NOTES: NEW OXFORD SOCIAL STUDIES 3 2015
Lesson 1 The Earth in space PAGE:2
|QUESTION 1: What do we find in space?|
|ANSWER:We can find millions of stars and planets in space.|
|QUESTION 2: What is the Earth called?|
|ANSWER:The Earth is called a planet. A planet is a heavenly body that moves in an elliptical (oval) shaped path (orbit) round a star. Since the Earth moves around the Sun, it is called a planet.|
|QUESTION 3: What is the Sun made of?|
|ANSWER:The Sun is made up of very, very hot gases and is a star.|
|QUESTION 4: What is the Earth surrounded by?|
|ANSWER:The Earth is surrounded by air called the atmosphere. After a certain number of kilometres upward in space, there is no air, hence no atmosphere. There is just an empty, dark, airless expanse known as space.|
|QUESTION 5: Does the Earth stay in one place?|
|ANSWER:The Earth is constantly spinning (moving in a circular direction) on its axis.|
|QUESTION 6: How do day and night take place?|
|ANSWER:The spinning movement of the Earth causes day and night.|
- Daylight : the part of time on the side of the Earth which is facing the Sun.
- Earth : the planet where we live.
- The Moon : a natural satellite of the Earth.
- Night : the part of time on the side of the Earth facing away from the Sun.
- 365 days or one year : the time the Earth takes to go round the Sun.
A planet is a heavenly body that moves in an oval orbit round a star.
Not liquid or hollow, with no gaps or spaces.
The throw back of light, heat, or sound from one surface to another surface.
An object that is separate from something else, but dependent on or controlled by it.
Lesson 2 Land and water PAGE:6
|QUESTION 1: What is the difference between a sea and an ocean|
|ANSWER:An ocean is a large mass of salt water covering the surface of the Earth. A sea is a mass of salt water smaller than an ocean.|
|QUESTION 2: What is a sandy place without much water called?|
|ANSWER:A dry, sandy place without water is called a desert.|
|QUESTION 3: Where would you find a valley?|
|ANSWER:A valley is a low land found between hills or mountains.|
|QUESTION 4: Does the water in the sea remain still?|
|ANSWER:The water in the sea is constantly moving with the help of currents, and along with the wind this also creates waves.|
|QUESTION 5: What happens when there is a storm at sea?|
|ANSWER:The sea becomes very rough when there is a storm. Strong winds create very high waves.|
A: FILL IN THE BLANKS:
- A————————- is high flat land.
- The area where the land meets the sea at the same level is called———–
- Water surrounded on all sides by land is called a———————————-
- A small area of land surrounded by water is called an—————————
- A PLATEAU 2. COAST 3. LAKE 4. ISLAND
B: WRITE TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F)
- A plain is low,flat land.
- Dirty water demages plant and animal life.
- Rivers flow from the sea to land.
- Mountains are higher than hills.
- Low land between the mountains is called a bay.
ANS:1 True 2 True 3 False 4 False 5 False
Lesson 3 Maps PAGE:10
|QUESTION 1: What would you find in an atlas?|
|ANSWER:Different kinds of maps|
|QUESTION 2: What three things must a map have?|
|QUESTION 3: Try to find the location of Pakistan on a world map. Is it in the north, the
south, or in the middle?
|ANSWER:In the middle|
A: Names of continents Names of oceans
1 North America
2 South America
B: Pupils to do this on their own or in pairs.
Lesson 4 Climate PAGE:13
|QUESTION 1: What is climate? How is it different from weather.|
|ANSWER:Climate is the usual or typical weather a place has over a period of years. The weather changes from day to day.|
|QUESTION 2: Describe the kind of climate in your area?|
|ANSWER:Generally, we have a warm climate in Pakistan, but with cold winters in the northern and north-western areas.|
|QUESTION 3: Which is the coldest part of Pakistan?|
|ANSWER:The coldest parts of Pakistan are the mountainous northern areas.|
|QUESTION 4: How can you find out the climate of a place?|
|ANSWER:This can be done by using certain instruments that measure air pressure, wind speed, rainfall, temperature, and humidity.|
Work Page :14
A: Glossary of climate instruments:
3 rain gauge
Lesson 5 Our country PAGE:17
|QUESTION 1: In which part of the country do we have a coastline?|
|ANSWER:We have a coastline in the south, along the Arabian Sea.|
|QUESTION 2: How many provinces are there in Pakistan? Name them?|
|ANSWER:There are four provinces: Sindh, Balochistan, the Punjab, and the NWFP; Gilgit-Baltistan is a self-governing region.|
|QUESTION 3: Where is Islamabad located?|
|ANSWER:Islamabad is in upper Punjab.|
|QUESTION 4: Which countries share a border with Pakistan?|
share borders with Pakistan.
Look at the map. Use a green crayon to shade your province and a blue crayon to shade the sea.
Write these names in the correct places:
Punjab Khyber Pakhtun Khwa
Arabian Sea Rive Indus
Quetta Gilgit- Baltistan
Children will make two lists:
one of at least ten cities of Pakistan and the other of the languages they speak at home.
Lesson 6 Our national identity PAGE:20
|QUESTION 1: Describe the Pakistani flag?|
|ANSWER:Rectangular with a white stripe to the left (representing the minorities), and a deep green background with a white crescent and a star. The colours of the flag are green and white.|
|QUESTION 2: What things do most Pakistanis have in common?|
|ANSWER:We all eat the same food, have similar names and have the same religion, speak the same language and use the same money.|
|QUESTION 3: What languages can you speak?|
|ANSWER:Ask each pupil to tell the class how many languages he/she can speak.|
|QUESTION 4: What language does Susan speak?|
|QUESTION 5: What, do you think, are Susan’s favourite foods?|
|ANSWER:Pupils will write their own answers.|
2 A sentence in Urdu
3 A coloured drawing of the Pakistani flag
4 Pak sarzameen shaad baad
5 shalwar kameez
7 the rupee
9 spicy food (or name a favourite Pakistani dish)
Lesson 7 For all to use PAGE:23
|QUESTION 1: Which of the services named in the lesson do you use?|
|ANSWER:We use the services of street cleaners, the postman, the police, and the firefighters.|
|QUESTION 2: How is a government chosen?|
|ANSWER:Through an election, by voting, and choosing the people who will make the rules for us.|
|QUESTION 3: What does the government do?|
|ANSWER:It decides how much tax we have to pay; it provides us with services such as building roads and public buildings; it provides us with water, electricity, and transport.|
|QUESTION 4: What is tax? How is it used?|
|ANSWER:Tax is money collected from the citizens which is used to provide services for them.|
Work Page :24
1 Walking on a street. Free
4 Breathing fresh air. Free
8 Drying clothes in the sun. Free
B: Pupils can do this task individually with a little guidance from the teacher if required.
Lesson 8 Services PAGE:27
|QUESTION 1: Who might you find working at the following places? A fire station A police station A hospital|
|ANSWER:A firefighter, policemen, doctors and nurses|
|QUESTION 2: Have you seen a fire engine or an ambulance on the road?|
|ANSWER:The answer would obviously be ‘Yes’.|
|QUESTION 3: Where do you think it was going?|
|ANSWER:A fire engine would be going to a site on fire to put it out and an ambulance would be rushing a patient to a hospital for treatment.|
|QUESTION 4: What work do the police do?|
|ANSWER:The job of the police is to keep us and our property safe.|
Work Page :28
3 social service
Work Page :28
5 hospital, ambulance
Lesson 9 Transport PAGE:33
|QUESTION 1: What does a tanker carry?|
|ANSWER:A tanker carries oil and fuel, such as petrol and diesel.|
|QUESTION 2: What is a ferry used for?|
|ANSWER:A ferry ferries (carries) people and cargo across a river or water channel.|
|QUESTION 3: Which is the fastest way of travelling?|
|ANSWER:Travelling by air.|
|QUESTION 4: Have you ever travelled by aeroplane or by boat? Describe your journey.|
|ANSWER:Pupils will write their own answers.|
1 A motorcycle
2 An aeroplane
3 A horse carriage or tonga
4 An auto rickshaw
5 A bull
6 Bullock cart
Lesson 10 Road safety PAGE:36
|QUESTION 1: What are the rules for crossing a busy road?|
|ANSWER:a. Always cross at a zebra crossing.b. Before crossing a road, make sure you look both ways. Look first to your right, then to the left and once again to the right. If there is no traffic coming from either side, you may cross the road.
c. Do not cross from behind a parked vehicle.
|QUESTION 2: Why do you think it is not a good idea to be noisy or to talk to the driver
when you are travelling in a car or bus?
|ANSWER:The driver may become distracted by the noise or talk and cause an accident.|
|QUESTION 3: Why are traffic rules important?|
|ANSWER:Traffic rules are important for our safety and for preventing accidents.|
|QUESTION 4: Where are the traffic rules given?|
|ANSWER:They are given in the Highway Code.|
Work Page :37
B Individual exercise.
Lesson 11 Work
- Who do you think is paid the best, a professional, a skilled, or a unskilled worker?
Answer: A professional
- What kind of workers work in a factory?
Answer: Skilled and semi-skilled
- Name two kinds of people who are not paid for the work they do
Answer: Volunteers and homemakers
- Why do people have to work?
Answer: To earn money, to afford to live their lives; to look after themselves and their families; to keep themselves busy and occupied; to support their families; to take pride in their ability.
Work Page: 40
B:Match the following PROFESSIONS with their DESCRIPTIONS;
|a. works on a ship.
b. makes bread and cake.
c. works with numbers and sums.
d. studies the stars.
e. flies aeroplanes
f. acts in plays and films.
g. defends the country.
h. cooks food
i. checks people’s teeth.
Lesson 12 Money and banks PAGE:44
|Question 1.What does barter mean?|
|Barter means to exchange something you have for something someone else has, that you want or need.|
|Question 2. Where and when was money first used?|
|In the seventh century BC, the Lydians invented money, by trading with gold.
|Question 3. Why do people keep their money in banks?|
|It is not safe to keep large sums of money at home or carry it around.|
|Question 4. Why do you think people found barter difficult|
|They could not carry the coins or heavy sacks of grain to the market every time. It was not practical or convenient.|
B:Match the following;
4 Saudi Arabia
Lesson 13 Calendars PAGE:48
|Question 1. Why are calendars important?|
|Calendars are important because they tell us the year, the day of the month, and the day of the week.|
|Question 2. Which event marks the start of the Islamic calendar?|
|Answer:The journey or Hijrah of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) from Makkah to Madina.|
|Question3. What do the letters AD and BC stand for?|
|Answer: BC stands for Before Christ; AD is Anno Domini which means ‘in the year of our Lord’ in Latin.|
|Question 4. How many weeks are there in a month?|
|Answer: There are four weeks in a month.|
|Question 5: What are the differences between the lunar and solar calendars?|
|Answer: The lunar calendar has 354 days whereas the Gregorian calendar has 365 days. Each lunar month begins with the sighting of the new moon whereas all dates in a Gregorian calendar are predetermined.|
Lesson 14 Festivals Page:52
|Question1: Why do we celebrate festivals?|
|Answer: To honour a person, an event, or an occasion as a mark of respect.|
|Question2: What religious festival is celebrated in Zilhij?|
|Answer: Eid-ul-Azha. This festival celebrates the spirit of sacrifice of Hazrat Ibrahim (AS).|
|Question3: When did Pakistan become an independent country?|
|Answer: On 14 August 1947.|
|Question4: What events are celebrated in Pakistan on 25 December every year?|
|Answer: We celebrate the birthday of Quaid-i-Azam, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the founder of our nation. Christians also celebrate Christmas Day on 25 December which marks the day that Jesus Christ (Hazrat Isa AS) was born.|
A: When are these festivals celebrated? Write the DATE and MONTH.
1- Eid-e-Milad-un- Nabi = 12 Rabi ul Awwal
2- Eid-ul- Fitr = 1 Shawwal
3-Christmas Day = 25 December
4- Labour Day =1 May
5-Pakistan Day = 23 March
6- Eid-ul- Azha =10 Zilhij
7- Independence Day = 14 August
8- Nouroz = 21 March
Lesson 15 Cities Page:56
|Question1: Where did people start the first settlements?|
|Answer: Settlements began where there was safety, water, and enough food.|
|Question2: Can you explain what an industrial city is?|
|Answer: An industrial city is the one where there are many factories.|
|Question3: What is needed to start an industrial city?|
|Answer: An industrial city is usually started in a place which has minerals, and a good source of water and power nearby.|
|Question4: Which is the largest city in your province?|
|Answer: Help pupils to do this—in the NWFP, it is Peshawar; in Balochistan, it is Quetta; in the Punjab, it is Lahore; in Sindh, it is Karachi.|
|Question5: What is the Three R principle? Why is it important?|
|Answer: The Three R principle is Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. It is important for keeping the environment clean and healthy; it also reduces wastage of valuable resources.|
- Work Page:57
A: Complete the following FACT FILE about the cities of Pakistan.
1-Pakistan’s capital city= Islamabad
2- Provincial capials
Khyber Pakhtun Khaw=Peshawar,
3-A city in the Punjab, famous for industry= Faisalabad
4- A city in the Punjab, famous for sports goods= Sialkot
5- Another city in the Punjab, famous for its shrines= Multan
6- The largest city= Karachi, Sindh
7- The port city=Karachi, Sindh
B:Match the following CAPITALS with their COUNTRIES;
2. New Delhi
4. Washington DC
|—United States of America
Lesson 16 Life in a village PAGE:60
|Question1: Why do more people live in the countryside in Pakistan?|
|Answer: Because Pakistan is an agricultural country.|
|Question2: Name the services villagers do not have.|
|Answer: There are no libraries, no museums, no parks, or zoos in the villages.|
|Question3: What are some of the crafts you might find in villages?|
|Answer: Some villagers are skilled in making things out of wood or metal; some people can make things like baskets, ornaments, beautiful shawls, and carpets.|
|Question4: Describe the work that most villagers do.|
|Answer: They are mostly farmers and work in the fields; they can mend ploughs and carts and some are blacksmiths, carpenters, potters, and cobblers.|
|Question5: Why do you think young children in the village help adults with
|Answer: Because work in the fields is manual labour and as many field hands are required to do it as may be possible.|
Lesson 17 Early people: PAGE:65
|Question1: How did early people first make fire?|
|Answer: By rubbing two sticks or two stones together, till the heat created a spark which became a flame.|
|Question2: Why was fire useful?|
|Answer: Fire was useful in cooking food, keeping warm, and it kept wild animals away.|
|Question3: What tools helped early people to move heavy loads?|
|Answer: Lever helped early people to move heavy loads.|
|Question4: In what ways do we use wheels today?|
|Answer: In bicycles, motorcycles, cars, buses, trucks, steam-rollers, turbines, carts, and aircrafts.|
|Question5: What were the different ages that early humans lived through?|
|Answer: The Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Copper Age, and the Iron Age.|
|Question6: What, do you think, was the most useful invention made by early
humans? Explain your choice.
|Answer: Pupils to write their own answers.|
Work Page :66
- DISCOVER=To find out
- INVENT=To create, to make
- CIVILIZE=To go from being savage to civil
4.AXLE= A rod that passes through the centre of a wheel or a set of wheels
- LEVER=A bar that is moved to operate a mechanism, to move weights
- 1. An anthropologist = a person who studies how people live and behave.
- An archaeologist = a person who studies very old things to find out about the past.
- Dating = the process used to find the age of very old objects.
- The Bronze Age = a period in history when most things were made from BRONZE.
- The Copper Age = a period in history when most things were made from COPPER.
- The Iron Age = A period in history when most things were made from IRON.
- The Stone Age =A period in history when most things were made from STONE.
Lesson 18 Religion Page:69
|Question1: What is the holy book of the Muslims called?|
|Answer: The Holy Quran or the Quran Shareef.|
|Question2: Who are the Parsees?|
|Answer: Parsees are people who lived in Persia (present-day Iran) and who practise Zoroastrianism.|
|Question3: When did Buddha live?|
|Answer: Buddha lived about 2500 years ago.|
|Question4: What is the Bible?|
|Answer: The Bible is the holy book of the Christians.|
|Question5: Why do the Hindus have many idols?|
|Answer: They worship God in many forms.|
Work Page Fact file
- a) Islam b) Quran Shareef c) Muslims
2 – a) Hinduism b) Vedas c) Hindus
3- a) Christianity b) The Bible c) Christians
B : MATCH THE PROPHETS AND RELIGIOUS TEACHERS WITH RELIGIONS THEY STARTED;
|THE PROPHETS AND RELIGIOUS TEACHERS||RELIGIONS|
5. Guru Nanak
Lesson 19 Human rights PAGE:74
|Question1: Name the basic human rights given in this lesson.|
|Answer: a) The right to eat food.
b) The right to clothing.
c) The right to shelter.
d) The right to education.
e) The right to be loved.
|Question2: What rights do children have?|
|Answer: Children have a right to be loved and be cared for, to education, to food, clothing and shelter, to medical care, to be the first to get relief in a disaster or emergency, to belong to a country, to live in peace and brotherhood.|
|Question3: Why is love important for human beings?|
|Answer: All God’s creatures need love and care: grown-up people, children, animals and birds, insects and plants. If we are loved, we thrive and grow, are confident, and have a sense of security.|
|Question4: Which right, do you think, is most important for you? Why?|
|Answer: Children to write their own answers.|
|Question5: Why are duties as important as rights?|
|Answer: Rights can be available only if duties are being performed, because one person’s duty is another person’s right. Duties are important because we can ask for rights only when we know our responsibilities and do our duty.|
|Question6: How can you make the world a happier place?|
|Answer: Our world would be a happier place if all the people got their due rights.|