asia.

Which parts were most affected by cyclones?

1.    -Bay of Bengal and coastal areas around it

2.    -Down to the western coast of India

3.    -Bangladesh

i.                    In which season do cyclones mostly occur?

Cyclones mostly occur in tropical season.

ii.                  How many cyclones have hit South Asia in the last two years?

Two  cyclones have hit South Asia in the last two years?



In an anticyclone, the air moves in a———————————direction. This means the pressure on the ground is—————————————–.

An anticyclone normally means——————————————— weather.

————————————-The winds in an anticyclone are —————————————

In a cyclone, the winds move in a ————————————direction. The pressure on the ground is——————————————- and brings———————————————————- weather.

The winds in a cyclone are————————————————-. The only part where they are different is in—————————————————-.

Here, the winds are——————————————

Cyclones are dangerous because they cause —————————.

Other names for storms on land and sea are, ———————————————– and———————————————-


In an anticyclone, the air moves in a clockwise direction.

This means that the pressure on the ground is high.

An anticyclone normally means fine/warm/dry weather.

The winds in an anticyclone are light.

In a cyclone the winds move in an anticlockwise direction.

The pressure on the ground is low and brings bad/wet/stormy weather.

The winds in a cyclone are strong/fierce.

The only part where they are different is in the centre/eye.

Here the winds are calm.

Cyclones are dangerous because they cause great damage. Other names for storms are hurricanes, typhoons, and tornadoes.




  2. A thunderstorm .


  1. A tornado .


  1. A hurricane .


  1. A twister or water spout .



  1. Draw two figures to show the movement of wind in (i) a cyclone (ii) an anti-cyclone. Label them accordingly.



1. a) A thunderstorm brings lightning, thunder and rain, and can cause much damage.

b) A tornado is a destructive, spinning, funnel-shaped cloud which destroys everything in its way.

c) A hurricane is a violent storm with strong winds.

d) A twister or waterspout is a swirling column of water sucked up by winds from the sea.



L Q1: Why do you think the glass measuring cylinder of the rain gauge is inside an outer container?  

The measuring cylinder in the rain gauge is inside a container to prevent evaporation, as far as possible, which would give an incorrect reading.

L Q2: Why is it important to know which direction the wind is blowing from? Why does the vane have a ‘tai|’?                   

The wind direction is important because it is a powerful factor in predicting the weather. Northerly winds generally mean cold and dry weather, winds from southerly direction, generally bring precipitation. The tail on the weather vane is to keep the arrow pointing in the direction from which the wind is blowing.

L Q3: Which of these weather-measuring devices is also used in cooking/candle-making;

a) rain gauge b) wind vane

kc) thermometer d) barometer


The only instrument used in cooking and candle making is the thermometer.

L Q4:      Why do we need to measure weather and keep a record?            

Measuring weather and keeping records can help in many ways e.g. weather warnings can help to protect life and property, day-to-day plans can be amended in the light of the forecast, and farmers can also benefit from this and plant their crops accordingly. Other possible answers can be discussed.






L Q1:

                People who use wood for construction and fuel cut down trees without much thought. How does this effect forests?


Due to the indiscriminate cutting down of trees for fuel and construction, the forests which were once natural vegetation for Pakistan have shrunk in size and are only 5.2 per cent of ground cover.

As a result,

1-    deforestation and desertification is taking place.

2-    The soil is damaged and washed away by rains and floods.

3-    Trees, if planted to replace those cut down, take many years to grow and mature.

L Q2: Why is firewood needed in some parts of Pakistan? What is the government trying to do to solve this problem?         

Firewood is vital in many rural areas for fuel, for cooking, and heating because there is no electricity or gas available. People used to cooking outdoors find it difficult to adapt to a new method. Also firewood is ‘free’—it just has to be cut down or collected.

The government is trying to solve this problem through

1-     electrification,

2-     provision of gas pipelines,

3-     education, and

4-    creating awareness about the importance of forests and how to preserve them.

L Q3: What is the importance of agriculture for Pakistan? What are the sources of water for agriculture?

Pakistan is not rich in mineral resources and most of its land is not suitable for agriculture. However, because of the river system, which provides irrigation, agriculture is possible. Agriculture is important because it;

1-     increases in the population and

2-     reduces import of food crop.

Sources of water for agriculture are flood water which is stored in dams and barrages, rivers, tube wells, rain water (but this is not sufficient), and irrigation.

L Q4:                   

         (a)Find out the names of the major rivers in India and Bangladesh, Look up their sources , in your atlas

School Atlas for Pakistan, p. 42-43

(b) From your atlas look up the name and height of the highest peak in Sri Lanka.

(c) Name the capitals of Nepal and Bhutan.


a) Major rivers in India are: Ganges (Ganga), source: northern Himalayas; Yamuna, source: northern Himalayas; Narmada, source: Maikala Range, Central India; Mahanadi, source: Maikala Range; Godavari, source: Western Ghats; Krishna, source: Western Ghats.

Major rivers in Bangladesh are: Brahmaputra, source: Eastern Himalayas; Padma, source: Ganges/ Yamuna (Padma is the name given to these rivers as they flow through this country).

b) The highest peak in Sri Lanka is Mt Pidurutalagala, 2518m.

c) The capital of Nepal is Kathmandu and the capital of Bhutan is Thimphu.

L Q5:

          Using the internet and other resources of information in your school Iibrary, prepare a tourist brochure for Sri Lanka Nepal, or Bhutan. Work in groups.


This task can be done as projects by groups of students, supervised by the teacher.



1.Here are the names of some countries jumbled together. Circle the countries of South Asia.

Pakistan Malaysia Indonesia India

Singapore China Bangladesh Saudi Arabia

Sri Lanka Congo Egypt Bhutan

Libya Nepal Hawaii Maldives

2.Which of the South Asian countries are islands?

  1. Name the two land-locked countries of South Asia.
  2. What is a Persian wheel?
  3. Name the tributaries of River Indus in Pakistan.
  4. Name the river system against each country.
  5. Pakistan:
  6. India:
  7. Bangladesh:

Q1. Underline the correct answers.

  1. i) Mount Everest is in (a) Pakistan (b) Nepal (c) Bangladesh (d) Bhutan
  2. ii) Rubber is grown in (a) Sri Lanka (b) Nepal (c) Pakistan (d) Sri Lanka

iii) The highest jute producer in the world is (a) Sri Lanka (b) India (c) Bangladesh (d) India

  1. iv) Agricultural land in Pakistan is (a) 57% (b) 67% (c)27% (d) 37%
  2. v) Forested area in Pakistan is (a) 23% (b) 14% (c) 16% (d) 5%
  3. vi) Coconut trees are grown in (a) deserts (b) mountains (c) coastal areas (d) plateaus

vii) River Indus drains into the (a) Atlantic Ocean (b) Pacific Ocean (c) Arabian Sea (d) Bay of Bengal

viii) Rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra drain into the (a) Atlantic Ocean (b) Pacific Ocean (c) Arabian Sea

(d) Bay of Bengal

  1. ix) This country is a delta region, crisscrossed by rivers:

(a) Maldives (b) Bangladesh (c) Sri Lanka (d) Bhutan

  1. x) Mangla Dam is in (a) Sri Lanka (b) Pakistan (c) Nepal (d) India
  2. On the given outline map of South Asia label all the eight countries with their capitals (except Malé),

and mark them with their national flags.



L Q1:

                Can you explain why Pakistan receives only a small amount of rainfall from the summer monsoons?


Pakistan receives only a small amount of rainfall in the summer monsoon because much of the rain-bearing winds are forced round the south of the subcontinent and reach Pakistan only after having crossed India where they deposit much of their moisture.

L Q2:

           Why do winds come in from the north-east in winter? Look at the map on page 24 to help Answer both questions.                   


The centre of Asia is bitterly cold and the air sinks. Over the sea the temperature is much warmer and the air rises.  This draws the cold air in from Central Asia.

If the Earth were stationary, the winds would be from due north, but the rotation of the world drags them to a north-easterly direction.

L Q3:

           How does the distribution of rainfall affect agriculture and vegetation in Pakistan? Use the climatic map for help with this question.                  


Rain determines the vegetation and crops, though not as much in Pakistan as in many other countries. Except the northern and western regions which are forested, there is generally insufficient precipitation(rainfall) to support agriculture in the absence of rain—75 per cent of the land is irrigated.

The bulk of crops are grown in Punjab in the north and east of the country where the rainfall is heaviest.

L Q4:                   

         Which part of South Asia is affected by tropical cyclones? Where and when do these cyclones originate?


-The coastal areas of South Asia, mainly Bangladesh,

-the east coast of India, and occasionally

-Sri Lanka can be affected by tropical cyclones which originate in the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean.

L Q5:

          Following the weather chart in the newspaper or television, make a daily temperature chart for twoweeks, for your city/town.                                  





Indian Ocean; three; South-west; Western depression; snowfall; Arabian Sea; Pakistan; Turkey;   North-eastern; dry


  1. a) There are——————————– main wind systems in South Asia.
  2. b) The Indian Peninsula is surrounded by the——————————– .
  3. c) The———————————— is a part of the Indian Ocean.
  4. d) The ———————————- monsoon blows from the Indian Ocean.

e)——————————— receives less rainfall from the  monsoons.

  1. f) The ———————————- comes from the Mediterranean region and Western Asia.
  2. g) ———————————, Iraq and Iran receive rain from the Western depression.
  3. h) ——————————–in Pakistan is caused by the Western depression
  4. i) —————————–winds blow from Central Asia to Pakistan and India.
  5. j) North-eastern winds are—————————— because they blow from the land mass.


  1. Which of the following statements are true/false?

(i) Upper Punjab and lower northern areas receive up to 250–500 mm rainfall                                                           True   False

(ii)Highlands in Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa receive the highest winter rainfall in the country.                    True   False

(iii)Southern Punjab receives more rainfall throughout the year than upper Punjab.                                                        True   False

(iv)Pakistan has three main regions on the basis of vegetation and rainfall.                                                                     True  False

  2. ——————————generally begin from the sea.
  3. Strong gales followed by heavy rain result in—————————.
  4. Pakistan gets most of its rainfall from the ——————————-.
  5. ——————————— is frequently hit by cyclones.
  6. ————————–are common in upper Sindh and parts of Balochistan.




TEMPERATURES Hot Warm Mild Cool Cold
a. 0°C to 9°C

b. 21°C to 31°C

c. Below 0°

d. 10°C to 20°C

e. 32°C or more



  1. Match the zones in Column A with the weather conditions in Column B.
Eastern coastal strip along Arabian Sea over 50°
Western Highlands hot summer, mild winter
Indus plain warm summer, cool winter
Northern mountainous region warm summer, mild winter
Jacobabad and Sibi warm to cool summer, cold winter



1.i) three ii) Indian Ocean iii) Arabian Sea iv) South-west v) Pakistan

vi) Western Depression vii) Turkey viii) Snowfall ix) North-easterly x) dry

2. i) True ii) True iii) False iv) False
3. a) Cyclones b) Thunderstorms c) retreating monsoons d) Bangladesh e) dust storms
4. a) Cool b) Warm c) Cold d) Mild e) Hot
5. i) = d; ii) = c; iii) = b; iv) = e; v) = a


CH: 7   MAIN CROPS               P:35


L Q1:                

Find out more about the major crops: wheat, rice, sugar cane, and cotton, in Pakistan.

L Q2:

             What dishes are gram and pulses used in? Name some of the pulses you have eaten. Write out a recipe for a dish using gram or pulses.                 

L Q3:

        Why is butter difficult to store and transport in hot weather? Find out more about dairy products being made in Pakistan. List the names of some companies that make dairy products.           


Butter, as an animal product, has a short life under normal conditions. It melts in hot climates, and quickly goes ‘rancid’ (bad). It is better kept in a fridge, which is not always possible.

Vegetable and seed oils, from the cheapest to the expensive olive oil, are much more stable in hot climates, and in any case are healthier than butter, which as an animal fat is said to produce heart and circulatory problems.

L Q4:

            In comparison to India, Pakistan produces a crop in a much larger quantity. What is this?
What is the advantage Pakistan has in this regard?            


As compared to India, Pakistan produces more sugar. Pakistan grows enough sugar not only to meet consumption demands but also in excess which is exported.



  1. Choose the correct Answers to fill in the blanks.
  2. i) In Pakistan, wheat is produced mainly in—————————— . (Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab)
  3. ii) Cotton and cotton goods make up more than ————————- per cent of all Pakistan’s exports. (40, 90, 60)

iii) Basmati rice is grown only in——————————–  and————————— . (Maldives, India; Sri Lanka, Nepal; Pakistan, India)

  1. iv) Rice needs ——————————— climate for its growth. (dry and cold; wet and warm; dry and warm)
  2. v) Pakistan needs to import a very large quantity of————————– because of inadequate local production. (dairy products, edible oil, cotton goods)
  3. vi) The thick, sweet residue obtained after boiling sugar cane juice is called————————————– . (gur, molasses, canola)

vii) Corn oil is produced from—————————— . (sesame, sunflower, maize)

viii) Pakistan’s fruit exports are mainly ————————– and —————————-.   (banana, dates; mango, kinnoo; cherry, apricot)

  1. Match crops in Column A with the regions in Column B.
citrus fruit (kinnoo,malta upper Balochistan

central and lower

apricot Punjab, Sindh
apple lower Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan
banana Balochistan
grape upper and lower Punjab
mango upper and eastern Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
date Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
almond Sindh


3.Complete the following sentences with correct facts.

  1. Livestock farming is an important part of ————————– in Pakistan and India.
  2. Livestock consists of—————– ,—————————- and —————————.
  • In Sindh and adjoining areas of Balochistan ———————– are used for ———————————————.
  1. iv) Besides providing milk and meat,—————————– and —————————— are also used for farming and pulling carts.
  2. Mountain goats and sheep in—————————– and ————————— are valued for their wool which is used for————————– .
  3. Fishing is the main occupation in the Maldives because ————————— .
  4. Fresh water and marine fishing is common in countries which have———————————— .
  • Leather from cattle is used for making—————————————–.
  • Poultry farming is common in many parts of the world because it provides—————————————-.


1.i) Punjab ii) 60 iii) Pakistan and India iv) wet and warm v) edible oilvi) molasses vii) maize viii) kinnoo and mango
3. i) agriculture ii) cattle, sheep, goats iii) camels iv) buffaloes, oxen

v) Nepal, Bhutan; rugs and carpets vi) rivers, lakes and coastal regions

vii) sports goods, footwear/shoes, jackets, gloves, etc. viii) eggs and meat





L Q1:

        Why do you think mechanization is impractical on small farms?                            


Large-scale mechanization is impractical on small plots because of such problems as turning the equipment round, getting from tiny plot to tiny plot.

The headland (the land at each end where the equipment turns) is wasted as machines take considerable space to turn round—impossible on the small plots.

L Q2:

              Why is so much more fertilizer needed on farms today?                


More fertilizer is needed as heavier crops are grown which are expected to feed increasing population.

1.    More ‘greedy’ crops such as cotton being grown.

2.    Soil, generally not very rich, is exhausted by constant heavy cropping.

3.    Natural fertilizers from animals and plants are not adequate.

L Q4:         

      What are the three main problems for agriculture that Pakistan faces?


Main problems that Pakistan faces with regard to agriculture are:

a) small farms,

b) low quality seeds,

c) water shortage,

d) water logging and salinity.



Match the terms for farming problems in column A with their descriptions in Column B.

column A Column B
soil erosion removing soil and silt
deforestation excessive salt content in soil
water logging soil is washed away
salinity clearing Earth’s surface of forests
de-silting excessive water content in the soil



  1. What was the value of Pakistan’s fertilizer imports in 2007?
  2. How is India’s agriculture affected by deforestation?


  • Why does Maldives need to import grains?


  1. How can seepage from canals be stopped?


  1. Why are herbicides and pesticides used by farmers?


  1. What is the most serious problem for Bangladeshi farmers?
  • Name three South Asian countries which are almost self-sufficient in their food needs.



1. a) – iii); b) – iv); c) – v); d) – ii); e) – i)

2. i) Pakistan imported Rs41, 000,000,000/- (4.1 billion rupees) worth of fertilizers in 2007.

ii) De-forestation washes away top soil and causes soil erosion.

iii) Maldives does not have large tracts of farmland.

iv) Seepage is stopped by lining the canals with concrete.

v) Herbicides and pesticides are chemicals to kill weeds and insects that damage crops.

vi) Natural hazards like floods and cyclones are the most serious problem for Bangladesh’s farmers.

vii) Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan grow enough crops to feed their population.



L Q1: What is Pakistan’s most useful mineral resource?

Natural gas is Pakistan’s most useful mineral resource.

L Q2: What advantages does natural gas have over oil? ln what ways is oil? more useful?                          

As compared to oil, natural gas is easier to transport and store especially for

domestic use; it is also cheaper than oil. Oil has more by-products in its refining.

L Q3: Which mineral does Pakistan have to import in iarge quantities? \/Wat are its uses?

Pakistan has to import oil in large quantities. Oil is used in industries and transportation. However, oil is also used in many products.

L Q4:    Why is Pakistan’s own coal not very important in industry at the moment? ‘Why may it be much more important in the future?                

Pakistan’s own coal is not very important in industry because it is of very low quality and it produces a lot of polluting sulphur gas and ash when it is burned and also does not give out much heat.

At present Pakistan’s coal is about one third combustible—and can be used only for crude industrial processes such as brick-making. Coal may become important in future as high-quality coal has been discovered in Thar.

L Q5: Find out more about the gemstones mentioned here, regarding their colour, quality, value, etc. Collect pictures of the gemstones mentioned in this lesson, for a wall display.    
ANS: Students can research and collect information and data on different gemstones.
L Q6:       Find out what ‘mica’ is, and for what it is used.  
ANS: Mica is a mineral which contains silicon. It is used in electrical industries, in cosmetics, etc. and also as a substitute for glass. Students can be encouraged to collect further information.






L Q1:

                The actual percentage of power produced by hydroelectric stations is decreasing. Why do you think this is.


Power produced by hydroelectric stations is decreasing due to various reasons, such as decrease in

rainfall and snowfall, global warming, dam failure. Hydroelelectric schemes are vastly expensive to

construct; they have to be built in remote regions for geographical reasons, which means costly

power lines down to settled areas.

L Q2:

              What other purpose do these great dams fulfil?    


Purposes of dams other than generation of hydroelectricity are irrigation, reservoirs for water supply,

habitat for wild life, and to control flooding.

L Q3: Why are the thermal power stations located mainly in Southern Pakistan?

Thermal power stations are located mainly in southern Pakistan so that they can be near the gas and

oil fields.

L Q4:   What are the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power?                

Nuclear power is fantastically expensive to set up, demands high technical skills from its work people and above all, can be extremely dangerous unless highly responsible and qualified technical staff is available.

Unfortunately, Pakistan does not have many such qualified people at the moment—a considerable number who have the skills, seek employment in developed countries where they are more highly rewarded. The great advantage of nuclear power is that once in operation it provides electricity at very low running costs; the initial set-up is of course vastly expensive.

L Q5: Should we think more seriously about using sunlight and wind to produce power? ‘Discuss the advantages.   

1-    Sun and wind as power sources need a great deal more work to be done.

2-    Sun is the obvious choice in Pakistan, but the technology is at present very inefficient everywhere.

3-    Wind and sunlight produce electricity on a very small scale—especially sunlight.

4-     A wind turbine is said to produce 80 times as much in the value of electricity as it does to build and dismantle the equipment.

5-    Unfortunately, winds are so fickle.

6-    The great wind turbines used extensively in Europe are extremely expensive to build and produce limited but commercial—amounts of power.

7-    However, once installed a wind turbine is said to produce electricity at low cost.

8-     Wind turbines are very unsightly – visual pollution.

9-    To get the advantage of steady wind they are often on hilltops where they are visible for many miles.

10- They are very noisy and work only when there is wind, though careful designs allow them to work in very light breezes too.

L Q7: Talk about how life would change in a small village if electricity was brought to it.

Some of the obvious changes due to electrification in the villages would be better agricultural output because of tube wells, access to telecommunication and electronic media, and improvement in living standards, with electricity for domestic use.




L Q1:

                Why is it important for a country to develop as much industry as possible?


Developing industry is so much more profitable than agriculture as industrial products are far more

valuable as exports.

L Q2: Why is it a good idea to use as much home-produced raw material as possible?              

Using home-produced raw materials (limestone, sulphur, leather, etc.) is much more economical than importing them—oil, steel, machinery, transport.

L Q3: Describe the process by which raw cotton   converted into yarn?

Answer in textbook page 49.

L Q4:   Where are the sulphur mines located in Pakistan?                

The sulphur mines are located in Koh-i-Sultan range in Balochistan. (A good exercise to find a place

in the atlas, using the index.)

L Q5: Where are the cement-manufacturing plants located in Pakistan?

Cement: students to locate main plants on page 31 of the Oxford School Atlas for Pakistan.

L Q6: Why does the government consider cottage and small-scale industries so important? (Think about the people who run these industries: how do they benefit?

Small-scale and cottage industries (a) provide an income in areas where there is little except

subsistence agriculture and (b) try to prevent migration to the cities, where there is little accommodation or work.

L Q7:   Look at the three main given cities for cotton production and the cotton-growing

areas. Each city has some advantages and some disadvantages, What are these?

(Notice how far they are from the main cotton-growing areas, and the distance to

a major port for exporting the cotton and importing machinery, transport links,

workforce, etc.)


Processing of cotton needs balance of being near to industry and transport, especially by sea, as

cotton is such a major export item. Karachi and Hyderabad are outside the main cotton growing

areas, but both have industrial and communication potential, and large workforce makes them central

to cotton manufacture. Faisalabad is in the cotton belt. As said in the text, there are many smaller

areas of cotton processing and manufacturing, largely to supply local needs.

L Q8:

For which sports is Pakistan world-famous? Name some of our players who are known and recognized all over the world.


Hockey, cricket, squash, tennis, and table tennis. Students can name some famous players.























































L Q1:

                Why is tourism a popular industry   the South Asian states?


South Asia is a popular destination for tourists, especially from the West, because it is exotic, the

climate in many countries is excellent; these countries are by western standards very cheap; people

enjoy the food, the scenic spots and the beaches, as well as the antiquities.

L Q2: What do you think low land height means for the Maldives?                          

The low land height puts Maldives in danger of submersion in case of storms. The threat of global

warming and rising sea levels are a very real danger to Maldives which is only 1.5 metres above sea


L Q3:

Which industry in India is the most well-known today? Find out and write a few



Students to research and share collected data in class.

L Q4:   From your atlas, find out the names and heights of important peaks in the



Answer with reference to atlas.





L Q1:

                ‘Recycling’ means making use of old and discarded things,

(a) Give two examples of how old household goods are 

(b) Can you think of some people who collect material tor 

(c) Name three causes of atmospheric pollution,


a) Old equipment/appliances are dismantled to recover and reuse any usable parts.

Wet or kitchen garbage can be made into compost.

Tins can be melted and metal reused.

Paper mashed down and made into more, but coarser paper; usually brown.

Bottles can me melted down and reused for more bottles, but this is expensive and not usually


Rags, cloth can be used to make better quality paper; other metals—melted for further use.

b) Old paper, utensils, and glassware are bought by waste dealers who later sort and sell it as scrap.

c) Smoke from factories, motor vehicle exhaust fumes, chemicals from factories, domestic fires.

L Q2: lf you live near a beach, a lake, or a river, observe if it is dean and Weil maintained

or have visitors dumped the litter into the water. How does this affect marine ilte?

How can this be stopped?                         


Careless littering of beaches and dumping of waste products and trash into water sources is not only

unsightly but it can also be toxic; it destroys marine life—both plants and animals—and disturbs the

balance of the ecosystem.

This can be stopped by creating awareness among people using these facilities and taking measures

to clean up.

L Q3: Make a wall-display chart, showing the different kinds or environmental polutionn we see around us.

Answers to questions 3 and 4 are based on research work and discussion.

L Q4:     Find out if there is an environmental protection agency in the country? How does it help?

Answers to questions 3 and 4 are based on research work and discussion.





L Q1:

                How do we gather information about a country’s population?


Information regarding a country’s population can be gathered from records kept and through a


L Q2: What are some of the problems of having so many languages in one country? What language do you speak at home?                      

More languages mean more variety in the composition of a country, but each group gives much

importance to its own language, as it is a mark of its identity. In Pakistan, all languages though spoken

differently, are written in the same script. In India, there is great diversity in the range of languages

spoken and written and in the scripts also, north to south. Secondly, education and official communication may not be possible in all the languages in a country,

so there is generally one official or state language.

L Q3: Would you like to live in a city or on a farm? Discuss the differences.

A good theme for discussion.

L Q4:    A number of people in the past have tried to invent a ‘world language Find out more about this. (The main one is Esperanto.) Would it be a good idea to have one language for the whole world? lf so, which one?               

A theme for general discussion.

L Q5: The most widely spoken language in the world is Chinese: why do you think this is so?       

Chinese is obviously the language most spoken in the world, because China has the highest

population for any country on Earth.

L Q6:    What does SAARC stand for? When and where did the last SAARC meeting take place?

The last SAARC meeting took place in Pakistan in January 2004.

L Q7: Find out about the national languages and main religions of the SAARC countries.          





L Q1:

                Why are values important for people? Describe two values that are important to you and your family.


Values are essential to living a pleasant and beneficial life. This has been explained above. Some good

values are respect for all, our elders, friends, siblings, teachers and the less fortunate; obeying the

rules of our institutions and the laws of the land; being honest and truthful—this needs much courage

at times; being caring and considerate.

L Q2:

                 All religions teach similar values. Name any three values that   common to Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism.           


Values common to Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism have been discussed above—helping the weak

and oppressed; respecting difference of beliefs; valuing life and protecting it. This question is open

to discussion as all major religions teach the same good values and morals.

L Q3:

What is the importance of human rights?


Human rights are for the benefit of all. It helps the people to understand their rights and also serves

as a reminder so that people do not trespass the rights of others.

L Q4:

Name three rights that you think are important for children. Why?       


A good topic for discussion.

L Q5:

          We have briefly talked about respect for each other and society. Find out what respect for life, respect for law, and respect for the environment means


Respect for life is valuing the life of all living things, not only a prohibition on taking life, but the

protection and improvement of life for others; respect for law means obeying the laws of our faith,

our country, our community, our school, our parents; respect for the environment is to protect the

environment and make it sustainable for all and not to harm it.

LQ:6 Can you think of three more things you can do to be a good citizen? Have yoo helped anyone in any way? Describe it briefly.

Students to discuss and share their experiences with the class.




CH: 16 EARLY PAKISTAN                  P:78


L Q1:

      Reading about Mohenjo Daro, how would you describe the city?             


From the ruins, it is assumed that

a.        Mohenjo Daro was a remarkable and sophisticated city.

b.        It was well planned and laid out symmetrically as can be seen from the ruins.

c.          Houses were made of mud and bricks; they had toilets and a good drainage system.

d.        The city also had a great bath and the remains of a great hall with pillars suggest that it may have been a parliament or government building.

L Q2:

                        Can you suggest other things that might have happened to make the people leave? Or had they gone before new invaders swept into the subcontinent?

L Q3:

             Write down the similarities between the modern cart and the 4000-year-old one.                


Comparison of ancient and present-day bullock carts:

i.                -wheels virtually identical;

ii.            -curved wooden chassis;

iii.           -two oxen power;

iv.            -pole sticking up from chassis to support load.

These are present in the modern cart, but only the holes remain at the back of the ancient one; driver in same position.

L Q4:       

               Working in groups, prepare and display presentations on the Indus Valley Civilization.



1.Who were the first people to enter present-day Pakistan?

What was their route and when did they arrive here?


  1. Modern Pakistan has a wide range of races, languages and customs. Why is this so?



  1. i) The cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were discovered in
  2. 1820s b. 1920s c. 4500bce d. 2000bce
  3. ii) Construction in Mohenjo Daro and Harappa was done using
  4. wood b. cement c. mud bricks steel

iii) The original inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization were

  1. Aryans b. Mughals c. Arabs d. Dravidians
  2. iv) The Indus Valley people were
  3. warriors b. invaders c. scholars d. farmers


Give reasons to explain the following statements.

  1. It is believed that the Indus Empire was ruled by priests.


  1. The people of Mohenjo Daro used grains or goods for payment or trade.


  1. Archaeologists found fragments of cotton cloth during excavation in Mohenjo Daro; similar cloth pieces were also found in Mesopotamian excavations.


  1. A huge bath with steps leading to it, a proper sewage system with drains, and houses with water-proofed floors were discovered.



1. The Aryans came from the North-west through the Khyber Pass in 1500 bc.

2. Many of the invaders, conquerors or raiders who came into this region settled down here and they influenced the local culture, customs and language.
3. i) = b) – 1920s; ii) = c) – mud bricks; iii) = d) – Dravidians; iv) = d) farmers
4. a. No signs of palaces have been discovered.

b. They had no concept of money; no coins have been discovered.

c. It shows that the people knew how to grow and process cotton into cloth, and that the traded in fabrics with Mesopotamia.

d. These show that this civilization was advanced for its time as the buildings were properly planned and constructed.



L Q1:

                Who were the Aryans? What is their importance?


Aryans were the nomads from Central Asia who came in to the subcontinent of Asia and settled here.

The Aryans defeated the local people and soon took over most of India. They are the forefathers of

the present Hindus and the Hindu religion is based on the beliefs of the Aryans.

L Q2: Explain what is meant by the caste system. How did this begin?                      

The caste system was brought by the Aryans. This system, based on occupations, was very rigid and

people could not change their caste. According to their occupation the people were divided in four castes as mentioned below in order

of rank and importance:

Brahmins or the priests who conducted all religious activities;

Kshatriyas or the warriors i.e. the kings and their soldiers;

Vaishyas who were the traders or businessmen and farmers;

Shudras who were the lowest in rank comprising of the servants and labourers.

L Q3:

Why was Sanskrit important?


Sanskrit, the language of the Aryans is important as it is the basis of many other languages such as

Hindi, Latin, French, and English.

L Q4:   Look at the drawing above and say why the Greeks were able to defeat their



The Greeks were able to defeat their opponents because of the fighting strategy that they used,

which was the phalanx. A phalanx was a type of a miniature fortress of soldiers who attacked their

opponents with spears.

L Q5: Refer back to the information in Chapter 14 and make a time line of the invaders of the subcontinent.         

Timeline to be made with reference to major invasions in the subcontinent.






L Q1:              

What were Buddha’s teachings about?


Some of BUDDHA’S TEACHINGS are as follows:

1.        Rebirth—people are reborn according to their ‘karma’ or deeds;

2.        good deeds result in better life and bad deeds result in being born in a lower state.

3.        Importance of leading a moderate life  Equal status for all people

4.          Non-violence

5.          Working honestly and diligently.

L Q2:

               Why did Asoka become a Buddhist?               


Asoka, the Mauryan emperor, became a Buddhist after the Battle of Kalinga, when he saw the death and sufferings of the soldiers and prisoners.

L Q3:

              Compare Asoka’s reforms with government reforms in the twentieth century.         



Write brief Answers to the questions below.

  1. When and where did Buddhism begin?



  1. Why did Siddhartha leave his palace? How old was he?



  1. Briefly explain what is meant by ‘karma’.



  1. Which one of Asoka’s reforms could have been most popular with the common people?




  1. List Buddha’s Four-Fold Noble truths.



  1. Choose the correct Ans.
  2. The Mauryans invaded the subcontinent in about
  3. i) 500bce ii) 100ce iii) 300ce iv) 300bce
  4. The Mauryans invaded the subcontinent from
  5. i) Bihar in the east ii) Khyber Pass in the westiii) Khunjerab Pass in the north iv) Sri Lanka in the south
  6. Asoka’s laws were known as the
  7. i) Eight-Fold Path ii) edicts iii) rock carvings iv) reforms
  8. The event that changed Asoka’s beliefs was i) an earthquake ii) the birth of Siddharthaiii) the Battle of Kalinga iv) the death of the Buddha
  10. He abolished the————————————.
  11. ———————————————were opened for people and animals.
  12. There were rest homes for————————.
  13. The killing of wild animals was ——————.
  14. ———————————-were made less severe.
  15. All ——————————– were treated alike.


1. a. Buddhism began in the sixth century bce in North-eastern India.

b. He left home at the age of 29 in search of truth because he was upset to see people suffer.

c. Karma means that people’s actions in life determine their fate after death.

d. Abolition of the caste system and equality for all could be the most popular.

2. See  ON book P:83.
3. a = iv) b = i) c = ii) d = iii)
4. a = caste system; b= hospitals; c = old people; d = forbidden; e = Punishments; f = religions


1. a. Buddhism began in the sixth century bce in North-eastern India.

b. He left home at the age of 29 in search of truth because he was upset to see people suffer.

c. Karma means that people’s actions in life determine their fate after death.

d. Abolition of the caste system and equality for all could be the most popular.

2. See the textbook page 83.

3. a = iv) b = i) c = ii) d = iii)

4. a = caste system; b= hospitals; c = old people; d = forbidden; e = Punishments; f = religions



L Q1:

                What made Gandhara an important pisaee in the paet?


Gandhara was an important state in the north-west Pakistan due to many reasons.

Some are listed below:

It was on the crossroad of trade routes.

Because sculptors, artists, writers, and teachers settled here, it was a great place for


New styles of art were created here, especially sculpture. Taxila, the capital city, was flourishing and prospering and had many monasteries and temples.

L Q2: Write what you know about the Kushans.               

The Kushans came from Central Asia; they were Buddhists; their most famous ruler was Kanishka.

Under the Kushans their empire in the subcontinent prospered. Buddhism spread into two branches

during this period.

L Q3: Who was Harsha and how do we know about him?

Harsha was a very forward-looking ruler who supported education and restored the Nalanda

University; he rebuilt the Gupta Empire that had been destroyed by the Huns. He was also an

accomplished writer in his own right. We know about Harsha from the accounts of Huien Tsang, the

Chinese scholar.

L Q4:   Discuss in class what you have learnt from the reamrzzis of the past (fifth to seventh centuries).                







L Q1:                 

What was the significant event that took place in Arabia?


The significant event that took place in Arabia was THE BIRTH OF THE HOLY PROPHET (ﷺ) in 570ce, which leads;

-the revelation of the Quran to the Prophet (ﷺ) and

-the beginning of the religion Islam.

L Q2:            

Where did the early Muslims migrate to and why?


The early Muslims migrated to Abyssinia to escape harassment of the leaders in Makka.

L Q3:

          How did Islam spread across North Africa, Asia, and parts of Europe?                   


Islam spread with the grace of ALLAH ALL-MIGHTY  in different directions as result of:

– preachers of Islam,

– military campaigns,

-traders and merchants who spread Islam when they travelled for trade purposes.

L Q4:      

      What was the important event in the subcontinent as mentioned in the last chapter?


The significant event in the subcontinent in the eighth century was the ARRIVAL OF MOHAMMAD BIN QASIM in Sindh.

Sindh became a part of the Arab Umayyad Empire, and this event also foretold the establishment of Muslim rule in later centuries.



  1. Choose the correct Ans.
  2. i) Arabia was a
  3. a) fertile b) landlocked c) desert   d) waterlogged
  4. ii) The Persian Empire was to the of Arabia.
  5. a) north b) south c)  east   d) west

iii)   was the good and wise god of the Zoroastrians.

  1. a) Ahura Mazda b) Ahriman c) Brahma   d) Jehovah
  2. iv) The were Eastern Orthodox Christians.
  3. a) Aryans b) Huns c) Turks   d)  Byzantines


  2. The ———————— was built by ————————— (as) and his son Hazrat Ismail (as).
  3. The first migration of the Muslims was from—————————- to ———————-, led by—————————— .
  4. The Holy Prophet (ﷺ) migrated from—————————- to —————————- in the year .
  5. The ——————————–, who held an important position, were the————————– of Hazrat Muhammad (ﷺ).
  6. ——————————was the last year of Quranic revelation.
  7. Islam was taken to other lands by——————— ,——————— , and—————————.



  1. i) What was the religion of the Arabs before the advent of Islam?



  1. ii) Who was the ruler of Abyssinia and what was his religion?



iii) Why was he impressed by the Muslim migrants?

  1. iv) What is a ‘manjaneeq’ and what is its use?


1. i) = c; ii) = a; iii) a; iv) = d
2. a) Kaaba, Hazrat Ibrahim (as)

b) Makkah, Abyssinia, Jafar ibn Abu Talib (ra)

c) Makkah, Madina, 622ce

d) Banu Hashim, ancestors

e) 632ce

f) merchants, travellers, armies

3. i) They were pagans and worshipped idols.

ii) The ruler was Christian called Negus.

iii) He was impressed by Jafar’s recitation of Quranic verses in praise of Hazrat Maryam (as) and

Hazrat Isa (as).

iv) A manjaneeq is a very large catapult used in battle to hurl rocks at enemy forts during a siege.





L Q1:                         

Do you think Mohammad bin Qasim was a popular ruler? Why?

L Q2:

      Who do you think was the most influential ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty? Give your reasons.                        


The Ghaznavid ruler described in detail is Mahmud, obviously the most well known for his several invasions of the subcontinent which made him very rich and powerful, and the legacy he left behind.

L Q3:

     Why do you think Razia Sultana’s officers did not like being led by a woman? How much does this attitude still exist? Should the best person, man or woman, be allowed to rule?                        


Razia Sultana was far more capable and intelligent than her brothers and had won her father’s confidence—he trained her to be his successor. However, her brothers and other nobles of her court did not like to obey a woman ruler.



i.Raja Dahir


a)    remained part of the Arab territory for 200 years after fall of Daibul.
ii.Mohammad bin Qasim


b) crossed Central Asia from China to Europe.
iii.Sindh and southern Punjab c) was the ruler of Daibul who was defeated by Mohammad bin Qasim.
iv.  Sindhi


d) was Subuktagin’s son; he invaded the subcontinent many times
v. The Silk Road


e) was the 17-year-old nephew of Hajjaj bin yousuf.
vi) Mahmud Ghaznavi f) was the first eastern language into which the Quran wastranslated.


  2. i) The concept of zero was brought from the by the—————————.
  3. ii) The Silk Road linked China to————————————- and the —————————————————–.

iii) The Qutb Minar was begun by——————————————but completed  ——————————————————later.

  1. iv) ———————————————–was the only female ruler of the Delhi Sultanate; she was————————————–daughter.
  2. v) Life at the Tughlaq court has been recorded by———————————— , the famous——————————————-
  3. vi) ——————————————,—————————————- the Mongol leader, attacked in 1398.



1. i) = c) ii) = e) iii) = a) iv) = f) v) = b) vi) = d)
2. i) subcontinent, Arabs

ii) Europe, subcontinent

iii) Qutbuddin Aibak, 200 years

iv) Razia Sultana, Iltutmish’s

v) Ibn Batuta, Moroccan

vi) Timur, Delhi:


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