NOTES: NEW OXFORD MODERN ENGLISH LEVEL 8 NICHOLAS HORSBURGH 2nd Edition

NOTES: NEW OXFORD MODERN ENGLISH LEVEL 8 NICHOLAS HORSBURGH (2nd Ed)

CONTENTS

Unit 1 I stood tiptoe upon a little hill

Unit 2 How it happened

Unit 3 The newcomer

Unit 4 The silver lining

Unit 5 The solitary reaper

Unit 6 Three cups of tea

Unit 7 Children understand him

Unit 8 The Chowgarh tigers

Unit 9 Last lesson of the afternoon

Unit 10 The open window

Unit 11 The west wind

Unit 12 John Keats

Unit 13 To autumn

Unit 14 Through the iron curtain

Unit 15 My familiar

Unit16 Bees

Unit 17 If

Unit 18 Baby Austin

Unit 19 The Inchcape Rock

Unit 20 Mother’s day

 

 

U:1  I STOOD TIPTOE UPON A LITTLE HILL(poem) P:4-5

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
a. Why do you think the poet was standing tiptoe?
ANSWER:

The poet was standing tip-toe because he was eager (possibly‘ greedy’) to see all the sights of nature around him.

c.  What simile is used for the clouds?
ANSWER:

The clouds are compared to flocks of sheep, pure and white.

g. How did the poet feel at this time of the morning?
ANSWER:

The poet felt light-hearted, and a slight and free as thought he fanning wings of Mercury had played upon his heels.

h. What did the poet do as a consequence?
ANSWER:

The poet straight away began to pluck a posy.

 

  1. Reference to context
  2. Reference to context
  3. Had not yet lost those starry diadems
  4. What had not yet lost those diadems?
    ii. What does ‘diadems’ mean?

iii. Where are the diadems, and where did they come from?

  1. sweetly they slept
  2. What is it that slept?
  3. What does the poet compare these ‘sleepers’ to?
    iii. Where did they sleep?
  4. What happened then?

Answers:

  1. The sweet buds had not yet lost those diadems.
  2. diadems: crowning distinction or glory

iii. The diadems are on the buds and stems, and they became the moisture in the early morning air.

  1. the clouds in the form of a flock of white sheep
  2. a flock of sheep

iii. on the blue fields of heaven

  1. then there crept / a little noiseless noise among the leaves, / born of the very sigh that silence heaves

 

U:2       HOW IT HAPPENED         P:10413

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
c. Why did the man want to drive the car that night?
ANSWER:

The man wanted to drive the car that night because it was a new one which he had never driven before, and he wanted to try it out.

d. In what way did the man justify his foolishness?
ANSWER:

The man said that it was foolish to beg into learn a new system in the dark. He justified this by saying that one often does foolish things, and one does not always have to pay the full price for them.

e. In what way was the road home dangerous?
ANSWER:

        Clay stall Hill, which was on the way home, was one of the  worst hills in England. It was a mile and a half long, and one in six (having a slope of a one foot drop for every six feet in distance) in places, with three fairly sharp curves before the gate to the park in which the house stood.

f. When did the man break out into a cold sweat?
ANSWER:

          When the man was trying to stop the car as it hurtled down the hill, he put all his weight on the brake on his side, and the lever clanged to its full limit without a catch. It was then that he broke out into a cold sweat.

B:  WOKING WITH WORDS:

  1. What are these words from the story?
  2. merges b. illuminated c. intention  d. jammed  e. whirled          f. existence
  1. The glow illuminated his face making it visible to those sitting round the camp fire.
  2. Jammed between the doorframe and the door was a broken twig.
  3. We learned of the existence of his vast fortune many years after his death.
  4. Beyond the plain the river merges with another and together they form a mighty torrent.
  5. Sleep eluded him because ideas whirled in his head for hours.
  6. Their initial intention was to stay at the lodge overnight, but their plan changed and they left early.

 

C: LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE:

  1. Ellipsis

Discuss the explanation and the examples given. Can the pupils construct any more sentences? Let them try and then read them out. Discuss what they come up with.

 Find the mistakes in the following and correct them.

  1. I am going to the market but Mimi is not. The verb used in the first part with I (am going) does not fit with Mimi (is going). So it should be: Mimi is not.
  2. You are working hard but your friend is not (working hard).
  3. Sara is having roast chicken but the others are having vegetable curry.
  4. Drawing and writing are good skills to learn, but scrawling is not so good.

 

U: 3 THE NEW COMER (poem)    P:15417

  1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.
  2. How do the animals feel about the newcomer? What do you think is the main

emotion in the poem?

  1. There are a lot of negatives in this poem. What is the effect of the word ‘no’

repeated again and again?

  1. Can you imagine a world in which humanity does not ‘kill and kill and kill’? What would this world be like? Discuss in your class whether this would be a

better world.

  1. Do you think that this poem is fair to human beings?

 

  1. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT

‘There’; something new in the whiteness, ‘

  1. Who says these words, and to whom?
  2. What else does the speaker say?
  3. What was the ‘something new‘ that the speaker saw?
  4. Who else heard this news?

 

  1. DESCRIBE BRIEFLY, IN YOUR OWN WORDS, HOW THE NEWS ABOUT THE NEWCOMER SPREADS. BY WHAT MEANS DOES THE POET CREATE THE IDEA THAT FEAR IS BEING SPREAD THROUGH THE ANIMAL KINGDOM?

 

B.WORKING WITH WORDS

Do you remember reading about similes and metaphors?

  1. IN THE POEM YOU WILL FIND A METAPHOR; CAN YOU SAY WHAT IT IS?
  2. SILENT LETTERS

Go through the poem carefully noting down all the words which contain silent

letters, e.g. bright. (gh is silent) »

 

B:  WOKING WITH WORDS:

  1. Note the silent letters in the following.

  ca(l)m  hym(n)  su(b)tle  rei(g)n

Put the words into four columns, according to the silent letter.

l                        n                         b                        g                    alms           autumn                 subtle                 feign                   yolk           damned                dumb                 resign               should           hymn              debt                 foreign                    palm           column           plumber                                              almond      condemn            numb

salmon                               doubt

 

  1. Find words which have a similar meaning to the following:
  2. obliterate=kill
  3. impenetrable=impassable
  4. airing=spreading
  5. trace=shadow
  6. make bold=dare
  7. swollen=bloated
  8. disregards=ignores

 

 

  1. LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

Clauses t

Clauses are groups of words containing both subject and predicate. Almost all sentences contain at least one clause. When a clause stands on its own, we call this a sentence. However, a clause is usually part of another sentence since it qualifies some word or words in that sentence.

Here are some sentences which all consist of a single clause.

That boy is my brother.

Silently, the ship left the harbour.

She can read a book.

 

  1. NOTICE THAT EACH CLAUSE HAS A SUBJECT AND A PREDICATE. CAN YOU DIVIDE THE

SENTENCES ABOVE INTO SUBJECT AND PREDICATE?

Longer sentences have more than one clause. They may contain a main clause and a subordinate clause.

Main clauses do not depend on any other clause. They are also called independent clauses. They can stand by themselves as independent sentences.

e.g. That boy is my brother and this girl is my sister. A

She can read a book or she can write a letter.

Subordinate clauses are also called dependent clauses. This is because they are generally not able to stand alone as the main clause of the sentence. Subordinate clauses alter, limit or clarify the ideas of the main clause. They can function as nouns,

adjectives or adverbs. They are quite easy to identify because they are normally linked to the main clause by linking words such as that, which, and where.

Study the following:

Main clause Subordinate clause

The man left the room before the guests arrived.

They saw the man who stole the car.

We may get some help if the men arrive.

She went to the park when the sun began to shine.

 

  1. UNDERLINE THE MAIN CLAUSES IN THE FOLLOWING.

 

  1. The children went to the park after they had their lunch.
  2. Maham went to the library though she didn’t want to.
  3. We stopped at the town where my father was born.
  4. When the sun came out, the boys went out to play football.
  5. After the play was over, the actors met the children.
  6. He came when I called.
  7. The man went where I asked him to go.
  8. The trees died because there was no rain.
  9. lf Aamir comes, we shall all go to the park.
  10. The policeman arrested the men who broke into the shop.

 

  1. LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Alliteration is the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables.

Examples from the poem:

The fish said as it swam (repetition of s)

Yet digs deeper than we dare go. (repetition of d)

Said the snow-bright polar bear (repetition of s and b)

ln the soil and the snow and the hills (repetition of s)

 

  1. YOUR TEACHER WILL READ OUT VARIOUS LINES OF POETRY. AFTER EACH, PICK OUT THE WORDS USED ALLITERATIVELY AND WRITE THEM DOWN. WHEN ALL THE EXAMPLES HAVE BEEN READ, CHECK YOUR RESPONSES WITH THOSE OF THE OTHERS IN CLASS.

 

  1. MAKE UP YOUR OWN EXAMPLES OF ALLITERATION AND READ THEM ALOUD TO THE OTHERS. (REMEMBER THAT ALLITERATION SHOULD BE USED SPARINGLY AND WITH GREAT CARE! OVERUSE OF ALLITERATION WILL NOT MAKE YOUR WRITING APPEALING.)
  2. WRITING

Do humans treat animals with fairness?

Think about the relationship between humans and animals, and the ways in which humans interact with animals. Jot down some ideas, and then write a short account. Briefly describe the relationship, and then go on to answer the question giving reasons for your opinion.

 

U: 4 THE  SILVER LINING  P:23425

 

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
a. Why does the author believe that it is difficult to assess the range and quality of human emotions?
ANSWER:

The author believes it is difficult to assess the range and quality of human emotions because it is usually not possible to tell what griefs people have by merely looking at their appearance.

g. What was the Ahad’s first impression of Mr David?
ANSWER:

The Ahads’ first impression of the young man was that he was proud and arrogant, since he did not reply to their polite enquiries.

h. How did Mr David bring joy to the Ahads?
ANSWER:

Mr David brought great joy to the Ahads by making friends with Maheen, and by outlining to them a plan to improve her life.

He informed them that he was going to start a special school for children such as Maheen, and that Maheen would be his first pupil.

He gave them hope for her future.

 

C Learning about language:

  1. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

 Fill in the blanks

  1. I had eaten the biscuits by the time the children arrived.

(eat, arrive)

  1. By the time she went to the hospital her uncle had died.

(go, die)

  1. When we reached the hall the film had started and we missed the beginning. (reach, start)
  2. I wish they had put in their applications earlier. (put)
  3. They had not been there two minutes when the display began.

(not be, begin)

  1. The dogwas hungry; it had not eaten anything for two days.

(be, not eat)

  1. I was still weak as I had had a cold the previous week.

(be, have)

  1. The students understood the lesson after the teacher had explained it. (understand, explain)

 

U: 5 THE SOLITARY REAPER(poem)    P:28430

B: WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. Use the following in sentences of your own.

 

WORDS SENTENCES
1.more welcome  
2.melancholy  
3.is overflowing with  
4.familiar matter  
5.profound  
6.plaintive  
7.breaking the silence  
8.among the  
farthest  

 

  1. Choose the correct prefix, mis- ordis-, and complete the following.
  1. misbehave
  2. disinfect
  3. disloyal
  4. disappear
  5. misspend
  6. misspelling
  7. discourtesy
  8. disbelieve
  9. misgovern
  10. disapprove
  11. mismanage
  12. mistrust/distrust

 

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

  1. between and among

Read the text and discuss the examples.  Something may be shared between two persons.  When there are more than two, we say it is shared among them.

Which sentences are correct?

Find the incorrect sentences and correct them.

  1. Adil went to the playground between every lesson. CORRECT
  • There should be no disputes between each member of the team. INCORRECT

There should be no disputes among the   members of the team. CORRECT

  1. Raheel took a short break between classes. CORRECT

d.There was a ten-minute break between each race. CORRECT

e.There was no correspondence between each branch and other branches of the bank. CORRECT

 

U: 6 THREE CUPS OF TEA  P:35439

PLOT OVERVIEW THREE CUPS OF TEA NOME 8

After a failed attempt to climb K2, the world’s second-highest mountain, Greg Mortenson is lost in the mountainous Karakoram region of Pakistan. Eventually, he wanders into the remote village of Korphe, where he receives help from the people and meets the village chief, Haji Ali. After Mortenson sees some children trying to study by writing in the dirt with sticks, without even a teacher to instruct them, Mortenson promises to return to Korphe one day and repay their kindness to him by building a school. Back in the U.S., Mortenson returns to his job as a trauma nurse in California. He keeps his belongings in a storage building and lives in a car he inherited from his grandmother. He reflects on his early life in Tanzania, where his father was building a hospital and his mother was starting a school. He also remembers his developmentally disabled sister, Christa. After her death the previous year, Mortenson had undertaken the K2 climb to honor her memory, but he now realizes that the Korphe School would be a more fitting memorial.

Mortenson knows little about fund-raising, and although he sends out 580 letters requesting donations, he receives only one small contribution. After an acquaintance writes about his project in a mountaineering journal, Mortenson receives $12,000 from Jean Hoerni, a wealthy physicist who is also a climber. Mortenson sells all his belongings to pay his own expenses, returns to Pakistan, and purchases building materials for the school. In the process, he acquires a sympathetic guide, learns about bargaining practices in the region, and gets two of the traditional outfits worn in Pakistan. He believes his mission is almost accomplished, but when he returns to Korphe, the villagers explain that he must first build a bridge across the deep river gorge that separates Korphe from neighboring areas. Mortenson realizes that he has not planned well, and after promising to come back and build the bridge, he goes back to America discouraged. There he finds he has lost both his girlfriend and his job.

Mortenson is depressed for a time, but he finally contacts Hoerni again and receives additional money for the bridge. Back in Pakistan, he continues to develop his relationship with the local people, goes on a hunting expedition with the men of Korphe, and completes the bridge. This time he returns to California with a feeling of success. He is invited to attend a dinner honoring Sir Edmund Hillary, the first man to climb Mt. Everest. At the dinner, Mortenson learns that Hoerni and his friend George McCown will pay Mortenson a salary while he completes the Korphe school. Mortenson also meets Tara Bishop, the daughter of a noted photographer and climber. The two are instantly attracted to one another and marry a few days later. Mortenson returns to Pakistan and completes construction of the school. He also learns more about local customs from Haji Ali, who encourages Mortenson to respect the ways of the Balti people.

Mortenson begins to look for the next place to build a school. He travels alone to Waziristan, where he is kidnapped and held for eight days without ever knowing why he was captured or released. When Mortenson returns to the U.S., Tara goes into labor and has a daughter. Not long after, Jean Hoerni, just before his death, endows the CAI $1 million and names Mortenson the director. In the following months, Mortenson continues his work and builds several new schools. A conservative Pakistani cleric issues a religious indictment against Mortenson, but through the efforts of Ghulam Parvi, who manages CAI affairs in Pakistan, and the moderate cleric Syed Abbas, the fatwa is lifted. Mortenson and the CAI continue to develop a school-building program focused on the education of girls, and they also begin to help refugees and to provide eye surgery and other medical care in the region.

During the periods he spends in America, Mortenson tries to raise funds for the CAI and attempts unsuccessfully to raise awareness about conditions among refugees. Mortenson’s difficulties with organization and communication begin to strain his relations with the CAI board, and he goes through a period of depression. His sprits improve, however, when Tara gives birth to their son, and Mortenson returns to Pakistan with a more professional approach and a renewed sense of mission. He realizes that political conditions are worsening in Pakistan and Afghanistan, in part due to efforts by ultra-conservative Muslim groups to build their own schools, calledmadrassas. These schools offer free education to boys, but often use the opportunity to enlist the students in militant activities. On September 11, 2001, while Mortenson is dedicating a school in Pakistan, the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon takes place. Mortenson speaks out to reporters and explains that terrorism is rooted in poverty and lack of opportunity, but his message receives little attention.

Another fatwa is declared against Mortenson in Pakistan, and at home he receives hate mail from Americans who condemn his efforts to help Muslims. He is also interrogated by the CIA. He does, however, win the support of Representative Mary Bono and is invited to talk to several congressmen about his work. Finally, a reporter who has traveled with Mortenson writes a cover story on his work for Parade Magazine, and the CAI receives a large number of donations. Mortenson’s work gains national attention, and the book ends with his decision to expand the CAI’s work into Afghanistan.

 

 

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
a. How did Mortenson come to be in Korphe?  Did  he mean to be there?
ANSWER:

After Mortenson had left K2 and was descending through the valleys, he failed to see the main fork down to the river.

He got lost for the second time, and when he found himself in a village, he assumed it was Askole, the place to which he had intended going. It was not Askole at all but Korphe.

d.Who was Haji Ali and what kind of man was he?
ANSWER:

Haji Ali was the nurmadhar, the chief, of Korphe, and he was a kind man. He welcomed Mortenson into the village, took him to his house and provided him with food, drink, and shelter. Mortenson was treated as a respected guest by Haji Ali.

He knew that Mortenson was tired, and when Mortenson wanted to leave after he found out he was in the wrong place, Haji Ali pushed him back onto his bed of cushions, dispersed the children, and made Mortenson rest.

e.In what ways was the village inaccessible and cut off  from the rest of the country?
ANSWER:

The village was surrounded by mountains, bordered by a river (accessible only by a flimsy rope bridge), and‘ perched on a shelf eight hundred feet above the Braldu River, which clung in unlikely fashion to the side of the canyon wall like a rock climber’s sleeping platform bolted into the side of a sheer cliff’.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

3.The apostrophe

Insert apostrophes where necessary.

  1. We spoke to his father who is in his nineties.
  2. In the ’forties Pakistan gained independence.
  3. In ’92 Imran scored five50s.
  4. The MPAs who attended the meeting in ’86 stayed in the five DIGs’ houses.
  5. All the PM’s speeches at the conference were recorded and filmed.

 

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

Direct and reported speech

 Turn the following sentences into direct speech.

  1. ‘What does the president say about this?’ asked the people.
  2. ‘Why should I join the travellers?’ the foreigner asked in his own tongue.
  3. ‘Why should I let the stranger in?’ the householder asked.
  4. ‘You (the people) must leave the area immediately!’ blared forth the loud-speakers.

e.The machine is most definitely not made of plastic, ’the scientists declared unanimously.

 

U: 7 CHILDREN UNDERSTAND HIM(poem)P:42445

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
a. To what is the old man compared in the second stanza? Why?
ANSWER:

The old man is compared to a ‘dry stream-bed’. The poet is telling us that the man has led his life, its ‘course’ has been run, like that of a stream or river, and it is now dry. There is little life left and little to offer (according to some).

b. What do you think is meant by the phrase ‘living on memories’?
ANSWER:

‘living on memories’ refers to the thoughts and recollections of the old man; he lives in the past, relates stories of his life of long ago, and probably wishes for that life again, rather than the current situation in which he finds himself.

c. Why is the old man sent to his room when there are guests in the house?
ANSWER:

        The oldman would probably bore visitors with stories of his life, and may also put visitors off by showing some of his infirmities.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. Dictionary work
a.   a person who looks on the bright side of life op——
b.  an unmarried man b———
c.   one who buys things at a shop cu——-
d.  one who gives others (goods, money, etc.) do——-
e.   one who is extremely intelligent ge——-
f.    a person who says one thing and does another hy——-
g.  one who looks on the dark side of things pe——-
h.  a woman whose husband is dead w——–
i.    a man whose wife is dead w——–
j.    one who journeys to a holy place pi——–
Answers:          a. optimist             b. bachelor c. customer       d. donor             e. genius               f. hypocrite  g. pessimist           h. widow             i. widower             j. pilgrim

 

C Learning about language

  1. may/might

Fill in the blanks with ‘may’ or ‘might’.

  1. If we watch TV too long, we may get into trouble. (possibility)
  2. If she saves enough, she might just make it to college. (weak possibility)
  3. May you live a long life and have many children. (wishes)
  4. Might I have some sugar in my tea, if you have any in the house? (a polite question)

e.They asked if they might borrow our car.  (asking for permission)

  1. Rashid may not come to the play this evening as he is busy. (probably not)
  2. May you have a long and prosperous life! (wishes)

 

U:8 THE CHOWGARH TIGERS   P:50452

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
b.Why did the author hand his rifle to the man?
ANSWER:

The author handed his rifle to the men in order that he could slide down the slope.

c. Why did the men descend the bank in such a hurry?
ANSWER:

The men had heard a deep-throated growl from somewhere close at hand, and since they had the rifle, they descended in a hurry to give the rifle to the author.

i.How did the two men know that the author had seen the tigress?
ANSWER:

They knew instinctively that the author had seen the tigress and judged from the author’s behavior that she was close at hand.

j. What metaphor does the author use in the last paragraph?
ANSWER:

‘the shears’ that had assisted her to cut ‘the threads of sixty-four human lives’ …had …turned, and cut the thread of her own life.

 

B WORKING WITH WORDS

3.Match the idioms in list A with the meanings in list B.

LIST A LIST B
i. to be at hand

ii to take something in hand
iii. to get out of hand

iv. to have time/money in hand
v. to keep one’s hand in

vi. to have one’s hands full

vii. to give someone a good hand
viii. to be a handful

ix. to be an old hand

x.to get the upper hand
of something/someone

a.   to have a lot of work

b.  to become out of control

c.   to be very near

d.  to win an advantage over it/him

e.   to be difficult to control

f.   to have it spare, left over to be used

g.  to take charge of it; manage it

h.  to be experienced at something

i.    to applaud someone for a good
performance

J.    to keep in practice

Answers:

i. c                 ii. g          iii. b       iv. f            v. j               vi. a                vii. i             viii. e         ix. h       x. d

 

C  LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

  1. HYPHENS

  Show where the following words may be hyphenated.

sometimes                  exaggerate     prolong     bicycle      turnip                              accident                      ninety               grammar    English                             turkey          philosophical    catastrophe                               misuse                         tremendous                   hardy
Answers:

some—times,        ex—aggerate,          exagger—ate,             pro—long,                bi—cycle,             tur—nip,                          acci—dent,                nine—ty,          gram—mar,                  Eng—lish,                 tur—key,          philo—sophical,            cat—astrophe,          catas-trophe,       mis—use,                      tre—mendous,         tremen-dous,           har—dy.

 

  1. Headlines

 What is so funny about these newspaper headlines?

  1. MANY ANTIQUES AT SENIOR CITIZENS’ SALE
  2. COW SAVES A LIFE-Hauls farmer by tail from blazing building
  3. WOMAN DENIES COMMITIING SUICIDE
  4. 20-YEAR FRIENDSHIP ENDS AT THE ALTAR

ANSWERS:

  1. Are the Senior Citizens for sale or are they running the sale?
  2. Does the farmer have a tail?
  3. If the woman has committed suicide she would be dead and unable to deny it.
  4. Does this mean that, now they are married (at the altar), the friendship will end?

 

U:9 LAST LESSON OF THE AFTERNOON P:4

 

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
 
a. When will the bell ring (and signal the end of this tedious lesson)?
 
b. The poet uses the metaphor of a pack of hounds (his pupils) tugging at their leashes, and straining. He continues this metaphor by using words such as ‘quarry’ (prey), ‘hunt’. Later he brings up the subject of dogs again.
 
c. They are not interested in the quest or ‘hunt’ for knowledge and are unruly in their behaviour.
 
d. The insults are referred to even prior to this, in stanza 2. They are the books scattered across the desks, waiting for correction, and specifically the pages in these books containing ‘blotted pages and scrawl of slovenly work’.
 
e. The poet does not want to waste the last dear fuel of life (his energy and what is left to him of his life) and take their insults (their slovenly work) as punishment. He decides here that he will not take this any longer.
 
f. This means that he has sunk to the very lowest point of his life, and cannot sink any further (or take this kind of life any more).
 
g. Lawrence was supposed to care because at the time he was a teacher; but he felt his time at school was futile.
 
h. The poet’s final resolve is to sit it out, wait for the bell, and not drain his strength but keep it to live his own life. He has given up trying.
 
i. More than one emotion is presented: iii. despair: ‘I can haul them and urge them no more.’ ‘No longer can I endure the brunt…’ ‘I am sick, and what on earth is the good of it?’ iv. anger: ‘I will not!’ ‘I will not waste my soul…’ ‘I do not and will not…’ v. frustration: Many instances where he asks a question and then answers it. The fact that he asks such questions indicates he is frustrated. ‘What is the point?’
 
j. 1. The metaphor of a pack of unruly hounds straining at the leash and not prepared to join the hunt. 2. Fuel of life…to kindle my will to a flame that shall consume…

 

  1. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT
  2. …; and take the toll Of their insults in punishment?
  3. Toll means a tax and it also applies to the sound of a bell being sounded.
  4. The tax would refer to the way in which he has to pay for or suffer the indifference of his pupils, and also perhaps to when a church bell tolls at the time of a funeral… in this case his own.

iii. He decides to not waste his time or energy any more

  1. What is the point? To us both, it is all my aunt!
  2. The ‘point’ is whether they can write a description of a dog, or if they can’t.
  3. It’s all the same to me; I am indifferent to it.

iii. He has come to the end of his tether and feels that there is little hope left for his pupils. He decides to give up teaching because he is bitter

B WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. PICK OUT ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF ALLITERATION IN THE POEM.

When will the bell ring, and end this weariness? they hate to hunt,/ I can haul them… the brunt / Of the books my soul and my strength for this. A description of a dog,

 

  1. USE THESE EXPRESSIONS IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN. TRY TO BRING OUT THE MEANING OF THE WORDS IN A LIVELY WAY.

 

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

  1. JOIN THESE SENTENCES USING A PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
  2. She noticed a snake sliding into a hole.
  3. They heard a peacock shrieking out loud.
  4. The man spied a ship sailing into the harbour.
  5. The boys watched the bees flying into the hive.
  1. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.
  2. In the house and in the garden small-bees were flying and speeding about in confusion, causing much distress to the family.
  3. While we were walking along the quiet path last night the crescent moon looked beautiful.
  4. A small rabbit was hopping along, chasing butterflies in the garden.
  5. They arrested the demonstrators shouting loudly outside the City Hall.
  6. When everything was ready the pistol went off for the race to start.
  7. While the children were walking through the forest this afternoon, they saw five rose bushes.
  8. The old man sat on a bench all day, waiting for his family and watching the passengers carefully. h. While I was cycling across the field a ball suddenly appeared in front of me.

 

Prefixes

MAKE NEGATIVES OF THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES BY ADDING in-, im-, ir-, il-.

impractical      irregular      irresponsible       illegal         immortal

impossible     inconsistent         irreligious  insufficient inflexible

illegible          impartial     indirect       inadequate          illiterate

impersonal    immobile    imbalanced         immature   indefinite

 

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

  1. Shaukat is always late for class. He ought to try and get here on time. He should be a little more careful, or he will get punished. He must not continue being late.
  2. He eats a lot of chocolate. He ought to take a little more care about his health. He must not eat all the chocolate at once; he should save some for later.
  1. The milkman has sold his cow. He oughtn’t to have sold it. He must have needed the money. He should have kept it.

 

U: 10  THE OPEN WINDOW  P:63465

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
a. Who was Framton and why had he come to the rectory?
ANSWER:

Framton Nuttel was a young man whose sister had stayed at the rectory some years before. She had given him letters of introduction and this had brought him to the rectory. He was there on a visit, as he was staying in the area.

d. Was Framton sure that Mrs Sappleton was married?
ANSWER:

Framton had no idea. ‘He was wondering whether Mrs Sappleton was in the married or widowed state.’

i. What was Framton’s reaction to the arrival of the hunting party?
ANSWER:

Framton really was horrified! He grabbed wildly at his stick and hat, and left immediately.

 

B WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. Use these words and expressions in sentences of your own
a. presently  
b. flatter  
c. masculine  
d. habitation  
b. flatter  
c. masculine  
d. habitation  
d. habitation  
e. self-possessed  
f. Partially  
g. successful               h. treacherous  
  1. Phrasal verbs

 broke off: ceased talking

How would you use the following?

MEANINGS:

 broke up:

  1. came to an end; disintegrated dispersed for holidays; ended                                   (The party broke up at 2 am.)

 broke into:

  1. suddenly started to do something
  2. entered a place by using force
  3. illegally got access to a computer system
  4. divided something into smaller pieces
  5. interrupted something

broke down:

  1. stopped working
  2. became emotional
  3. lost strength or determination

broke away:

  1. escaped
  2. became separated from the control of someone or something

broke in:

  1. interrupted
  2. entered illegally; (broke in something: made something comfortable by using it)

 

C Learning about language

  1. Write the following sentences in the passive voice.
  2. Tasty biscuits are sold here.
  3. The bicycle was sold by him yesterday.

c.The garden is kept clean and the flowers are planted by a gardener.

  1. Soon he will be sent a reminder by someone.

e.The elections are being post poned until next month.

  1. The matter will be looked into by a committee.
  2. Mt. Everest was conquered by Hillary and Tensing.
  3. Treasures are being brought up from the bottom of the ocean by divers.

 

U:11 THE WEST WIND P:4

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.

 

 
ANSWER: a. The poet welcomes the west wind because it reminds him of home.
 
ANSWER: b. The poet is leading a very busy life, his feet are tired and his eyes ache from lack of sleep. His heart is bruised.
 
ANSWER: c. The poet is reminded of apple orchards, air like wine, cool green grass, and bird song. The sun is bright and the rain is warm. Wild bees buzz there and sweet flowers grow there.
 
ANSWER: d. We know the poet is from the west country by these lines:— ‘I never hear the west wind but tears are in my eyes.’ ‘Will ye not come home, brother? Ye have been long away.’ ‘So will ye not come home brother, and rest your tired feet?’ ‘In the fine land, the west land, the land where I belong.’
 
ANSWER: e. The poet concludes that it is the white road westwards that he must tread in order to return to the land where he belongs.
 
ANSWER: f. ‘for hearts as tired as mine’, ‘where men may lie at rest’, ‘sleep for aching eyes’, ‘the rest for heart and head’.

 

  1. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT
  2. I never hear the west wind but tears are in my eyes.
  3. For it comes from the west lands, the old brown hills, and April’s in the west wind, and daffodils. It reminds the poet of home.
  4. It brings a feeling of warmth, nostalgia, longing, inspiration (fire to a man’s brain), solace (balm for bruised hearts)…
  1. It’s April, and blossom time, and white is the may;
  2. May is the hawthorn (blossom)—it has white, red, or pink flowers.
  3. (Described previously: brown hills, daffodils, a fine land, apple orchards in blossom, the air like wine, cool green grass, thrushes in song). After this he describes the bright sun, warm rain, green corn, rabbits, blue sky, white clouds, wild bees, larks singing, green wheat, violets, warm hearts, and the thrushes’ song

 

  1. RHYTHM AND METRE

The rhythm of a line of poetry depends upon the emphasis given to certain syllables when spoken aloud. The arrangement of these accents or stresses in a regular pattern is called metre. The unit of metre is the foot. A foot can consist of a number of syllables; however, each foot contains at least one stressed syllable.

Here is a line marked off in feet.

He thought / he saw /an E/ le phant (eight syllables; four feet) That prac / tised on / a fife. (six syllables; three feet)

We can mark the stressed and unstressed syllables like this:

He thought / he saw /an E/ le phant That prac / tised on / a fife.

MARKING OFF A LINE OF VERSE IN THIS WAY IS CALLED SCANNING.

  1. Scan the following lines.

Hĕ lōoked / ă gāin, / ănd foūnd / ĭt wās Ă lēt / tĕr frōm / hĭs wīfe. ‘Ăt lēngth / Ĭ rē /ă līze,’/ hĕ sāid, ‘Thĕ bīt / tĕr nēss / ŏf līfe!’ (There are four feet in the first and the third line, and three feet in the second and the last line.)

  1. WHAT IS THE RHYMING PATTERN IN THE POEM? THE POEM IS WRITTEN IN RHYMING COUPLETS. THE RHYMING PATTERN FOR EACH STANZA IS: A A B B

B WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. WRITE OUT THE WORDS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER.

art—are

doth—does

nay—no

nigh—near

prithee—pray; please,

tell me quoth

he—said he

thine—your (plural)

thou—you (singular)

thy—your (singular) ye-you

yea—yes

yon—situated over there

yonder—over there

  1. IDIOMATIC LANGUAGE PUPILS WILL WRITE THEIR OWN SENTENCES, IF THEY KNOW THE MEANINGS. SOME EXAMPLES ARE GIVEN BELOW.
  1. go to town: to do something eagerly and as completely as possible The volunteers went to town and finished the work early. (They worked with enthusiasm.)
  1. go to waste: to not be used The clock I bought him went to waste: he had three already.
  1. go to great pains: to try very hard to do something We went to great pains to make them feel comfortable.
  1. go under the knife: to have a medical operation He goes under the knife on Tuesday: I hope he recovers soon.

 

  1. go up in flames: to come to an end suddenly and completely The holiday went up in flames when he broke his leg.
  1. go up in smoke: to become spoiled or wasted (such as a plan) All their plans went up in smoke when the Chairman resigned.
  1. go with a bang: to take place with excitement and success (such as a good party) The annual arts festival went with a bang; thousands attended it.
  1. go without: to manage, to live with, not having or doing something The payment did not arrive in time, so the family went without for a whole week.
  1. go along with: to agree with someone or something We shall go along with you only if you return our loan first.

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

  1. Say which sentence (in each pair) appeals to you more

 

  1. MAKE THE SENTENCES MORE EXCITING AND EMPHATIC.
  1. When the bell rang, the children let out a shriek of delight.
  2. Without warning, the bomb exploded and the bridge collapsed. c. It was the best thing they ever had, that meal of roast chicken. d. Silently, from the dark cave, the monster emerged .
  3. Out of the fog, just in front of the jeep, loomed a huge grey elephant.
  4. I was sitting alone reading, when suddenly, from the house next door there was a loud scream.

D WRITING

 

U: 12 JOHN KEATS  P:74476

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
a. When was Keats left in the charge of a guardian? Why?
ANSWER:

When Keats was eight his father died. His mother died when he was fourteen. It was then that he and his brothers and sister were left in the charge of  a guardian.

c. Did Keats enjoy reading The Faerie Queene? How do we know?
ANSWER:

Yes, Keats enjoyed reading The  Faerie Queene. We know this because we are told he went through it ‘as a horse through a Spring meadow—romping!’

d. In what way do you think Keats’ first book was a ‘failure’?
ANSWER:

          Although we are not told why Keats’ first book was a ‘failure’ it was probably because this too seemed ‘immature and hasty’.

f. How did Keats react to the abuse and criticism?
ANSWER:

         Keats was not at first disturbed by this abuse. Helater wrote: ‘I think I shall be among the English poets afer my death’, meaning he would be considered one of the great English poets.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. Use the following in sentences of your own.

He is in charge of the youngsters. (He is looking after them and responsible for them.)

He is in the charge of a guardian. (A guardian is looking after him.)

in the charge of
a passion for
 to his horror
dedicated
hasty and
immature
incomparable
victim to
accomplished                                              victim to

 

  1. The sux-ic
  2. What do the following words mean? Consult a dictionary.

Pupils should look in a dictionary.

The meanings given below are indications only and not complete definitions.

 myopic:

1.a visual defect, 2. lack of discernment in long-range thinking

claustrophobic:

uncomfortably closed or hemmed in

 anaesthetic:

relating to anaesthesia (loss of sensation); an agent that causes loss of sensation

peripatetic:

walking about from place to place

psychic:

a medium; one who has powerful extra-sensory perception

b.Make adjectives from the following by adding the sux–ic.

(Watch the spelling changes!)

i.cycle

ii.acid

iii.anaemia

iv.patriot

v.nationalist

vi.mania

vii.paranoia

viii.philosophy

ix.geography

x.atom

i.cyclic

ii. acidic

iii. anaemic

iv. patriotic

v. nationalistic

vi. manic

vii. paranoiac (paranoic)

viii. philosophic

ix. geographic

x. atomic

 

U:13 TO AUTUMN P:4

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.

 

 
a. The poet calls Autumn a ‘close bosom-friend’ of the maturing sun. He uses: ‘conspiring’ and ‘how to load and bless’. (Autumn is performing these actions, and therefore is personified.)
 
b. Pupils will give their own answers. From the poem we learn that Autumn conspires with the sun to load and bless the vines; to bend the trees with apples, and to fill all fruit with richness and ripeness. Nature will think that summer has over-filled the fruit with ripeness.
 
c. The ‘conspiracy’ between Autumn and the sun achieves an all-round ripeness for everything in nature.
 
d. mellow fruitfulness, load and bless, bend with apples, fill all fruit, plump the hazel shells, sweet kernel, set budding more, still more, later flowers, warm days will never cease, o’er brimmed, clammy e. An ode is a lyric poem of some length, usually of a serious or meditative nature and having an elevated style and formal stanzaic structure. At one time an ode was a poem set to music and sung by a chorus. The traditional ode was in three stanzas. These formed the accompaniment to a dance.

 

  1. Reference to context Answer the following questions.
  1. KEATS is written in capital letters because it is the headword or main reference.
  2. Leigh
  3. There is a comma because the surname has been written first (the keyword or headword) followed by the person’s other name(s), in this case, John. d. Leigh Hunt’s name would precede John Keats’ name because the surnames begin with H and K respectively.
  4. The figures after the name KEATS, John tell us when he was born (1795) and when he died (1821).
  5. q.v. stands for quod vide, the Latin for ‘which see’. In other words, we are directed to look up that entry in the same reference book.

B LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 

  1. Read these rules and then say which rule applies to (a), (b), and (c) above. old-student network: rule 6. student-network: rule 1. new-manuscript library: rule 6. fleshy-leaved tree: rule 6. leaved-tree: rule 1.
  1. NOW SEE IF YOU CAN REWRITE THE FOLLOWING PUTTING IN HYPHENS WHERE NECESSARY.
  1. The blue-eyed lady bought three pairs of shoes.
  2. My uncle is the vice-president of that bank.
  3. Farooq scored seventy-five runs which was four-fifths the total score of the home-team.
  4. He does not speak to his good-for-nothing brother.
  5. The scientists talked about the re-creation of their experiment. 6. The examiners had to re-mark the English papers.
  6. The Eastern countries have re-established trade with the South-Western islands.
  7. The corner-shop sells ready-to-wear garments all at half price.
  8. Mr Ahmed is the ex-ambassador who likes watching fire-walking ceremonies.
  9. The artist is well known for her landscape painting, she is also a well-known cartoonist.

C LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 

 

 

U:14THROUGH THE IRON CURTAIN   P:88491

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
a. Why was it important that everything went according to plan?
ANSWER:

It was important that everything went according to plan because otherwise Christine and her parents might have completely lost control of events and of themselves.

      d. How do we know that Christine cared for her parents?
ANSWER:

We know that Christine cared for her parents because she mentions the difficulties they were facing from time to time. When they are walking with the guide, Christine mentions how difficult her father found it to walk in the dark.

She says she longed to give him her arm, but could not do so as they had to walk in single file. Later, when an inner force urges her to run, she does not do so but stays with her parents.

She speaks sadly of the way her mother had to bind cloth around her feet to complete the journey.

f. Why did the guard never stop grumbling?
ANSWER:

The guide never stopped grumbling because the pace was too slow. He complained that old people ‘creep along like slugs’, which would make it easier for them (and him) to get caught.

He was also upset because the moon was shining, and there was a greater risk of being caught by the border guards.

 

B WORKING WITH WORDS:

  1. Fill in the blanks. Do you know the rule for the use of ie and ei?
Perc–ve

Rec–ve

Dec–ve

rel–ve

rec–pt

dec–t

ch–f

rel–f

h–ght

ach–ve

gr–f

shr–k

sh–kh

c–ling

bel–ve

y–ld

f–ld

conc–ve

s–ve

th—f

perceive

receive

deceive

relieve

receipt

deceit

chief

relief

height

achieve

grief

shriek

sheikh

ceiling

believe

yield

field

conceive

sieve

thief

 

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 Adverbial clauses

  1. Complete the following by using suitable adverbial clauses of time.
a.The beggar sat on the doorstep

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————

b.She asked me to visit her

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————

c.The fielders paced up and down

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————-

d.A great cheer went up from the pavilion

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————–

e.The lights went off

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————

f.We never go out of the house

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————

g.I have not seen Saima

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————-

h.There was silence in the classroom

———————————————————————————————————————————————————————-

 

U:15 MY FAMILIAR  P:4

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.

 

 
a. The ‘boding sound’ that the poet hears is a creaking step followed by a ‘rapping at the door’. It tells him that his friend, the bore, has come to see him.
 
b. The lines are repeated to emphasize the point that this friend is worse than any foe, because he cannot be got rid off no matter how the poet tries.
 
c. A familiar is a friend; someone who is known to another. The poem deals with someone who is familiar to the poet, but not necessarily a true friend. This ‘friend’ is definitely unwelcome, because he comes when he likes but does not ever leave.
 
d. i. ‘takes the strangest liberties’: takes advantage or does things that cannot be explained; is naïve because he does not understand that his behaviour is causing offence. ii. ‘keep the fiend at bay’: keeping the diabolical creature at a safe distance and under control. ‘At bay’ refers to the position of one cornered by pursuers and forced to turn and fight at close quarters, e.g. the hunting hounds kept the frightened fox at bay with their barking and growling. iii. ‘Heaven defend me’: may God protect me and keep me safe (from him).
 
e. i. He points out to me which line he is in agreement with, and which line upsets him. ii. And he remembers and can repeat every group of sentences that has been written. iii. It is useless my saying that I have important things to do or that I make disapproving facial expressions to show my displeasure. iv. Or make any passing suggestions to John that I am away for a few weeks (so that he will not visit me during this time).

 

  1. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT
  2. HE TAKES THE STRANGEST LIBERTIES,— BUT NEVER TAKES HIS LEAVE!
  3. He drops into the poet’s easy-chair, and asks about the news, He peers into his manuscript, and gives his candid views; He criticizes the writing; he reads the poet’s daily paper before the poet has done so; he reads the poet’s lyric and says it is absurd; he smokes the poet’s last cigar, and coolly asks for more; he opens everything he sees.
  1. The poet says that he would rather see the stoutest of his enemies in his house than this ‘familiar’ who comes, takes liberties, and never goes, no matter how hard the poet hints that he should do so.
  1. HE PEERS INTO MY MANUSCRIPT, AND GIVES HIS CANDID VIEWS
  1. ‘candid’ means impartial, open, and sincere in expression.
  1. The person says and does what he pleases, regardless of whether or not his actions will cause offence. He is insensitive.

 

B WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. PLACEMENT OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS DISCUSS THE EXPLANATION AND EXAMPLES GIVEN. MAKE UP SENTENCES USING THE NOUN AND THE ADJECTIVES GIVEN

 

  1. distant, blue mountains
  2. high, narrow, mountain road
  3. shiny, new, steel watch
  4. dull, grey, expressionless face
  5. long, venomous, green snake
  6. famous, young, Pakistani singer
  7. ready-made, Italian, evening suit
  8. jet-propelled, trans-Atlantic, passenger plane

 

  1. IDIOMATIC USAGE

USE THE FOLLOWING IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN:

 

more or less: about, approximately;

to an undetermined degree to a man: without exception

all clear: the green signal (to move ahead)

by and large: to a great extent

on the move: moving about is abroad:

is prowling about, is walking about

now and then: occasionally

without fail: without any fear of failure or disappointment; definitely

 

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

DISCUSS THE TEXT. THE THREE KINDS OF CLAUSES INTRODUCED HERE ARE:

  1. condition (if, unless)
  2. reason (because, since, as)
  3. place (where, wherever)

 

  1. FIND ADVERBIAL CLAUSES TO COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING.
  1. We will go to the cinema without you, if you are not here on time. Would the sentence sound better like this? If you are not here on time, we will go to the cinema without you.

 

  1. IDENTIFY THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES IN THE FOLLOWING AND SAY WHAT KIND THEY ARE.
  1. The children sat in the library because Mr Arif told them to read more. (reason)
  2. She will be allowed to go to the party, if you go with her. (condition)
  3. Since we are going, they can come too. (reason)
  4. He will never find out what is wrong, unless he visits the doctor. (condition)
  5. They settled down on the grass where it was dry. (place)
  6. They will be allowed some sweets after they have eaten their dinner. (time)

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 

 

 U:16 BEES P:4

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.

 

 
a. Scent is what most attracts bees in their search for food. As the bee flies nearer to the source, the scent increases, encouraging the bee.
 
b. Bees can smell scent from greater distances than humans. This is possible due to the more highly developed olfactory sense of the bee.
 
c. Scent guides are found on the petals of plants. These increase in strength towards the nectaries.
 
d. The bee gathers pollen partly by accident as she passes the pollen anthers of the flower. The pollen sticks to her furry body. (Pollen helps to fertilize other plants, so this benefits the bee as well as being one of the ways in which plants reproduce.)
 
e. The bee performs a dance to let other bees know where the source of food is situated.
 
f. Bees will only work in good weather, and at seasons when plants they like are flowering. Bees cannot carry heavy weights. They cannot fly too far.
 
g. The distinction is that a simple message can be sent by dabbing the bee with paint. This would be in the form of a code.
 
h. Discuss. The pupils should be free to agree or disagree, but they should attempt to give valid reasons. Pupils might wonder how a bee with a message is to be identified and found from so many others in a hive

 

  1. FILL IN THIS FORM WITH THE RELEVANT INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM THE REPORT YOU HAVE READ.

BEES

  1. Name of book: Beekeeper’s Handbook
  2. Author: Owen Meyer
  3. Season of search: spring to late summer
  4. What is searched for: nectar, pollen, propolis, water
  5. Bees attracted to nectar sources by: 1. sight 2. scent
  6. What the bee gathers: nectar
  7. What the bee also gathers whether it likes to or not: pollen
  8. How the bee passes information on to other bees: by dancing Bees: Secret Agents.
  9. Limitations of the bee as messengers: 1. good weather/seasons 2. short distances
  10. Name of experimenter: M. Bruguiere
  11. Type of anaesthetic used: nitrate of ammonia
  12. Weight of message carried: 20 mg
  13. Size of paper carried: 2 mm by 20 mm
  14. Type of syrup used: syrup with a distillation of a flower mixed in it, e.g. clover

 

B Working with words

  1. What is the difference in meaning?
  2. discovered—exposed, found—come across, made known.
  3. possible—can be done probable—may be done
  4. information—knowledge news—fresh events
  5. perceive—observe, see — understand, discern objects with the eyes
  6. scent—discover by smelling smell—nasal sense by which sweet smelling odours are perceived
  7. limitations—disabilities restrictions—boundaries, confines
  8. attached—joined, fastened tied—secured (with length of something)
  9. exactly—precisely correctly—in the right way
  10. continually—intermittently continuously—unbroken
  11. communicate—transmit correspond—communicate by letters or email

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

 

  1. Underline the adverbial clauses.
  2. so that it might fly around the room—purpose
  3. Though he is only four—concession
  4. as I have shown you—comparison
  5. as though he is ill—comparison
  6. in order that we might talk—purpose
  7. though we asked him not to—concession
  1. Complete the following, using the instructions in brackets. Take care of the changes in punctuation.
  2. If a note had to be sent, it had to be attached to the bee.
  3. A distance of 3 km is considered the useful maximum, otherwise casualties tend to be too high.
  4. Although this proved extremely difficult, it was finally managed by the experimenter.
  5. Although bees seem politically reliable, they have certain limitations as messengers.
  6. A bee can carry a rather heavier load of nectar, since this is carried in the stomach, whereas the pollen is packed in the pollen baskets on the hind legs.
  7. As the dancing bee travels up or down the straight part, she waggles her abdomen from side to side.
  8. If a bee is captured and released within a few hours, like a homing pigeon, she will almost always find her way to the hive, but one can imagine circumstances when it might be handy to send the bee off alone.
  9. It could not touch the head, for this interfered with the bee’s radar apparatus, and it could not impede the opening of the wings.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 

U: 17           IF                P:1064108

A:COMPREHENSION

  1. Answer the following questions.
 
a. i. try to keep calm when others are panicking. ii. don’t tell lies yourself when you know others are lying. iii. don’t hate people if they hate you.
 
b.

i. to be able to dream and yet hold onto reality; dream, but do not get carried away by your dreams

ii. to be able to think and yet be a person of action; think, but think clearly and with good reasoning

    c. List the qualities which ‘make a Man’, according to the poet.
ANSWER:

According to the poet a man should have:  a clear head, belief in himself, patience, honesty, forgiveness, intelligence, modesty, tolerance, and should live to the full.

d. Why does the poet call ‘Triumph’ and ‘Disaster’ impostors?
ANSWER:

‘Triumph’ and ‘Disaster’ are passing moments. We should not give way to either.

 
d. ‘Triumph’ and ‘Disaster’ are passing moments. We should not give way to either.
f. Give an example of personification from the poem.
ANSWER:

Triumph is described as an Impostor: it is personified.

  1. RHYME AND RHYTHM
  2. Is there a rhyming pattern in the poem? What is it? Apart from the first four lines, the rhyming scheme is: a b a
  3. (But note that in stanza 1, the first line and the third line have an extra syllable, and that the penultimate words in each line rhyme (about/doubt). b. Is this pattern followed throughout the poem? Study the lines and find out. The metre throughout is constant, but see above.
  1. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT
  2. And treat these two impostors just the same;
  3. The two impostors are, Triumph and Disaster.
  4. The poet feels that one should be able to take triumph, when it comes, with equanimity; one should not get too excited about winning and revel in the defeat of others. When one fails, and suffers a disaster, one should also not take it too much to heart. One should have balance in both winning or losing, and be able to handle both.

iii. He is making them take on human qualities. This is called personification.

  1. If you can fill the unforgiving minute
  2. With sixty second’s worth of distance run.
  3. A minute is a minute (60 seconds) no matter which way it is looked at; it cannot be less or more; so it is described as unforgiving. It cannot be bent or changed or moulded in any way, and has to be filled from the first second to the last

 

iii. If you do fill it, and do all the other things the poet asks of you, the Earth will be yours and everything that’s in it, and what is more, you will be a man.

 

B     WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. Idiomatic usage Rewrite, using the expressions in place of the words in italics.
  1. I think it was Abid’s cousin who put the idea into his head.
  2. … talked over their heads…
  3. … to not lose their heads.
  4. … come to a head.
  5. … put their heads together…
  6. … has a good head on his shoulders.
  7. … he has gone off his head.
  8. … keeping his head above water.
  9. … is head and shoulders above any of…
  10. … has a good head for …

 

  1. What prepositions are normally used to complete the following popular phrases?

in  at in  in at by  in  up to without  by  through  in

a. without a doubt

b. in the balance

c. by no means

d. through thick and thin

e. in the last resort

f. at a premium

g. in vain

h. in the lurch

i. at your service

j. by dint of

k. in one fell swoop

l. up to the hilt

 

  1. USE THE PHRASES ABOVE IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN

 

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

USE THE PHRASES IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN

 

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

  1. USING THE PRESENT TENSE
  2. USING ‘WOULD’ FOR THE FUTURE

 

U: 18  BABY AUSTIN  P:1144117

 
a. Danny’s reasoning was based on the fact that he had driven before and practised round the pumps; and that he would get there much faster if he went in the car, because this was an emergency.
 
b. After Danny had made his decision to take the car, he went to the workshop, opened the double doors, got into the driver’s seat of the Baby Austin, turned on the ignition key, pulled out the choke, found the starterbutton and pressed it. When the motor started, he switched on the lights, pressed down on the clutch, slipped the gear-lever into reverse, and backed the car out of the workshop. Before leaving, however, he returned to the workshop to switch off the lights. He decided to leave the little oil-lamps still burning in the caravan.
 
c. Explain the meanings of the following phrases in the context of the passage: i. The engine turned over, or nearly started ii. I left the engine idling (running without any acceleration) iii. It was as dark as the day the world would end. iv. The fox’s long and bushy tail fanned out behind the animal (as if flowing like a stream). v. He was going as fast as he could go
 
d. Pupils will give their own opinion as to preference

 

B WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. Match the opposites in A and B.
A B
a. aggressive

b. necessary

c. approaching

d. installation

e. preposterous

f. translucent

g. replenish

v. passive

ii. dispensable

i.departing

vi. removal

vii. Reasonable

iv. Opaque

iii. empty

 

C    LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

 

3.Write five sentences of your own…

Write five sentences of your own using noun clauses beginning with:

a. what          What he is doing is inexcusable?
b. whether     Whether he said it or not nobody knows.
c. whatever   Whatever we decide we must do.
d. why            Why he wrote the letter is puzzling, indeed.
e. that That he will come is certain.

 

U: 19   THE INCHCAPE ROCK P:4

 

 
a. The poet paints a picture of a placid, calm sea. Visibility is fine and the day is a clear one; the Inchcape Rock and Bell are clearly visible. The poet describes the sea in neutral terms to allay our fears (and those of the sailors, especially Sir Ralph) about the danger, so that later the effect of the disaster is all the more dramatic.
 
b. The words the poet uses describe a turbulent sea: surge’s swell; thick haze o’erspreads the sky; so dark it is they see no land; the breakers roar; the swell is strong.
 
c. The Abbot of Aberbrothok, John Gedy, a monk in the 1300s, tied a bell to a rock (the Inchcape Rock) on a dangerous reef in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland. The bell was installed to warn mariners of its danger. One day Sir Ralph the Rover, a pirate, spitefully cut the bell free from the rock. Later, he returned to the area but there was no bell to give warning, and his ship was sunk when it struck the rock.
 
d. It warned mariners of the danger. ‘When the Rock was hid by the surge’s swell, / The mariners heard the warning bell.’
 
e. Sir Ralph was a pirate or rover; he grew rich from plunder. He is described at first as being mirthful and full of good cheer because of the spring; but his mirth was caused by wickedness. Later, he is worried because he cannot hear the bell in the darkness, and after the ship is wrecked he pulls his hair and curses himself in despair.
 
f. Sir Ralph cut the bell free out of spite.
 
g. The weather conditions on his return were worse than when he left; there is a thick haze, it is dark, and there has been a gale blowing all day; the swell is strong.
 
h. He swears, tears his hair, and curses in his despair.
 
i. It is not good to be spiteful, and brings to mind the phrase ‘cutting off one’s nose to spite the face’— doing something spiteful may damage you more than it damages others.

 

B WORKING WITH WORDS

  1. SPELLING MARK WHERE THE STRESS OCCURS IN THE FOLLOWING.

depos’it      inter’pret     bal’lot                    defer’                    deter’

pi’vot                    desert’ (v)   repeat’       di ’er                     ben’efit

reveal’         confer’        transfer’ (v)          fid’get         conceal’

deposited   interpreted           balloted       deferred     deterred

pivoted        deserted     repeated     di ered                  benefited

revealed     conferred   transferred           fidgeted      concealed

 

  1. SAME, BUT NOT QUITE FIND WORDS FROM THE FIRST PART OF THE POEM WITH A SIMILAR MEANING TO THE FOLLOWING:
  2. movement/stir
  3. streamed/flowed
  4. continual/steady
  5. shift/move
  6. obtained/received
  7. climbed/rose
  1. PUNCTUATE THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE.

There was the noise of a bolt shot back, and the door opened a few inches, enough to show a long snout and a pair of sleepy blinking eyes. ‘Now, the very next time this happen,’ said a gruff and suspicious voice, ‘I shall be exceedingly angry. Who is it this time disturbing people on such a night? Speak!’ ‘O Badger,’ cried the Rat, ‘let us in, please. It’s me, Rat, and my friend, Mole, and we’ve lost our way in the snow.’

C LEARNING ABOUT LANGUAGE

  1. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONCESSION

 

Rewrite the following.

  1. Though he had eaten a dozen bananas, he was still hungry.
  2. Though he is a poor man and does not earn very much, he often gives money away. c. Although Arshad and Naima bought a house, they never lived in it.
  3. Although the children had measles, they were allowed to sit in the garden.
  4. Although we have never been to see the Eiffel Tower, we know what it looks like.
  1. ADVERB CLAUSES OF PURPOSE
  2. The doctor gave the patient an injection, so that he would go to sleep.
  3. They took a taxi to the station so that they could meet their friend.
  4. The teacher wrote the instructions clearly in order that the children would not make a mistake.
  5. The shopkeeper locked his shop, in order to keep out burglars.

D LISTENING AND SPEAKING

 

U: 20  MOTHER’S DAY  P:4

 

 
a. Mrs Fitzgerald is Mrs Pearson’s neighbour. She tells fortunes, and she is in Mrs Pearson’s house to tell Mrs Pearson’s fortune and have a cup of tea with her and a chat.
 
b. Mrs Fitzgerald disapproves of the way that Mrs Pearson pampers and spoils the other members of her family and how she allows them to take advantage of her. She hopes to resolve the matter by becoming Mrs Pearson (by exchanging her spirit with that of Mrs Pearson) and then dealing with the family in her own way.
 
c. After the transfer of personalities, Mrs Pearson becomes dominating, bossy, self-assured, and determined to deal with her predicament, and Mrs Fitzgerald becomes meek, timid, and unsure of herself.
 
d. Doris Pearson is most concerned about whether or not her silk is ironed, where she is going that evening, and whether her tea (evening meal) is going to be prepared by her mother.
 
e. Mrs Pearson (with Mrs Fitzgerald’s personality) first puts Doris in her place by telling her to iron her own silk and to get her own tea, if she wants any. She further upsets Doris by telling her that she might herself go out to eat, and that she looks terrible…and so does her friend Julie Spence. She puts Cyril in his place by telling him she cannot be bothered to get his tea ready, answering him in an offhand way, revealing that she has not mended his clothes or put them out ready for him, continuing to play cards and appearing unconcerned about what he does. She puts her husband in his place by sitting and playing cards and drinking lemonade, revealing to him that there is no tea prepared, and pointing out that his ‘friends’ at the club all laugh at him and call him names.
 
f. Cyril and Doris come to the conclusion that their mother has ‘hit her head or something’, is suffering from ‘concussion’, and has become ‘far-fetched’; in other words she has gone mad!
 
g. Mrs Pearson says that she is not going to make the beds anymore, or might do so as a favour. She expects in future to be thanked for what she does, made a fuss of and appreciated; she might go off for the weekend, when she wishes; and have the children stay at home and cook dinner occasionally while she chats with her husband. She also expects them to treat their neighbour with some respect.
 
h. Mrs Pearson: She thinks Mrs Fitzgerald is a little intimidating and forward; she tends to agree with her and give in to her. Evidence for this is that she agrees to change personalities with her. George: He does not regard Mrs Fitzgerald very highly and does not respect her. Evidence: He is unpleasantly surprised when he sees the visitor. He takes objection when he is called ‘George’ by her and does not welcome her or wish her good evening properly

Doris: Shows no particular views about Mrs Fitzgerald. Cyril: He says: ‘It’s that silly old woman from next door—Mrs Fitzgerald. You don’t want her here, do you?’ So, he does not like her very much.

 
i. Pupils will give their own views, however, Mrs Pearson looks the likely culprit for allowing such a situation to prevail. She does this by pampering and spoiling her children, cooking, cleaning, and running after them, and denying herself some simple pleasures. They do not acknowledge what she does for them nor do they thank her for it. Mrs Fitzgerald solves the problem by dealing with the family in a more authoritative fashion. She stands for no nonsense, and in the end the situation is resolved to the satisfaction of all.

 

  1. REFERENCE TO CONTEXT
  1. ‘IT’S NOT ME THAT’S BEING SILLY—AND I MUST SAY IT’S A BIT MUCH WHEN I’VE BEEN WORKING HARD ALL DAY AND YOU CAN’T EVEN BOTHER TO GET MY TEA READY.’
  1. Doris to Mrs Pearson.
  2. The conversation prior to this has been about tea, and why Mrs Pearson has not made it. Mrs Pearson has informed Doris that she may go out to have her tea. Doris cannot understand what is wrong with her mother as she is playing cards and has not made the tea.

iii. Doris asks her mother whether she heard her ask about her yellow silk and that she wants it ironed.

  1. Mrs Pearson tells her daughter not to talk rubbish to her about working hard. She adds that she puts in twice the hours Doris does, and gets neither wages nor thanks for it.
  1. ‘WELL, SHE’S FAR-FETCHED, IF YOU ASK ME.’
  2. Doris to Cyril.
  3. She is agreeing with Cyril when he says it sounds far-fetched that their mother might be suffering from concussion.

iii. After this both Cyril and Doris giggle and then guffaw. They realise that their mother is acting in a strange way, and that she has upset both of them. Their annoyance and despair now turns to amusement, because they want to see what the reaction of their father will be, when he comes home, to their mother’s strange behaviour.

B WORKING WITH WORDS

FIND OUT WHAT THESE WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS MEAN, AND USE THEM IN SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN.

  1. is assumed to be: is taken as; is thought to be
  2. sinister: suggesting or threatening evil; sounding ominous
  3. contrasting: set in opposite ways; vastly different
  4. put one’s foot down: be determined; take a firm stand
  5. besides: in addition; also
  6. dubiously: undecidedly; with doubt and uncertainty
  7. mean well: to intend to be helpful
  8. complacently: in a self-satisfied and unconcerned way
  9. apologetic: showing sorrow; offering an apology, or an excuse
  10. blubbering: crying profusely; sobbing noisily

C WRITING

  1. WRITE A SHORT CHARACTER SKETCH OF ONE OF THE FOLLOWING.
  2. Mrs Pearson
  3. Mrs Fitzgerald
  4. Doris
  1. WRITE A SHORT SUMMARY (NOT MORE THAN 150 WORDS) OF THE PLAY.

 

=================ALHAMDOLILLAH=============

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