NOTES/ solved exercises: NEW OXFORD MODERN ENGLISH LEVEL 6 (2015)



U:1 THE POEM                            P:3-4


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:

What is needed for the twig to become healthy and strong?


The twig should be planted,

watered, and

set where the sun will be above it, to become healthy and strong.

Q No.b:

In what ways will the twig develop if it is cared for?


If it is cared for the twig will develop into a tall bush with many flowers and sparkling leaves.

Q No.c:

What is a closet and what might be found there?


A closet is a large cabinet or area like a cupboard for storage; in it there may be odds and ends such as a mousetrap and blunted tools.

Q No.d:

Is the closet mentioned in the poem used much? How do we know?


The closet is not used much; there are mousetraps in it, and the tools are blunt.

Q No.e:

Why will the twig not grow in a closet?


The twig will not grow in a closet, because it is too dark, and there is little fresh air inside.

Q No.f: Why is the twig compare to in the second stanza?
Ans: The twig is compared to an old twisted nail.
Q No.g: Why is the poet’s message to the reader?
Ans: look after and encourage something even if it is small and appear useless.



1Find words of the opposite meaning in the poem.

  1. large b. short                     c. below
  2. few e. staleness               f. sharpened
  3. strengthen h. straight                  i. still (not moving)



a. little           b. tall          c. above                       d. many e. freshness f. blunted     g.  waste (shrivel)        h. twisted




2 Think of suitable adjectives to go with these nouns. You may find one or two in the poem.

  1. closet b. nail           c. wind          d. grass-blades       e. Roots

a. dusty, dark, rarely-used closet

b. rusty, twisted, iron nail

c. blowing, cold, harsh wind

d. green, lush, clashing grass-blades

e. long, twisted, thirsty, withered roots


U: 2     EVERYTHING IS HAPPENS FOR OUR OWN GOOD                                     :9-12


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:

What did the king do when he became angry with someone?


When the king became angry with someone, he immediately gave orders for that person to be thrown into the dungeons below the palace.

Q No.b:

Why did the king compare Nizam Din to a parrot?


The king compared him to a parrot because Nizam Din was in the habit of repeating the sentence: ‘Everything happens for our own good.’

Q No.c:

What made the king so angry before the great debate?


The king became angry before the debate because he had cut himself on the door.

Q No.d:

Explain the phrase ‘out of sight, out of mind’.


When someone (or something) is not seen for a long time, that person (it) is forgotten. Here, since the king did not see Nizam Din every day, he forgot about him.

Q No.e:

Why were the members of the hunting party relieved when they arrived at the river?


The member soft he hunting party were relieved when they arrived at the river, as the journey had been hot and dusty.



  1. Fill in the blanks with words from the list below.
Opinion, devoted , explanation , threatened, vast, avoid


  1. The travellers took twenty days to cross the————————————-sandy desert.
  2. The girl gave her teacher a long————————————————-about why she was late.
  3. Hasan was—————————————————–by the man with the gun.
  4. In his ————————————-the Government is doing a fine job.
  • We must———————————————the centre of town as it will be very crowded and we will be delayed.
  1. Mahira is so—————————————–to her mother that she never leaves her side.



a.  vast sandy desert.                       b. gave her teacher a long explanation  c. was threatened by                       d. In his opinion                                          e. We must avoid the centre          f. so devoted to her mother


  1. Match the following synonyms. Choose a word from list B which is same meaning as a word from list A.
list A list B

















prison/dungeon,    decorated/ornate,     quickly/briskly, leave/depart,         furious/angry,             annoy/irritate, understand/          comprehend,                 gash/cut.


Discuss subject and predicate with further examples of your own.


  1. Write the following sentences in your exercise book, putting a box (or brackets) round the subject and a line under the predicate.
  2. (Hamid) punched the ball very hard.
  3. (Noman and Salim) work in the room at the back.
  4. Every day (my dog) drinks milk.
  5. (Muneer), come here.
  6. Over the beautiful blue sea, (they) sailed away in a boat.


  1. Add suitable subjects to the following to form complete sentences.



  1. Mark the correct Ans(s) with a tick.
  2. The tiger’s roar was:
  3. sudden 2.loud              3. Deep
  4. The tiger did the following:
  5. sniffed 2. Prowled 3. purred     4. growled
  6. The king was:
  7. cautious 2. Terrified 3. nervous  4. Brave
  8. The best synonym here for ‘glimpse’ is:
  9. peer 2.sight                     3. Site     4. Smell
  10. The tiger moved towards the king by:
  11. leaping 2. Bounding 3. Stepping   4. Jumping



a.  2.loud

b.  1.sniffed  2.prowled  4.growled                                          c.  1.cautious  2.terrified  4.brave

d.  2.sight

e.  2.bounding


U: 4    THE OLD BROWN HORSE      P: 20-21


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:

What do we learn about the horse from his appearance and behaviour?


We learn that the horse is weary, old, shaggy, not very well cared for, and a bit sad; but the horse responds to human touch.

Q No.b:

Why is the horse no longer used for riding? Give at least two reasons.


The horse is old; time has passed and brought new methods of transportation such as the motor car.

Q No.c:

When does the horse feel that life now is not so bad?


The horse feels good when a passer-by strokes its mane and shaggy coat.


coat    riding lame trot mane
race stirrup library fetlock saddle rein
cashew jump  turnip gallop heading canter
spade Shetland pony  shoe turret hoof



Race    stirrup    fetlock    saddle    rein    jump    gallop    canter    Shetland    pony    shoe    hoof



  1. Add suitable predicates to the following to make sentences.
  2. We ————————————————————————————————————————————————————–
  3. That man who is the president————————————————————————————————————————-
  4. An engine——————————————————————————————————————————————————
  5. The woman with the glasses—————————————————————————————————————————
  6. The dog without a tail————————————————————————————————————————————-
  1. The subject of a sentence consists of naming words and the predicate is concerned with doing or being. The main word in the subject is a noun and the main word in the predicate is a verb.

e.g. The happy girl sang loudly. (Noun: girl, Verb: sang)

  1. Underline only the main noun (or nouns) and the main verb in the following.
  2. The boy walked along briskly.
  3. The long electric train crashed into the back of a goods train.
  4. Saima and Alina are playing in the garden.
  5. We heard them crying.
  6. The elephant has large ears.



a. The boy walked along briskly.

b. The long electric  train crashed into the back of a goods train.

c. Saima and Alina are playing in the garden.

d. We heard them crying.

e. The elephant has large ears.










































  1. Answer the following questions.


  1. What advice did the girl’s parents give her? Did she follow all the advice?

The girl’s parents advised her;

1-where to keep her things

2-when not to lean out of the window

3-not to speak to strangers.

She didn’t follow the last piece of advice.

  1. How did the man give the girl the ldea that he was able to see?
  2. The man said, ‘I didn’t see you either, at first’. He then went on to describe the scenery. This gave the girl the idea that the man could see.


  1. What mistake did the man make? Why was it a mistake?
  2. The man’s mistake was to ask the girl what it was like outside. It was a mistake because the girl would now think that the man could not see.


  1. The man says, ‘You have an interesting face’. Why does he then say that it was a safe remark?
  2. The word ‘interesting’, which the man used to describe the girl’s face, is a safe word. If the girl were plain or beautiful she would be flattered by the remark.


  1. What lies did the man tell the girl in order to hide the tact that he was blind?
  2. The man’s lies were:

he told her that he didn’t see her ‘at first’;

he described Bhurban;

he told her that the trees seemed to be moving;

he told her she had an interesting face.


  1. Did the girl tell any lies?
  2. No, the girl didn’t tell any lies. However, from her remarks the man would not be able to tell whether she was blind or not.





  1. She laughed pleasantly a c/ear ringing /at/gh. ’/ts nice to be to/d that’

she said.

  1. Why did the girl laugh?
  2. What had she just been told and by whom?

iii. What does the woman go on to say?

  1. ’I’m sorry I’m not as attractive a travelling companion as the one who just /effl’
  2. Who made this remark and when?
  3. Why did the speaker make this remark?

ill. What further information did the speaker give about the travelling companion who had lust left?






  1. The girl’s exclamation was probably (‘alas’, ‘eek!’, oh ’).
  2. The man said that the sun was delicious. He mean at the sun was (tasty,

most pleasant* hot).

  1. e man’s words touched her means they (affected, worried , impressed,

annoyed) her.

  1. Mind’s eye means (eyeball, brain , imagination)
  2. Bhurban is a place in the (desert, plains, Mountains,)

ANSWERS : a. ‘Oh!’ b. most pleasant c. affected d. imagination e. mountains




  1. The early bird———————————–
  2. Look before ———————-
  3. Learn to walk———————-

d Don t count your chickens ——————

e You may lead a horse to water————————–


  1. The early bird catches the worm.
  2. Look before you leap.
  3. Learn to walk before you run.
  4. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched.
  5. You may lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink.









1-  Here is a table showing their functions. Copy it into your exercise book. Give your own examples of each part of speech.





  1. This ship sailed across the wide ocean.
  2. Simon is the director f e company.

c The tap was leaking yesterday.

  1. She came to see in the morning.
  2. The birds and the animals are fed well.
  3. Early one morning I saw a beautiful peacock in the forest.

g.Oh! Is that your new car?


  1. Yellow describes snake and crawled tells of an action.
  2. Simon is the name of a person and large describes the company.
  3. Tap is the name of a thing; yesterday tells when it was leaking (helps describe the action).
  4. Me stands in place of a noun (the person speaking) and morning is the name given to the early part of the day.
  5. And joins two parts of the sentence; are fed tells of an action (continuing).
  6. Saw tells of a past action; in shows the relation between peacock and forest.
  7. Oh! Shows a feeling or emotion; new describes the car





  1. She laughed pleasantly
  2. The large, black dog
  3. Walking along slowly

d Sit down

e.. The engines whistle

  1. They played cricket on Sunday


  1. She laughed pleasantly (Complete: there is a subject and a predicate: there is a finite verb. It makes complete sense.)
  2. The large, black dog (Incomplete: There is no verb of any kind: there is no predicate.)
  3. Walking along slowly (Incomplete: Thereisnofiniteverb:thereisnosubject;wedonotknowwhoorwhatisperforming the action.)
  4. Sit down (Complete: There is a finite verb: there is a subject and a predicate. The subject is understood…‘You’.)
  5. The engine’s whistle (Incomplete: there is no finite verb; there is no predicate.)
  6. They played cricket on Sunday (Complete: there is a finite verb; there is a subject and a predicate.)


U: 6     THE OWL                      P:29-30


1.Answer the following Questions in your own words.

Q No. a:

Does the poem have a rhyming scheme? What is it?


The rhyming cheme is :ab cb.

The even numbered lines rhyme.

Q No.b:

Why do you think the poet may have been hungry and tired?


The speaker had probably been with the other soldiers and in a battle. He was hungry, but he was not starved.

Q No.c:

What seemed the sweetest thing to the poet?


The rest that the poet was getting seemed the sweetest thing.

Q No.d:

How does the poet compare the inside of the inn to the outside?


Inside the inn the poet had food, fire, and rest; he was warm and comfortable. Outside, he had felt cold, tired, and  hungry.

Q No.e:

What does the owl’s cry sound like?


The owl’s long and clear cry was a most melancholy one.



Choose the best word to place in the blanks.

  • The old man’s brow was deeply ——————————-.

(wrinkled, crumpled, furrowed)

  • The long, —————————————–road through the mountains passed through no villages.

(crooked, bent, winding)

  • The miser ———————————————his purse tightly in both hands.

(clasped, grabbed, clutched)

  • The flag —————————————————gently on top of the monument.

(flapped, fluttered, waved)

  • The proud peacock ———————————–up and down the lawn.

(swaggered. strutted. marched)


1. furrowed (possibly, wrinkled).

2. winding

3. clutched (possibly, clasped)

4. fluttered (and, if the wind was variable, flapped)

5. strutted

(swaggered and marched are used mainly of people, not animals or birds)


U:7     ANWAR SAHIB               P:35-36


1.Answer the following Questions in your own words.

Q No. a:

How do we know that Anwar sahib’s mind was still alert?


Anwar Sahib’s eyes still had a bright spark in them showing that his brain was alert.

Q No.b:

What kind of man was Noman?


Noman was polite and kind. He showed respect to Anwar Sahib by standing up when he entered the room. He showed concern for the old man.

Q No.c:

When Arsalan Ahmed smiled, why did Anwar sahib shudder?


Anwar Sahib shuddered when Arsalan Ahmed smiled and showed his stained teeth. It was as if he was warning Anwar Sahib to be on his side and not go against him.

Q No.d:

Why couldn’t the brothers come to a decision about the land?


The brothers couldn’t come to a decision because each thought he should be the first to choose, and neither wanted to be  left with the less productive land.

Q No.e:

Why did Anwar sahib tell the story?


Anwar Sahib told the story so that Noman could follow his advice and act in the same way as the wise pupil. It was a hint as to what Noman should do.



You know that collective nouns are the names of groups of persons and things of the same kind.

Can you write the collective nouns for groups of the following? Use the list below.








 people in a theatre—audience




 eleven footballers—team


Abstract nouns are the names of states or qualities possessed by people or things. We cannot touch these qualities as we can touch concrete objects.

  1. Form abstract nouns from the following adjectives.
freedom             delicacy           width            thinness               height  awkwardness   sweetness       breadth         honesty


  1. State what quality is possessed by a person who is:
tidiness                 helpfulness             laziness             quietness            foolishness           loyalty                    accuracy             hardiness


Verbs are words which tell about actions or states of being. If you look in a dictionary,
you will find the letters vb. or v. (or V.t. and v.i.) next to some words. These letters show that the word is a verb. Some words are nouns, in which case they will have the letter n. next to them. Some words, you will find, are followed by both v. and n. This means that they can be used as verbs or as nouns.

Pick out the verbs in the following.

  1. The children crowded round the teacher.
  2. The children in the crowd shouted and cheered.
  3. ‘If you want to go to Lahore, you must book a seat on the bus.’
  4. ‘Be careful or you might fall.
  5. Jawed spent two weeks in hospital after the fall.
  6. The boys go for a run every day.



a. crowded  b. shouted and cheered. c.want ,must, book                  d.  might fall. e.  spent   f. go


Remember that quite often we use more than one word to form a verb, e.g. is drinking, was drinking, had drunk, had been drinking, will have been drinking. (These ‘helping verbs’-is, was, has, had been – are called auxiliary verbs.)


U: 8    The way through the woods  P: 37-40


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:



a. An old road that was shut seventy years ago is hidden in the woods.

Q No.b:



b. Pupils will give their own answers, and guess why the road may have been closed. A possible clue is in the line: ‘You will hear the beat of a horse’s feet, and the swish of a skirt in the dew.’ Who was riding along this road and what happened? Was there an accident or some unfortunate incident that took place?

Q No.c:



c. Yes. The rhyming scheme is : abcb/ aded/ da (notquite!)da

a b c b / a d e d / d f d a /a

Q No.d:



d. Pupils should look up the word in a dictionary. (an/em/en/eez)

Q No.e:



e. Pupils will give their own opinion.





  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:

Why could the girl neither eat nor sleep well?


The girl could not eat because she was lonely ; she could not sleep because she had nightmares.

Q No.b:

What did the girl do on the sixth day when the storm had ended?


On the sixth day, when the storm had ended, the girl went to the place where the canoes were hidden, and let herself down the cliff. She had decided to set off for the country that lay to the east.

Q No.c:

When did the girl first feel real fear?


The first time the girl was really afraid was when she was in the canoe and looked back but could no longer see the Island of the Blue Dolphins.

Q No.d:

Why did the girl want to leave the island?


The girl wanted to leave the island because she had given up all hope of seeing the ship returning with her people. She was also lonely and frightened.

Q No.e:

What noises did the qirl hear and what siqhts did she see while in the canoe?


While she was in the canoe, the girl heard the faint sound of the waves as they went under the canoe or struck against it. She saw stars in the sky at night, dawn breaking, and a swarm of dolphins.



  1. Here are some nouns from the passage, but the letters are jumbled. What are they?


Ans: a. star           b. canoe         c. whale          d. Dolphin                  e. basket       f. seaweed    g. shore            h. headland


  1. Write down the adverbs formed from these adjectives; then use the adverbs in sentences of your own.

e.g. happy/happily The girl played happily with the puppy.

a. terribly                 b. Fretfully            c. swifly                                   d. dreadfully            e. idly


  • Give the full form and explain the following acronyms.
a. IT: Information Technology

b. MD: Doctor of Medicine, Managing Director

c. CNG: Compressed Natural Gas

d. CEO: Chief Executive Officer

e. SOS: Save Our Souls ( a call for help in an emergency)

f. CID: Criminal Investigating Department

g. UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund  (now United Nations Children’s Fund)

h. WWF: World Wildlife Fund


  • Try to give your own explanations for the following proverbs. Also give an example of when the proverb might be used.


  1. All roads lead to Rome.
  2. Everything comes to him who waits.
  3. If at first you don’t succeed try, try, try again.
  4. It never rains but it pours.
  5. Make hay while the sun shines.


a.     All roads lead to Rome:

There are many ways of achieving the same aim or the same results.

b.     Everything comes to him who waits:

If a person tries hard enough and is patient, he will have success in the end.

c.     If at first, you don’t succeed try, try, try again:

A good result can be achieved with perseverance.

d.     It never rains but it pours:

Misfortunes seldom come alone.

e.     Make hay while the sun shines:

Make use of good opportunities when they present themselves.


  1. In your notebook, make a table, and write in it the subject, verb, and object of the sentences below. You may leave out words which do not form part of the subject or the object.

e.g. The three girls baked a cake in the afternoon.

Subject                    Verb                     Object

  1. The three girls baked a cake (in the afternoon)


  1. The carpenter bored a hole in the piece of wood.
  2. Akbar ruled the country very wisely.
  3. Every year we visit the seaside.
  4. He carried the sack into the store-room.
  5. Nazia and Saima soaked the clothes in a bucket of water.
  6. The policeman took the dog for a long walk.
  7. A strong pair of bullocks pulls our cart to market on Sunday.
  8. How did you break the glass?


    Subject                     Verb                        Object                       Other words       a. The carpenter           bored                         a hole            in the piece of wood. b.Akbar                        ruled                           the country              very wisely. c.We                            visit                              the seaside              Every year.

d.He                       carried                          the sack              into the store-room. e.Nazia and Saima    soaked                      the clothes        in a bucket of water. f.The policeman        took                          the dog                     for a long walk.   g.A strong pair of bullocks pulls                 our cart             to market on Sunday. h. You                     did break                     the glass             How?



  • Find the verb and the object in the following sentences.
  1. Amina scolded her brother.
  2. The children found a silver coin.
  3. The teacher wrote a poem on the board.
  4. The little girl has a red ribbon in her hair.
  5. The batsman hit the ball out of the stadium.


The verbs are in bold; the objects have been underlined.


a. Amina scolded her brother.

b. The children found a silver coin.

c. The teacher wrote a poem on the board.

d. The little girl has a red ribbon in her hair.

e. The batsman hit the ball out of the stadium.


3.Fill in the blanks with suitable objects.

  • Ahmed and Saqib watered —————————————————————————————————————–in the evening.
  • The bees collected ————————————————————————————————————————-from the flowers.
  • In the book we found ———————————————————————————————————————————————
  • The lifeguard saved ———————————————————————————————————————————————–
  • ————————————————————–have you done?



  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a: What reason did the grandmother give for going to Bournemouth?
Ans: The grandmother decided to go to Bourne mouth in order to obey he rdoctor’s orders.
Q No.b: How does the boy describe the hotel?
Ans:   It was an enormous white building on the sea-front and it looked to me like a pretty boring place to spend a summer holiday in’ and later, ‘The ground floor of the hotel was a maze of public rooms, all of them named in gold letters on the doors.’
Q No.c  Why had the grandmother given the boy a pair of white mice?
Ans:The grandmother had given the boy a pair of white mice as a consolation because Bourne mouth was a boring place.
Q No.d:What was the first trick the boy taught the mice?
Ans:The first trick the boy taught the white mice was to creep up the sleeve of his jacket and come out by his neck.
Q No.e: Why did the hotel manager get angry with the boy and his grandmother?
Ans:The hotel manager got angry with the boy and his grandmother for suggesting that the hotel was full of rats.

B:2. Here are some words used by the author to describe movement. Try to find them in the passage. Use the words in interesting sentences of your own.

  1. pop (in): casually visit, for a moment or two, without any specific purpose, unexpectedly

he always pop in my room.

  1. bursting (in): entering suddenly, without warning

I don’t like his bursting arrival.

  1. sidled: edged along in a furtive way

He sidled up behind her as she ordered a drink.

  1. marched: moved smartly forward, with a military bearing

He turned and marched off to the house.



  1. wandered: moved from place to place, without purpose, without destination

For a long time he wandered in fear from place to place.

  1. creep: move silently and stealthily

I’ll be as quiet as a kitten in slippers as I creep up to the bedroom.

  1. run: move fast, at a rapid pace

I didn’t run away.

  1. scuttling: move or run quickly with short steps

He watched the mage in brown scuttle away.

  1. pouring (in): moving like a flow of water, enmasse

He stood and carried his coffee cup to the sink, pouring out the remains.

  1. tiptoed: moved quietly, stealthily on the balls of the feet, cautiously, to avoid detection

He went on tiptoe to the nursery door and opened it.

  1. ventures forward: moves forward on a trip that is unpleasant, risky, dangerous

The bears will not venture upon the water.

  1. When would you use these words describing movements? Check the meanings in a dictionary, then use the words in sentences.
  2. scrabble to climb by scrambling, in disorderly haste; clamber

student,s scrabbled over the hill

  1. scramble to move or climb hurriedly, especially on the hands and knees

Her first instinct was to scramble to the back of the bus and climb out.

  1. scrape to pass by while coming into contact in an abrasive or sliding manner
  2. She did several dishes and then heard a chairscrape the floor behind her.
    weave to move in and out or sway from side to side

They also weave cloth, make pottery and smelt iron.

  1. stampede to move forward in a sudden, frenzied rush; to come all at once at great speed

Nome was the scene of a great gold mining stampede in 1900

Rewrite the following sentences, so that every underlined noun or group of words is replaced by the correct personal pronoun.

e.g. The man watered the rose bush every day.

He watered it every day.

  1. She gave it some food.
  2. They bought them.
  3. She took us to see it.
  4. It must have been cut down by you.
  5. He spoke to them about it.
  6. He said, ‘Let me have it.’



  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:   What is a junction?
Ans: A place where two or more objects, (roads, railway lines) join, meet, or cross.
Q No.b:What can the author see as he looks along the track?
Ans:The poet can see the track disappearing into the gloom; there are darkening hills in the distance. He can also see the setting sun and a signal light.
Q No.c:  Are there any clues in the poem that tell us the railway junction is not in a city?
Ans:Yes. the poet mentions the darkening hills and that a thrush sings; there are no other sounds
Q No.d:What does the poet mean (in stanza 4) by ‘But not their wai?
Ans:The poet means that he is going to a different destination from that of the others.
Q No.e:  Who are the people who were at the railway junction?
Ans:At the railway junction there were a bow-legged groom, a parson in black, a widow and her son, a sailor, a gamekeeper, and a fair woman.
Q No.f:what is the mood of the poem?

The poet  mentions far away things and darkness words such as :

1- gloom,

2- darkening,


4 –still,


6s-palely, etc

The other sounds there’s none are:


2-mutely came,


4-person in black,


6-gaunt gamekeeper,

7-evening growing late,


Q No.g: Are there any particular lines which tell us about how the poet feel?

The poet is thinking about his future, and where his journey will take him. He says: Is it alone and he mentions others who had been on the platform, but he is going somewhere which is ‘not their way.

He knows nothing of the people he has seen, and knows not where they have gone


  1. Find words in the poem which are paired with the following.
  2. tunnelled gloom b. distant seas c. gaunt gamekeeper
  3. appointed hour e. darkening hills f. nocturnal hills (again!)
  4. signal light h. discreetly veiled i. bow-legged groom

B Working with words

  1. See if you can write the negative forms of the following:
a. not able

b. not avoidable

c. not respectful

d. not visible

e. not violent

f. not united
g. not correct

h. not approving

i. not courteous

j. not considerate
k. not cooperative

1. unable

2. unavoidable

3. disrespectful

4. invisible

5. non-violent

6. disunited

7. incorrect

8. disapproving

9. discourteous

10. inconsiderate

11. uncooperative





  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a: What clues are there to tell us that Philip lives in an ancient time?
Ans:  Philip uses an abacus; a gang of slaves is working on the site; Cimon consults a scroll; a temple to Apollo is being built; Cimon tells the foreman that someone is saying that the Sun consists of burning material and the moon reflects the light of the Sun, etc.
Q No.b:What clues are there to tell us that Lalda lives in more modern times?
Ans: Lalda is in a spaceship and using a powerful computer; she is using instruments and technical expressions that even we (in this age) have not heard of, etc.
Q No.c: Who is Cimon?
Ans:Cimon is an architect who has designed the temple to the god Apollo.
Q No.d:Who is Briel?
Ans: Briel worked on the spaceship with Lalda; she has died, but we are not told how
Q No.e: What made Lalda feel safe and confident?
Ans: Lalda felt safe and confident in the space ship with its advanced computer, the CMf-22; she was also confident because she was a trained pilot.

B Working with words

Think of suitable adjectives to use with these nouns.







  1. advanced, sophisticated, powerful, reliable computer
  2. scanner, green, curved, bright screens
  3. ancient, fragile, papyrus scroll
  4. tinny, high-pitched, human, comforting voice
  5. low, deep, shrill, piping tone
  6. novel, weird, imaginative, ridiculous ideas




  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:



a. Lear suggests that the Pobble’s toes may have been carried away by shrimps, crawfish,orcraftymermaids.How they disappeared is anybody’s guess.

Q No.b:



b Aunt Jobiska made the Pobble drink lavender water tinged with pink, gets him to wrap his nose in a piece of scarlet flannelandthensendshimofftoswimtheChanneltofindher‘Runciblecatwithcrimsonwhiskers’.

Q No.c:



c. Pupils will give their own ideas, with reference to what they have read in the poem. Theycouldalsodrawapicture.


U:14  IN A TUNNEL    P: 73-75


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:

Why were the carriage windows pulled up when the train was going through a tunnel?


The carriage windows were pulled up when the train was going through the tunnel to prevent the smoke from the engine coming into the carriage.

Q No.b:

What kinds of things do you see in a tunnel when you are on foot?


When you are on foot in a tunnel you can see water dripping down the walls.

Q No.c:

How many children were in the tunnel?


There were three children in the tunnel.

Q No.d:

Which child was the most frightened?


Phyllis was the most frightened.

Q No.e:

What were the wires over which Phyllis stumbles?


The wires are those which connect the points or signals to the control cabin.

  1. In your own words, explain what is meant by the following.
  2. Thewirebetweentwotelegraphpolessagsandthencatchesatthetopofthepole.Fromamovingtrain,thewires seem to dip and rise.
  3. Thehawthornhedgeshavebeenclippedandtrimmedtokeepthemneatandtidy.
  4. A green which is very pale, like the skin-colour of a sick person.
  5. Thegatheredmaterialofaskirtwhereitmeetsthewaistband(especiallycommoninold-fashionedskirts).
  6. A mild term of ridicule.
  7. A cavity or recess in the wall which workmen can shelter in as trains go by. (Therearealsomanholesonstreets; these are cavities underground for sewers, etc. and the top is covered by a metal manhole cover.)
  8. Reference to context

‘That’wasalow,hummingsoundontherailwayline,atremblingofthewiresbesideit,abuzzing,hummingsound that grew louder and louder as they listened.

  1. Peter is the firsttohearthesound.
  2. Peter was telling Phyllis, who wanted to go back, not to be a ‘silly cuckoo’.
  3. Bobbie guessed that it was a train, and Phyllis was frightened by it.


  1. Find words in the story that mean the following.
  2. a loud noise—roar
  3. humming like a bee—buzzing
  4. slowly—gradually
  5. bright—dazzling
  6. tearing—ripping
  7. a person who is not brave—coward
  8. quietness—silence
  9. moving forward—advancing
  10. pulled—dragged
  11. moist and slippery—slimy
  12. held on tightly—clung
  13. tripped over—stumbled over


  1. Make a list of all the words in the last two paragraphs of the story describing sounds and noises.

rush, roar, rattle, blast, hurtled, clanging, jangling, echoing, whiz


  1. Can you add any other words for sounds to the list you have made?

Here are a few:

bang, bark, bawl, bay, bellow, bleat, boo, bray, buzz, cackle, call, caterwaul, caw, cheep, cluck, coo, crash, crow, crunch, cry, gobble, groan, growl, grunt, hiss, holler, honk, howl, lament, mewl, moan, moo, neigh, peep, pipe, roar, rumble, scream, screech, shout, shriek, snore, squawk, squeak, squeal, tinkle, titter, trill, tweet, ululate, utter, wail, whimper, whine, whinny, whir, whoop, woof, yell, yodel

B:4. Complete the following in your own words.


B:5. With the help of your dictionary, find as many meanings as you can for each of the following words..

WING —a limb of a bird (n)

—supporting part of an aeroplane (n)

—to wound someone slightly on the arm (v)

—addition to a building (n)

—in football or hockey, a person who is to the side of the centre (n)

—two or more squadrons of aeroplanes (n)

—pilot’s badge (n)

SIGHT —faculty of vision (n)

—being seen (n)

—space within which object or person can be seen (n)

—show, specta2cle (n)

—take observation of something with an instrument (v)

—something worth seeing (n)

POUND —a measure of weight; 2.2 pounds equals 1 kg. (n)

—enclosure for stray animals (n)

—crush as with a pestle (v)

—walk or run heavily (v)

—beat with fists(v)

FOOT —end part of leg beginning at the ankle (n)

—step, pace, tread (n)

—infantry soldiers (n)

—lower end of bed (n)

—unit of length (n)

—lower, usually projecting part of something (n)

MATCH —person equal to another in some quality (n)

—contest of skill (n)

—matrimonial alliance (n)

—short piece of wood tipped with combustible material (n)

—to pair one thing with its equal (v)

RACE —to compete in speed with (v)

—group of persons or animals connected by common descent (n)

—root of ginger (n)

—onward movement esp. water (n)


U:15  THE WOLF CHILDREN-I    P: 79-81


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:



a. One of the men licked his lips because he was nervous and his lips were dry with fright.

Q No.b:



b. People knew they were not wolves but did not know what they were, so they called them demons.

Q No.c:



c. Now in the gathering twilight,…

Sunset was time for the demons to appear.



Q No.d:



d. Mr Singh made notes so we know he kept a diary of some sort.

Q No.e:



e. Mr Singh knew the children had been living with the wolves for a long time because both ran on all fours.


f. Thevillagersrefusedtohelpbecausetheybelievedthatevilspirits,notthechildren,wereinthewolves’home.


g. Thehuntingpartybeatthegroundtofrightenthewolvesoutoftheirlair.


h. Mr Singh was bitter and angry with himself because the she-wolf had been killed and he had not been able to protect her.



  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:



a. Yes, she was surprised by them. She could ‘hardly believe her eyes’.

Q No.b:



b. Thetwochildrenmovedaboutonallfours.Sometimestheymovedtheirkneesandelbows,butiftheywantedto run they used their feet and hands.

Q No.c:



c. Wolves drink by lapping with their tongues, and this was what the children had learnt, so they also lapped milk with their tongues.

Q No.d:



d. Theyusedtheirkneesandelbowstomoveshortdistances;theyusedtheirhandsandfeetwhenrunning;they lapped milk from a dish; they howled and did not like being bathed; they crouched in the shade or stood motionless with their faces to the wall; they tried to escape and hurled themselves against the wall; they fed like wild animals, taking raw meat and liquids in a crouching position; they treated the other children like wolf-cubs.

Q No.e:



e.TheSinghsdecidedtokeepthediscoveryofthewolf-girlsasecret.Theydidnotwantpeoplecomingtoseethem out of curiosity.

Q no. f

f. Wolves are active at night and sleepy during the day, and the girls were used to following this pattern of behaviour.


g. When Amala died, Kamala missed her greatly. She howled for many days and refused to eat. All she would do was sniffaroundforAmala’sscent.



h. Mrs Singh had to leave the orphanage because her aunt was ill.  


i. TheimportantthingthatKamalalearntwashowtoloveahumanbeing.


 A Comprehension

  1. Answer the following questions.
  2. Pupils will use their own words, but should mention: finding a new flower in full bloom, discovering an article in the newspaper about a man just like himself, understanding a book that everyone finds difficult, watching glowing in a fire and listening to the water (in a kettle above it) boil, hearing an unliked guest say that he/she cannot stay long.
  3. Each one of the simple actions, sounds, occurrences, events, or people brings about immense pleasure for the poet in its own way. Theyareindividualitems,unconnectedwithanythingotherthanthepoethimself,whoisalso an individual. They are private and enjoyed in solitary moments.
  4. No, it does not. It may have had one in the original Japanese, but not in the translation.
  5. Pupils will make their own lists. Discuss.
  6. Reference to context

What a delight it is

When I blow away the ash,

  1. Theashison the woodembers in the fire place. The fire is heating the water(presumably for tea).
  2. When the ash is blown away, glowing crimson embers are revealed.
  3. As a result, the heat increases and the water boils. Both these occurrences cause delight.
  4. Understanding poetry

Underline the stressed syllables in the following words. Say them aloud first.

colour honest never admit about

awake instant control avoid human

people insect complete below table

  1. Divide the following words into syllables and mark the syllable that is stressed.

dis-play-ed, sand-al-wood, ma-gic-ians, peace-ful-ly, un-time-ly, hor-ri-ble, max-i-mum, pos-sib-le, dis-tress, dis-tress-ing

  1. Read the list carefully and divide the words into two groups according to their vowel sound.

Short medial vowel sound:

bread tread stead read lead dead ready

wealth health meant deaf death spread

Long medial vowel sound:

bead read lead bean mean cream team beam lean dream


B Working with words

Singular and plural nouns

Go through the spelling rules with the pupils. Can they give you further examples of the words in each group? 1. Write down the plurals of the following nouns.


  1. views, beliefs, nieces, receipts, jokes, bridges, widths, cliffs,storeys
  2. flashes,taxes,gases

iii. keys, directories, families, fairies, duties, companies

  1. zoos, potatoes, cargoes
  2. shelves
  3. mice
  4. Find out the plural forms of the following.

spoonfuls, cupfuls, crises, bases, formulae (formulas), apparatuses, brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law

Pupils should consult a dictionary.

Here are some ways of forming the plural, with examples.

Regular plural forms, -s, -es:

boys, beds, tails, shirts, bands, books, trays, shadows, horses, edges, prizes / couches, buses, masses, inches

-y becomes -ie:

spies, poppies, babies, hobbies, ladies, cries

-y becomes -ys:

bays, days, ospreys

-f or -fe becomes -ves:

calves, hooves, shelves, wives, thieves, wolves, loaves

Words change altogether:

men, firemen,teeth,mice,geese,children,oxen,lice,feet,women

-o becomes -os:

autos, kilos, photos, solos, tattoos, studios, videos, zoos, kangaroos

-o becomes -oes:

echoes, potatoes, torpedoes, tomatoes, heroes, vetoes

No change for the plural:

deer, fish,offspring,cod,perch(andothertypesoffish),sheep

Some are already in the plural:

crossroads, barracks, headquarters, gallows, means, species, series

-a becomes -ae or -as

amoebae/amoebas, formulae/formulas, larvae, vertebrae, antennae/antennas

-us becomes -i:

alumni, cacti, foci, nuclei, stimuli, syllabi/syllabuses, octopi/octopuses

-um becomes -a:

addendum/addenda, curriculum/curricula, datum/data, medium/media

-ex and ix becomes -ices or -xes:

apices/apexes, appendices/appendixes, indices/indexes

-is becomes -es:

analyses, axes, bases, diagnoses, crises, theses, oases

-on becomes -a:

phenomena, criteria, automata

C Learning about language

Auxiliary verbs

Spend a little time discussing auxiliary verbs. Note also that these (if not used with another verb) may be used on their own as finite verbs,  e.g. He is a boy. Were they here yesterday?

Pick out the auxiliary verbs in the following:

  1. is 5. was, were
  2. are 6. have
  3. will be 7. will have been
  4. have

D Listening and speaking

Blue moon

Which words would you associate with these?


danger zone, signal, alert, money…

solar: panel, heat, power, energy, physics, heating, rays…

polar: region, expedition, bear, molecule, exploration…

rain: forest, shower, cloud, dance, (rainfall, rainstorm, etc. compound words)

Introduce any other words that may be used in an adjectival sense:

e.g. royal, regal, year, garden, picture, farm, nature.

E Writing

What things did you put in your list for Exercise A.1.d?

Write a poem describing some of the everyday things that give you pleasure?

Pupils might firstliketomakealist,thenchoosesomeofthesethingstoconcentrateonandexpanduponinorder to create their poem.








  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:



a. Pupils will use their own words, but should mention: findinganewflowerinfullbloom,discoveringanarticlein the newspaper about a man just like himself, understanding a book that everyone findsdifficult,watchingembers glowing in a fireandlisteningtothewater(inakettleaboveit)boil,hearinganunlikedguestsaythathe/she cannot stay long.

Q No.b:



b. Each one of the simple actions, sounds, occurrences, events, or people brings about immense pleasure for the poet in its own way. Theyareindividualitems,unconnectedwithanythingotherthanthepoethimself,whoisalso an individual. Theyareprivateandenjoyedinsolitarymoments.

Q No.c:



c. No, it does not. It may have had one in the original Japanese, but not in the translation.

Q No.d:



d. Pupils will make their own lists. Discuss.


U:18 SNAKES    P: 95-97


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:

What are the reasons for the high death-rate from snake bites in the subcontinent?


The high death rate from snake bites in the subcontinent is because of lack of knowledge about snake venom. Many people walk barefoot and many go out without a light at night.

Q No.b:

How many people in the world die from snake bites each year?


As many as 30,000 people in the world die from snake bites each year.

Q No.c:

What happened to Ali?


Ali was playing barefoot in his father’s fields when he felt a sharp sting on his ankle. He  was immediately took him to a local dispensary.

Q No.d:

What would the doctor have known if he was a qualified allopathic doctor?


If the doctor was a qualified allopathic doctor, he would have known about anti veninserum and how to administer it.

Q No.e:

Which are the ‘really dangerous snakes’ found in Pakistan?


The really dangerous snakes are th Russell’sviper, the saw-scaled viper, the cobra, and the common krait.

B Working with words

  1. Use the following in sentences of your own. Find the meanings of the difficultwordsina dictionary.

secretive—behaving in a quiet, unseen way

on the blind side—on the side that cannot be seen

regularly spaced—with equally marked intervals

discharged—sent away from, let go, released

posing a danger—being a threat

revealed—made known, brought to view

inject—pour into something in a thin stream, usually with a needle or other sharp point

only after—solelyfollowing(certainlynotbefore)

vibrations—movements felt through solid objects, trembling

feeding on— eating, consuming (living on)

prevention—stopping something from happening

  1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the list below. Use each word once only.
  2. widespread b. dreadful c. unbearable d. emergency e. distinguishing f. nocturnal



  1. Complete the following sentences with the correct prepositions.
  2. to b. of c. at d. by e. of f. of g. to h. with
  3. Underline the nouns in the following.
  4. Theelephant rose to its feet.
  5. Therose on the bush was large.
  6. Therosebush grew in the back garden.
  7. Thewater was taken from the tank.
  8. It is the gardener who has to water the plants.
  9. Thewatertank is near the wall.

U:19 A HERITAGE OF TREES    P: 100-101


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. 1:

What does attack mean? How was the man ‘attacking’ the tree?


Attack means to assault or to set upon savagely. The man was hacking down the tree.

Q No.2: Which words in the poem tell us that the poet admires trees?

There you’ll see a tragic sight.

A line of noble trees.

Those noble trees

Let all enjoy them

Trees are our heritage

Q No.3:

Why do you think the poet says, ‘Let them come now to look once more/on their life’s work’?


The poet means that those kings and kind people who lovingly planted trees in the past should now come and see what is happening to their trees. They would be very upset.

Q No.d:

What do you think is meant by the phrase ‘More peaceful shade’? Where is this shade?


More peaceful shade refers to where these people have gone.

They are now dead, and if there is life after death, then they are enjoying a more peaceful shade somewhere in heaven.

Q No.e:

What words and phrases in the poem tell us that the poet feels that trees have been misused or hurt by man?


Attack a tree tragic sight

Mutilated branches ripped

Untimely from their trunks

wounded, lacerated

Cripples some have died

scabs and scars

B Working with words

  1. Fill in the blanks with words taken from the poem.
  2. attack b. tragic c. royal/noble d. mutilated
  3. untimely f. defiedg.patronageh.heritage
  4. Match the words in A with words of the opposite meaning in B .
  5. turbulent/peaceful
  6. undignified/noble



  1. idleness/work
  2. uproot/plant
  3. hateful/sweet
  4. opportunely/untimely



  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:



a. When Uncle Podger sends the girl out for nails, he forgets to tell her what size. He has to send one of the boys afterher.Thisiswhenwefirstlearnthathe is notorganized.

Q No.b:



b. Thegirlhastogetsixpen’orthofnailsandabitofpicturecord.

Q No.c:



c. Uncle Podger loses his coat because he is sitting on it, and only findsitagainwhenhestandsup.

Q No.d:



d. Uncle Podger says—‘Might just as well ask the cat to findanythingasexpectyoupeopletofindit’.Laterhesays ‘Great heavens! Seven of you gaping round there and you don’t know what I did with the hammer!’


Q No.e:



e. ‘When the old fool was leaning over the chair at an angle of forty-fiveandtryingtoreachapointthreeinches beyond what was possible for him to reach,’ tells us the author does not think much of Uncle Podger’s intelligence.


f. It took Uncle Podger most of the day and half the night to hang the picture. Auntie Podger thinks it may take him a week.


g. Theauthoruses‘would’becauseheisgivingonlyoneinstanceofUnclePodger’smethodsofdoingthings.Hetells this story, which took place in the past, but by using would he implies that Podger usually did things like this.

U:21  THE CLOTHES LINE    P: 109-111


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:



a. Thepoemisaboutclothesdryingandflappingona clotheslineandabouta handkerchiefthatblowsaway.

Q No.b:



b. flippingandflappinglikeflutteringcreatures,whiteas snow,caperingandprancinglikerestivehorses,dancing like fairy-tale witches, flyinglikeabird,likeasailinthesun

Q No.c:



c. dance, hither and thither, to and fro, flip,flap,flop,fluttering,caper,prance,shiver,skip,struggling,flew,…

Q No.d:



d. flip:to throw or toss, with a brisk motion, to turn over or around; to move in twists and turns

flap: to move with a fluttering motion, to move or sway while fixed at  one end flop: to fall down or land heavily, to move about limply or loosely.

Q No.e:



e. The clothes resemble witches in the way they dance wildly.


f. The poet’s hand kerchief flew like a bird. It danced excitedly, and struggled till it was free, then, leaving pegs and clothes line behind, it flew like a bird, and no one can find it. The poet guesses that the handkerchief may be in some ditch or drowned in the sea.


U:22 MANGOES    P: 119-120


  1. Answer the following Questions in your own words.
Q No. a:

How does Mrs Asghar get the children to return to their homework?


Mrs Asghar gets the children to return to their homework by telling them that their father will be most dis satisfied when he gets home and finds that they have not done their work. She reminds them what will happen then.

Q No.b:

What kind of homework is Nina doing?


Nina is obviously doing her maths homework because she wants to know the answer to a multiplication sum.

Q No.c:

Which words with double meanings are used in the play by the characters?


Right, Left,arm/aam, cheap/cheep, sweet, harmless/aamless/armless/harmful, man go/mango, leave

Q No.d:

What makes Aslam return to the window?


The temptation to see the mangoes draws Aslam to the window again.

Q No.e:

Does the Mango Seller speak correct English? What mistakes does he make?


The Mango Seller does speak correct English, apart from a couple of mistakes; the repetition of‘ much’, and‘…and that man going round with a knife!’

B Working with words

  1. Find the meaning of these words, then make up words with the opposite meaning.
  2. dishonourable b. unambitious c. uncivilized d. dissatisfied e. impatient f. unfaithful g. impossible h. disappearance
  3. Use these words in sentences of your own.


C Learning about language


  1. Use the perfect tenses for the verbs given in brackets and complete the following:
  2. had eaten b. have studied c. had learnt
  3. have (never) told e. had drunk f. will have spoken g. will have finished
  4. Make four sentences from the words given (in brackets). Use the first verb in the simple past tense and the second in the past perfect tense.


  1. When I arrived, he had already prepared the meal.
  2. By the time she got to the theatre, the play had already begun.
  3. Since I took my father to see the bicycle in the shop, they had increased the price.
  4. I passed him in the street, but did not recognize him because he had grown a beard.



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