Unit 1 Grandfather

Unit 2 Seeing in the mind

Unit 3 N0!

Unit 4 Black Beauty

Unit 5 Moon Wind

Unit 6 Success at last

Unit 7 Punishment in kindergarten

Unit 8 The cat’s paradise

Unit 9 How beautiful is the rain

Unit 10 Aamer’s café

Unit 11 Storm in the Black Forest

Unit 12 The killing

Unit 13 Home and love

Unit 14 The lumber room

Unit 15 The lake isle of Innisfree

Unit 16 Export quality

Unit 17 The daffodils

Unit 18 Upset in the ocean

Unit 19 You are old Father William

Unit 20 Julius Caesar

U: 01 GRANDFATHER   (P)        P:3-5


  1. Answer the following questions.
a. What important fact about grandfather do we learn from the first three lines of the poem?

We learn that grandfather is blind.

b. Why do the grandchildren and grandfather always play games that need speaking?

They play games that need speaking, because the grandfather cannot see to play any other type of game.

It also shows the consideration shown by the grandchildren.

c.  Why does each card and each move have to be told? What does this mean?

The grandfather cannot see, so the children have to tell the grandfather what each card is and where to put it.


  1. Phrasal verbs

 Take:                   Use the expressions in oral sentences and ask the pupils to do so, too.


Discuss the text with examples of your own. Note also that adverbs are usually, but not always, placed after the verb, e.g. She rose quickly and left the room.  He cautiously opened the box.

  1. Pick out the adverbs. a. fast (qualifies drives) b. quickly (taking)                                                                                            c. much (tell)                                                                                           d. beside (slept)                                                                                            e. because (left)
  2. 2. Look through the poem and find all the verbs.  settles, takes, play, need, told, smiles, are saying, has, to hold (infinitive),left, to do (inf.)
  3. Is there a verb in the first sentence?  There is no verb in the opening phrase. The implied verb is ‘sitting’.
  4. Is there an adverb in the poem? What is it? What kind is it? always.  It is an adverb of time, and answers the question, ‘When do we play games?’                                                               Ans: Always



  1. Answer The following questions.
a. According to The author, what was The reason for writing The book?

The author tells us the reason she wrote the book was to please the blind girl.

b. How did The boy call The author’s bluff? What does this mean? What did the boy try to show?

The author was secretly terrified of taking out and washing the boy’s glass eye, but she wanted to appear casual about it, pretending she was not terrified.

He called her bluff by taking it out and chasing her with it. He challenged her, and she did have to show she was terrified!

c. How many children in The family had poor eyesight?

The little girl Janey, and one brother, who had had infantile glaucoma, and had to have one eye removed.

d. Why did The author and The girl walk round The loch?

The author and the girl walked round the loch because the girl couldn’t see and Therefore could not climb with the other children;

it would have been dangerous, and she might have fallen. The author was also likely to suffer from vertigo.

e. What was The ‘Lake Horse’? What was The author’s theory about it?

The Lake-Horse was a mythical horse that was to be seen sometimes galloping on the surface of the loch. It was a greedy creature of mist and terror that took souls to keep it company in the deep water.

The author decided that this was just a story to frighten children and keep Them away from The dangerous loch.

f. Why do you think the girl wanted a story written about a blind girl?

I Think, the girl wanted a story written about a blind girl to show people that a blind girl could be just as brave and adventurous as a sighted girl.

g. Was the film as good as the novel? Was the author involved in the production of the film?

The film was a good story in itself, but not hing like the novel because the part of the main character, a blind girl, had been left out.

h. Was the author involved in the production of the film?

No. She was well paid, but not consulted.



  1. Give two meanings of each word below. look up words in a dictionary.

company:                                                                                                             i. being with someone, companionship                                                       ii. a business/group of actors/troops

couple:                                                                                                                     i.a few/some                                                                                                                                                                                                      ii.two people who live together

point:                                                                                                                i. a reason/aim of something                                                                           ii.a dot or mark/a spot/sharp end of a knife, pencil

mind:                     i.the part of a person responsible for thought, feelings, or wishes                                                                             object to somebody or something

crooked:                                                                i. winding /bent                                                                   ii. dishonest /illegal

blind:                                                                                                         i.unable to see/sightless                                                                                ii. a shade for a window, usually on a roller



NOT TO ORDER : Everything in this restaurant is cooked not to order


ABSOLUTELY CASUAL: The atmosphere at the meeting was absolutely casual.

To serve ones right: we should always serve their right honestly.

An improvident lot: she always committed an improvident lot.

Conventional adventure : Mountaineering  is conventional adventure in the world.

particularly enticing: this commercial is particularly enticing for boys.




U: 03  N0! P:19


  1. Answer The following questions.

The title is a good one because it is reflected in every line of the poem including the last line, in which the poem is summarised by yet another ‘no’ word, “Novemberi November is in the Autumn season, when Summer

has come to an end and nature is preparing for winter. The negative ‘no’ tells us that everything is coming to

an end, as far as plants are concerned.


There is no regular rhyming pattern. Some of the lines are rhyming couplets, but this is not constant. We could

break it up like this:

Laabccb 2.aabbccddd 3.aabbcdccd


Pupils will find that most words in the poem can be classified as follows:

i, times of day: morn, noon, dawn, dusk, proper time, afternoon

ii. roads: road, street, “t’ other side the way`, row, crescents, way, ring

ııı. motion or interaction: indications, recognitions, courtesies, showing, knowing, travelling, locomotiorı

inkling, notion, go, mail, post, news, cheerfulness, healthful ease, comfortable feel

iv. weather conditions or geographical features: sun, moon, sky, earthly view, land, ocean, coast, park,

warmth, shade, shine

v. living creatures and plants: people, company, nobility, member, butterflies, bees, fruits, flowers, leaves,


Pupils should first make their own lists, then find out from the others in class whether they have more items,

fewer, the same.


The poem describes a month, November (in late Autumn), in which there are a lot of negatives indicated by

`no`, The poet describes this season as being one without warmth or cheerfulness. It has none of the other

aspects that feature in some other months of the year. However, he does this in a cheerful way, so the poem

is not depressing or sad. (Donlt forget the poem describes a typical British or Western season, Autumn or

Fall, just before Winter sets in. There are no trees on the leaves and the animals have migrated or gone into

hibernation. people do not go out as much, because of the cold.)


Although the poem is full of negative statements, the poet still manages to make it sound fairly cheerful. The

rhyming couplets, the use of the same word to start each line, and the pace at which the poem moves, all help

to make it cheerful. The last line shows he has humour!




U: 04 BLACK BEAUTY P:17-19


  1. Answer The following questions.


a. How do we first realize that a horse (not a human being) is telling the story? (Base your answer on the passage alone, not the introduction.)

We first realize that a horse (not a human being) is telling the story when we come across the sentence:

“I and the other colts were feeding at the lower part of the field.”

b. The horse says, ‘My mother and an old riding horse … seemed to know all
about it.’ What was it that they knew about? How did they know?

The horse’s mother and an old riding horse knew all about the hunt—the way men ride good horses and use dogs to catch wild creatures such as the hare and fox.

Perhaps they too had once taken part in such hunts.

c.  Why did the dogs stop barking and begin to run about with their noses to the ground?

The dogs stop barking and began to run with their noses to the ground because they had lost sight of the hare and were trying to find its scent again.

d. Why was the hare ‘wild with fright’?

The hare was ‘wild with fright’ because The dogs were chasing it.

e. How did the hare meet its end?

The hare tried to get through the fence; it was too thick, and she turned sharply round to make for the road, but it was too late; The dogs were upon it with their wild cries, and thus it met its end.

f. Why did the huntsman whip off the dogs?

The huntsman whipped off the dogs because otherwise they would have torn the hare to pieces.

g. Why was the young horse (the storyteller) astonished?

The young horse (The story teller) was astonished by The sight of These men on fine horses with barking dogs chasing and killing a hare.

h.  What did the old horse think about hunting?

The old horse thought that hunting was a waste of time.

-Horses are ruined,

-men get hurt,

-the fields are torn up.

This is all done to catch a hare, fox, or stag that could be more easily caught in some other way.


B Working with words

  1. Give the meaning of the words and expressions. Words

meadows: area of grassland; low, well-watered grasslands near a river

whine: a long drawn-out complaining cry as of a dog

horseback: riding on the back of a horse

snorted: made an explosive noise by blowing out of the nose

likely: probably

brook: a small stream

seemed: appeared, gave the impression of

astonished: amazed, surprised  Expressions  pricked up his ears: paid attention to, listened carefully  lost the scent: could not find the smell of the trail  wild with fright: frightened to the point of behaving wildly  a great deal: a lot



At full speed The motor was running at full speed.
Making straight for He was making straight for Pakistan.
Turned sharp round   When I  suddenly realized I  was charging up on a dog I  turned sharp around.
Were upon her

I noticed that they were upon her.


Never yet could make out He  never yet could made out her wife.



C Learning about language English is full of phrasal verbs like the ones explained here. Only some prepositions are used with specificwords. Which ones to use? This question can only be answered by wide reading and familiarity with the language.

  1. Use the phrasal verbs.
  2. circulated —put about
  3. communicated —put across
  4. saved money —put away
  5. consumed —put away
  6. interrupted —put in
  7. installed —put in
  8. postponed —put off
  9. upset —put out
  10. extinguished —put out
  11. dislocated —put out
  12. Use a literal meaning and an idiomatic meaning for each of the following. In these examples, the literary use precedes the idiomatic one.
  13. get by:
  14. The carriage carrying the President could not get by because there were too many people on the road.
  15. It is difficult for them to get by (manage) because they earn very little.
  16. get through:
  17. He could not get through the window because it was too small and he was too large.
  18. We could not get through to him (make him understand) that we did not want any mangoes.
  19. fall through:
  20. Be careful or you will fall through the roof, hit the floor, and hurt yourself.

2.It will be very sad if our plans fall through (fail) because you have not spent time organising our travel arrangements.

  1. look into:
  2. Hold tight and look into the well to see if you can see if there is any water down there.
  3. The principal promised to look into (check, investigate) the matter and let us know the outcome next week.
  4. bring up:
  5. Please bring up the armchair when you come upstairs because the old one is broken.
  6. They bring up (raise) their children in a most strange fashion.
  7. stand in:

1.The teacher asked the boy to stand in the corner of the room till he had had sometime to consider his behaviour.

  1. We must find someone to stand in (replace, take the place of) for Majid who has broken his finger and can not bat for the team on Sunday.


U: 05 MOON WIND(P) P:22-25


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. How do things get blown about on the moon if there is no wind?

For The poet, things on The moon get blown about because of The utter stillness of The moon. Everything is weightless on The moon, and it is airless, however, The poem is sheer fantasy so anything can happen.

b. When the moon wind begins to blow, some strange things happen. Make a list
of all the unlikely things which take place on the moon.

1-    A squall of hens and cabbages knocks you off your feet.

2-   A tearing twisting sheet of pond clouts you with a frog.

3-   A camp of caravans squawks.

4-    A ferris wheel bounds along The sky line.

c. Which words does the poet use to describe the following, or the movement they make? In what way are the words appropriate?

i. candle (flame)

ii. giant marquee

iii. hens and cabbages

iv. pond, caravans

v. ferris wheel


i.                CANDLE (FLAME):

The candle shivers out. Normally we would say ‘flicker’, but shiver is just as good a word.  Its use is odd in that shiver is not associated with heat but with cold; here, if The candle ‘shivers out’ we feel The cold even more.

ii.              GIANT MARQUEE: booms and flounders like a swan at sea.

We have sound (booms) and move men there. The image of a swan (a large bird, like The large marquee) floundering in The sea is apt. The swan is normally serene (on a placid body of water) but ungainly when not in its usual environment.

iii.           HENS AND CABBAGES:

a squall… knocks you off your feet.

These are Then flying haphazardly (squall)and at some speed. An image akin to ‘raining cats and dogs’; one would know too well if one is hit by These flying objects.

iv.            POND:

tearing twisting sheet… Clouts you with a frog.

To The eye, a pond looks like a sheet of water. If this sheet were to suddenly fly towards you it would indeed be tearing and twisting; and being clouted by a frog would certainly not only be a surprise but painful as well; caravans: suddenly… Squawks and takes off. The caravans, presumably parked in a caravan park, are compared to a flock of birds sitting in a field and then suddenly taking off.

v.              FERRIS WHEEL:

bounds along The skyline… like a somersaulting giraffe. A ferris wheel is large and stands out against The skyline; so does a giraffe.  A spinning giraffe, with its long legs sticking out, would indeed look like a ferris wheel with its hanging swings flying in all directions.

d. What is so strange about the idea in the last line of the poem? Can you think of
any other expressions of this kind?

Dead-still means absolutely without movement.  Blast means a strong gust of wind.  There is a contras there of opposites. It is rather like saying ‘He is a meat-eating vegetarian’.  (Can The pupils think of other contrasts that are absurd?)

e. Do you like the poem? Can you say why you like or dislike it?




Usual similes include the following: as white as snow, as clear as a bell, as fresh as a daisy, as old as the hills, as bright as a button…, but now these are not very startling!

  1. Similes in the poem.
  2. Like a swan at sea Like a somersaulting giraffe

b.The similes are unusual in that a swan at sea would not be used to the waves and would flounder. It is difficult to imagine a giraffe (with such long legs) doing a somersault, but when compared to a ferris wheel flying it becomes imaginable.

  1. The pictures are more vivid with these similes. They are not staid and over worked similes. They are new, and conjure up weird images, so they may well be remembered.


  1. Definitions
  2. astronaut a person trained to pilot, navigate, or take part (as a crew member) in a space
  3. satellite an object launched into orbit round the Earth; any orbiting body in space
  4. space shuttle a reusable space era with wings for controlled ascent in the atmosphere; it is designed to transport astronauts between the Earth and space stations
  5. launch pad the base or platform from which a rocket or spacecra is launched
  6. rocket a vehicle or device propelled by rocket engines; a projectile

c:  Learning about language

Adverbial phrases.


e.g. Shad wrote the poem with great feeling.

(How did Shad write the poem? With great feeling)

  1. The train whistled and pulled out at a slow speed.
  2. A man was sitting down in an upright position.
  3. People at last began to think l was wrong.
  4. The news caused much sensation in the local press.
  5. The luggage was placed in readiness.
  6. The patient faced his difficulty with great courage.
  7. at a slow speed (whistled how? no answer—pulled out how?)
  8. in an upright position (sitting how?)
  9. at last (think when?)
  10. in the local press (caused where?)
  11. in readiness (placed how?)
  12. with great courage (faced how?)




  1. He said, ‘Do the work at once.’
  2. We weak bridge collapsed in the end.
  3. The soldiers fought great ,courage.
  4. The woman thanked the policeman with all her heart.
  5. Shazia looked for her ring in all places.

f.The patient waited in the room with patience.

  1. immediately/now b. eventually c. courageously
  2. wholeheartedly e. everywhere f. patiently


U:  06 Success at last  P:34


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. who was Sir Edmund Hillary?
ANS: a. Sir Edmund Hillary was a mountaineer from New Zealand. Hillary and Tensing Norgay were the first to succeed in climbing Mt Everest. He is the author of this account. He died in 2008.
b. Which words or phrases used in the first three paragraphs tell us that the climb was dangerous?
ANS: b. We swung onto the traverse; narrow precipitous bumps; firm snow and steep rock; the climbing was getting more difficultandthereweretremendousdropsoneitherside;problemsahead;twistingridge;hugerockbuttress; it didn’t look easy.
c. why do you think the climbers, in places, moved one at a time ?

c. The climbers are tied to each other by a long rope. They move one at a time so that if one slips the other can hold on to him by the rope. Climbers follow each other in a single line.

d. why do you think‘Hillary tied his rope to his pack before oing on unroped ?

d. Hillary tied the rope to his pack so that a. he would be able to use the rope to descend later on, and b. the pack would not be lost if it came away from the rock.

e. Why did Hillary fee it was not worth going on?

e. Hillary felt it was not worth going on because it was getting late, slippery ice was beginning to form on the rocks and the weather was getting colder.

f. What were the weather conditions like during the second attempt?
f. During the second attempt the weather conditions were such that there was a strong and bitter icy wind and a cloudy sky. During the climb the wind increased in strength and once almost plucked him off a slope.
g. In the last paragraph, which \/vord tells us that the peak was a difficult one

to climb?

g. The word that tell sus that the peak was a difficult one to climb is reluctant’. It had been opposing and had offered resistance.
  1. Reference to context

And he smiles in his taking part

  1. The grandfather and grandchildren are taking part in a game of cards.
  2. They are sitting on a rug on the stones by the sea.
  3. We are told that the grandfather has a beautiful face which is liver-marked and shy, and that he is smiling. Liver marks are like large freckles and are a sign of old age.




precipitous formidable ominous disgruntled

in earnest  indifferent to frequent gusts increasingly difficult


  1. Hillary and his companions to climb Scott’s Knob.

(sauntered, scrambled, set off, ambled)

  1. The morning was and all the tops of the peaks were in cloud

(overshadowed, dull, grey, overcast)

  1. By ten o’clock the climbers were climbing over a of precipitous

bumps. (column, row, series , set )

  1. The ridge dropped away into thousands of feet of precipices.

(abruptly , steeply ,suddenly , quickly)

  1. The strong wind almost the climbers off the slope.

(carried , flung , hoisted, plucked) ,

  1. what’s it like?’ Peter’s voice came (flying, floating , soaring,


  1. There was for a while and then peter’s voice was heard.

(quiet, solitude, silence , hush)

  1. Hillary was very to join his companion at the bottom. (elevated

relieved, released ,eased)

i.The snow had hardened under the wind.

(considerably, consequently, constantly, consistently)

  1. The climbers kept on the rope for over the ridge.

(voyage, trip, gourney , ftravel)



In the following sentences some verbs have been italicized. Write out each vert and state its tense-——past, present, or future, and simple perfect or continuous.

  1. The climbers crossed a narrow slot and reached the peak.
  2. Scotts Knob is in New Zealand.
  3. The weather was looking ominous.
  4. The chamois were having a laugh a the climbers.
  5. l think the route is technically byond me.
  6. They will not fall off the slope.
  7. I do not know what has happened.




Summary of Punishment in kindergarten

“Punishment in kindergarten” is a little   autobiographical poem by the famous indo-anglian poet kamala das.  She recalls one of her childhood experiences.  When she was in the kindergarten, one day the children were taken for a picnic. All the children except her were playing and making merry.  But she alone kept away from the company of the children.  Their teacher, a blue-frocked woman, scolded her saying.

“why don’t you join the others, what

A peculiar child you are!”

This heard, all the other children who were sipping sugar cane turned and laughed.  The child felt it very much.  She became sad at the words of the teacher.  But the laughter by the children made her sadder.  She thought that they should have consoled her rather than laughing and insulting her.  Filled with sorrow and shame she did her face in a hedge and wept.  This was indeed a painful experience to a little child in the nursery school.

Now after many years she has grown into an adult.  She has only a faint memory of the blue-frocked woman and the laughing faces of the children.  Now she has learned to have an ‘adult peace’ and happiness in her present state as a grown-up person.  Now there is no need for her to be perturbed about that bitter kindergarten experience.  With her long experience in life she has learned that life is a mixture of joy and sorrow.  She remembers how she has experienced both the joy and sorrow of life.  The long passage of time has taught her many things.  She is no more a lonely individual as she used to feel when she was a child.  The poet comes to a conclusion that there is no need for her to remember that picnic day, when she hid her face in the hedge, watching the steel-white sun, that was standing lonely in the sky.

The subject matter of the poem has two parts, the first of which being the description of the painful experience of the kindergarten days and the second, the adult’s attitude to the incident at present when she is no more a child. Thus the major theme of the poem is nostalgia and the sense of moving on with life.

The poem is very simple in its construction and even colloquial in diction. Yet in its delivery its very much like the narrative of a film which goes back and forth in time to bring out a small incident in the life of the poetess which sets off her introvert nature that gets all the more pronounced as she grows up. In fact the incident is a reminder of the fact that the talented usually spend a lonely life right from their beginning. Thus from the psychological perspective too the poem is simple only on the surface level. The tone of the poem is pensive if not sad. It is a tone of compromise in the face of inevitability. Kamala believes in letting go and she does exorcise the minor ghost of her past only to bring out the one she is still haunted with – isolation.

Kamala seems to be saying that though sometimes in times of crisis or loneliness we tend to remember some long forgotten incident of humiliation and pain it is better to forget and forgive and move on. The poem is also a testimony to the fact that with time people tend to forget their pain and moves on in life for better things.

The images used again are deceptively simple. In tune with the theme of the poem the images are evocative yet blurred. The teacher’s identity gets shrinked to a blue skirt but the words she ‘threw’ at her are still remembered as pots and pans. Though the image is a humorous one it shows the obnoxiousness of the assault. Words had hurt the young girl more than real hurts and today after so long they have taken a more materialistic from in the memory of the grown person. The image of the hedge and the sun is quite symptomatic of the introvertive nature of the poet and the subtle projection of her chronic loneliness unto a celestial object. The synesthetic evocation of the image the smell of pain is remarkable for its zeugma.

It’s not only the above mentioned zeugma that adds the ting to the poem but also the simile, the metaphor, the metonymy and the personification in the following lines respectively – “throwing words at me like pots and pans”, “that honey-coloured day of peace” “a blue-frocked woman”, “the years have sped along, stopping briefly at beloved halts and moving sadly on.” Add the necessary and indispensible ring of poetry to the lines.

Thus the poem is a true modernist poem which at the same time nostalgically remembering an incident of childhood remembers it not in a moment of glorification but as an insight into an event of pain due to inborn desire for isolation and of difference. Kindergarten thus transforms from a site of celebration of innocence to the mourning of the loss of innocence yet with a positive note of the desire or capability of letting go.



  1. Answer The following questions.
a. What does the poet mean by the statement, ‘Today the world is a little more my own’?

The poet means that she is an adult, and that she has more control over events.

b. What is the simile used in the first verse?

Throwing words at me‘ like pots and pans’.

c.  Why is the day described as being honey-coloured?

The day is described a shoney-coloured because it is a warm day full of sunshine, The colour of honey.

d. What made the friends laugh?

The friends laughed at the child’s tears (caused by the woman’s admonishment).

e. Do you agree with the statement in the second verse that children laugh in
mirth at others’ tears? Give an example.

Pupils may agree or disagree. Discuss this statement and discover in what ways children torment each other, and Then delight in The suffering of another. How does this tormenting (bullying? ragging? jesting?) sometimes lead to tears on The part of one and mirth on The part of another?

f. In later years, what do you think might have reminded the poet about the ‘pain’
she had felt that day?

Discuss. Any innocent remark or scene—seeing a child crying—may have reminded The poet. (The fact that she remembers this episode and writes about it belies The claim: ‘No need to remember…)

g. Which sentence in the third verse expresses an idea similar to that in the line,
‘Today the world is a little more my own’?

‘My mind has found an adult peace’.

h. Has the poet’s life been a happy one in general? How do we know?

The lines which tell us about her life are:

They ears have/ Sped along, stopping briefly / At beloved halts and moving/ Sadly on  She says the years have stopped at ‘beloved halts’ which means that she has had many pleasant experiences.

The years have moved on, and this is a cause for sadness, not necessarily the incidents or experiences themselves.

A2. Reference to context

  1. ’Why don ’t you join the others, what

A peculiar child you are!’

  1. Who is the speaker? Who is being addressed?
  2. Why is the person considered ‘peculiar’?
  3. No need to remember the pain.
  4. Who says this?
  5. Who caused the pain?

iii. How did the person inflict the pain?

  1. Standing /one/y in the sky
  2. Who or what was standing lonely in the sky?
  3. What has the speaker got in common with this?


  1. Working with words


In the first verse of the poem Kamala Das has used a compound epithet—two

words which are joined by a hyphen and which describe a noun—blue-frocked; here

it is used to describe the woman. ‘

  1. Find three other compound epithets used in the poem and explain what each one means for.
  2. Use the epithets in sentences of your own, but choose different nouns that they might describe.


  1. Think of suitable compound epithets to describe the following:

e.g. a tiger——a man-eating tiger.

a city    a vase     a bottle      a monster     a calf     a sailor


4 . What is the difference?

a. hedge

b. to drain

c. cluster

d. mirth

e. buried


to exhaust





to consume





to deplete






  1. Use the following words in sentences of your own. Write two sentences for each word, using each word literally and metaphorically.

root parent arms bed cage star doctor


  1. Study the examples below. Both the literal as well as the metaphorical use of some words are given.

Literal use Metaphorical use the man’s body

a body of men,

a body of water,

a body of information

a blanket of wool a blanket of snow,




  1. a man’s neck
  2. a soft pillow
  3. a raging lion
  4. a man’s back
  5. a man’s heart
  6. the branch of a tree



  1. When you have discussed the text and studied various situations as a class, then form pairs and practise the phraseology.
  2. use of expressions above in following situations. You may role-play all these situations in class.
  3. I’m so sorry! I did not mean to do that. (That’s all right. It must have slipped. It was an old one any way, etc.)
  4. I’m sorry. I do beg your pardon. Do excuse me. (That’s all right. No harm done.)
  5. Excuse me! I do apologize for that!  (There’s no need to apologise.  Just clean up the mess! –This last remark might get a frosty look in return.)
  6. I’m so sorry! Do forgive me. (Not to worry. It will soon dry out.)
  7. Please accept my apologies. I completely forgot. (Surely it was not for today! Detention!)
  8. Do forgive me. I did not realise it was the last one. (Not to worry. I was not hungry anyway. Scowling.)
  9. Excuse me! I did not know there was anyone here. (That’s ok. Knock, next time!)
  10. I do beg your pardon. I thought you were X. (That’s quite all right. There’s no need to apologise.)


U: 08 THE CAT’S PARADISE  P: 37-43


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. What was the cat’s opinion of himself?

The cat thought he was the fattest and most naive cat in existence.

b. In what ways was the life of the cat comfortable?
ANS: The cat had a loving woman who adored him, a comfortable ‘sleeping salon’ with feather cushions, and

excellent food.

c. why did the cat feel a need to leave the comforts of the house ?

The cat felt a need to leave the comforts of the house because he was bored with being happy, and disgusted

with being fat, He believed that true happiness existed outside the house.

d. In what ways was life on the tiles different from life in the house?  

Life inside the house was very comfortable indeed; life outside was hard. Instead of caresses, outside there

were blows; instead of soft fumishings, outside it was rough; instead of good food, outside there was very little

to eat; inside it was nice and warm, outside it was cold and wet,

e. What pleasant comments did the cat make about the female cat?

The cat said that only in his dreams had he up to then seen such an exquisite creature with such a

magnificently arched back.

f. What advice did the tomcat give about meat on tables?

The tomcat said that meat on tables was to be admired from afar,

g. What did the tomcat feel about life in-a house ?

The tomcat felt that life in a house was stuffy and soft and only for weaklings,

h. how did the night the cat spent outside contrast with the day?

The day was warm, sunny, and pleasant and the cat had good company exploring the rooftops. The misty night

made the cat shiver; rain began to fall, a thin, penetrating rain whipped up by brisk howling gusts of wind; the

streets looked desolated and the cat`s paws slipped on the slimy pavement.

i. what (according to the fat cat) was true happiness?

According to the fat cat, true happiness is where (although one is locked up and beaten) there is meat.

j. Which word, meaning ‘juicy’, does the cat use to describe food? What (in particular) does he describe with this word?

The cat uses the word “succulent’ to describe a red chop.


Reference to context

  1. l had never before watched such an extraordinary spectacle.
  2. What was the spectacle?
  3. Why had the speaker not witnessed it before?


  1. ’Pshaw/!’ said the old tomcat, dragging me away. ’You will meet plenty of others. ’
  2. What did the Tomcat wish to express by the use of ‘Pshaw! ”
  3. What was he dragging the cat away from?

iii. Who or what were the ‘others’ he refers to?


  1. ‘There is my chance, ’ l thought, rather naively
  2. Who is the speaker?
  3. What was the opportunity that had come up?

iii. Why was this thought considered to be naive?




in the midst of the whole day long romping succulent resolved signs of from afar desolate


  2. very large b. diminishing joy
  3. unappealing male
  4. experienced (and mature)
  5. curled up f. imprisonment
  7. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
  8. As you make your bed so must you lie in it.
  9. Honesty is the best policy.
  10. Don’t make a mountain out of a molehill.
  11. Half a loaf is better than no bread.

Then look at the clues below to see if your explanation is correct.

(The clues below are not in the correct order.)

I’: .

  1. Each one must bear the consequences (good or bad) of his own actions.
  2. We should be thankful for what we receive, even if we receive less than what we had hoped for.
  3. One should spend some time on relaxation and not all one’s time on work alone
  4. Don’t treat unimportant matters as being too important.
  5. ln the long run being honest will bring more profit, happiness, etc.



You have already read about adding suffixes to words ending in -y. Usually the y is changed to an i before a suffix is added. The exception is when we add -ing.

e.g. carry-—carried-—carrying.



necessary naughty satisfactory merry

angry cosy voluntary cheery

ordinary happy noisy temporary


luxury fury mystery injury industry melody glory

  1. Think of suitable nouns which the adjectives above could describe.



Domestic and wild 7













  1. Answer The following questions.
a. What is the poet describing in the first three verses? (Answer in one sentence.) ?

a. In the first three verses the poet is describing the rain as it falls in the city after a hot day.

b. How are the first three verses different from the rest of the poem?

b. The first three verses are different from the others because they describe the rain in general, how it falls and

how welcome it is. The other verses of the poem tell us how the rain is welcomed by individuals (the sick man,

the children, the farmer), and the countryside in general.

c. The rain is a welcome relief to certain people and certain natural things. Describe how the rain is welcomed by each one.

c. The sick man feels the rain cools his fever.

The boys sail their paper boats down the streets.

The oxen breathe in the rain-scented air and enjoy their rest after toiling,

The farmer thinks about how the rain will improve his crops.

d. Two words in the second verse sound very much like the sounds of the actions they describe. What are these two words?

d. clatters, gushes

e. What is the metaphor used in the fifth verse?

e. The treacherous pool engulfs them in its whirling and turbulent ocean. The poet gives us the impression that

the pool has become a stormy ocean and is treacherous,

f. Which words are used to describe the following:

i. the din made by the children

ii. the boats made by the children

iii. the pool

iv. the ocean

v. the leopard’s coat

vi. the oxen’s eyes


f. i, commotion ii. mimic fleets m. little treacherous iv. turbulent v. tawny and spotted vi. large and lustrous

g. Pick out the similes used in the poem.

g. like the tramp of hooves like a river like a leopard’s tawny and spotted hide

h. What does the farmer see in the rain? (Look carefully!)

h. The farmer sees his pastures, and his fields of grain, but more importantly, he sees his thrift and gain,


  1. In your own words explain the meaning of the following.
  2. fiery street
  3. it pours and pours
  4. twisted brooks
  5. like a Ieopard’s tawny and spotted hide/stretches the plain
  6. he counts it as no sin
  7. more than man’s spoken word


  1. Write the rhyming scheme of the first four verses of the poem


  1. Reference to context
  2. His fevered brain

Grows calm again,

  1. Whose fevered brain is being referred to?
  2. Why is his brain fevered?

iii. What does the rain do for him?

  1. More than man’s spoken word.
  2. What is more than man’s spoken word?


  1. Working with Words


The poem contains some vivid similes. Complete the following sentences with colourful similes of your own.

  1. The sound of the bells was as clear as ________
  2. The man was as ugly as _______
  3. The telegraph wires buzzed like _______
  4. Sameer kicked the ball as ______
  5. The big ship steamed into the harbour as _______
  6. The wind howled through the trees like _____
  7. The startling news spread through the town like _______
  8. During the curfew the streets were as _______


All the words below end in e. The final e, however, is not pronounced; it is silent:

hope care measure encourage tire

When a suffix beginning with a vowel is added to the words above, (and others) the final e is usually dropped.

hoping caring measurable encouraging tiring

When a suffix beginning with a consonant is added, the final e remains.

hopeful careless measurement encouragement tiresome


  1. Remember the rules above and try to add suffixes to the following:

-ab/e: recognize, excite, compare, mistake, note, preserve, presume.

—ment: encourage, induce, involve, state, manage, require, excite.


  1. Some of the words below can take two of these suffixes:

-ing, -fu/, —ous

measure compare ridicule nerve disgrace taste

resource arrange dissolve spite fame hope


  1. Add the suffix —ous or -able to the following. Use a dictionary if necessary.

advantage outrage fame space grace endure gorge trace refuse manage move excuse courage damage replace debate nerve change



Change the following sentences from the present continuous tense into the future continuous tense. Add a suitable time-phrase to each sentence.

e.g. Ashraf and Rameez are visiting their friends.

Ashraf and Rameez will be visiting their friends tomorrow.

  1. They are making cakes in the kitchen.
  2. She is strolling in the park.
  3. I am not working in the hospital.
  4. I am travelling around the world on a motorcycle.


  1. When you have studied the table, take it in turns to ask questions and give answers about the information presented. For example:

which is the wettest month?

Which is the driest month?

ls the temperature greater in the summer months or the winter months?

How much rain falls in the month of


  1. When you have finished asking and answering your own questions, try to give answers for the following:
  2. What exactly is humidity?
  3. What is the coldest it has ever been in this place?
  4. Which months do you think are the most pleasant? Say why.


U:  10 AAMER’S CAFÉ’  P:54-57


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. Why had the site not been developed?

The site had not been developed because every one had assumed it was part of the adjacent park. It belonged to an old lady who probably had no need for it.

b. In what ways had the site been neglected?

The site had been badly neglected. Where the house once stood, there was only a heap of rubble.

Three or four walls still remained; these too were in danger of crumbling.

There were large heaps of debris on the ground.

Bricks, stone slabs, rotten bits of wood with protruding nails, broken glass, and twisted, rusting metal, along with heaps of smashed tiles, were widely strewn around the area, covered by a thick undergrowth of thorn shrubs and grasses.

c. How did Aamer earn his livelihood?

Aamer earned his livelihood by dealing in brass. His work involved hard bargaining and selling his wares which he carried on his bicycle.

d. How did Maham react when Aamer first told her of his plans? Why?

Maham’s reaction was to say ‘yes’ and offer no other comment. She had heard him voice his plans before, and these had usually come to nothing.

She took what he said in good humour, and laughed it off, because she was resigned to this state of affairs.

e. What were some of the things that Aamer had done to accomplish his dream?

Aamer had found a place (the vacant plot) to build his café and knew who the owner was; the money was in the bank; the deposit was secure; the owner had assured him that he could pay the rest in his own time.

f. In what way did Aamer feel relieved, and why?

Aamer felt relieved that he had told his wife about his plans for the café. He had kept this to himself for a long time, and had felt the strain, but he was now comfortable in himself because Maham could now help him achieve his goal.

g. Do you think Aamer was a dreamer or a practical man? Give reasons for
your answer.

Aamer was both a dreamer and a practical man. He had had many plans before, and nothing had come of them. On his bicycle that morning he was still dreaming about what the café would become and how people would enjoy visiting it and eating there.

On the other hand, he had gone about the business of finding the owner and securing the money to buy the property, so in this respect he had been practical.

h.  If you remove the last paragraph, how else might the story be completed? Work
by yourself or with a partner to try and find another ending.



  1. Select the best answer.
  2. ’. . . everyone had assumed it was part of the park. This means.”
  3. …everyone had been instructed that it was part of the park.
  4. …everyone had been under the impression that it was part of the park.

iii. …everyone had taken it to be part of the park.

  1. …everyone had been guaranteed that it was part of the park. g
  2. ’The overripe mulberries, unpicked and untasted , save by the birds, had fallen and rotted on the ground.’ This means:
  3. …that the birds did not eat the mulberries
  4. …that only the birds did not eat the mulberries

iii. …even the birds did not eat the mulberries . a

  1. …oniy the birds ate the mulberries
  2. ‘. . .she had always ridiculed them as being mere pipe dreams.’ This means:
  3. she made fun of them because they were dreams about smoking a pipe.
  4. she made fun of them because they were lengthy dreams.

iii. she made fun of them because they were fanciful and unattainable dreams

  1. she made fun of them because they were unrealised dreams.



  1. Aamer lived not far from this unusual site. . ..
  2. Where and what was the site?
  3. ln what way was it unusual?

iii. Where did Aamer live?



  1. Simply a quiet resignation.
  2. About whom was this statement made?
  3. In what ways had the subject shown resignation?

iii. ls the sentence a complete sentence? Give a reason for your answer.


  1. All the final negotiations and visits to the bank could be undertaken with greater ease and peace of mind.
  2. About whom was this statement made?
  3. Why might ali this now be possible?

iii. What were the reasons for further negotiations and visits to the bank?



Find these words in your dictionary and use them in sentences.

  • subscribe: write one’s name at the bottom of a document  make or promise a contribution  engage to take a newspaper for a certain time
  • suburb: outlying district of a city
  • substitute: make a person or thing take the place of another
  • subsequent: following an event
  • subdue: bring into subjection; discipline; conquer
  • subordinate: of minor importance (adj), put into lower position (vb)




Examine the following adjectives from the lesson:

More settled, Much happier, Finer, Largest ,Shiniest

Some more adjectives

positive comparative superlative





More beautiful



Most beautiful



U: 11         STORM IN THE BLACK FOREST P: 58-61  


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. How does the poet create a picture of the lightning as if it were flowing, molten metal?

a. He does this by the use of certain words and in the way in which the lines are arranged. The whole of the description runs on (regardless of metre) until… ‘it is gone’… and the description of lightning ends with this part of the sentence;

it is gone, just like the lightning. Jugfull after jugfull (repetition, and giving the idea of pouring);

 of pure white liquid fire (no commas,to create a constant motion);

bright white tipples over (again, no commas, and the repetition of a rhyming sound—bright /white) tipples over and spills down (all the words describe motion).


b. And the rain won‘t come, the rain refuses to come!’ What effect does the poet want to createby placing this sentence in a line on its own?

b. This is a true description of an impending shower. First we see the lightning (pause);

then we hear the rumble of thunder (because sound travels slower than light);

and finally, and suddenly (and on a different line of the poem) the rain we expect… does not come. The suspense is created in the way the words are used and the lines are set out.

c. In what way is the poet impressed by the storm?  

c. The poet compares the storm’s electricity to that created by man. In no way has man been able to match this tremendous feat of nature. The poet is greatly impressed.


d. Which of the following words could we use to describe the feelings of the poet” overawed, anxious, bored, bewildered, belittled, cowed, fearful, upset, disturbed, surprised, cheerful?

d. overawed, belittled (by the magnificence and power of the storm)

e. How many kinds of Lining are described by the poet? How do we know they are different.

e. The pouring, and all-encompassing sheet lightning (jugfull after jugfull, pure white liquid); distant lightning, obscured by dark clouds (gold-bronze flutters); forked lightning (as till brighter whites nake wriggles).

f. cackle: the poet calls this sound ‘uncouth’ and that is precisely what a cackle describes, an uncouth sound (of mocking laughter), mocking puny man, perhaps.


 bronzey, soft, pure, white, liquid, bright, gold-bronze, thick, upper, electric,…etc.

h. He is saying that man is not really up to it; nature is far too powerful, and man need not even contemplate competing with it, let alone dream of subjugating it. But we think we have harnessed nature; we are mistaken.



bright white

tipples over and spills down,

and is gone


  1. What spills down in this way?


  1. How much of it, and in what way does it spill down?


  1. At what time of day does this occur?




ln the poem, Lawrence uses the word jugfull. (He has spelled the word with two ‘l’s.)Usually, when ‘full’ is added to the end of another word, it ends with only one ’l’.e.g. cupful. The plural is cupfuls.

Follow these instructions carefully.


  1. Read the list of words below.


Mouth dish Room Mug beaker
Bowl tumbler Flask bottle decanter
Cup bucket Spoon Ladle glass


Do you know what each word means?

What category of things do the words belong to?



Can you think of one word for a class or group that all the words will fit into?

Can you add any words to the list?


  1. Make a table with three columns in your notebook.

Copy the words in the list (in 1. above) into the first column.

In the second, write the word with the suffix ‘ful’.

ln the third, write the plural form of the word + ‘ful’.


  1. Suffixes

Note how the poet has made up the word bronzey from the word bronze , to describe the colourg of the sky.

With many colours, we can add the suffix -ish.

e.g. blackish (which is something that is black, but not completely black; perhaps dark grey or even dark blue).

Sometimes we can add the suffix -y to the word. You can check all the words in a dictionary.


Add -ish or -yto the following.

white black grey green

blue yellow pink red J

Can you add more names of colours to the list above?

Look at the following sentences.

  1. The storm’s beauty impressed
  2. The beautiful lightning filled t sky; )
  3. The poet described the scene beautifully.


In sentence (a) the word beauty is/an abstract noun. In sentence (b) the word beautiful is used to describe the lightning; it is an acjective. In sentence (c) the word beautifully tells. us how the poet described the scene; it is an adverb.

In each of the following g ups of sentences fill in the blanks with the

appropriate form of the          /given.

. The prisoners were treated with

  1. The hit the dog with a stick. (cruel)
  2. The dog was if? beaten by the boy.

. . Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was known for his

b Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was an  “ii   man. (honesty)

  1. We can that Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was

.. a fine man.




U: 12  THE KILLING P: 62-68


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. Why do you think the old man talks to himself so much?

The old man is alone on the boat .He talks to him self to give him self strength hand encouragement.

b. What effect do e repetition of words and ideas have? For example, ‘But l must get close, close, close, he thought.‘—and ‘l moved him,’ the old man said ‘I moved him then?

There petition of words makes us feel the strain the old man is under and how long he has been struggling . It helps to create the right atmosphere, excitement, suspense, sorrow, and so on.

c. Why does the old man say, ‘l do not care who kills who‘? 

The old man is so tired and has battled for so long, his mind is confused .One of them must die and at that point he doesn’t care whether he is the one who has to go.

d. How would you describe the old man’s feelings? (You can usually tell how someone feels by what is said and how it is said.)

The old man has a lot of pride .He has battled with the fish ,he is suffering from exhaustion and yet he is stub born and determined to finish the job .He has built up a friend ship and a respect for this fish that has also struggled so hard.

e. The old man calls the fish ‘brother’ on two occasions. Why does he do this?

The old man calls the fish ‘brother’ because he feel   strong bond with the fish ;bot hare fighting for their lives and the fish has been a strong  adversary . He respects the fish.

f. The old man surprised by the size of the fish? How do we know?

The old man was very surprised by the size of the fish ;he could not believe its length .He knew its size because it took a long time to pass under his boat. He says, ‘No, it can’t be that big.’

g. Hemingway writes of the old man—‘He took all his pain and what was left of his strength and his long-gone pride and he put it against the fish’s agony? What do you think he means by ‘long-gone pride‘?

The old man had been proud .The long battle with the fish has made his pride disappear .He begins to have a high respect for the fish and has learnt that they have a lot in common.

h. The fish ‘came alive, with his death in him, and rose high out of the water what does this mean?

The fish was dying but the pain of the harpoon gave the fish the strength for one last leap before it died. It was already dead, in a manner of speaking, because it had the harpoon in it.

i. What does the old man mean when he says he will have to do the ‘slave work‘?

By ‘slave work’ the old man means the work of securing the fish to a to tow-line  and getting it back to port . This was all tedious work, and hard; the main and important work having been done by the fisherman himself .What remained was the hard work any untrained menial, a slave, could do.




Here are six words taken from the passage.

Harpoon alongside gently shaft glimpse spray


  1. For each of the words on the previous page, find two more from the list below which have a similar meaning.


softly  spear near  calmly vision foam

handle sight lance beside  froth hilt


  1. Make up sentences to show that you understand how the words in each group are related and yet differ in meaning.




Inverted commas


ln the passage you have just read there are a number of inverted commas .Inverted commas (‘ ‘ or ” “) are used in a number of ways.


  1. They show direct speech. V . ..

e.g. ‘How are you?’ he asked. S V .

Here we know, by the inverted commas, the exact words used by the speaker.


  1. They are used to indicate the name or title of a story, a book, a play, a film, etc.

e.g. Last week the children went to see ‘Othello’ at the theatre. (Sometimes, the title of a play, film, etc. may be written in italics.)


  1. They are used to call attention to a particular name or nickname, including special names for places, buildings or incidents.

e.g. Shoaib Akhtar, ‘the Rawalpindi Express‘, etc.


  1. They indicate single words, phrases or sentences which have been used by someone else, or written by someone else.

e.g. ‘To be or not to be’ is a famous line from Shakespeare.


  1. They show any unusual, foreign slang or made-up words used in writing. 2‘

e.g. At the hotel they had ‘cafe au lait’ (coffee with milk). A

Today the use of single inverted commas ( ) is quite common. Sometimes it is necessary to use both single and double inverted commas especially when we want to use inverted commas inside other inverted commas.

e.g. “Why do you say ‘cafe au lait’ when you can say ‘coffee with milk’?“ he asked.


punctuate the following, using inverted commas where necessary.


  1. Doctor Livingstone explored Darkest Africa.
  2. They can’t come, tomorrow she said sadly.

3.But his comments were not necessary he pointed out.

  1. Have you read Charlie and the Chocolate Factory e inquired.
  2. Exit is really a Latin word which means he goes out
  3. Did you shout get out she asked.
  4. The Mountain Lion by D.H. Lawrence is a fine poem.
  5. Whatever it is he said I intend to find out.


More about adjective phrases


Here are some examples of adjective phrases.

‘I never saw anyone wear an expression of such deep gloom.’


This phrase describes the express on worn by the man.

‘The burden of the whole world sat on his shoulders.’

What kind of burden was it? It was the burden of the whole world.

The phrase describes the burden.


Rewrite the following, replacing the adjectives (in italics) by adjective phrases of similar meaning.


e.g.   An old man was asleep on the bench.

A man of considerable age was asleep on the bench.

She wore a sleeveless dress.

She wore a dress without sleeves.


  1. The underground tunnel was full of water.
  2. They found a bottomless well in the garden.
  3. My father was the English teacher.
  4. Abdul worked in a roadside cafe.
  5. The lorry driver parked his vehicle on the street.
  6. The bearded gentleman is an acrobat.
  7. That distance peak is Mt Everest.



U: 13          HOME AND LOVE  P: 69-74


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. What are the words the poet wants to bring to our attention?

Home and Love

b. What information does he give us about the words? Mention at least three points found in the first verse.

They are small; they have four letters each; there are no words more tenderly complete; angels do not use any sweeter words.

c. What argument does the poet give, in the second verse, to show that love is no use without home and home is no use without love?

-Home without love is bitterness; love without home is often pain; they will not do al one, but have to go to get her.

d. Which common phrase does the poet use to show that love and home work together?

hand in glove’

e. What message does the poet have for those who have both home and love?

The poet says that those who have both, whether they are poor or not, ought tossing the whole day long. The words will make their song divine.

f. Find words in the poem which have the same meaning as:

a. a divine being b. abode c. needy d. obtain e. affection


a. angel b. home c. poor d. gain e. love




  1. bed and breakfast
  2. slow and steady
  3. as fit as a fiddle
  4. as slow as a snail
  5. as green as grass
  6. part and parcel
  7. as cool as a cucumber
  8. rack and ruin
  9. the more the merrier
  10. as good as gold
  11. rhyme and reason
  12. bag and baggage

iii. head over heels

  1. safe and sound


  1. Complete the following by writing the opposites
  2. home and away
  3. love and hate
  4. wide and narrow
  5. heaven and hell
  6. sweet and bitter
  7. loss and profit
  8. day and night
  9. above and below



U: 14            THE LUMBER ROOM  P: 75-82


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. Why did the aunt decide to send the children to Jagborough? Why was Nicholas not included in the party?

The aunt decided to send the children to Iagborough to punish Nicholas, Nicholas was not included in the party because he had put a frog in his breakfast bread-and-milk.

b. What was the aunt in the habit of doing when any one of the children fell from grace?

When any one of the children fell from grace the aunt was in the habit of organizing a treat for the other children.

c.  What did the aunt do when al/ the children had done something wrong?

When all the children had done something wrong the aunt would tell them of a wonderful circus in the area, to which, of course, she would not be taking them as they had misbehaved.


How did Nicholas get the better of his aunt When the other children set off on the expedition?


Nicholas got the better of his aunt when the other children set off on their expedition, by not showing any disappointment, He was cheerful; his girl-cousin was crying and his brothers boots were too tight.

e. What did the aunt think to herself when she saw the look of obstinacy on Nicholas’ face (after she had said he must not enter the gooseberry garden)?

The aunt thought to herself that Nicholas was determined to get into the gooseberry garden because she had told him not to. She expected he would enter the garden.


Why did Nicholas make many trips into the front garden? Why did the aunt spend so much time in the garden, although she had other work to do?


               Nicholas made many trips into the front garden to make his aunt believe he wanted to get into the gooseberry garden. The aunt spent so much time in the garden because she did not want Nicholas to get past her and into the gooseberry garden.


How did Nicholas spend his time in the lumber room?

Did Nicholas really think his aunt was the Evil One?


              Nicholas spent his time in the lumber room gazing at all the lumber and weaving stories around the tapestry.

  1. Reference to context


a. The dramatic part of the incident was that there really was a frog in Nicholas’ basin 0f bread-and-milk.

i. That morning, at the breakfast table.

ii. Nicholas had refused to eat his bread-and-milk on the seemingly frivolous ground that there was a frog

in it. His aunt had told him that he was not to talk nonsense; he continued to describe the colour and markings of the alleged frog.

iii. Nicholas’ sin was discussed at great length; then his cousins and his brother were taken to Iagborough

sands, but he had to stay at home.

iv Only Nicholas believed he was telling the truth. He knew it was true, because he had put the frog in the

bowl himself.

b. ‘He told you twice, but you Were not listening.’

i. Nicholas is speaking to his aunt.

ii. That B0bby’s boots were hurting him because they were too tight.

iii. She changed the subject, because she could not admit that she had been wrong. (She had not listened to Bobby and she was now not prepared to listen to Nicholas telling her that she often did not listen to important things.)



1. Use the following words and expressions in sentences.

Some help may be required. Discuss each word/phrase before the pupils attempt to write the sentences.

2. Rewrite the sentences.

Alternative phrases may be used.


a. His cousin’s aunt, who insisted in styling herself his aunt also, had hastily invented the Iagborough expedition

in order to impress on Nicholas the delights that he had justly forfeited by his disgraceful conduct at the breakfast table.


b. Having thoroughly confirmed and fortified her suspicions, Nicholas slipped back into the house and rapidly put into execution a plan of action that had long germinated in his brain.


Abstract Nouns

Recall what has been learnt about abstract nouns and use the words in sentences.


disgrace, grace, growth, pleasure, expectations, flawlessness, reasoning, elation, depravity, possibilities, silence, circumstance, detention, tightness, etc.



  1. the cruel child
  2. the patient patient
  3. the patient doctor
  4. the long story
  5. the proud king
  6. the rude customer
  7. the wide road
  8. the high mountain
  9. the beautiful girl
  10. the holy priest


  1. The injured horse did not run in the race.
  2. The dark-haired boy is my cousin.
  3. They felt pity for the legless man. d. His extraordinary explanation did not help us at all.
  4. The underwater cave was full of beautiful coral. f His Lahore mansion is empty.



The dog lay there as though it were dead.


Pupils will make up their own sentences.




  1. Answer The following questions.

The poet imagines the simple joys ofthe countryside, growing vegetables and gathering honey. Nine is not important; perhaps he will have twelve bean-rows!


The poet finds the peace and loneliness of Innisfree attractive.

The peace and tranquillity will come ‘dropping slow, dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings.’


Midnight is a glimmer, noon is a purple glow; evening is full of the sound of linnets going to roost.


‘Pavements grey’ expresses the drabness of city streets, The poet is obviously not so happy in the city.


Alliteration. The poet has used the sound of ‘l’: lake, lapping, low, which also resembles the sound of water against the stones. He has also used the ‘s’ sound: sounds and shore, The line is easy to read; it rolls off the tongue,


Apart from the bees in the ‘bee-loud glade’, and the song of crickets, and the sound of the linnet’s wings, the

poet looks forward to hearing the lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore.


His soul; his inner being.



1, There midnight’s all a glimmer

glimmer: i. (v) to emit a faint or intermittent light

That misty evening we could see the lights of the city glimmering in the distance.

  1. (v) to be present faintly or in only a small amount,

Hope still glimmered in his mind.

Also used as a noun. (The glimmer came from a torch under the blanket, He showed not a glimm understanding.)


U: 16          EXPORT QUALITY   P: 87- 94


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. Why does the comparison of the Cottage Industries to a department store make lady smile?

The comparison makes the lady smile because the Cottage Industries and a department store (or at least well-organised one) are nothing like each other.

b. In what way is the display in the shop ostentatious?
ANS: The display in the shop is ostentatious because it is bright and colourful, and contains things old and new, elaborate and ornate. It is very “showy”.
c. What does the word labyrinths suggest? 

A labyrinth is a maze, and the shop was like one too. It was a place in which the shopper could easily get lost and not be able to find the way out.

d. What does the lady think about while wandering about in the aisles?

While in the aisles, the lady’s mind is full with thoughts, plans, reminiscences, images, colours, sounds, and smells. These thoughts are in spired by the things she can see a round her.

e. Why does the cashier give the lady some stamps?

The cashier gives the lady some stamps in lieu of change.

f. How does the lady describe the system in the Collage industries?
ANS: The lady describes the system as being an in between system, one which is neither one kind no ran other.
g. Why does the lady decide not to enter the section for shoes in the Cottage industries? Give two reasons.

The lady decides not to enter the shoes ection because 1.the system (choosing down stairs, paying upstairs, collecting downstairs) is too complicated, and 2. the sunshine, sugarcane juice, and the street outside seem far more attractive.

h. Why does the lady become exasperated in the shoe shop?

The lady becomes exasperated in the shoe shop because she wants a pair of shoes that will fit. The shop keeper, however, keeps trying to persuade her that all the ill-fitting shoes will fit her in time.

i. Why do you think the shopkeeper tells the lady that the shoes are export quality?

The shop keeper tells the lady that the shoes are ‘y’ export quality’ to convince her (delude her into thinking) that they are well made and better than the ones sold locally.

j. Is the lady happy with her new chappals? What does she think later on when she has worn them for a while?

The lady is happy. She places her feet in such away as to be able toad mire her new chappals as she goes along in the rickshaw. She also turns the movement and sound into the rhythm for a ditty she begins to sing.



  1. Working with words
  2. what is the difference? Use the words in sentences of your own.




Not much motive for a skip, either.

Why should a Ring-motif be transformed into the theme representing Walhalla?



Clutch bags embellished with glittering baubles”

The liquid was a light amber color and had bubbles in it.



Its broad pinnate tropical leaf was pleasant though strange to look on.

Photo, Topical Press Agency.



I found Boston is an expensive place to live.

His expansive nature loved width and space.



Is the much more spacious Pearl Harbor .

OBS. pleasing to the sight



The tables were to be laden with all kinds of food.

sluggish; dull; heavy in action, feeling, etc.


  1. Use the following words in sentences of your own, once as at noun (or adjective) and once as a verb.
  2. elaborate b. conduct c. store d. fragment e. wonder



U: 17         THE DAFFODILS    P: 95-98


  1. Answer The following questions.
a. What is the simile in the first verse?

‘I wandered lonely as a cloud’, is the simile in the first verse.

b. What do we learn about the poet from the first two verse?

He likes to wander on his own. He loves the countryside, and knows about the beauties of nature.

c. How are the daffodils described in the first two verse?

The poet sees a crowd, a host of golden daffodils, fluttering and dancing in the breeze, continuous as stars, stretching along the bay. There are ten thousand daffodils, tossing their heads. The poet likens the daffodils to a crowd of people.

d. What is the simile in the second verse?

‘Continuous as the stars that shine’.

e. In the third verse why is the poet so happy?

The sight of all the golden daffodils makes the poet happy.

f. How is the last verse different from the other verse? Is the poet describing a different mood from that expressed in the previous verse?

The mood is different in the fourth verse. It is thoughtful and quiet. He is describing what he feels.

g. What do you think is meant by the ‘inward eye which is the bliss of solitude?

‘Inward eye which is the bliss of solitude’ refers to our ability to think of things and picture them in our mind when we are on our own. This power to recollect can bring us great joy.

h. The poet says in the last line that his heart ‘dance with the daffodils’. Is his heart really dancing? What word can we use to describe the way in which this word is being used in the poem?

His heart is not really dancing. The poet feels it is because he is happy. This is a metaphor.





  1. Do you know the different in meaning between the words in each pair?


wandered went from place to place without purpose
wondered was full of amazement
Vales Valleys
Wales Country
Crowd a large group of people
Crowed gave a joyful cry
Way Road
Whey watery part of milk
Heart organ for pumping blood round the body
Hart male red deer


  1. Use the words above in sentence of your own.





  1. Which words in the poem are used to describe the following?


Dance Sprightly
Company Jocund
Eye Inward
Daffodils Golden
Mood Pensive



U: 18           UPSET IN THE OCEAN   P: 99- 105


  1. Answer The following questions.

The answer depends on what the pupils find humorous. The author boasting about himself (I was a tall,

handsome young fellow); the comment about being copper—coloured in spots from the effect of the stars;

unashamedly speaking of his own qualities; looking into surfaces that reflect his face and being gratified. Any

of these may raise a smile and indicate that the piece is going to be humorous.


Blowhard tells us he was a tall, handsome young fellow, squarely and powerfully built, tanned, and with a face in which honesty, intelligence, and exceptional brain power were combined with tenacity, simplicity, and modesty. By saying all this he was certainly not being modest, so he was not very accurate.


Pupils should skim through the passage and come up with anything that they can find about the captain. They should mention some of the following points:

Blowhard describes the captain as a fine sailor-like man of from thirty to sixty, clean-shaven, except for an enormous pair of whiskers, a heavy beard, and a thick moustache, powerful in build. The two mates standing beside him have ‘an apprehensive expression in their eyes’ which means they fear the captain a little or do not fully know how the captain is going to behave. When the captain speaks to his crew, he is relaxed, polite and appears to be caring and considerate. (Now, then, don’t over-exert yourselves, gentlemen.

Remember, please, that we have plenty of time. Keep out of the sun as much as you can. Step carefully in the rigging there, Jones;

I fear it’s just a little high for you. Tut, tut, Williams, don’t get yourself so dirty with that tar, you won’t look fit to be seen?) However, he has a devious scheme to throw them all overboard so that he can get the treasure for himself He confides in Blowhard when he is caught out, and acts nervously (twisting an egg!) when outlining his plans. The captain is not very intelligent, because when it is pointed out to him that the T on the map stands for Treasure, he says that that had not occurred to him.


The captain treats his crew with politeness and consideration. However, this may not accurately reflect what he

really thinks of them. After all, he is killing them off one by one!


We are given many details about the English Channel and are told what kind of ships pass this way. We are also told that the author knows of ‘no finer sight’. We are amused when the description is concluded with the comment that ‘so thick a fog hangs over it that it is entirely hidden from sight’!

When various crew members disappear, Blowhard becomes suspicious of the captain. One night, when he is

standing at the wheel, he sees the captain take hold of the cabin~boy by the ‘hind’ leg and drop him overboard‘


Blowhard says he cannot be blamed for joining the captain in his scheme because he was young, ardent,

ambitious, full of bright hopes and boyish enthusiasm.


           Pupils can give their own answers. Do the captain and Blowhard find the treasure? Do they end up at the

bottom of the sea?



P: 106-110


  1. Answer The following questions.

The young man believes that Father William should not be standing on his head because at his age it is not right.


Father William kept his bones supple by the use of an ointment-one shilling a box.


Apart from being fairly fit and agile, Father William has a good sense of humour; he has a quick reply for all the young man’s questions, and pokes fun at himself by saying he has no brain. l-le is eccentric; he performs some strange actions. He is sharp; he offers to sell the young man a couple of (bottles) of the ointment. He

grows impatient with questions; he sends the young man off. He does not like cheek; he tells the young man not to give himself airs. 44 in other words, not to go too far! He will not deal with any nonsense, and knows how to deal with it if he comes across it (by threatening to kick the young man down stairs!)


At first he is patient and answers his questions; but then he loses his patience and threatens to throw him out.

He treats him in a paternal way, almost patronising.


His hair is now white, he is old, he has grown fat (but is still fairly agile for that), his jaws are weak (yet he eats a lot and breaks bones with his teeth), and finally, the young man supposes Father William’s eye would not be steady.


             He thought this was very clever and required balance, which he assumed the old man would not have any more.


             The rhyming scheme of the poems is a b a b.


  2. ‘Yet you turned a back-somersault in at the door
  3. The young man is the speaker.
  4. Yet is used because the young man has said prior to this that Father William is old and has grown fat, and in spite of this (yet) he has done a back-somersault.

iii. Father William says that he can still do a back-somersault because in his youth he kept all his limbs supple by the use of an ointment that cost one shilling a box.


  1. And the muscular strength, which it gave to my jaw,

Has lasted the rest of my life.’

  1. The speaker is Father William, who says that he gained muscular strength to his jaw by arguing legal cases with his wife.
  2. Father William gained this strength in his youth.

iii. Father William mentions this fact because the young man showed his surprise at Father William’s ability

to finish a goose with the bones and the beak even though his jaws were not strong enough to eat anything tougher than suet.

  2. Make two columns in your exercise book and fill in details.




  1. The old man arrived at night; he ate a hearty meal; he lay down to sleep; and he never woke up in the morning.


  1. The monsoon has now arrived: it will rain every day.


  1. Mr George, physics teacher; Mrs Adil, chemistry teacher; Mri Ahmed, mathematics teacher; and four other teachers will attend the conference.


  1. Abid, I know, was there; his brother Ahad was not.
  2. You have been late three times; however, I will give you one more chance to come on time.


U: 20            JULIUS CAESAR P: 111-118

a. Who were the workers questioned by Flavius and Marullus?
ANS: a. A carpenter and a cobbler.
b. What tools were these workers meant to carry?

b. They were meant to carry the tools of their trade ‘upon a working day’; they were meant to be working.

c. Why does Marullus get annoyed with the cobbler?
ANS: c. Marullus misinterprets the cobbler’s punning replies; and the cobbler does not answer him directly. This annoys Marullus.
d. Flavius asks the cobbler why he leads others about the streets. What clever answer does the cobbler give? What does this tell us about

d. The cobbler tells Flavius that he leads people around the streets to ‘wear out their shoes’ to get himself more work.

The cobbler’s answer was very clever.

We learn a lesson from his answer that we should answer short and smart.


Flavius feels that the cobbler (like all other labourers) is good for one thing, and one thing only—work. He should not be walking about the streets. The cobbler realizes that Flavius(and Marullus)are people of rank, but can still be made fun of. Hence the puns and the indirect answers.

e. Why does Marullus call the citizens ‘blockheads and stones‘? What is his

attitude towards the common people?


e. Marullus calls the citizens ‘blockheads and stones’ because he feels that they are insensitive. He thinks they are fickle.  His attitude towards his people is not good because of their manners.


At one time they supported Pompey and showed their love for him by welcoming him home to Rome with great celebration. Now they come to welcome back Caesar who ‘comes in triumph over Pompey’s defeated sons’.

f. Who was Pompey?

f. Pompey was Caesar’s enemy. We learn from Marullus that Pompey (once a great general of Rome) brought to Rome great riches from his conquests.

g. Why do the citizens feel guilty?
ANS:g. Flavius and Marullus succeed in making the citizens feel guilty for their fickleness and in gratitude, and the switching of their allegiance to Caesar, while prior to this their support was for Pompey.
h. What two special events are being celebrated on this day?

h. It is the day that Caesar is returning home to Rome after his recent triumphs in battle; it is also the feast of Lupercal, the annual feast to honour the Roman god Lupercus.

 =========the end=========


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