REVISED ED AMAZING SCIENCE 5 OXFORD BY PARVEEN AA

BASED ON THE PAKISTAN NATIONAL CURRICULUM 2006

REVISED ED AMAZING SCIENCE 5 OXFORD BY PARVEEN AA

UNIT 1 CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS PAGE:

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN UNIT 1:

 1.

a) Dividing living things into groups helps us to understand how all the different living things in the world fit into a pattern.

b) Biologists already know about more than one million different kinds of animals and more than 350,000 kinds of plants.

c) Once inside the cell the virus uses the cell’s materials to live and reproduce. It can make hundreds of copies of itself.

d) Protists are small living things that cannot easily be classified as animals or plants.

e) Euglena moves about in the water by a whip-like projection called a flagellum.

f) Bacteria belong to the group Monera.

g) The four main groups of plants are: algae and fungi mosses and liverworts ferns, club mosses, and horsetails seed-bearing plants

h) Fungi are made up of thin threads called ‘hyphae’.

i) Lichens are plants that consist of fungi and algae living together.

 j) Mosses and liverworts reproduce by spores formed in capsules.

2.

FISH—backbone, fins, scales, lays eggs, gills

AMPHIBIAN—backbone, damp skin, lays eggs, gills, lungs Reptile—scales, lays eggs, lungs

BIRDS—backbone, lays eggs, feathers, lungs

MAMMALS—backbone, has live babies, hair, milk glands, lungs

3.

 Animal/Plant Group

1. FERN -ADIANTUM

2. SEA WEED- ALGAE

3. MOUSE -MAMMAL

4. FROG -AMPHIBIAN

5. MUSHROOM- FUNGI

6. AMOEBA -PROTEST

7. DOLPHIN -MAMMAL

8. PINE TREE -GYMNOSPERM

9. BEETLE -INSECT

10. BACTERIA -MONERA

11. ROSE -ANGIOSPERM

12. ROBIN- BIRD

13. TROUT -FISH

14. MOSS -ALGAE AND FUNGI

15. SNAKE -REPTILE

16. OCTOPUS -MOLLUSCS

17. EARTHWORM -SEGMENTED WORM

18. STARFISH –ECHINODERM

4. ORGANISMS CHARACTERISTICS

I. VIRUS= Simplest Living Organism

II. PROTIST= Cannot Be Classified As Plant Or Animal

III. BACTERIUM= Small Living Things Made Up Only One Round Elongated Or Spiral Cell

IV. ALGA= Green Plant That Usually Live In Water

V. FUNGUS= Non-Green Plant Made Up Of Hyphae

VI. LICHEN= formed by Algae And Fungi Living Together

VII. MOSS= has Tiny Pear-Shaped Capsules That Contain Spores

VIII. FERN= Their Leaves Are Called Fronds

IX. GYMNOSPERM= Seed-Bearing, Non-Flowering Plant

X. ANGIOSPERM= seed-bearing, flowering plants

5. sponge, crab, starfish, centipede

UNIT 2 REPRODUCTION IN LIVING THINGS PAGE:

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN UNIT 2:

(a)

Bringing new living things of one’s own kind into this world is called reproduction.

(b) Describe the life cycle of

i-butterfly

ii- a cockroach

iii-a frog

b.

(i) It has four stages. An egg hatches into a caterpillar. The caterpillar forms cocoon, around its body. Then it becomes a pupa then butterfly.

(ii) It has three stages. A tiny nymph hatches from each egg. The nymph grows to form a complete insect.

(iii) A tiny tadpole comes out of each egg of frog. The tadpole grows to form a complete frog.

C Name three animals that lay eggs?

(c)

fish,

frog,

bird

d. How does a stickleback fish look after its fry?

(d)

The female stickleback fish lays eggs in a nest. The male fish looks after the eggs for 10 days. When the fry hatch, they are kept in the nest for a month. Then they leave the nest and begin to feed themselves.

l

1. What is reproduction?

(a) Bringing new living things of one’s own kind into this world is called reproduction.

(b) Describe the life cycle of

i-butter fly

ii- a cockroach

iii-a frog

(i) The life cycle of a butterfly has four stages. The female lays eggs. An egg hatches into a caterpillar. The caterpillar produces a fine thread and forms a shell, called a cocoon, around its body. Inside the cocoon the insect becomes a pupa. A complete butterfly forms inside the pupa. The pupa splits and the newly-formed butterfly emerges from it.

(ii) The life cycle of a cockroach has three stages. The female lays eggs. A tiny nymph hatches from each egg. The nymph grows to form a complete insect.

(iii) The female frog lays eggs. A tiny tadpole comes out of each egg. The tadpole grows to form a complete frog.

C Name three animals that lay eggs?

(c) fish, frog, bird

d. How does a stickleback fish look after its fry?

(d) The female stickleback fish lays eggs in a nest. The male fish looks after the eggs for 10 days. When the fry hatch, they are kept in the nest for a month. Then they leave the nest and begin to feed themselves.

E why do birds look after their young ones?

(e ) Baby birds are covered with small feathers and their eyes are closed. Therefore, their parents have to look after them until they become strong enough to fly.

f. What is the mamals?

(f) A mammal is an animal that gives birth to babies. It feeds its babies on the mother’s milk.

g. why are flowers important for a plant?

(g) Flowers are important because they produce fruits and seeds from which new plants grow.

h. What are the functions of sepals and petals?

(h) Sepals protect the flower before it opens. Petals attract insects for pollination.

i. Describe a stamen?

(i) A stamen has a stalk. At the tip of the stalk, there is an anther, which contains pollen.

j. Name the parts of a carpal?

(j) The parts of a carpel are stigma, style, and ovary.

k. What is pollination?

(k) When pollen of a flower is taken to the stigma, we call it pollination.

l. What is fertilization ?

(l) The joining of the male and female cells is called fertilization.

m. Which part of the flower makes the seeds and fruits?

(m) The ovary of the flower makes the fruit and seeds.

n. How are seeds and fruits scattered?

(n) Seeds are scattered by wind, water, and animals. Some fruits burst open and scatter their seeds.

2.

 Parts of a flower: Refer to page 20 of the Pupil’s Book.

3.

 Stages of germination of a bean seed: Refer to page 24 of Pupil’s Book.

4.

 Life cycles of a butterfly and fish: Refer to pages 17 and 18 of Pupil’s Book.

5.

(a) ovary

(b) whorls

(c) nectar

(d) pollen

(e) ovule

(f) fruit

(g) testa

(h) cotyledons

(i) germination

UNIT 3 A HEALTHY BODY PAGE:

Answers to Exercises in Unit 3:

1.

(a) We should look after our bodies so that all the parts of the body work properly.

(b) To stay healthy we must:

i) eat a balanced diet

ii) exercise daily

iii) rest

vi) keep ourselves and our surroundings clean

(c) Exercise keeps the body strong and fit. It keeps the muscles and joints healthy. It makes the blood reach every part of the body and helps the body to use up the food consumed.

(d) Washing and bathing keeps the body free from dirt and disease. The bathroom and kitchen should be kept clean. The rubbish of the house should be kept in a covered bin. Drains around the house should be covered.

(e) We become ill when disease, germs, and worms live inside our bodies.

(f) Bacteria and viruses are germs. They are tiny livings things that live in our bodies. They make us ill.

(g)

i) cholera

ii) measles

(h)

i) Always wash your hands with soap and water before touching food.

ii) Keep food covered to protect it from flies.

iii) Cover cuts and scratches on the body with a plaster.

(i) White blood cells attack and kill germs. They also produce chemical substances which can kill germs.

2.

(a) true

(b) false

(c) true

(d) false

(e) false

3.

 Eat a balanced diet. Exercise regularly. Keep yourself clean.

UNIT 4 WATER PAGE:

Answers to Exercises in Unit 4:

1.

(a) Three-fourths of the surface of the Earth is covered with water. It is found in oceans, seas, rivers, lakes and streams, and as ice caps at the poles.

(b) Water is found in three states in nature: solid is ice, liquid is water, gas is water vapour

(c) People in villages store river water and rainwater in pools. They also dig wells and draw up groundwater by buckets or pumps.

(d) Drinking water is purified in a water filtration plant. Particles of soil and plant material are filtered out by passing the water through beds of sand and gravel. Chlorine gas is added to it to kill germs. Sometimes fluoride is added to it to help prevent tooth decay. It is then pumped into storage tanks and brought to our homes by underground pipes.

(e) We use water for drinking, washing, and cooking. It is also used in factories and industries.

2.

(a) springs

(b) water vapour

(c) ice

(d) water

(e) water

(f) hail

(g) reservoirs

(h) salt

(i) goitre

3.

 The students will make their own drawings.

UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION PAGE:

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN UNIT 5:

1.

(a) The Earth gives us air, food, water, and materials for making clothes and building houses.

(b) Cutting down of trees, emission of smoke and fumes, disposal of waste materials, making new harmful chemicals, and oil spillage, etc. have a very bad effect on the Earth.

(c) Plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen, which animals and people use for breathing. They produce food from simple new substances and feed all the other living things.

(d) Trees provide food as well as homes for many animals. They prevent the soil from drying up. They also affect the rainfall of an area. They provide pulp for making paper and timber for making furniture and houses, etc.

(e)

i) The natural world that surrounds a living thing is called its environment.

ii) The contamination or defiling of an environment by unwanted and harmful things is called pollution.

iii) Anything which contaminates the environment is called a pollutant.

(f) The different types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, and noise pollution.

(g) Harmful gases, smoke and chemicals from factory chimneys, and carbon dioxide from burning wood, oil, gas, and coal can cause air pollution.

(h) When a river passes through a town or a farm, chemicals from factories and dirty water from houses and farmyards flow into it.

(i) If an oil tanker leaks in the sea, it is called an oil spill. This spilt oil forms a layer on top of water and thus kills fish, seabirds, and other animals.

2.

(a) 6

(b) oxygen

(c) soil

(d) noise

(e) Fumes

(f) acid

(g) ozone

(h) Carbon dioxide

(i) sewage

(j) weeds

UNIT 6 MATTER PAGE:

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN UNIT 6:

1.

(a) Matter is anything which has weight and volume and occupies space.

(b) Matter is made up of very tiny particles which have spaces between them. These particles keep moving and bumping into each other all the time.

(c) Matter is found in three different states: solid, liquid, and gas. These three states are due to the amount of space present between the particles.

 The particles of a solid are very tightly packed because the spaces between them are very small. The forces with which the particles pull each other are very strong and their movement is very limited. Therefore, solids have a fixed volume and shape and they cannot be compressed, like rock, wood, and ice. The particles in a liquid are very close together, but the forces of attraction between them are weak. There are spaces between the particles which allow movement to a certain extent. Liquids have a fixed volume but no fixed shape. They take up the shape of the vessel in which they are kept. They can flow but they cannot be compressed as in water, milk, and oil. The particles of a gas are very far apart so they can move about freely. Therefore, a gas has no fixed volume or shape. There are no forces of attraction between the particles and so gases can spread easily. Due to large spaces between the particles, gases can be compressed as in air, oxygen, and hydrogen.

(d) The particles of matter are always moving. It can be proved by the following experiment. Sprinkle some pollen grains on the surface of warm water in a dish. The pollen grains will appear to be dancing on the surface of water. The particles of warm water move about and bump into the pollen grains and make them jump about.

(e) The mixing of particles is called diffusion. Put a drop of red ink into a beaker containing water. The red colour of the ink will spread evenly in water, making it pink. The particles of ink fill the spaces between the water particles and so the water appears pink.

2.

(a) solid, liquid, gas

(b) melts

(c) gas

(d) evaporation

(e) sublimation

3.

(a) water

(b) bigger than in a liquid or solid

(c) it has a fixed volume and shape

(d) they have large spaces between the particles

(e) sublimation

4.

(a) Brownian motion was discovered by Robert Brown.

(b) Particles in a gas are very far apart.

(c) When a liquid changes into a gas, the process is called evaporation.

(d) A gas can be pressed because its particles are very far from each other.

(e) If a substance is heated, its particles will move away from each other.

5.

Solids: wood, rubber, ice, stone, glass Liquids: water, oil, milk, petrol Gases: air, oxygen

UNIT 7 FORCE AND MACHINES PAGE:

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN UNIT 7:

1.

(a) Friction is a force that is produced when things rub against each other.

(b) Friction is partly due to tiny bumps on the surfaces which are in contact with each other and partly due to atoms in the two materials which tend to stick to each other.

(c) A lot of energy is needed to overcome the force of friction. It produces heat, which wastes a lot of energy. The moving parts of a machine wear out by rubbing against each other. Friction helps in all kinds of motion such as walking, writing, climbing, etc. It helps vehicles to move on roads by allowing their tyres to grip the surface.

(d) Lubricants such as oil and grease are used in machines to reduce friction. Ball bearings are used between moving parts of machines. Submarines, ships and racing cars, and aircraft are streamline shaped to move smoothly through air and water. Wheels are often used to cut down friction.

(e) The downward pull of the Earth is called gravitational force.

(f) Mass is the amount of material contained in an object. It is measured in kilograms. Weight is the gravitational force acting on a body. It is measured in newtons.

(g) Newton’s first law of motion states that if something has no force acting on it, it will stay still. If moving, it will keep moving at a steady speed in a straight line.

(h) The moving parts of an object which help to make our work easier are called simple machines. The extra force that is gained by applying less effort to do more work is called the mechanical advantage of the machine.

(i) A lever is a simple machine which helps us to use a small effort to lift a large load.

(j) An inclined plane is a plank that can be used to pull a load along a sloping surface rather by lifting it. A wedge is two inclined planes put together which changes the direction of the force as well as increases it.

2.

(a) energy.

(b) rubbing

(c) force

(d) effort

(e) friction

(f) inclined plane

 3.

(a) It will keep still.

(b) It will continue moving at a steady speed.

4.

(a) useful

(b) nuisance

(c) useful

(d) nuisance

 (e) useful

(f) useful.

UNIT 8 LIGHT PAGE:

Answers to Exercises in Unit 8:

1.

(a) Light is a kind of energy which travels in the form of waves.

(b) Sources of light are the Sun, electric bulbs, lamps, candles, and glowing as well as burning objects.

(c) Take three equal-sized pieces of card and make a pinhole in the centre of each. Stand them in a straight line so that the pinholes are aligned. Place a candle in line with the cards so that its flame can be seen through the pinholes. Now shift the middle card slightly and observe the flame. The flame will not be visible because light can only travel in a straight line.

(d) Refer to pages 76 and 77 of the Pupil’s Book.

(e) Refer to page 74 of the Pupil’s Book.

(f) A shadow is formed when an object is placed in the path of light, a dark patch resembling the shape of the object is formed on the side opposite the source of light.

2.

(a) ray

(b) laser

(c) seven

(d) umbra

(e) solar

(f) 300,000 km per sec.

3.

 (a) is a form of energy.

(b) is made of many rays.

(c) is composed of seven colours.

(d) was invented by Al-Haitham

4.

 (a) 300,000 km/sec.

(b) faster than sound

(c) small and inverted

(d) laser

(e) 7

(f) penumbra

UNIT 9 ELECTRICITY PAGE:

Answers to Exercises in Unit 9:

1.

(a) An atom is made up of a central nucleus which contains positively charged particles called protons and neutral particles called neutrons. Negatively charged particles called electrons spin around the nucleus in definite paths called orbits.

(b) Materials that allow an electric charge to pass through them are called conductors as in metals.

(c) Electricity is made in a special building called a power plant. The machine that makes electricity is called a generator. A generator makes electrical energy, but it uses energy to do so. It uses running water, burning fuel, or nuclear energy to run the generator.

(d) An electric circuit is a pathway along which charged particles can move.

(e)

i) A switch is a device which is used to turn a current on or off. When you turn the switch on, a small metal piece inside the switch completes the circuit and the current flows along the circuit. When you turn the switch off, the metal piece moves away from the wire and the current stops flowing.

ii) A fuse is made of a thin fuse wire, which has a low melting point. If a large current flows through it, the fuse wire melts and thus the circuit breaks and the electrical appliance stops working.

(f) The effects caused by charged particles collected in one place are called static electricity.

(g) If a charged particle is brought close to a neutral object it produces an opposite charge on it. This process is called electrostatic induction.

(h) A body can be tested for the presence of a charge by an instrument called a gold leaf electroscope.

(i) When clouds become highly charged due to rubbing against each other, a large number of electrons jump from one cloud to another or to the Earth. This flow of electrons produces a flash of lightning.

(j) In order to protect high buildings from damage due to lightning, a pointed metallic rod, called a lightning conductor, is fixed to the highest point on them. This repels any charges that may be induced in the building from the clouds.

2.

(a) atoms

(b) protons and neutrons

(c) Electrons

(d) positively

(e) no

(f) neutral

(g) repel

(h) induction

(i) charged

(j) lightning

3.

 (a) 4

(b) positive

(c) neutral

(d) gained

(e) induction

(f) electron

(g) electrons

(h) no charge

(i) lightning

(j) positive ion

4.

 (a) positive

(b) negative

5.

 (a) positive

(b) negative

6. Refer to page 82 of the Pupil’s Book.

7. b

UNIT 10 MAGNETISM PAGE:

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN UNIT 10:

1.

 (a) Magnetism is an invisible force that can make some things move towards or away from each other.

(b) The force with which a magnet pulls iron and steel towards itself is known as its magnetic force.

(c) The area around a magnet where it exerts its magnetism is called its magnetic field. When some magnetic material is placed in a magnetic field the magnet will pull it towards itself.

(d) A compass consists of a small compass needle which is actually a small bar magnet placed inside a round metallic box with a glass top. The compass needle always points in the NorthSouth direction because of the magnetic field of the Earth that is why it helps to find direction.

(e) All the particles inside a magnet have a north pole and a south pole and they are arranged in such a manner that the north poles of all the particles face in the same direction, while the south poles face in the opposite direction.

(f) When an electric current is passed through a coil of wire, it behaves like a magnet, that is, it can attract iron or steel. If a piece of soft iron is placed inside the coil, it will be magnetized and will remain so as long as the current flows in the coil. This kind of magnet is called an electromagnet. The magnetic field around an electromagnet can be made stronger by passing a stronger current through the wire, or by increasing the number of turns in the wire. (g) An electric bell and a telephone.

2.

(a) coal

(b) at both poles

(c) weak

(d) an electromagnet

(e) it is beaten with a hammer

3.

 (a) copper

(b) hard

(c) two magnets

(d) magnetic field

(e) at the poles

(f) Earth

4.

If we place a bar magnet on a sheet of white paper and sprinkle some iron filings onto the paper. The iron filings will arrange themselves around the magnet in a definite pattern of lines, which are the magnetic lines of force of the magnet. The iron filings will be clustered at each pole of the magnet. This shows that the magnetic force is strongest at the poles of a magnet.

5.

 Hang a bar magnet from a piece of string. It will swing around and when it stops it will be hanging in a north-south position which shows approximately the North Pole and South Pole of the Earth.

6. Refer to page 91

UNIT 11 SOIL PAGE:

ANSWERS TO EXERCISES IN UNIT 11:

 1.

 (a) Soil is the outer layer of the crust of the Earth. It is a mixture of small pieces of rocks, air, minerals, salts, water, humus, and microbes.

(b) The components of soil are rocks and stones, air, water, microbes, and living organisms.

(c) Soil microbes are useful because they breakdown dead plants and animal bodies to form humus which returns minerals and other useful substances to the soil.

(d) Humus is the dead and decaying remains of plants. It binds large particles of sand so that they are not easily blown away by wind or washed away by flowing water. It helps to loosen up the small clay particles so that the water present between them is drained away and more air can circulate in it. It releases important minerals in the soil, which are needed by plants for their healthy growth. It helps to keep the soil in good condition for the healthy growth of plants.

(e) If a piece of land is denuded of its plant cover, i.e. by chopping down of trees, etc. then the land becomes bare. The top layer of this bare soil can easily be washed away by rainwater.

(f) DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL are:

CLAY SOIL:

This type of soil is made up of tiny particles which stick to each other. There are very few air spaces so water is trapped between them. This type of soil is called heavy soil because it has a lot of water and very little air. It also has a large amount of minerals. Plants and animals cannot live in such a soil because they cannot breathe in it.

SANDY SOIL:

This type of soil is made up of bigger particles which have large spaces between them so water and air can freely circulate in them. Water drains very quickly from it and takes away most of the minerals with it. Therefore, this type of soil is also called hungry soil. Plants and animals cannot live in such a soil because there is no water or minerals for their healthy growth.

LOAM:

This soil contains a mixture of large and small particles as well as a lot of minerals due to the presence of humus. It is the best type of soil for the healthy growth of plants and animals because it contains air, water, and minerals.

(g) It is the best type of soil because it contains air, water, and minerals.

(h) The removal of the fertile top layer of soil is called erosion. It is harmful because no plants can grow in that area.

2.

(a) is the outer layer of the Earth’s crest.

(f) has poor drainage.

(b) provides oxygen for respiration.

(g) is hungry soil.

(c) is absorbed by plant roots.

(h) is the best type of soil for plants.

(d) breakdown dead organisms.

(i) is an organic fertilizer.

(e) is the removal of the topsoil.

(j) is a chemical fertilizer.

3.

 (a) Rocks and stones in soil hold the roots of plant firmly.

(b) Air provides oxygen for the respiration of roots and other living organisms in the soil.

(c) The removal of the top layer of soil by wind and water is called erosion.

(d) Water breaks rocks to form sand particles.

(e) A sandy soil has large airspaces in it.

(f) Clay soil is heavy soil.

(g) Loam is the best type of soil for the growth of plants.

(h) Humus is the dead and decaying remains of living organisms.

(i) Topsoil is the fertile top layer of soil.

UNIT 12 SPACE, STARS, AND PLANETS PAGE:

Answers to Exercises in Unit 12:

1.

(a) Nebulae are great clouds of gas and dust in space.

(b) Stars are formed in the nebulae. The force of gravity pulls gas and dust particles together into a tight mass. Its temperature rises and it gives off energy in the form of heat and light.

(c) An island of stars spinning through space is called a galaxy.

(d) Bodies that go around the Sun are called planets.

(e) The Sun, all the planets, and their moons make up the Solar System.

(f) Scientists think that the planets and moons are made from the same gas cloud that formed the Sun.

(g) An asteroid is a lump of rocky material in space.

2.

 (a) Space is the area outside the Earth’s atmosphere.

(b) There is no air in space.

(c) Great clouds of gas and dust in space are called nebulae.

(d) The force of gravity pulls gas and dust particles to make stars.

(e) A band of stars in the sky on a dark night is called the Milky Way.

(f) An island of stars in the sky on a dark night is called a galaxy.

(g) Bodies that go around the Sun are called planets.

(h) The Earth is a planet.

(i) A lump of rocky material in space is called an asteroid.

3.

 (a) 330,000

(b) 1,384,000

(c) 149 million

(d) 14,000,000°C

(e) 6000°C

(f) Mercury

(g) Venus

(h) Earth

(i) Mars

(j) Jupiter

(k) Saturn

(l) Uranus

(m) –200°C

(n) Jupiter

(o) Jupiter

=================end===============

Notes Oxford Science 5th Revised Edition Old Version

Notes Oxford Science 5th Revised Edition Old Version

Part 1: Ourselves

Unit 1: All about the body (pages 1-3 of Pupil’s Book)

Questions (page 3)

A1 Which system is the stomach a part of?

The digestive system.

2 Which system are the biceps and triceps a part of?

The muscular system.

3 What are your tissues and organs made up of?

Cells of different kinds.

5 Give some examples of involuntary muscles in the body.

The cardiac muscle and visceral muscles. (The children need not learn this word now.) Cardiac simply means of the heart, and visceral muscles are those which are found in the internal organs of the body (the brain, heart, liver, the intestines). They are involuntary muscles, and are stimulated by nerves.

4 What kind of muscle is the heart made from?

Cardiac muscle.

6 Which part of the heart sends blood to the lungs?

The right ventricle.

7 How big is an adult’s heart?

B1 Why are the walls of the ventricles thicker than those of the

atria?

The blood from the ventricles has to be forced out of the heart to all parts of the body. The pressure here is quite great, so the walls have to be thick.

2 In which part of the heart is there oxygenated blood?

(Oxygenated means mixed with oxygen)

Blood that comes from the lungs has been oxygenated. Oxygenated blood comes into the left atrium. (Be sure to point out which is left and which is right in any diagram of the heart. Also note: the singular of atria is atrium).

Unit 2: The brain (pages 4-5)

Questions (page 5)

1 What can the brain do that a computer cannot do?

A brain can feel emotions such as anger, jealousy, fear, happiness, excitement, etc.

2 Where is the cerebrum? What happens in the cerebrum?

The cerebrum is the top part of the brain. The cerebrum controls movement (the senses, and association). The cerebrum is the centre for mental activities such as speech, learning, memory and imagination. It also controls all physical activities.

3 What work is done by the cerebellum?

The cerebellum controls movement, balance and coordination.

4 What is important about the medulla?

The medulla deals with involuntary muscles of the body. It is the part of the brain which keeps working even when you are asleep.

5 Which part of your brain helps you to:

a control your breathing medulla

b balance when you are cycling cerebellum

5

c think cerebrum

Unit 3: All about breathing (pages 6-8)

Questions (page 8)

A Copy these sentences into your notebook. Fill in the blank spaces.

1 There are cells in the trachea which produce a sticky liquid called mucus.

2 The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle which separates the 7

lungs from the abdomen.

3 Breathing in and out is called respiration.

4 Trachea is another name for the windpipe.

5 At the ends of the small air tubes in the lungs there are tiny

air sacs which are surrounded by narrow capillaries.

B1 Why are there hairs in your nostrils? Do they behave in the same way as the hairs in the trachea?

The hairs in the nostrils prevent fine particles of dust from entering the windpipe. They act like a filter. The hairs in the windpipe also prevent particles from going to the lungs, but these ripple like waves. They carry the dust back up the throat.

2 Where and how are sounds produced when you talk?

Sounds are produced in the larynx. When air is forced over the stretched vocal cords, sounds are produced.

3 What will happen if you do not take air into your lungs?

You will die. No air in the lungs means that the air sacs cannot absorb the oxygen in the air. The body cannot live without oxygen.

4 Why is smoking harmful?

Smoke from cigarettes contains tar and nicotine. Tar clogs the usual passages, and nicotine is addictive. Smoking causes main diseases such as cancer.

 Unit 4: Teeth (pages 09-10)

Question (page 10)

A1 Which teeth are used for chewing and grinding food?

The premolars and molars.

2 What is contained in the pulp of a tooth?

Nerves and blood vessels.

3 What is plaque?

A layer of germs.

4 How is plaque formed?

Plaque (a sticky layer of germs) forms on the teeth if they are not brushed well or cleaned after meals.

B Match the following:

incisor a tooth used for cutting pulp the soft inner part of a tooth dentine the part of a tooth which is like bone dentist a person who repairs damaged teeth

decay rotting of the tooth plaque a thin sticky layer of germs canine tooth used for ripping.

Unit 5: Digestion (pages 11-12)

Questions (page 12)

A1 What is the oesophagus?

The tube which leads down from the mouth to the stomach.

2 What does the liver do?

The liver helps to clean the blood and store food energy.

3 What happens to the food in the small intestine?

The food in the small intestine is made softer by digestive juices. The small intestine absorbs food that the body needs.

4 How does food get to the cells of the body?

The food passes through the thin walls of the small intestine and enters the blood vessels.

5 Where is saliva produced?

Saliva is produced by the salivary glands in the mouth.

6 What do the kidneys help to remove from the body?

The kidneys help to remove waste materials and excess water.

B1 How does drinking liquids help digestion?

Liquids help to make hard food soft. Hard food dissolve more easily in liquids.

2 Why do we sometimes get a pain in the stomach?

By gulping down food too fast, by not chewing food properly and by taking in air as we eat. Some food are not broken down easily, so we have to help our digestive system by chewing food well, eating at regular intervals, not eating too much food of one kind, and by drinking plenty of liquids. We also get a pain in the stomach from food poisoning, i.e. if we eat food which has gone

bad.

3 How long does food take to pass through the body?

Food remains in the stomach for up to four hours, and can remain in the intestines for 36 hours before being passed on the rectum, where it is stored briefly. The time food takes to pass through the system depends on the kind of food being eaten, and the health of the person eating the food.

Unit 6: Food (pages 13-16)

Questions (page 16)

A1 What do proteins do for your body?

Proteins give you energy. They also help to build you up, and make you grow. They enable your body to replace dead cells.

2 How do dietary fibres help the digestive system?

Dietary fibres help to keep the waste moving through the digestive system.

3 How much water do you drink every day? How much water does a person need?

The children should try to work out how many glasses of water they drink. Water is also present in many foods. A person needs between 2 and 3 litres of water a day. Also ask the children whether they think that water consumption changes with the season, and if so, how and why.

4 What percentage of water is there in a cucumber?

98% water.

5 Why does the body need carbohydrates?

The body needs carbohydrates to provide energy.

6 Do you need energy at night when you are asleep? Explain why.

Yes, in order to breathe. All the systems of the body keep

working when you are sleeping. Energy is also needed while one is

asleep to maintain the body temperature.

7 What happens if you eat too little?

You become weak, and have little energy to do anything. This can also lead to illness, because the body cannot fight off attacks from germs.

8 What happens if you eat too much?

You become fat. People who work hard use up a lot of energy,

they can replace this by eating good food. Too much fat is bad for you.

B Tick the correct answer. Try to explain your choice:

1 Dietary fibre can be found in:

a milk b grapes c eggs d salt

The skins of grapes form the dietary fibre.

2 The system which uses the most water is:

a skeletal b digestive c nervous

The digestive system uses the most water.

3 This vitamin builds up teeth and bones:

a vitamin A b vitamin B c vitamin C d vitamin D

Vitamin C keeps teeth and bones healthy, but vitamin D is

needed to build healthy bones. Lack of vitamin D causes rickets.

4 This food is one of the best for a young person:

a salt b beans c mangoes d milk

Milk contains proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.

Unit 7: Looking after yourself (pages 17-20)

Questions (page 20)

A1 What are some of the ways in which we can preserve food?

Food can be preserved by cooking or boiling, adding chemical preservatives, freezing and sealing it away from the air.

2 What does sterilization mean?

Sterilization means to make sterile. When we sterilize something we are making it free from germs.

3 How can flies cause you harm?

Flies pick up diseases from animals. These can be passed on to man. Flies eat off rubbish and open food. They pick up germs and transfer these to food that we may be eating. When germs enter the body we become ill.

4 What are the main kinds of germs which cause infections?

Viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi.

5 What is a parasite?

An organism that lives off healthy cells and multiplies.

6 What are some of the ways in which you can keep healthy?

See the list on page 18.

B Find these words in a dictionary. Write down what they mean.

a sterilize b germ c preserve d infection e disease

Part 2: Living things

Unit 8: Living things (pages 21-24)

Questions (page 24)

A1 What is one important thing that plants can do but animals cannot?

Make their own food.

2 Why do animals move from place to place?

They move in search of food and water. They also move in search of mates, and to escape from predators.

3 What is the lateral line on a fish? What does it do?

The lateral line is a line along the side of a fish. This line enables the fish to sense movements in water. The fish can tell by these movements whether there is food or danger nearby.

4 What is locomotion?

Locomotion is movement or motion from place to place.

5 What senses does a zebra use to tell if there is danger nearby?

The zebra uses its sight, hearing and smell.

B1 What are some of the different ways in which living things breathe?

A human breathes (or respires) through the nose; mammals breathe through the nose; fishes breathe through gills; an earthworm breathes through the skin; insects breathe through their trachea; plants take in air through the leaves.

2 Do you remember what the word migration means? What

happens when animals migrate?

  Migration is the periodic movement of animals from one place to another. This movement is usually associated with seasonal climatic changes or breeding cycles. Migration is best known among birds.

Unit 9: Life cycles (pages 25-27)

Questions (page 27)

A1 What are the five main groups that vertebrates can be divided into?

Fish, amphibia, reptiles, birds, mammals.

2 Why is animal reproduction important?

If animals did not reproduce their species would come to an end.

3 What do these words mean? (Look in a dictionary if you are not sure).

Get the children to look up the meanings in a dictionary.

a extinct: (of family, class, species) that has died out

b reproduce: multiply by generation

c vertebrate: (of animals) having a spinal column

d fertilization: making fertile or productive. This occurs when a sperm, or male sex cell enters an egg, or female sex cell.

4 How are the young of birds and mammals able to survive?

They are looked after by the parent(s).

5 Why do you think an insect lays so many eggs?

Insects lay many eggs because the eggs and baby insects are usually defenseless. Many of them will not survive, but at least some will. In this way the species is sure of surviving.

6 How do micro-organisms usually reproduce?

By cell division.

B Look carefully at the life cycles shown on page 26. For each animal shown, describe what happens at each stage. Choose one of the animals and write and draw pictures to show what happens.

  Animals which reproduce sexually begin life when an ovum from the female is fertilized by a sperm from the male. When the young of a species develops outside the mother’s body, they often have to pass through various stages of development. Young which hatch from an egg are called larvae. Insect larvae often take the form of grubs, maggots or caterpillars. Butterflies and moths pass through a pupal stage (forming a cocoon around themselves). Butterfly =

egg, caterpillar, pupa, adult.

Unit 10: Plant distribution (page 28-31)

Questions (page 31)

A Which of these statements are true? Rewrite those that are untrue.

1 Most simple plants produce seeds.

F…produce spores

2 Animals help to spread seeds

F

3 Plankton is found in water.

T

4 Liverworts grow from seeds

F…bits of the parent plant.

5 A puffball is a kind of algae.

F…of fungus

B1 What are some of the main ways in which spores are spread?

By water or wind action.

2 What are some of the main ways in which seeds are spread?

Wind, explosion, water, birds, animals (on fur and through deposits).

3 How are some plants adapted for survival? Can you think

of other ways in which plants adapt themselves?

  They produce thousands of seeds. They grow thick leaves to retain moisture, some produce gums and resins to keep away insects, some have tough barks, some grow thorns and spikes, some produce poisons.

4 What experiments have you done to show that plants can only grow in certain conditions?

  If the children have not done any experiments, you may do some now. Look in Books 2, 3 and 4. The experiments should show that plants need sunlight, water, good soil and air, in order to grow well.

Unit 11: Plant reproduction (pages 32-35)

Questions (page 35)

1 What is a bulb?

A bulb is a bud which is surrounded by thick swollen leaves, e.g. a tulip.

2 What are the two different ways in which plants can reproduce?

Sexually and asexually.

3 What is the female part of a flower called?

The carpel. The carpel contains a stigma, a style, the ovary and ovules.

4 What is the male part of a flower called?

The male part of a flower is called a stamen. (It consists of the anther and pollen grains, which contain the male sex cells).

5 How is the pollen from a flower transferred to the stigma of

another flower?

Mostly by insects or by wind.

6 What is a fruit?

Fruits are the ripened ovaries of flowers. They contain one or more seeds.

7 Why do you think flowers have bright colours, special

shapes and strong scents? (Think about this carefully).

These are used to attract bees, and other insects. By attracting insects the plant species is sure of survival.

8 In your own words try to describe how a flower is pollinated and fertilized.

  Let the children write about it in their own way. When they have finished, check to see whether they have written it in a systematic way, illustrated what they have said with suitable diagrams, and have understood what they have written.

Unit 12: Crops (pages 36-39)

Questions (page 39)

A1 Which insects and other small creatures are pests? How do we protect crops from pests?

  Weevil, sawfly, mite, aphid, beetles (of various kinds), slugs, chafer grubs, caterpillars, millipedes and woodlice are some pests. Rats, fieldmice and other larger insects such as locusts are also pests. We protect crops from such pests by spraying crops with insecticides. We also put down poisons to kill some pests.

2 What are some of the ways, that you can think of to protect crops? (First think of some of the ways in which they can be harmed, apart from harm by insects. Then think of how they can be protected).

By building ditches and putting up strong fences we can protect crops in the fields from animals. Some farmers put up scarecrows to scare away the birds. Some build little shelters above the ground and keep watch over their crops. Crops can also be covered (with polythene or sacking) to prevent birds from feeding off the crop, or to shield them against too much sunshine. Some farmers cover whole trees with nets to keep birds off. In some countries farmers grow crops in greenhouses; these protect the plants from frost, keep the warmth in, and also offer protection from birds and animals.

3 Young plants are looked after in a nursery. They are also provided with the best conditions. Can you say what these conditions might be?

Plenty of water, good soil with nutrients (manure and compost), sunshine.

4 Where was maize first grown? Does maize grow in Pakistan?

Maize was first grown in Central and South America. It grows in Pakistan.

5 What grains and cereals do you eat every day?

Get the children to find out for themselves.

B For each of the words below give the best explanation or

definition. Look in the text, as well as in a dictionary.

Brief explanations are given here. Let the children find out for themselves what these terms mean.

1 nomad: (member of a tribe) roaming from place to place for pasture.

2 pesticide: insect or pest killer.

3 fertilizer: a medicine or chemical that helps plants to grow better.

4 Manure: any substance spread over soil to fertilize it.

5 Settlement: a colony or group of houses where people live.

Part 3: Materials and matter

Unit 13: Useful measurements (pages 40-43)

Unit 14: What makes up matter (pages 44-49)

Questions (page 47)

A Look at these words.

atom theory molecule nucleus electron Which word goes with each of these descriptions?

a It consists of a single atom or several atoms grouped together. molecule

b It is the central part of an atom. nucleus

c It is tiny particle of matter which orbits the nucleus. electron

d It is a scientist’s idea for explaining something that has been discovered. theory

e It is a tiny particle of matter which rarely exists on its own.

atom

B1 What is a theory? What was the theory of the ancient Greek

philosophers about matter?

A theory is a scientist’s idea for explaining what has been discovered. The ancient Greek philosophers had a theory that all substances were made from earth, fire, air and water.

2 Give two properties for each of these: a solid, a liquid and a gas.

Solids have a fixed shape. They have a fixed volume. Liquids can change their shape. They cannot change their volume.

Gases have no fixed volume. They have no fixed shape.

(The answers may consists of other properties).

3 In which states can water exist?

Solid (ice), liquid (water), or gas (steam)

4 Explain why a) it is easy to pour a liquid, b) a gas will

completely fill any container, c) a solid expands when it is

heated.

a) It is easy to pour a liquid because in a liquid the molecules are not fixed in a particular pattern. The molecules move and slide about.

b) In a gas the molecules are far apart and the attraction between them is weak. The molecules are moving about all the time, and bouncing off in all directions. This is why a gas will completely fill any container.

c) When a solid is heated the atoms and molecules vibrate more strongly and therefore take up more space.

5 Why is it that a gas can be compressed into a smaller volume, but a solid cannot?

In a solid there is no space between the molecules. They cannot be pushed any closer together. In a gas there is lots of space between the molecules. They can be compressed.

Unit 15: Elements (pages 50-53)

Questions (page 52)

A1 Can you match these elements with the correct symbols?

Chlorine Copper (Cuprum)

Calcium Cobalt

Carbon Chromium

C1 Co

Ca Cu

C Cr

What do you notice about the symbols?

All the symbols begin with C. A second letter is used to differentiate one from the other. The second letter is usually (but not always) the second letter of the word. The symbol can be derived from the original Latin word (Cu).

2 Which of the following are not elements?

stone nitrogen gold plastic wood tin brass lead steel

(Those underlined are not elements).

B1 What is an element? Give three examples of elements.

  An element is a simple substance which cannot be split into simpler substances. It contains one type of atom only. (There are many examples in the text).

2 Is brass an element? What is brass made of?

No. It is made of copper and zinc.

3 Your hair is made up of a combination of four elements.What are they?

Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen.

4 What does the symbol Fe stand for?

Iron.

5 What is a compound?

A compound is a substance which consists of different elements, chemically combined together.

Unit 16: Water (pages 54-57)

Questions (page 56)

1 Make a list of the properties of water. (You will have to

remember what you learnt last year!)

Water can exist in three states: when cooled (frozen) water changes from liquid to ice and its volume increases; ice is less dense than water (it floats); it is a solvent; it evaporates when heated; cooling condenses the water vapour in air to form water droplets; water contains air; water exerts pressure; etc.!

2 What action causes water to rise in some materials?

Capillary action (Check this by using absorbent paper or cloth dipped inwater.)

3 How does a siphon work?

See Introduction.

4 Why does water find its own level?

Like everything else water is pulled down by the force of gravity. Water always finds the lowest level it can possibly reach. (Get the children to test this. Look at the level of water in a glass. Tilt the glass. What happens to the surface? It remains parallel to the earth. Also do an experiment to show that two separate bodies of water can have different surface levels. When the two bodies are connected the water finds one level. This is how canals are built. Locks enable boats to travel along a canal which may drop many metres.)

5 Why is a raindrop a sphere?

Because the surface is held together by surface tension.

6 What is the ‘stretchy skin’ of water due to?

Surface tension.

7 Why do some objects float while others do not?

Objects which have a density which is lower than that of water can float. Objects that weigh less than the water they displace can float.

Part 4: Sky and space

Unit 17: The Sun and the Moon (page 58)

Questions (page 62)

A Some of these statements are not true. Find and correct

them.

1 The surface of the Sun is smooth.

(F)…not smooth.

2 The Sun produces Gamma rays and X-rays.

(T)

3 The two main gases in the Sun are helium and oxygen.

(F)…helium and hydrogen.

4 The Sun is about half way through its life.

(T)

5 The Sun is about thirty times as heavy as the Earth.

(F)…330,000 times as heavy.

6 Tides happen because of the Earth’s gravitational pull.

(F)…the Moon’s gravitational pull.

B1 What is the name of our galaxy?

The Milky Way.

2 What is the surface temperature of the Sun?

Approximately 6000 degree C.

3 What is a solar flare?

Sudden bursts or explosions on the surface of the Sun.

4 Which body has the weakest gravity, the Sun, Earth or Moon?

The Moon. (It is the smallest body of the three.)

5 How are tides caused? How often do they occur?

Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon. They occur approximately twice a day, (121/2 hours between one high tide and the next, with a low tide in between.)

6 Why is there no life on the Moon?

There is no air or water on the Moon. Living things need air and water to survive.

Unit 18: Space travel (pages 64-67)

Questions (page 66)

A1 What theories did people have about the Earth hundreds of years ago?

People thought the Earth was flat. They also thought that the Sun and other stars and planets revolved around the Earth.

2 Why are observatories usually built on high mountains?

The atmosphere is clearer and there is less pollution in the air. There may be less cloud cover.

3 How are balloons useful?

Balloons are used to find out about the middle layers of the atmosphere. They do not cost as much as aeroplanes or rockets.

4 Which was the first manned spaceflight?

The first manned space flight was the Russian spaceflight (Vostok I) in 1961. This took Yuri Gagarin into space.

5 Who was the first man to walk on the Moon?

Neil Armstrong.

6 What are satellites used for today?

They are used to tell us about the weather, to relay signals, to deal with communications, to help ships navigate at sea, and also to spy!

7 How are astronauts able to live on board a spacecraft?

Astronauts live and work in the command module. Inside the

spacecraft they have lifesupport systems. (This means that they have all the necessary things to keep them alive; oxygen, water, food, etc.)

B1 Try to write a brief description of each of the following:

a space module b astronaut

c weightlessness d life support systems

The children should use these headings to find out what they can from books and other sources. What they find out will depend on the books available and their interest and aptitude.

2 Why is a parachute no help to a spaceman landing on the moon?

Because there is no air on the moon to slow down the descent of the parachute.

Part 5: Earth and atmosphere

Unit 19: Changes in the atmosphere (pages 68-76)

Questions (page 74)

1 What is the study of the weather called? Meteorology.

2 What is the troposphere?

The layer of atmosphere closest to the Earth.

3 What is meant by precipitation?

Precipitation is when water vapour turns into droplets of rain, snow or ice, which then fall to the ground (precipitate).

4 How are clouds formed?

Clouds are formed when hot air rises, and the water vapour in the air condenses to form tiny droplets of water. These collect together to form clouds.

5 What is hail? How is it formed?

Hail is round particles of ice, which is formed in tall clouds called cumulonimbus clouds. The bottom of such clouds is warm, but the top can be freezing. Air currents in such clouds are strong, and these currents toss the drops of rain about. They freeze at the top and thaw when they come to the bottom of the clouds. When the droplets get bigger they fall out of the cloud as hail.

6 Which instruments are used to measure weather?

Wind vane, anemometer, thermometer, rain gauge, barometer, hygrometer.

Unit 20: Changes on Earth (pages 77-82)

Questions (page 81)

1 In your own words describe what kinds of rocks there are and how they are formed.

Igneous rocks: from hot, molten magma out of volcanoes. Sedimentary rocks: from layers of sediment. Metamorphic rocks: (metamorphosis means change) formed from existing rocks which have changed due to heat, pressure or chemical action.

2 How have fossils helped scientists?

They tell scientists about the shape of living creatures, now extinct, and help to date rocks. They also helped scientists to form theories about the continents.

3 How have the continents changes?

The continents at one time formed one land mass. Over millions of years they have drifted apart, and together, in various ways. This drift has caused changes in the coast lines and has given rise to mountains. The movement has also caused faults in the Earth’s crust.

4 What is a glacier?

A glacier is a large mass of moving ice, found high up in the mountains.

5 What is mechanical weathering?

When rocks crack, split or crumble due to changes in

temperature or pressure, mechanical weathering takes place.

6 What is a stalactite? How is it formed?

A stalactite is a deposit of lime (carbonate of lime) usually in the form of a large hanging from the roof of a cave, and formed by trickling water.

7 How has man changed the earth?

Man-made changes are occurring more frequently, especially as populations increase, and the building of dams, canals, the plantation of crops, deforestation, animal rearing, and collection of building materials (granite, sand, clay) are some of the reasons why the surface of the earth has changed.

Unit 21: Pollution (pages 83-87)

Questions (page 87)

A1 What is the environment?

Everything around you; the roads, the houses, the people, the air, nature.

2 Name at least five items which you waste or throw away at home.

The children can make up their own lists. These will probably

include, food (of various kinds), sweet wrappers, boxes (shoes,

toothpaste, biscuits, etc), old clothes, empty plastic and glass

containers (bottles, jars, tubes), tins and cans, half-used pencils, and many other things!

3 In your own words try to describe what acid rain is.

Coal is burned and smoke is produced. Fuel contains sulphur. When the sulphur combines with oxygen and water in the air, acids are formed, which fall to the earth as acid rain. Acid rain causes more pollution, destroys nature and causes diseases in humans and animals.

4 What wastes are produced in industry?

Most forms of energy also produce waste. Gases, chemicals, and other substances are wasted when these things are produced.

5 Why should we not use too many aerosols?

The spray propellant from aerosols mixes with the atmosphere and reaches the ozone layer. This gradually eats away the ozone layer, and enables harmful rays from the Sun to reach the Earth. These rays cause diseases in humans and animals, and abnormal growth conditions in plants.

B1 Which of the things shown below are biodegradable.

The biodegradable things are: rat, leaf, (some kinds of) paper, banana skin, dead tree trunk.

Part 6: Electricity and magnetism

Unit 22: Electricity (pages 88-93)

Questions (page 91)

1 What is a conductor? Can you give some examples good conductors?

Materials such as metals which allow electric current to pass through quite freely are called conductors. (Good conductors of electricity are also good conductors of hat.) Copper, iron, and aluminium are good conductors of electricity.

2 In your own words try to describe how current passes through a wire.

Allow the children to use their own words to describe this. The correct explanation is given on page 88/89 of the text. They might simply state that electric current is a flow of electrons through a cable or wire.

3 In what ways do we see electricity in nature?

In thunderstorms (lightning), in the body, in the electric eel. Static electricity can be experienced in many situations, for example, from doorknobs in air-conditioned hotel rooms!

4 What is a fuse? Why is it a useful component of a circuit?

A fuse is a short piece of thin wire which is connected to a circuit. It fuses (or melts) if there is too much current passing through the circuit, thus preventing damage to components or expensive equipment.

5 What is a resistor? Why are resistors needed?

A resistor ‘resists’ the flow of current. They are used to allow

different components to receive different voltages.

Unit 23: Electromagnets (pages 94-97)

Questions (page 97)

1 How does the buzzer make a buzzing sound?

When the current is switched on the electromagnet will work. It will attract the piece of tin. The rubber band will pull the piece of tin will make a buzzing noise as it virbates backwards and forwards.

2 If (A) is touching (G), and not touching (B), what happens when you switch on the current?

For your benefit, the question has been rewritten: If the piece of tin is touching the screw, and not touching the electromagnet, what happens when you switch on the current?

Answer: The electromagnet will pull the piece of tin towards it, and the rubber band will pull back.

3 If (B) is touching (A), and (G) is not touching (A), what happens when you switch on the current?

The question rewritten: If the electromagnet is touching the piece of tin, and the screw is not touching the tin, what happens when you switch on the current?

Answer: Nothing. The electromagnet will hold the piece of tin. The tension in the rubber band will have to be increased.

4 What use can you make of the buzzer? Could you use it as a burglar alarm?

If the switch is replaced by a pad of some kind it can be used as a burglar alarm. The burglar will have to complete the circuit in some way. This can either be done by connecting the two wires to two points close to each other on a sliding window, or placed under a doormat. This will have to be discussed with the children. Allow them to come up with solutions of their own. Will it work? Try out some of their idea.

5 Draw diagrams to show how you would use the buzzer to make:

a a burglar alarm

b a device to tell you when a tank is full

Again, ask for plans in writing and with illustrations.

Part 7: Machines, force and energy

Unit 24: Forces (pages 98-103)

Questions (page 102)

A1 What are some of the things that a force can do?

A force can change the way things move. A force can speed up motion, slow it down, change the direction of an object in motion, change the shape of an object. Equal and opposing forces can balance an object.

2 What forces are most likely to slow down an object travelling through the air?

The friction between the air and the object.

3 What force is exerted on you, when you push against a

brick wall?

An equal force in the opposite direction.

4 In what way can metal and wood be made to exert an elastic force?

Metal coiled into a spring can produce an elastic force. Press on the metal spring and it exerts an elastic force. A length of wood can also act like a spring in the same way, e.g. a diving board.

B1 Will these levers balance?

The coins in a are exerting equal turning forces about the pivot, but in opposite directions. The coins are at the same distance from the pivot. The single coin in b is exerting the

same turning force as the two other coins about the pivot,

but look at where they are placed!

In c, the single coin is exerting the same turning force as

four coins. They are even closer to the pivot. (Tape the ruler to the pencil, so that it balances. Place coins on the ruler, and do the experiment yourself.)

What does this experiment tell you about force?

What does the experiment tell you about levers (and pivots)?

Get the children to do these and similar exercises. If there is a seesaw in the playground get the children to see how that can be balanced in the same way, using themselves as weights. In order to balance a lever, an equal (or balancing) force must be exerted on each side of the pivot. It is important to know where this force has to be applied. The children should see that the force needed is least when it is further away from the pivot. In the following Unit they will be able to see how some machines with levers actually work.

Unit 25: Machines (pages 104-110)

Questions (page 108)

A1 What use are machines?

Machines help us to do work, machines can exert greater forces than we can.

2 How many classes of levers are there? Give an example of each.

Three.

1st class lever : pliers (fulcrum in middle).

2nd class lever : wheelbarrow (load/weight in middle).

3rd class lever : tweezers (effort/power in middle).

Note that a lever is a straight bar or other rigid structure of which one point (fulcrum) is fixed, another is connected with the force (weight or load) to be resisted or acted upon, and a third is connected with the force (power or effort) applied.

3 What use are inclined planes? Have you seen any in use?

Inclined planes are used as ramps to unload goods from the backs of lorries, for easy access of wheelchairs into buildings, for pleasure (slides), and for many other jobs.

4 How are pulleys useful?

Pulleys are used to lift heavy objects. (Cranes on building sites use levers and pulleys, heavy containers are loaded onto ships with pulleys; felled trees and buckets of water from wells are also lifted by pulleys.) Pulleys are also particularly useful for changing the direction of a force.

5 What is a screw used for?

A screw is used to hold things down. A screw can also be used to move a weight from one place to another (see a monkey-wrench or car jack).

6 What is a wedge? Give some examples.

A wedge is a piece of wood or metal with an angled (acute angled) edge. It is used to cut, split or widen an opening. It exerts force in various ways. Knives and axes are wedges.

7 In what ways are wheels useful?

Wheels are used in many machines with rotary movement, such as clocks, vehicles, engines and toys. Wheels are used to make things move forward; they can also be used to change direction.

B1 Make a list of all the things you can see which have screws in them.

Have the children noticed that screws have a slit in the head (to take the wedged end of a screwdriver) and that nails have flat heads? If they look at all the wooden furniture, windows, cupboards, watches or clocks, pencil boxes and other objects in the class room they will be able to find a number of screws.

2 Why is an oar a Class 2 lever?

Because the blade, not the rowlock, is really the fulcrum.

Note:

Watts Planetary Gear: This is a gear-wheel which goes round another gearwheel (roughly as the planet goes round the Sun). The gearwheel is moved backwards and forwards by a piston; it moves round the middle gearwheel (which is fixed o a big wheel) and so turns this gearwheel and the big wheel. A band joins the two wheels together.

3 What kind of levers do you think these are?

Get the children to make their own drawings and mark each lever with the letters F (fulcrum), E (effort), and L (load).

1st class: (fulcrum in middle) bat, scissors, forceps

2nd class: (load in middle) bottle opener, nutcracker.

3rd class: (effort in middle) arm, fishing rod, tongs.

Part 8: Sound, light and colour

Unit 26: Sounds (pages 111-114)

Questions (page 113)

1 In your own words try to describe how sounds are made and how they travel through the air.

Let the children use their own words, but make sure the ideas are correct. The information they can use is contained in the first two paragraphs of the Unit.

2 How do we measure the amplitude of sound? What does amplitude mean?

Amplitude means loudness. The amplitude of a sound wave refers to the height of each wave. This is measured in decibels (dB).

3 How do we measure wavelength?

Wavelength is measured in millimetres and metres. It is the distance between each wave of sound.

4 Do low sounds have a high frequency or a low frequency?

A low frequency.

5 In what conditions do echoes occur?

Echoes occur where there are no objects to absorb sound, but there are hard surfaces to reflect sound. In large empty rooms or in the mountains, sounds echo or bounce back.

6 How do bats find their way?

Bats make a high pitched squeaking noise. This sound bounces off objects and returns to the bat’s ears. Bats have sharp ears to hear these sounds.

7 In what ways do we control sounds in a city?

Cars have silencers to stop too much noise from coming out of engines. Buildings have thick walls and special sound-proofed windows. Near hospitals there are signs for motorists telling them not to blow their horns!

8 Why are pressure horns harmful?

They are so loud and sprill that they can burst one’s eardrums.

Unit 27: Light (pages 115-116)

NOTES: SOCIAL STUDIES 5TH OXFORD FOR PAKISTAN

                 NOTES: SOCIAL STUDIES 5TH OXFORD FOR PAKISTAN

L:01  MAPS     P:4-5

Q No. 1               What information would you find on a physical map?
ANS: A physical map shows the landforms such as hills, mountains, rivers, lakes, valleys, deltas, plateaus, seas, and oceans.
Q No.2 What information world you find on a political map?
ANS: A political map shows the different countries, their capitals and major cities, and the international borders between countries.
Q No.3 Explain what is meant by meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude.
ANS: Meridians of longitude are the imaginary lines that run vertically, north to south, across the globe. They converge (meet) at the poles.        The imaginary lines that run horizontally from east to west are called parallels of latitude.
Q No.4             How do we show directions on a map?
ANS: The directions       on        a          map     are       shown by        a          compass         rose     or        an        arrow  marked           with     N         at         the      top.     The         compass rose shows the general directions and the arrow tells us where north is.
Q No.5 How can we find a place on a map?
ANS:                The          location          of         a          place   is         calculated       by        its         position          in         degrees,          north   or        south  of         the      Equator         and      east     or        west    of         the      Prime  Meridian         or        the         International  Date    Line.

W0RK PAGE A

 WORK PAGE B FILL IN THE BLANKS

1. Parallels of —————–run from east to west round the world.

2. The O0 meridian passes through a place called————in London.

3. The————–on a map shows us distance and sizes.

4. The ————–on a map tells us what symbols and colours mean.

5.The————— meridian is exactly opposite the O0 meridian.

1 latitude 2 Greenwich 3 scale 4 key 5 180°

L:02     WORLD CLIMATE    P:9-10

Q No. 1 In what ways does the climate affect our lives?
ANS:       Climate  affects how     we       live:     the      kind     of         houses            we       live           in,        the      food    we       eat,      the      clothes            we       wear,   our           activities and work, and the way we spend our time indoors and outdoors.
Q No.2 Why did the people of the Arctic region build houses out of snow?     
ANS: There are no forests to cut down for wood, nor is stone available to build houses in the Arctic region. The only building material available is snow.
Q No.4 What are some of the factors that influence climate?
ANS:         The temperature, the amount of rainfall, the direction and frequency of winds  and the presence of hills and mountains are factors that influence the climate.

WORK PAGEA       

1     The      hill       station            of         Murree:           1789.3 mm      2          Nok       Kundi: 35.3     mm      3          Quetta:           -2.0°C  4          Jacobabad:     36.9°C

 5 a) The average winter temperature in Quetta can go as low as -2°C, and the average temperature in summer can also go high to 25.6°C, whereas Murree’s average winter temperature is 3.7°C and maximum temperature in summer is 20.6°C. 

b) Murree gets 1789.3 mm of rain annually and Quetta gets 260.8 mm.   Both the places have low temperatures. However, Murree gets a lot more rain than Quetta.

B          1 False 2 True 3 False 4 True 5 False

L:03  LIFE IN DESERT    P:14-15

Q No. 1 What are continental deserts? How are they formed?
ANS:      Continental        deserts            are       in         the      middle of        a         continent;       they    get       no        rain     clouds,            like      the      Gobi   Desert in         Mongolia,       and     the      Great   Australian       Desert.
Q No.2 What are rain shadow regions?
ANS:       The areas on one side of a mountain that do not get rain as the mountains block the rain-bearing winds.
Q No.3 Why is the population of desert regions so low?
ANS:         Deserts are       hot,     dry       places, with     a          harsh   climate;           there   is           little    or        no        vegetation,     very     little    water,  poor soil, no farming, and no food crops;  there are no settlements and no development, hence the population is very low. Mostly nomadic tribes live in these areas.
Q No.4 What sort of vegetation would you find in a desert?
ANS: Desert          plants  are       spiny   and      have    thick,   fleshy  stems  that     store   water.           The      spines prevent          the      animals           from eating the plants.
Q No.5        How has Saudi Arabia become a rich country?
ANS: Saudi Arabia has large reserves of oil underground. The government sells the oil and uses the money for the development of the country.

WORK PAGE A         

1        Bedouin          is         the      name   for       nomads           of         the      Arabian          Desert. 2 Sirocco is the name for the hot, dry, dusty wind that blows through the Mediterranean region. 3 A wadi     is         a          dry       river    bed      in         the          Middle            Eastern           desert. It          means ‘valley’. 4 A nomad is a wanderer, a person who does not live in one place and is constantly on the move. 5 A cactus is a fleshy plant, usually with prickles, found in a hot, dry climate.

B        Climate—wind,          temperature,  rainfall,           whirlwind       Land—sandy,          rocky,  wadi,   dunes  Vegetation—spiny,     leaves, stem,   roots   Animals—camel,          snake,  lizards,            hedgehogs 

L:04  LIFE IN FOREST     P:19-20

Q No. 1 Name the South American countries which have equatorial forests.
ANS:Ecuador,          Colombia,       and      Brazil.
Q No.2 Why are equatorial forests important?
ANS:These forests are very important because they are a source of oxygen for all living things and are known          as        the      lungs   of         the      Earth.
Q No.3 Describe the main differences between equatorial and temperate forests.
ANS: Equatorial    forests are       hot,     wet,     and      humid all        year     round; the      vegetation           is         very     dense  as        the      plants  grow very close together; there is a lot of animal life. Temperate forests are very cold and the vegetation       is         very     different:        the           trees    grow    apart   and      there   is         ground            vegetation      in         the           form    of         bushes; the animal, bird, and insect population is not as high as in the equatorial regions.
Q No.4 What problems do people living in equatorial forests face?
ANS:People ­find it diffi­cult to travel through these thick, dense forests and they cannot clear the land for cultivation; they also face the problem of tropical diseases.
Q No.5 Look at the map on page 16. Why are there fewer temperate forests in the southern hemisphere?
ANS:       There are fewer temperate forests in the southern hemisphere because there is less land mass, and more         water  covering          the      surface            of         the      Earth.          The       ocean  currents,         on        either  side     of         Africa  and      South  America, keep the land warmer than the huge land mass of the continents in the northern hemisphere.

WORK PAGE A

Green: a          lot       of         sunshine,        over     200      cm       of         rain,    hot            climate,           unnamed        species,           pygmies,         South  America,            fast-growing plants, millions of small insects, hot wetlands, heavy rainfall.        

Blue:    cold     climate,           snowshoes,     long     roots,  coniferous      trees,   alpine            trees,   animals           with     fur,       North America, frozen rivers.

B 1 of the cold climate

2 from being washed away

3 of the dense vegetation

4 of the heavy rainfall and fertile soil

 5 there are laws to protect wildlife species

L:05 LIFE IN  THE POLAR REGION P:23-24

Q No. 1 What are the two polar regions called?
ANS:          The      Arctic   Circle   (North Pole)    and      the      Antarctic         Circle   (South Pole).
Q No.2 Name the animals found in the polar regions: How do they survive the cold?
ANS: a) Seals, whales, and penguins live in Antarctica, and polar bears, seals, walruses, and whales live in the Arctic Circle. b) The animals in the polar regions, like polar bears, seals, whales, and walruses, have a thick layer of fat or blubber under their skins, which keeps out the cold.
Q No.3 Why has the Antarctic region not been explored?
ANS: It is bitterly cold in Antarctica and the climate is dangerous, with hurricanes and blizzards blowing. People who travel here cannot bear the cold and often get frostbite.        Frostbite can be so severe that people can often lose their limbs. Because of these extreme weather conditions, the Antarctic region has not been explored.
Q No.4 Why the polar regions are called ‘the Lands of the midnight sun?
ANS: In the middle of summer in each hemisphere, the Sun remains above the horizon all the time, so there is daylight all the time. That is why these are called the ‘lands of the midnight sun’.
Q No.5 What are the differences between the Arctic and Antarctic regions?
ANS: DIFFERENCE:            The         Arctic   region is         composed       entirely           of         icebergs.         There     is         very     little    land     except for       the      northern         coasts  of         the   Asian   and      North  American        continents.     The         people of         the      region are       called  Inuit.   Temperatures, most of the year, are below –23°C. There are polar bears in the Arctic, but no penguins. The Antarctic region is a huge land mass covered with ice and snow. It is uninhabited, with temperatures as low as –87°C. There are penguins in the Antarctic, but no polar bears.

WORK PAGE A

1 Arctic   2 Antarctica   3 Inuit   4        Kayaks        5Frostbite

B   Fill       in         the      blanks:

 1 Pytheas 2 Roald Amundsen, 1911   3          Robert Edwin  Peary,  1909

4 Antarctica 5 Arctic

L: 06  OUR COUNTRY    P:29-30

Q No. 1 Describe two contrasting features of Pakistan.
ANS:       To the south stretches the Makran coastline along the Arabian Sea. Further inland in Balochistan are the plateaus and deserts, rich in minerals. Another example would be of high, snow-topped mountains in the north and the Indus delta region’s ‑at lands.
            Q No.2 Write about some of the things in Pakistan of which you are proud.
ANS: Pakistan is only nuclear power in Muslim world.World’s deepest sea port in Gawadar .Second largest salt mines in Khewra.World largest irrigation system Pakistan won many times squash championship.
Q No.3 Write about some of the things in Pakistan that make you sad. How are you going to make Pakistan a better place?
ANS:  
Q No.4          Name the international organizations of which Pakistan is a member.
ANS: United            Nations           (UN),   South  Asian   Association     for       Regional          Cooperation   (SAARC),Organization  of         Islamic Conference (OIC), now known as Organization of Islamic Cooperation.
Q No.5 What are the features that attract tourists to Pakistan?
ANS: Tourists are attracted to the famous historical sites and buildings. They also go trekking, mountaineering, ­shing, and hunting.

WORK PAGE A

The Gandhara civilization flourished in the north and north-west of the country. The remains can be found mainly in Taxila.

C          FILL      IN        THE     BLANKS:

1 south 2 Thar, east 3 export 4 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 5 Makran, Arabian Sea

L:07 AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN P: 34

Q No. 1 What makes the Punjab the best farming area in Pakistan?
ANS:The Punjab is the best farming area because of its fertile soil and canal irrigation system.
Q No.2 Explain the difference between a kharif and a tab! crop. Give an example of each.
ANS:Kharif crops are grown in summer, for example, cotton and rice. Rabi crops are grown in winter, for example, wheat.
Q No.3 Which crop makes up Pakistan’s largest export? Where is it grown?
ANS: Cotton is Pakistan’s largest export crop. It is grown in south-east Punjab and parts of Sindh.
Q No.4 Explain the difference between a cash crop and a food crop. Give examples of each.
ANS: A food crop is one that is grown to feed the community, for example, wheat, rice, sugar cane. A cash crop is grown for sale or export, that is, against which we can get cash. Cotton, tobacco, and also sugar cane are cash crops.
Q No.5 Why is livestock an important part of agriculture?
ANS: Livestock is an important part of agriculture as it is reared for meat, dairy products, and hides and skins (leather). Almost all small farms in Pakistan also use cattle to work the land, help till the soil, and provide transport for farmers.

Work PageB Fill in the blanks:

1 buffaloes2 Thar and Cholistan deserts3 170 kilograms. Divide this figure by 2.2 and the Ans is 77.27 pounds.4 linseed, castor seed, sesame, mustard, and cotton seed

L: 08     WATER &IRRIGATION    P:38

Q No. 1      Why is irrigation so important for farmers in Pakistan?    
ANS: Pakistan cannot depend only on rainfall for its crops to grow. Since it is an agricultural country and a regular supply of water is necessary, farmers depend on irrigation.
Q No.2         How much of our arable land is under irrigation?    
ANS: Almost 80 per cent of our arable (cropped) land is irrigated.
Q No.3 Describe some of the different ways in which farmers irrigate their land.    
ANS: Irrigation methods are mainly canals and tube wells, and in some areas the shaduf, charsa, karez, and the Persian wheel are also used.
Q No.4         What is the importance of dams and barrages in a country?         
ANS: Dams are built to store water and release it when it is needed; barrages are used to divert river flows into canals over a long distance, to the fields. Some dams are also used to produce electricity.

Work Page A-1 Rivers: Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Kabul, Hingol, Hub, Dasht, and Porali.

2 Dams: Warsak, Mangla, Tarbela, Rawal, and Hub

3 Barrages: Kotri, Panjnad, Guddu, Taunsa, and Sukkur

L: 09     MINERALS            P:42

Q No. 1Name the different minerals found in Pakistan. Why are minerals important?
ANS:Use the maps on pages 40 and 42 of the textbook to Ans this Q. Minerals are important as raw materials for industry.
Q No.2 Why is it not worthwhile to mine some minerals?
ANS: Sometimes, it is difficult to reach the minerals, and quite expensive to acquire extra machines and labour required to mine them. If the quantity available does not justify the costs, it is not worthwhile to mine them.Chromite is found at Muslim Bagh near Quetta. Copper deposits are found at Saindak and Reko Diq. Iron ore is found in Dammer Nissar, Kalabagh, and Chilgazi. Antimony is mined at Krinj.
Q No.3 Why is salt such a useful mineral?
ANS: Salt is used in cooking and preserving, and in the food industry. It is also used to make various sodas for laundry, textiles, and tanning.
Q No.4 Name the minerals used in the manufacture of cement.
ANS:         Limestone and magnesite.
Q No.5 Which parts of Pakistan are rich in minerals? Look at the maps in this L for help.
ANS: Refer to the maps on page 40 and 42 for the Ans.

Work Page A……………………………………………

A 1 Chromite 2 Barite3 Marble 4 Rock salt5 Sulphur 6 Limestone

B 1 Hunza — rubies2 Krinj — antimony3 Quetta — chromite4 Skardu — aquamarine5 Koh-i-Maran — fluorite6 Spin Kan — magnesite

L: 10 POWER RESOURCES      P:48

Q No. 1 Explain the importance of power resources for a country.
ANS: Power resources are important because they are needed for the running of industries, households, and transportation.
Q No.2 Name the main sources of power used in Pakistan.
ANS: Pakistan uses energy generated from oil, gas, water, and coal, as well as nuclear energy, LPG, CNG, and wind and solar energy.
Q No.3 What is thermal power? How is it produced?
ANS: Thermal power is generated from heat which is produced by burning oil, gas, or coal. This powers the turbines, which in turn, work dynamos that produce electricity.
Q No.4 Where are the most thermal power plants located? Why?
ANS: Thermal power plants are located in Karachi, Kotri, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and Guddu in Sindh. In the Punjab, there are plants at Faisalabad, Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Kot Addu. In Balochistan there are thermal plants at Quetta, Pasni, and Hub.
Q No.5 Where are most of the hydel power plants in Pakistan?
ANS: Most of the hydel plants are in upper Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. They are also located in lower Sindh, at Jhimpir-Meting, Lakhra, Sanda-Thatta, and Thar.
Q No.6            How is hydroelectricity produced?
ANS: A fast-flowing river with a great volume of water in its upper part is needed to produce electricity at a hydel or hydroelectric power station. Dams are built across the river and the powerful release of water turns the turbines which produce electricity.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 Oil2 Petroleum3 Natural gas4 Coal5 Electricity6 Solar energy

B 1 Karachi, Chashma2 solar energy3 hydroelectricity4 9.5 hours long

5 Punjab6 A megawatt (MW)

L: 11 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT P:54

Q No. 1Which is the largest industry in Pakistan?
ANS: Cotton textiles.
Q No.2 Describe the other major industries in Pakistan.
ANS: Woollen textiles,  art silk, jute, chemicals;  cooking oil;  fertilizers;  cement; iron, steel and engineering;  cottage and small industries.
Q No.3Make a list of the goods produced by Pakistan’s cottage industries.
ANS: Utensils; cutlery; pottery; shoes; surgical instruments;  sports goods; handicrafts; carpets; toys;  furniture;carved doors and window frames; ornaments.  Dyeing, printing, and tailoring are also cottage industries.
Q No.4Name the countries that have helped Pakistan’s iron, steel, and engineering industries.
ANS:Russia, China, and Switzerland.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A:EXPORTS: carpets, cotton textiles, art silk, towels, hosiery, and canvas

IMPORTS: Art silk yarn, jute, fertilizers, edible oil, iron ore, manganese, and oil product to run the industries

B :FILL IN THE BLANKS:

1 textiles, household linen, hosiery, canvas.

2 Harnai and Mastung in Balochistan: Bannu and Nowshera in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; Quaidabad, Lawrencepur, Rawalpindi, and Sahiwal in Punjab; and Karachi, Hyderabad, and Larkana in Sindh.

3 soap, paper, textiles, fertilizers, and iron and steel4 limestone and gypsum.5 Pakistan Steel Mills and Pakistan Machine Tool Factory Karachi, Heavy Mechanical Complex, Taxila.

L: 12 SOME IMPORTANT CITIES P:59

Q No. 1  In what way is Islamabad different from most of Pakistan’s other large cities?
ANS: Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. It is a fairly new city.     It is the place from which the country is governed and all the foreign embassies are located there.
Q No.2  Why are there not many ancient buildings in Quetta?
ANS: Quetta does not have many old buildings as the city was almost completely destroyed by the earthquake of 1935. It was then rebuilt.
Q No.3Which town is called the Frontier Town?
ANS: Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Q No.4How many times has Karachi’s population multiplied since Independence?
ANS: Karachi had 400,000 people in 1947. Today it has more than 14 million. The population, therefore,has multiplied 35 times, roughly.

Work Page ……………………………………………

 1 a) Karachi

b) Sindh

c) Over 14 million people

d) The Quaid’s mausoleum, the beach, the National Museum, Mohatta Palace

2 a) Islamabad

b) Punjab

c) Nearly one million people

d) Daman-i-Koh, Margalla Hills, Shah Faisal Masjid, the Presidency

3 a) Lahore

b) Punjab

c) About 10 million people

d) The Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, Badshahi Masjid, Minar-e-Pakistan, Lahore Museum

4 a) Quetta

b) Balochistan

c) 700,000 people

d) Ziarat, Quaid-i-Azam Residency, Hannah Lake

L:13 PAKISTAN& HER NEIGHBOURS P:66

Q No. 1 Between which lines of latitude and longitude is Pakistan situated?
ANS: Pakistan lies between 24° and 37° North, and 61° and 76° East.
Q No.2 Name the countries that share a border with Pakistan.
ANS: Iran, Afghanistan, China, and India.
Q No.3 Which country shares the longest border with Pakistan?
ANS: Afghanistan shares the longest border—2200 km—with Pakistan.
Q No.4 Which mountain range forms the border between China and Pakistan?
ANS: The Karakoram Range forms the border with China.
Q No.5 Where is the Gobi Desert situated?
ANS: China and Mongolia
Q No.6 Which of Pakistan’s neighbouring countries has no coastline?
ANS: Afghanistan

Work Page ……………………………………………

 A 1 a) People’s Republic of Chinab) Beijingc) Mandarind) 1.33 billion peoplee) Rice, cotton, textiles, electronic goodsf) Mao Zedong, Chou En Lai, Deng Xiao Ping

2 a) Islamic Republic of Iranb) Tehranc) Farsid) 70.5 million people

e) Oil, gas, minerals, carpetsf) Shah Raza Pahlevi, Ayatullah Khomeini, President Khatami, President Ahmedinijad

3 a) Afghanistanb) Kabulc) Pushto and Dari Persiand) 32 million people

e) Carpets, lambskins, fruitf) King Zahir Shah

4 a) Indiab) Delhic) Hindid) 1.2 billion people

e) Rice, cotton and silk, machinery, computer software

L: 14 EARLY HISTORY OF ISLAM P: 71

Q No. 1What problems did Hazrat Abu Bakr(رضی اللہ عنھ)face as a caliph?
ANS:During Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (رضی اللہ عنھ)time, there were many uprisings and some people refused to pay taxes,and some declared themselves to be prophets. These revolts were put down by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).
Q No.2 Why are the first four caliphs held in special esteem?
ANS:The four Rightly-guided Caliphs are held in high esteem as they were the close companions of theProphet (saw).
Q No.3 In what way did Hazrat Umar  contribute to Islam?
ANS: During Hazrat Umar’s (ra) rule, Islam spread far and wide. He was an able administrator who set up the basic systems for a sound government.
Q No.4What major work was completed during the time of the third caliph?
ANS: The important work of completing the compilation of the Holy Quran was done during the Khilafat of Hazrat Usman (ra).
Q No.5 When did Spain come under Muslim rule and how long did this rule last?
ANS:Spain came under the Muslim rule during the time of the Umayyad dynasty and Muslims continued to rule over Spain for the next 800 years.
Q No.6 During which century did parts of Sindh and Punjab come under Muslim influence?
ANS: In the 8th century, under Mohammad bin Qasim.

Work Page ……………………………………………

 A 1 South-east Asia: Bangladesh, Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia

2 Africa: Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Mauritania, Mali, Niger,

Senegal, Gambia, Chad, Algeria, Uganda

3 The Middle East: Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Iran, Oman,

Yemen, Qatar, and Bahrain (Albania and Cyprus are located in Europe.)

B 1 Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) 632–634 ce

2 Hazrat Umar Ibn-al-Khattab (ra) 634–644 ce

3 Hazrat Usman Ibn Affan (ra) 644–656 ce

4 Hazrat Ali Ibn Abu Talib (ra) 656–661 ce

L: 15 EUOPEANS & THE SUBCONTINENT                   P:74

Q No. 1Why were the Europeans interested in the East?
ANS:The Europeans were interested in the East because they saw it as a land of rich spices, fruits, clothes of different colours and textures, fabulous ornaments, and jewellery. They established trade relations here.
Q No.2Who were the first European visitors to the subcontinent? When did they come here?
ANS:The first European visitors were the Portuguese. They arrived here during the 15th century.
Q No.3How and why did the British begin to rule the subcontinent?
ANS:The British came to India as traders. When trading became profitable for them, they started the East India Trading Company in the 17th century. Since the French were also in India at the time, competition in trading grew between the French and the British. After the Mughal rule ended, however, the British succeeded in driving out the French from India and establishing their own rule over the subcontinent in the 18th century. They ruled India for 200 years.
Q No.4Describe some of the things the British did for the subcontinent.
ANS:The British introduced their language, architecture, politics, and their ideas. They built roads, railway lines, and large buildings and improved the canal irrigation system.
Q No.5Why could the people of the subcontinent not succeed against the British?
ANS:They could not succeed against the British because they were not united.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 Vasco da Gama

2 1498

3 Sir Thomas Roe

4 December 1600

5 Queen Elizabeth I

6 Surat, Bombay, and Calcutta

L: 16 THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE                P:79

Q No. 1What events led to the War of Independence?
ANS:The soldiers in the British army were Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. In 1857 they were issued rifles whose greased bullets had to be bitten for loading. The bullets were greased with animal fat. Lard is forbidden to Muslims and cow fat to Hindus. The soldiers objected and were severely punished by the British. So they came out in open defiance, the battle they fought is called the War of Independence.
Q No.2Why was the Indian National Congress set up?
ANS:Some educated people thought that no progress could be made by just fighting the British. In 1885 they formed the Indian National Congress. They felt that by having their own political organization, one day they could rule their own country.
Q No.3What was the Quit India Movement?
ANS:The Quit India Movement was a call for the British to leave India. It was started in 1942 by the Congress leader Mohandas Gandhi
Q No.4Why was the All India Muslim League started?
ANS:The Muslim League was created for the Muslims of India, so that they would be able to have a political say in the matters that concerned them in the Indian government, such as elections to the legislature and the judiciary and to ask for their rights. They also knew that when the British left India, the Hindus would take control of the country and the Muslims would not have any importance in the government. So the Muslim League was the first political platform created for the Muslims of India.
Q No.5Who were the leaders who helped to unite the Muslims?
ANS:Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Mohammad Iqbal, Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar, Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, Sir Abdullah Haroon, and many others.
Q No.6How was the subcontinent divided into two countries?
ANS:After a long struggle by the Muslims and Hindus, the British decided to leave India. A commission was set up by the British to mark the borders of the two new countries, India and Pakistan. The Muslim majority areas were to be included in Pakistan. The rest would be India. Thus Pakistan was created with two wings, West Pakistan and East Pakistan.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1 1857 4 1906 7 1942

2 The middle of the 19th century 5 1930 8 14 August 1947

3 1885 6 23 March 1940 9 15 August 1947

B 1 Indian National Congress

2 Mohandas Gandhi

3 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

4 Allama Iqbal

5 All India Muslim League

L: 17 LESSONS FROM HISTORY P:83

Q No. 1How did Syed Ahmed Khan serve the Muslims of India?
ANS:He helped to create better understanding between the British rulers of India and the Muslims; he wrote many papers and essays explaining the Muslim position to the British; he established a college called the MAO (Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College) in the city of Aligarh in 1875.
Q No.2Who was AlLama Iqbal and why is he famous?
ANS:He was a well-known poet and philosopher who first put forward the idea of a separate country for the Muslims of India.
Q No.3Did Iqbal live-to see an independent Pakistan?
ANS:No; he died in 1938. Pakistan became independent nine years after his death, in 1947.
Q No.4Who is known as the Quaid-i-Azam? What does it mean?
ANS:Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, is known as Quaid-e-Azam, the great leader.
Q No.5What was the Quaid’s profession?
ANS:He was a brilliant and successful lawyer.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A 1) 1 Mohammed Ali Jinnah

2 Quaid-i-Azam

3 25 December, 1876

4 Karachi, Pakistan

5 11 September 1948

6 Karachi, Pakistan

7 Founding the nation of Pakistan

A 2) 1 Mohammad Iqbal

2 Allama Iqbal, Sir Mohammad Iqbal

3 9 November 1877

4 Sialkot, Punjab

5 21 April 1938

6 Lahore, Pakistan

7 First putting forward the idea that the Muslims of India should have their own country

B 1 Begum Raana Liaquat Ali Khan, the wife of Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, who helped towards

creating Pakistan

2 Tipu Sultan, ruler of Mysore

3 Fatima Jinnah, the Quaid’s sister, who worked beside the Quaid to create Pakistan

4 Maulana Mohammed Ali Jauhar, key figure in the Khilafat Movement; he was against British rule.

L: 18 AFTER INDEPENDENCE P: 87

Q No. 1What was the Constituent Assembly? What was its job?
ANS:The Constituent Assembly comprised a group of leaders who had to write the constitution of Pakistan and to organize the government departments.
Q No.2How is the government chosen in a democracy?
ANS:In a democracy, the people elect a leader of their choice to run the government.
Q No.3Why did India and Pakistan approach the United Nations in 1948?
ANS:They went to UN because fighting broke out on the border regarding Kashmir. The UN ordered a ceasefire.
Q No.4List the reforms carried out by General Ayub Khan. By what name is his government known?
ANS:a) A new constitution was passed. b) A law was introduced to redistribute the land. c) Many new industries were set up. d) The capital was moved from Karachi to the newly developed city, Islamabad. Ayub Khan’s era is known as the Decade of Development.
Q No.5What happened in the December 1970 elections and immediately afterwards?
ANS:In the December 1970 elections, the Awami League won most of the seats in East Pakistan, and the PPP won in West Pakistan. Being in the majority in the National Assembly, Sheikh Mujib made certain demands that the others did not agree to. Fighting started in East Pakistan and martial law was imposed there. With the help of India, the people of East Pakistan fought against the rule of West Pakistan. Dhaka fell to Indian troops in December 1971 and a new country, Bangladesh, was established.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A August 1947: Pakistan gained independence.

September 1948: Quaid-e-Azam died.

October 1951: Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan was shot dead.

October 1958: Iskander Mirza declared martial law and the constitution was abolished.

March 1962: New constitution was passed.

March 1969: Ayub Khan handed over control to Yahya Khan.

December 1970: Elections

December 1971: Fall of Dhaka, creation of Bangladesh

B 1 Khwaja Nazimuddin

2 Governor General

3 1956

4 Pakistan People’s Party

5 Sheikh Mujibur Rehman

L: 19 PAKISTAN SINCE 1971 P: 90

Q No. 1Make a list of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s contributions to Pakistan.
ANS:1. a) Z. A. Bhutto signed the Simla Accord, as a result of which 93,000 prisoners of war, held by India, were released and India returned over 5000 km of land it had occupied during the war. b) A new constitution was passed on 14 August 1973. c) He organized the first Islamic Conference in Lahore in 1974. d) He signed trade and development agreements with important countries like USSR, USA, and China. e) He began the development of the nuclear power programme.
Q No.2What was the Simla Accord? What is its importance?
ANS:Simla Accord was a treaty signed when Bhutto met Indira Gandhi at Simla to settle all disputes with India by discussion. As a result of this accord, prisoners of war were released and India returned over 5000 sq km of land it had occupied during the war.
Q No.3Briefly describe the changes in Pakistan between 1988 and 1999.
ANS: In August 1988, General Zia was killed in a plane crash . Acting President was Ghulam Ishaq Khan. In December 1988, Benazir became the first female prime minister of the country. In 1990 her government was dismissed and Nawaz Sharif was elected prime minister. In 1993. Elections were held and Benazir again became prime minister. In 1996, Nawaz Sharif won the elections and became prime minister. He was deposed by General Pervez Musharraf who became the president in 1999.
Q No.4What was the major international event in 2001 that affected Pakistan?
ANS:These were suicide attacks in the USA when two commercial aeroplanes were intentionally crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre in New York. Another airliner was crashed in Pentagon outside Washington DC. These attacks caused great destruction and loss of many lives.
Q No.5List the important events that took place in Pakistan in 2008.
ANS:a) Elections were held in February 2008 and the Pakistan People’s Party came to power. b) President Musharraf resigned in August 2008 and the co-chairman of the PPP, Asif Ali Zardari, became president in September 2008.

Work Page ……………………………………………

August 1973: A new constitution was passed.

July 1977: The army, under Zia-ul-Haq, imposed Martial Law.

April 1986: Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan.

August 1988: General Zia-ul-Haq died in an air crash.

December 1988: Benazir Bhutto became the prime minister.

October 1993: Benazir Bhutto returned as prime minister.

October 1999: Nawaz Sharif was deposed.

September 2001: 9/11—the attacks on the Twin Towers in New York and the Pentagon in

Washington took place.

December 2007: Benazir Bhutto was killed in an election rally in Rawalpindi.

L: 20 MORE ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS

                                 P: 94

Q No. 1Why is it important to protect human rights?
ANS:It is important to protect human rights because these rights have been given to us by religion and by law.
Q No.2What interest did Martin Luther King share with Nelson Mandela?
ANS:Martin Luther King fought for the rights of African-Americans. Nelson Mandela also fought the white government in South Africa for the rights and freedom of black people.
Q No.3Who is Aung San Suu Kyi and what does her struggle concern?
ANS:Aung San Suu Kyi is a brave lady who has been fighting for the rights of the Burmese people from an oppressive government. She had been under house arrest since 1990, when her party won elections but wasn’t allowed to form a government. However, she was released in November 2010.
Q No.4How does the Edhi Foundation help the poor in Pakistan? Find out more about Edhi’s service to the people.
ANS:The Edhi Foundation provides shelter for homeless women and children; education for the children; ambulance service for the sick and needy; medical treatment for the poor; burial service for the homeless and beggars; emergency help during natural calamities and other disasters and accidents. They also help people in other countries, affected by wars, disasters, natural calamities such as floods and earthquakes.
Q No.5Which organization passed the international law for human rights? Give the complete name.
ANS:United Nations Organization in December 1948.
Q No.6How can we help those who are weak or poor?
ANS:We can help the weak and poor by providing them with financial and emotional support.

Work Page ……………………………………………

A UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

HRCP: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan

HREP: Human Rights Education Programme

UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund

B 1 Convention for the Rights of Children

2 Ramon Magsaysay Award

3 Mother Teresa

4 The Citizen’s Foundation, good quality education

5 Dr Akhtar Hameed Khan

NOTES: TOPLINE JUNIOR SOCIAL STUDIES PROG REVISED ED 5 BY KHURRAM ALI SHAFIQUE PAKISTAN

NOTES: TOPLINE JUNIOR SOCIAL STUDIES PROG REVISED ED 5 BY KHURRAM ALI SHAFIQUE PAKISTAN

LIVING IN SOCIETY

1. Simorgh ………………………………. ..1

2. Taking Care of our Environment—5

3. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle …………….. ..10

4. Services …………………………….14

5. Art and Activist ………………………… ..19

6. Elections………………………………. .23.

7. Human Beings and Machines ……26

EARTH STUDIES

8. Longitude arid Latitude 30

9. Eclipses………………….. ..34

10.Looking at The Land————–39

11. Rocks and Minerals————- 43

Sources of Energy….. ..49

Trade and Industries————-55

Climate of Pakistan————- 60

HISTORY

15. Changes: Cities ……………………….. 63

16. Cyrus The Great …………………….. ..68

17. Bibi, Marium and Hazrat Issa. (a.s.)71

18. The Great Mughals ………….. .74

19. Poet of the East. ……………………..79

20. Pakistan After Independence. ————-82

UNIT# 1 SIMORGH PAGE: 1-4

ACTIVITY – 1

A. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: How many valleys did the birds pass through? Name them.

ANSWER:

The birds passed through 7 valleys;

  1. Yearning
  2. Love
  3. Knowledge of Mysteries
  4. Detachment
  5. Unity
  6. Wonderment
  7. Faqr-o- fana

Question 2: How many birds were there left at the end?

ANSWER:

There were 30 birds left at the end.

Question 3: What was the name of the king of the birds?

ANSWER:

The name of the king of the birds was simorgh.

Question 4: Why were the birds surprised once they entered the palace?

ANSWER:

The birds were surprised when they entered the palace because they saw mirror in front of them.

Question 5: What does the word Simorgh mean?

ANSWER:

The word Simorgh means 30 birds.

Question 6: Who wrote the story of Simorgh and what is the name of the story?

ANSWER:

Sheikh Fariduddin Attar wrote the story of Simorgh. The name of the story is Mantiqu Tayr.

B. SELECT A WORD FROM THE GIVEN WORDS AND FILL IN THE BLANKS

ANSWERS: (1-HOOPOE)(2-SEVEN)(3-MIRROR)(4-JAMALUDDIN AALI)(5-JEEVAY JEVAY PAKISTAN)

C.

D.

UNIT# 2. TAKING CARE OF OUR ENVIRONMENT PAGE: 5-8

ACTIVITY – I

  1. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS:

  1. Pollution
  2. Polluted air
  3. Pollutants
  4. Plants
  5. World 
  6. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: 1. What does environment mean?

ANSWER:

Environment is the world around us.

2. Explain briefly the three kinds of pollutions.

ANSWER:

1- air pollution

2- water pollution

3- land pollution

3. What can people do about the environment?

ANSWER:

People can;

  1. Keep air clean
  2. Use buses
  3. Use cleaner technologies

4. How does pollution affect our health?

ANSWER:

We become ill when we use polluted water and breathe in polluted air.

5. What would happen if we do not take care ofour environment?

ANSWER:

If we do not take care of our environment gradually it will polluted and people will feel difficulty to live on the earth.

6. Find out the names of five organizations that are working to protect our environment.

ANSWER:

  1. WWF
  2. BIRDLIFE
  3. UNESCO
  4. UNEP
  5. GREENPEACE

C. YOU CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT YOU YOUR ENVIRONMENT. VISIT A PARK NEAR YOUR HOUSE AND ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

UNIT# 3. REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE…………….. ..10

PAGE: 12-13

ACTIVITY –3

  1. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1:

How is the land being polluted?

ANSWER:

The land is being polluted by the wastes which we make daily.

Question 2:

What do you understand by the word 3 rs?

ANSWER:

The 3 Rs mean;

  1. Reduce
  2.  Reuse
  3. Recycle

Question 3:

What is recycling and how is it beneficial for us ?

ANSWER:

RECYCLING:

  it means making new materials or products from waste materials. It is beneficial because it saves our energy resources.

Question 4:

Which materials can be recycled? Give some examples?

ANSWER:

The following materials can be recycled;

  1. Glass
  2. Metal
  3. Plastic
  4. Paper

Question 5: Look at the chart below. How can these materials be reused?

ANSWER:

C.

UNIT# 4. SERVICES …………………………….14

PAGE: 16

ACTIVITY – 4

A. CHOOSE THE CORRECT WORD GIVEN IN THE BOX BELOW AND FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS: (1-SERVICES)(2-HOSPITAL)(3-POSTMAN)(4-BREAK)(5-BANKS)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What do people in the service organizations do?

ANSWER:

Question: 2. Why is a municipal organization necessary for a city?

ANSWER:

Question:3. Who are doctors and nurses? Where do they work and what do they provide us?

ANSWER:

Question: 4. In case of a fire which organization is called and what do they do?

ANSWER:

Question: 5. Do you think schools are service organizations? What do schools do?

ANSWER:

  • LOOK AT THE FOLLOWING CHART AND THEN GIVE EACH SENTENCE ITS PROPER BEGINNING BY PUTTING THE CORRECT NUMBER IN THE GIVEN BOX.

ANSWERS: (1-LOOKS AFTER PEOPLE’S MONEY)(2-DRIVES PEOPLE FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER)(3-KEEPS LAW ND ORDER)(4-LOOKS AFTER THE SICK AND INJURED)(5-CUTS HAIR)(6-HELPS PEOPLE TO BUY OR SELL THEIR PROPERTY)(7-REPAIRS AND INSTALLS PHONES)(8-EXTINGUISHES FIRE)(9-EDUCATES THE PEOPLE)(10- INSTALLS AND REPAIRS ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES)

D.

UNIT# 5. ART AND ACTIVIST ………………………… ..19

PAGE: 22

ACTIVITY – 5

A.

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1:What is art?

ANSWER:

Question 2: How have we come to know about  ancient art?

ANSWER:

Question 3: What do you know about the art heritage of your country?

ANSWER:

Question 4: Write the names of some famous artists of Pakistan.

ANSWER:

Question 5: Write about the various forms of art.

ANSWER:

UNIT# 6. ELECTIONS………………………………. .23

PAGE: 25

ACTIVITY – 6

A.

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What does the word ‘democracy ‘mean?

ANSWER:

Question 2: What are elections and why are they held in a country?

ANSWER:

Question 3: At what age is a person allowed to vote in our country?

ANSWER:

Question 4: What do you know about the National and Provincial Assemblies?

ANSWER:

Question 5: Who heads the federal government?

ANSWER:

Question 6: Do you think elections are good for a country? Why?

ANSWER:

UNIT# 7. HUMAN BEINGS AND MACHINES ……26

PAGE: 28-29

ACTIVITY – 7

A.

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: Which invention is considered to be the first invention of human beings?

ANSWER: Wheel is considered to be the first invention of human beings.

Question 2: Why were most of the inventions made in the last four hundred years?

ANSWER: Most of the inventions made in the last four hundred years because people began to challenge old theories.

Question 3: What do you know about the “Industrial Revolution?

ANSWER:

Industrial Revolution means that the world was changed with industries.

Question 4:

Who was Thomas Edison?

ANSWER:

Thomas Edison was a famous inventor.

Question 5:

What do you understand by the phrase a “Machines can be our friends, but they can be our enemies too”. Explain briefly?

ANSWER:

 It mean that machines are not important their usage is important.

EARTH STUDIES

UNIT# 8. LONGITUDE ARID LATITUDE 30

PAGE: 32-33

ACTIVITY – 8

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH SUITABLE WORDS.

ANSWERS: (1-C)(2-B)(3-B)(4-A)(5-B)(6-A)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What are lines of longitude?

ANSWER:

Question 2: What are lines of latitude?

ANSWER:

Question 3: How do lines of longitude and latitude help us?

ANSWER:

Question 4: Where is Greenwich?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What is the difference between the prime meridian and the equator?

ANSWER:

C.

D.

UNIT# 9. ECLIPSES ………………….. ..34

PAGE: 37-38

ACTIVITY – 9

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH SUITABLE WORDS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What causes day and night?

ANSWER:

Question 2: How much time does the moon take to complete an orbit?

ANSWER:

Question 3: What is an eclipse?

ANSWER:

Question 4: Describe the difference between a solar and a lunar eclipse.

ANSWER:

Question 5: How did Columbus succeed in getting food supplies from native Americans with the help of a lunar eclipse?

ANSWER:

C.

D.

UNIT# 10. LOOKING AT THE LAND————–39

PAGE: 42

ACTIVITY – 10

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH SUITABLE WORDS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: Describe any three types of land forms

ANSWER:

Question 2: What is a coast?

ANSWER:

Question 3: How are valleys formed?

ANSWER:

Question 4: Where does the cactus plant grow?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What is a plateau?

ANSWER:

C.

UNIT# 11. ROCKS AND MINERALS————- 43

PAGE: 46-47

ACTIVITY – 11

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH SUITABLE WORDS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(8-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What are rocks and why are they important for us?

ANSWER:

Question 2: Where can we find minerals?

ANSWER:

Question 3: What are metals and non-metals? Give some examples.

ANSWER:

Question 4: Write the names of some metallic and non-metallic minerals found in Pakistan.

ANSWER:

Question 5: In which areas of our country are precious stones found?

ANSWER:

Question 6: Make a list of the areas of Pakistan which have rich deposits of minerals.

ANSWER:

C.

UNIT# 12 SOURCES OF ENERGY….. ..49

PAGE: 52

ACTIVITY – 12

A. GIVE A PROPER ENDING TO EACH SENTENCE IN LIST A FROM LIST B.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)(8-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: Why do we need energy?

ANSWER:

Question 2: What are fossil fuels? Write about each of them.

ANSWER:

Question 3: How can energy be produced by sun or wind?

ANSWER:

Question 4: What are nuclear reactors and how do they produce energy?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What are the major sources of energy in our country?

ANSWER:

Question 6: What is the difference between hydroelectricity and thermal electricity?

ANSWER:

C.

UNIT# 13 TRADE AND INDUSTRIES————-55

PAGE: 58

ACTIVITY – 13

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)(8-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What do you understand by the word ‘manufacturing‘?

ANSWER:

Question 2: What is the difference between a ‘developed‘ and ‘developing’ country?

ANSWER:

Question 3: Can you make a list of the things which you think come from industries?

ANSWER:

Question 4: Why are most of the industries of Pakistan agro-based industries?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What do you know about some of the heavy industries of Pakistan?

ANSWER:

Question 6: What are the major export and import items of our country?

ANSWER:

C.

D.

UNIT# 14 CLIMATE OF PAKISTAN————- 60

PAGE: 62

ACTIVITY – 14

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH SUITABLE WORDS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What is the difference between weather and climate?

ANSWER:

Question 2: How can we measure weather conditions?

ANSWER:

Question 3: What are the main factors which affect the climate?

ANSWER:

Question 4: Where is Pakistan located on the world map?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What do you know about the climate of Pakistan?

ANSWER:

  •  

HISTORY

UNIT# 15. CHANGES: CITIES ……………………….. 63

PAGE: 66

ACTIVITY – 15

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: What did ancient people do for their living?

ANSWER:

Question 2: Why did the people in old times move from place to place?

ANSWER:

Question 3: Why did people settle permanently beside the river?

ANSWER:

Question 4: How did a village change into a town?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What do you know about the ‘Industrial Revolution‘ and how did it help in the growth of cities?

ANSWER:

C.

D.

UNIT# 16. CYRUS THE GREAT …………………….. ..68

PAGE: 70

ACTIVITY – 16

A. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: Who do the scholars of the Quran think

ANSWER:

Question 2: What part of the world did Cyrus the Great rule over?

ANSWER:

Question 3: Which other lands did he conquer?

ANSWER:

Question 4: Which custom did Cyrus put an end to?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What was Cyrus famous for?

ANSWER:

Question 6: What is written on Cyrus’s tomb?

ANSWER:

B. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH SUITABLE WORDS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)(8-)

C.

17. BIBI MARIAM AND HAZRAT ISA (علیہم السلام) 71

PAGE: 73

ACTIVITY – 17

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)(7-)

  1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: Who was Bibi Marium?

ANSWER:

Question 2: What did Angel Jibra’eel told Bibi Marium?

ANSWER:

Question 3: What did the young infant say when the visitors came to see Bibi Marium?

ANSWER:

Question 4: What miraculous powers were given to Hazrat Issa (A.S) by God?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What did Hazrat Issa (A.S) ask Bani Israel?

ANSWER:

C.

UNIT# 18. THE GREAT MUGHALS ………….. .74

PAGE: 77

ACTIVITY –18

A. GUESS THE PERSONALITY WITH THE GIVEN CLUES.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: Who were the ancestors of the Mughals?

ANSWER:

Question 2: How was the Mughal Empire founded and by whom?

ANSWER:

Question 3: Who was Sher Shah Suri?

ANSWER:

Question 4: What do you know about the battles of Pani Pat?

ANSWER:

Question 5: Why did the Mughal Empire break apart?

ANSWER:

C.

UNIT# 19. POET OF THE EAST. ……………………..79

PAGE: 81

ACTIVITY –19

A. FILL IN THE BLANKS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)(6-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: Who was Shams-ul- Ulama Moulvi Syed Mir Hasan?

ANSWER:

Question 2: From where did Iqbal complete his graduation?

ANSWER:

Question 3: Why did Allama Iqbal go to England in 1905?

ANSWER:

Question 4: Write the names of some books written by Allama Iqbal

ANSWER:

Question 5: What did Allama Iqbal say at the annual session of the Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930?

ANSWER:

Question 6: When did Allama Iqbal died and where is he buried?

ANSWER:

C.

UNIT# 20. PAKISTAN AFTER INDEPENDENCE. ————-82

PAGE: 85

ACTIVITY – 20

A. WRITE T FOR TRUE AND F FOR FALSE STATEMENTS.

ANSWERS: (1-)(2-)(3-)(4-)(5-)

B. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Question 1: Why do we celebrate 14th August?

ANSWER:

Question 2: Why did some people think that Pakistan could not survive?

ANSWER:

Question 3: What problems did the newly born country face?

ANSWER:

Question 4: What great loss did Pakistan face in 1971?

ANSWER:

Question 5: What do you know about the Kashmir isuue? Explain briefly.

ANSWER:

Question 6: What are the failures and successes of Pakistan during the last fifty years?

ANSWER:

D.

======ALHAMDOLILLAH=====

NOTES KEYBOARD COMPUTER SCIENCE 5 OXFORD 3RD EDITION (INDIA)

NOTES KEYBOARD COMPUTER SCIENCE 5 OXFORD 3RD EDITION

CHAPTER# 1 CHARACTERISTICS & EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS PAGE:

1. a. Abacus b. Microprocessors c. Difference engine d. EDSAC e. Expert system

2. a. T b. F c. F d. T e. T

3. a. Charles Babbage is called the father of modern computers.

b. The second generation computers used transistors.

4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: a. The fifth-generation computers are referred to as supercomputers as they have very high storage capacities, high speeds, and the ability to carry out highly sophisticated operations.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: b. The third-generation computers used Integrated Circuits (ICs) for the first time. An example of third generation computer is the IBM 360 series.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: c. Two limitations of the first generation computers were: i. their operating speed was quite slow. ii. their power consumption was very high.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: d. Diligence means the ability of a computer system to work with the same accuracy till power is supplied to it, without any boredom.

CHAPTER# 2 DATA DEVICES PAGE:

1. a. Input devices b. Stylus c. ATM d. Output device e. Bit

2. a. T b. F c. T d. T e. F

3.

a. The devices that are used to get the output from a computer are called output devices.

b. The storage capacity of a computer is called its memory.

c. Two examples of secondary storage devices are: floppy disk and hard disk.

d. Secondary memory is used to store the programs and data for future referencing.

4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: a. The kind of memory that loses its contents when the power is turned off is known as volatile memory; whereas the kind of memory that retains its contents even when the power is turned off is known as nonvolatile memory.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: b. The two main types of printers are: impact printers, for example, the dot matrix printer; and non-impact printers, for example, the inkjet printer.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: c. A touch screen is a computer display screen in which a user interacts with the computer by touching words or pictures on the screen. Touch screens are used in Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), in tablet PCs, in railway and airport terminals, in hospitals, etc.

QUESTION:

CHAPTER# 3 OBJECTS IN WORD 2013 PAGE:

1. a. WordArt styles b. Text c. Cropping d. Position e. Format

2. a. T b. F c. F d. T e. F

3.
a. The Wrap Text feature starts a new line when a word in a sentence reaches a border.

b. The WordArt Styles group on the FORMAT tab has the button for changing the shape of the text.

c. The Bing Image search option can be used to search the Internet for images.

d. The Corrections command in the Adjust group can be used to sharpen or soften an image.

e. The green horizontal and vertical lines that appear when an image is moved, are called Alignment guides.

4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: a. Start Word 2013 and create a new document. Type the text “Welcome to the Party”.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: b. Change the text into WordArt by doing the following:

i. Select the text “Welcome to the Party”.

ii. Click the INSERT tab, and in the Text group, click WordArt and select the WordArt style you want to use.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: c. To change the shape of the text, select the text and do the following:

i. Click the FORMAT tab.

ii. In the WordArt Styles group, click the Text Effects option. Select Transform and choose any effect that you want.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: d. To change the fill color, click the drop-down menu arrow of the Text Fill option in the WordArt Styles group and select the desired color.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: e. To apply visual effects, click the Text Effects option in the WordArt Styles group and select the desired effect.

CHAPTER# 4 ADVANCED FEATURES OF WORD 2013 PAGE:

1. a. Footer b. Insert c. Watermark d. Design e. Footnote

2. a. F b. T c. F d. F e. T

3.

a. You can see the headers and footers in the Print Layout view.

b. The DESIGN tab has the option to apply border to a page.

c. A footnote consists of two linked parts: a note reference mark and the corresponding note text.

d. The check box for Different First Page option is to be checked to select a different header or footer for the first page.

e. The keyboard shortcut for inserting an endnote is Ctrl + Alt +D.

4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: a. Start Word 2013 and create a new document. Type the text as given.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: b. To add “Fruits” as the header:

i. Click the INSERT tab.

ii. In the Header & Footer group, click Header.

iii. The Header gallery with various header designs is displayed. Click on Blank or scroll through the gallery and choose the style you want. iv. The DESIGN tab under HEADER & FOOTER TOOLS will now be displayed. Type the word “Fruits” in the header area.

v. Press ESC.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: c. To insert the first footnote:

i. Position the cursor after the word “Kasur”.

ii. Click the REFERENCES tab.

iii. Click Insert Footnote in the Footnotes group.

iv. Type the text “Kasur is a district in the province of Punjab in Pakistan” for the footnote in the footnote area.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: d. To insert the second footnote:

i. Position the cursor after the word “Larkana”.

ii. Click the REFERENCES tab.

iii. Click Insert Footnote in the Footnotes group.

iv. Type the text “Larkana is located in the province of Sindh” for the footnote in the footnote area.

CHAPTER# 5 KTURTLE LOOPS AND LEARNS! PAGE:

1. a. Instructions b. Comments c. exit d. learn e. step

2. a. F b. T c. F d. T e. T

3.

a. The values “True” and “False” are called Boolean values. b. A loop is the set of statements that continue to execute, till a condition is true.

c. The for loop is also called counting loop.

d. The Break command is used to stop the current loop and transfer control to the statement following the loop.

e. In case of for loop, the number is increased by 1 after every loop. 4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: KTurtle program to create a square by using the learn and repeat commands: reset learn square $s { repeat 4 {fw $s tr 90 }} penwidth 10 square 150

CHAPTER# 6 MAKING PRESENTATIONS INTERESTING PAGE:

1. a. Objects b. Slide c. Transitions d. Screenshot e. Reset

2. a. T b. F c. T d. F e. T

3.

a. The special sound or visual effects on a slide are called animations.

b. The set of graphics that helps you create different kinds of lists, process diagrams, or a hierarchy is called SmartArt graphics.

 c. The two additional tabs that appear on the ribbon when a SmartArt is added to a presentation are: DESIGN and FORMAT.

d. The Media group on the INSERT tab has options to add video to a presentation.

e. The Slide Sorter view is used to see all slides of the presentation in miniature form on the screen.

4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: a. Click FILE New Blank Presentation.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: b. In slide 1, type the title of the presentation. Insert slide 2 to 6. Select the required layouts for inserting text and pictures if needed.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: c. Download text, pictures, a sound file, and a movie file from the Internet or any other source for the presentation.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: d. To insert pictures in your slides, click on Pictures in the Images group and insert required pictures.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: e. Click on Audio in the Media group on the INSERT tab and insert your sound or audio file in the desired slide or slides.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: f. Select the sound icon, and click the PLAYBACK tab under AUDIO TOOLS.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: g. In the Audio Options group, click the drop-down menu arrow of the Start box and select Automatically.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: h. Add animations to all the slides as follows: i. Select the text or picture. ii. Click the ANIMATIONS tab. In the Animation group, click the Appear option.

i. To add a transition effect between slides:

i. Select any slide.

ii. Click the TRANSITIONS tab. Under Transition to This Slide group, click the Push transition scheme.

iii. In the Timing group, do the following:

• Set the Duration.

• Select On Mouse Click under Advance Slide.

• Click Apply To All.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: j. Save the presentation as “History of Olympics”.

CHAPTER# 7 STARTING EXCEL 2013 PAGE:

1. a. XFD b. Cell c. contiguous d. Name Box e. Worksheet

2. a. F b. F c. T d. T e. F

3.

a. In Excel 2013, a workbook is a collection of worksheets.

b. Rows are numbered from top to bottom along the left edge as 1, 2 and so on.

c. The three types of data that can be entered in an Excel worksheet are: Numbers, Text, and Formulae.

d. Cell Pointer is a highlighted cell boundary that specifies which cell is active at that moment.

e. The address of the cell formed by the combination of row 6 and column F will be F6.

4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: a. Select Start All Programs Microsoft Office 2013 Excel 2013.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: b. First type the headings. Type “Country” in A1, “Capital” in B1, “Currency” in C1.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: c. Now, select 10 countries in Asia and type the data in appropriate cells. The worksheet will appear as shown here. If the cell content is too long, manually change the width of the column. Position the mouse pointer on the right boundary of a column heading until it turns to a double-sided arrow. Drag it to your right until the column is of the width you want.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: d. Click FILE tab and select Save option in the screen that appears.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: e. Select Computer and click on Browse button.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: f. The Save As dialog box appears. Type the file name as “Geography Exercise” in the File name box and click Save.

CHAPTER# 8 EDITING CELL CONTENTS IN EXCEL 2013 PAGE:

1. a. Cells b. Format c. Clear Contents d. Clipboard e. Cut

2. a. T b. F c. F d. T e. F

3.

a. Row Headings are the sequentially numbered light-blue boxes along the left side of the worksheet. They help to select and identify rows.

b. The two ways in which cell contents can be edited are:

(a) overwriting and,

(b) partial modification.

c. When the Shift cells right option is chosen from the Insert dialog box, blank cells are filled in the selected range and existing cells are shifted right.

d. In order to undo several actions at once, the user must click the menu arrow next to the Undo button, and from the list, select the actions that he/she wants to undo, and then click the list. Excel reverses all the actions selected.

e. In order to move data by the drag-and-drop method, the user should position the cursor on the boundary of the selected range so that the cursor changes into a cross shape. While holding the left mouse button down, he/she should drag the data to the desired location. The data is moved when the mouse button is released.

4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: a. “Amaan, Anwar” needs to be inserted before “Asad Ahmed”. So, to insert a new row, first select the row 11. Click the HOME tab. In the Cells group, click the drop-down menu arrow of the Insert button. Select Insert Sheet Rows.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: b. Enter the “Student Code” as “S011”, “Student Name” as “Amaar Anwar” and “Date of Joining” as 27 Jan 2014.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: c. “Rabab Khawar” needs to be inserted before “Rabia Hasan”. So, to insert a new row, first select the row 8. Click the HOME tab. In the Cells group, click the drop-down “Rabia Hasan” menu arrow of the Insert button. Select Insert Sheet Rows.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: d. Enter the “Student Code” as “S012”, “Student Name” as “Rabab Khawar” and “Date of Joining” as 27 Jan 2014.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: e. Similarly, “Abrar Noor” needs to be inserted before “Asad Ahmed”.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: f. The updated list looks as given below: A B C

1. Student Code Student Name Date of Joining

2. 5001 Dawood Imam 2 Jan 2014

3. 5006 Ghazala Javed 5 Jan 2014

4. 5003 Jawad Khan 5 Jan 2014

5. 5004 Kiran Ahmed 10 Jan 2014

6. 5009 Palwarsha Ali 12 Jan 2014

7. 5002 Anam Ansari 2 Jan 2014

8. 5005 Rabia Hasan 5 Jan 2014

9. 5007 Rahail Shahid 2 Jan 2014

10. 5008 Sumair Ali 10 Jan 2014

11. 5010 Asad Ahmed 12 Jan 2014

CHAPTER# 9 FIRST STEP TO THE INTERNET PAGE:

1. a. Netiquette b. Hyperlink c. Wireless d. Net Surfing e. Email

2. a. F b. F c. T d. T e. F

3.

a. The two types of Internet access connections are: Dial-up and Broadband.

b. The speed of a modem is measured in bps(bits per second).

c. A dongle is a small USB device that allows a user to access the Internet through a mobile broadband connection. It is also referred to as a USB modem, an Internet stick, etc.

d. The home page is the opening page or the main page of a website, which is displayed when the address of a website is typed.

e. A website is a collection of one or more related Web pages linked together through a system of hyperlinks.

f. The “s” in “https://” stands for secure.

4.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: a. A modem is a device that allows a computer to connect and communicate with other computers. Modem stands for modulator demodulator. There are three types of modems: cable, telephone and wireless modem.

QUESTION:

ANSWER: b. A Web browser is a program used to locate and display Web pages. It also helps the user to interact with text, images, videos, music, and other information located on Web pages. Examples of Web browsers are: Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.

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